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Australia
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{{about|the country|the continent|Australia (continent)|other uses}}{{pp-semi|small=yes}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|Country in Oceania}}{{Use Australian English|date=May 2011}}{{Use dmy dates|date=March 2019}}{{Coord|25|S|133|E|type:country_region:AU_scale:20000000|display=title}}







factoids
HTTP://DFAT.GOV.AU/ABOUT-US/PUBLICATIONS/CORPORATE/PROTOCOL-GUIDELINES/PAGES/16-OTHER-MATTERS.ASPX#163 >TITLE=16. OTHER MATTERS – 16.3 AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL ANTHEM ARCHIVE-DATE=23 SEPTEMBER 2015, PARLIAMENTARY HANDBOOK OF THE COMMONWEALTH OF AUSTRALIA >EDITION=29TH YEAR=2005 CHAPTERURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20070611101901/HTTP://WWW.APH.GOV.AU/LIBRARY/HANDBOOK/40THPARL/NATIONAL+SYMBOLS.PDF DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=11 JUNE 2007 name="anthem explanation"(File: U.S. Navy Band, Advance Australia Fair (instrumental).ogg)}}|image_map = Australia with AAT (orthographic_projection).svgAustralian Antarctic Territory>Australian territorial claim in the Antarctic|alt_map = A map of the eastern hemisphere centred on Australia, using an orthographic projection.|capital = Canberra352914928type:city_region:AU}}|largest_city = Sydney|languages_type = National languageAustralian English>English{{refnde jure status.>name="languages"|group="N"}}Australians Aussie (colloquial)See entry in the Macquarie Dictionary.COLLINS ENGLISH DICTIONARY PUBLISHER=HARPERCOLLINS ISBN=978-0-00-786171-2 TITLE-LINK=COLLINS ENGLISH DICTIONARY, }}|religion = {{Collapsible list
|titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;font-size:100%;
|title = List of religions|52.2% Christianity |30.1% Non-religious|2.6% Islam|2.4% Buddhism |1.9% Hinduism |1.7% Other |9.1% Not stated or unclearWEB,weblink 2016 Census data reveals "no religion" is rising fast, Australian Bureau of Statistics, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130515212448weblink">weblink 15 May 2013, 27 June 2017, }}
Federalism>Federal parliamentary constitutional monarchyMonarchy of Australia>Monarch|leader_name1 = Elizabeth IIGovernor-General}}Peter Cosgrove>Sir Peter CosgrovePrime Minister of Australia>Prime Minister|leader_name3 = Scott MorrisonChief Justice of Australia>Chief Justice|leader_name4 = Susan KiefelParliament of Australia>ParliamentAustralian Senate>SenateAustralian House of Representatives>House of Representatives|sovereignty_type = Independence|sovereignty_note = from the United KingdomFederation of Australia>Federation Constitution|established_date1 = 1 January 1901Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942>Statute of Westminster Adoption Act9 October 1942 {{small|(with effectfrom 3 September 1939)}}}}Australia Act 1986>Australia Act|established_date3 = 3 March 1986|area_km2 = 7692024|area_rank = 6th|percent_water = 0.76poptodayWORK=AUSTRALIAN BUREAU OF STATISTICS WEBSITEACCESSDATE=24 DECEMBER 2018, The population estimate shown is automatically calculated daily at 00:00 UTC and is based on data obtained from the population clock on the date shown in the citation.id=036accessdate=27 June 2017|quick=on}}|population_estimate_year = 2019|population_estimate_rank = 51st|population_census_year = 2016poptoday}} / 7692024 round 1}}|population_density_rank = 236thUSD1.313 trillionHTTP://WWW.IMF.ORG/EXTERNAL/PUBS/FT/WEO/2018/01/WEODATA/WEOREPT.ASPX?PR.X=70&PR.Y=7&SY=2018&EY=2018&SCSM=1&SSD=1&SORT=COUNTRY&DS=.&BR=1&C=193%2C946%2C122%2C137%2C124%2C546%2C156%2C181%2C423%2C138%2C935%2C196%2C128%2C142%2C939%2C182%2C172%2C359%2C132%2C135%2C134%2C576%2C174%2C936%2C532%2C961%2C176%2C184%2C178%2C144%2C436%2C146%2C136%2C528%2C158%2C112%2C542%2C111%2C941&S=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPPC&GRP=0&A= PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND ACCESSDATE=22 APRIL 2018, }}|GDP_PPP_year = 2018|GDP_PPP_rank = 19th|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $52,191|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 17th$1.500 trillion}}|GDP_nominal_year = 2018|GDP_nominal_rank = 13th|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $59,655|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 10th|Gini = 33.0|Gini_year = 2016|Gini_change = decreaseweblink |Gini_rank = 22nd|HDI = 0.939|HDI_year = 2017|HDI_change = increaseYEAR=2018, United Nations Development Programme, |HDI_rank = 3rd|currency = Australian dollar|currency_code = AUDTime in Australia>VariousThere are minor variations from three basic time zones; see Time in Australia.|utc_offset = +8; +9.5; +10|utc_offset_DST = +8; +9.5; +10; +10.5; +11Time in Australia>VariousddmmyyyyyyyymmddPUBLISHER=JOHN WILEY & SONS AUSTRALIA EDITION=6, 171, Right- and left-hand traffic#Australia>left|calling_code = +61|cctld = .au}}Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia,WEB,weblink Constitution of Australia, ComLaw, 9 July 1900, 5 August 2011, 3. It shall be lawful for the Queen, with the advice of the Privy Council, to declare by proclamation that, on and after a day therein appointed, not being later than one year after the passing of this Act, the people of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, and Tasmania, and also, if Her Majesty is satisfied that the people of Western Australia have agreed thereto, of Western Australia, shall be united in a Federal Commonwealth under the name of the Commonwealth of Australia., is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of {{#expr:{{Data Australia|poptoday}} / 1000000 round 0}} million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard.WEB,weblink Geographic Distribution of the Population, 1 December 2012, 24 May 2012, Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.Indigenous Australians inhabited the continent for about 65,000 years prior to European discovery with the arrival of Dutch explorers in the early 17th century, who named it New Holland. In 1770, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the time of an 1850s gold rush, most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories.Being the oldest,PAPER, Korsch RJ., et al, 2011, Australian island arcs through time: Geodynamic implications for the Archean and Proterozoic, Gondwana Research, 19: 716–34, flattestNEWS,weblink Map from above shows Australia is a very flat place, 21 January 2005, Macey, Richard, The Sydney Morning Herald, 5 April 2010, 0312-6315, 226369741, and driest inhabited continent,WEB,weblink The Australian continent, Bureau of Meteorology, 13 August 2018, WEB,weblink Deserts, Geoscience Australia, Australian Government, 13 August 2018, 15 May 2014, with the least fertile soils,WEB,weblink A Chat with Tim Flannery on Population Control, Kelly, Karina, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 13 September 1995, 23 April 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100113095438weblink">weblink 13 January 2010, "Well, Australia has by far the world's least fertile soils".WEB, Damaged Dirt, The Advertiser (Adelaide), The Advertiser, Grant, Cameron,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110706100423weblink">weblink 6 July 2011, August 2007, 23 April 2010, Australia has the oldest, most highly weathered soils on the planet., Australia has a landmass of {{convert|7617930|km2|sqmi}}.WEB,weblink Australia's Size Compared, Geoscience Australia, 19 May 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070324194241weblink">weblink 24 March 2007, A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. Its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications, banking and manufacturing.BOOK, Cassen, Robert, Robert Cassen, Rich Country Interests and Third World Development, Taylor & Francis, 1982, United Kingdom, 978-0-7099-1930-8, WEB,weblink Australia, wealthiest nation in the world, 20 October 2011, 24 July 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120721013637weblink">weblink 21 July 2012, NEWS,weblink Australians the world's wealthiest, 31 October 2011, 24 July 2012, The Sydney Morning Herald, Australia is a highly developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy. It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income.Data refer mostly to the year 2017. weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150906100138weblink">World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018, International Monetary Fund. Accessed on 1 April 2019. It is a regional power, and has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure.WEB, Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2017,weblink www.sipri.org, Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 29% of the population.WEB,weblink Main Features - Australia's Population by Country of Birth, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of, Statistics, 3 April 2019, www.abs.gov.au, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, (2015). 'International Migration' in International migrant stock 2015. Accessed from International migrant stock 2015: maps on 24 May 2017. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights,WEB,weblink Australia: World Audit Democracy Profile, WorldAudit.org, 5 January 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071213032213weblink">weblink 13 December 2007, yes, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys.Dyett, Kathleen (19 August 2014). "Melbourne named world's most liveable city for the fourth year running, beating Adelaide, Sydney and Perth" {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161221170019weblink |date=21 December 2016}}, ABC News. Retrieved 14 April 2015. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism.

Name

{{anchor|Etymology}}The name Australia (pronounced {{IPAc-en|ə|ˈ|s|t|r|eɪ|l|i|ə}} in Australian EnglishAustralian pronunciations: Macquarie Dictionary, Fourth Edition (2005). Melbourne, The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd. {{ISBN|1-876429-14-3}}) is derived from the Latin Terra Australis ("southern land"), a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times."Australia" {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161223032232weblink |date=23 December 2016}} – Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 28 October 2015. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was naturally applied to the new territories.{{refn|The earliest recorded use of the word Australia in English was in 1625 in "A note of Australia del Espíritu Santo, written by Sir Richard Hakluyt", published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus, a corruption of the original Spanish name "Austrialia del Espíritu Santo" (Southern Land of the Holy Spirit)"He named it Austrialia del Espiritu Santo and claimed it for Spain" {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130817051612weblink |date=17 August 2013}} The Spanish quest for Terra Australis | State Library of New South Wales Page 1."A note on 'Austrialia' or 'Australia' Rupert Gerritsen – Journal of The Australian and New Zealand Map Society Inc. The Globe, Number 72, 2013 " {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160612021158weblink |date=12 June 2016}} Posesion en nombre de Su Magestad (Archivo del Museo Naval, Madrid, MS 951) p. 3.NEWS,weblink The Illustrated Sydney News, Illustrated Sydney News, 26 January 1888, 29 January 2012, 2, National Library of Australia, for an island in Vanuatu.Purchas, vol. iv, pp. 1422–32, 1625. This appears to be variation of the original Spanish "Austrialia" {{sic}}.weblink" title="https:/-/web.archive.org/web/20060822033701weblink">weblink A copy at the Library of Congress can be read online WEB,weblink Archived copy, 14 July 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160914213854weblink">weblink 14 September 2016, The Dutch adjectival form australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia (Jakarta) in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south.BOOK,weblink 299, Scott, Ernest, 1914, The Life of Captain Matthew Flinders, 978-1-4191-6948-9, 2004, Kessinger Publishing, |group="N"}}Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 (as Nieuw-Holland) and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts.{{refn|For instance, the 1814 work A Voyage to Terra Australis.|group="N"}} The name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, and an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth".Flinders, Matthew (1814). A Voyage to Terra Australis. G. and W. Nicol. Several famous early cartographers also made use of the word Australia on maps. Gerard Mercator (1512-94) used the phrase climata australia on his double cordiform map of the world of 1538, as did Gemma Frisius (1508-55), who was Mercator’s teacher and collaborator, on his own cordiform wall map in 1540. Australia appears in a book on astronomy by Cyriaco Jacob zum Barth published in Frankfurt-am-Main in 1545.Philip Clarke, “Putting 'Australia' on the map”, The Conversation, 10 August 2014.weblink The first time that Australia appears to have been officially used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst.NEWS,weblink Who Named Australia?, The Mail (Adelaide, SA), Adelaide, 11 February 1928, 14 February 2012, 16, National Library of Australia, In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted.Weekend Australian, 30–31 December 2000, p. 16 In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially by that name.BOOK, Department of Immigration and Citizenship, Life in Australia, Commonwealth of Australia, 2007, 11, 978-1-921446-30-6,weblink 30 March 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091017070336weblink">weblink 17 October 2009, The first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office.Brian J. Coman A Loose Canon: Essays on History, Modernity and Tradition, Ch. 5, "La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo: Captain Quiros and the Discovery of Australia in 1606", p. 40. Retrieved 16 February 2017Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under" (usually shortened to just "Down Under"). Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", and "the Wide Brown Land". The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country".Meanings and origins of Australian words and idioms {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170608152641weblink |date=8 June 2017 }}, ANU

History

Pre-colonial history

{{see also|Indigenous Australians}}Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago,BOOK, Patrick Nunn, The Edge of Memory: Ancient Stories, Oral Tradition and the Post-Glacial World,weblink 2018, Bloomsbury Publishing, 978-1-4729-4327-9, 16, JOURNAL, Clarkson, Chris, Jacobs, Zenobia, Marwick, Ben, Fullagar, Richard, Wallis, Lynley, Smith, Mike, Roberts, Richard G., Hayes, Elspeth, Lowe, Kelsey, 19 July 2017, Human occupation of northern Australia by 65,000 years ago, Nature, 547, 7663, 306–10, 10.1038/nature22968, 28726833, Carah, Xavier, Florin, S. Anna, McNeil, Jessica, Cox, Delyth, Arnold, Lee J., Hua, Quan, Huntley, Jillian, Brand, Helen E. A., Manne, Tiina, Fairbairn, Andrew, Shulmeister, James, Lyle, Lindsey, Salinas, Makiah, Page, Mara, Connell, Kate, Park, Gayoung, Norman, Kasih, Murphy, Tessa, Pardoe, Colin, 2017Natur.547..306C, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia.BOOK,weblink Out of Eden: The Peopling of the World, Stephen Oppenheimer, 2013, Little, Brown Book Group, 978-1-78033-753-1, 111–, These first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians.WEB,weblink The spread of people to Australia, Australian Museum, Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130518061422weblink">weblink 18 May 2013, Aboriginal Australians the oldest culture on Earth, Australian Geographic, 18 May 2013, 18 December 2018, yes, File:Bradshaw rock paintings.jpg|thumb|Aboriginal rock art in the Kimberley region of Western Australia]]At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies.BOOK, Rogelio Sáenz, David G. Embrick, Néstor P. Rodríguez, The International Handbook of the Demography of Race and Ethnicity,weblink 3 June 2015, Springer, 978-90-481-8891-8, 602–, Recent archaeological finds suggest that a population of 750,000 could have been sustained.1301.0 – Year Book Australia, 2002 Australian Bureau of Statistics 25 January 2002also see other historians including Noel Butlin (1983) Our Original Aggression George Allen and Unwin, Sydney. {{ISBN|0-86861-223-5}} Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime.BOOK, Javier A. Galván, They Do What? A Cultural Encyclopedia of Extraordinary and Exotic Customs from around the World,weblink 2014, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-61069-342-4, 83, The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas.WEB, Early Aussie Tattoos Match Rock Art, Viegas, Jennifer, Discovery News, 3 July 2008, 30 March 2010,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080710014604weblink">weblink 10 July 2008, The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by Makassan fishermen from South Peninsula, Sulawesi.BOOK, MacKnight, CC, 1976, The Voyage to Marege: Macassan Trepangers in Northern Australia, Melbourne University Press,

European arrival

{{see also|European exploration of Australia}}File:Captainjamescookportrait.jpg|left|upright|thumb|alt=A painting of Captain James Cook in uniform sitting down in front of a map|Portrait of Captain James CookJames CookThe first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent (in 1606), are attributed to the Dutch.BOOK, Peter Barber, Katherine Barnes, Dr Nigel Erskine, Mapping Our World: Terra Incognita To Australia,weblink 2013, National Library of Australia, 978-0-642-27809-8, 99, The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon.BOOK, Claire Smith, Heather Burke, Digging It Up Down Under: A Practical Guide to Doing Archaeology in Australia,weblink 2007, Springer Science, 978-0-387-35263-3, 47, He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, and made landfall on 26 February at the Pennefather River near the modern town of Weipa on Cape York.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||p=233}} Later that year, Spanish explorer Luís Vaz de Torres sailed through, and navigated, Torres Strait islands.Brett Hilder (1980) The Voyage of Torres. University of Queensland Press, St. Lucia, Queensland. {{ISBN|0-7022-1275-X}} The Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent "New Holland" during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688 and again in 1699 on a return trip.BOOK, Marsh, Lindsay, History of Australia : understanding what makes Australia the place it is today, 2010, Ready-Ed Publications, Greenwood, W.A., 978-1-86397-798-2, 9, In 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain.BOOK, Candice Goucher, Linda Walton, World History: Journeys from Past to Present,weblink 2013, Routledge, 978-1-135-08829-3, 427–28, With the loss of its American colonies in 1783, the British Government sent a fleet of ships, the "First Fleet", under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip, to establish a new penal colony in New South Wales. A camp was set up and the flag raised at Sydney Cove, Port Jackson, on 26 January 1788,WEB,weblink European discovery and the colonisation of Australia, Australian Government: Culture Portal, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Commonwealth of Australia, [The British] moved north to Port Jackson on 26 January 1788, landing at Camp Cove, known as 'cadi' to the Cadigal people. Governor Phillip carried instructions to establish the first British Colony in Australia. The First Fleet was under prepared for the task, and the soil around Sydney Cove was poor., 11 January 2008, 7 May 2010, BOOK, Ted Egan, The Land Downunder,weblink 2003, Grice Chapman Publishing, 978-0-9545726-0-0, 25–26, a date which became Australia's national day, Australia Day. A British settlement was established in Van Diemen's Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||pages=464–65, 628–29}} The United Kingdom formally claimed the western part of Western Australia (the Swan River Colony) in 1828.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||p=678}} Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales: South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, and Queensland in 1859.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||p=464}} The Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||p=470}} South Australia was founded as a "free province" — it was never a penal colony.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||p=598}} Victoria and Western Australia were also founded "free", but later accepted transported convicts.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||p=679}}weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051225154618weblink">Convict Records Public Record office of Victoria; State Records Office of Western Australia {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120530100051weblink |date=30 May 2012 }} A campaign by the settlers of New South Wales led to the end of convict transportation to that colony; the last convict ship arrived in 1848.WEB, 1988,weblink 1998 Special Article – The State of New South Wales – Timeline of History, Australian Bureau of Statistics, File:PortArthurPenitentiary.jpg|thumb|alt=A calm body of water is in the foreground. The shoreline is about 200 metres away. To the left, close to the shore, are three tall gum trees; behind them on an incline are ruins, including walls and watchtowers of light-coloured stone and brick, what appear to be the foundations of walls, and grassed areas. To the right lie the outer walls of a large rectangular four-storey building dotted with regularly spaced windows. Forested land rises gently to a peak several kilometres back from the shore.|Tasmania's Port Arthur penal settlement is one of eleven UNESCO World Heritage-listed Australian Convict SitesAustralian Convict SitesThe indigenous population, estimated to have been between 750,000 and 1,000,000 in 1788,BOOK, Briscoe, Gordon, The Aboriginal Population Revisited: 70,000 years to the present, 2002, Aboriginal History Inc., Canberra, 978-0-9585637-6-5, Smith, Len, 12, declined for 150 years following settlement, mainly due to infectious disease.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Smallpox Through History,weblink Encarta,weblink 31 October 2009, yes, Thousands more died as a result of frontier conflict with settlers.Attwood, Bain; Foster, Stephen Glynn (2003). Frontier Conflict: The Australian Experience. National Museum of Australia. {{ISBN|978-1-876944-11-7}}, p. 89. A government policy of "assimilation" beginning with the Aboriginal Protection Act 1869 resulted in the removal of many Aboriginal children from their families and communities — often referred to as the Stolen Generations — a practice which may also have contributed to the decline in the indigenous population.BOOK, Attwood, Bain, Telling the truth about Aboriginal history, 2005,weblink Allen & Unwin, 978-1-74114-577-9, Crows Nest, New South Wales, As a result of the 1967 referendum, the Federal government's power to enact special laws with respect to a particular race was extended to enable the making of laws with respect to Aborigines.BOOK, William Howell Edwards, An Introduction to Aboriginal Societies,weblink 2004, Cengage Learning Australia, 978-1-876633-89-9, 132–33, Traditional ownership of land ("native title") was not recognised in law until 1992, when the High Court of Australia held in Mabo v Queensland (No 2) that the legal doctrine that Australia had been terra nullius ("land belonging to no one") did not apply to Australia at the time of British settlement.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||pages=5–7, 402}}

Colonial expansion

In 1813, Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson and William Wentworth crossed the Blue Mountains, west of Sydney, opening the interior to European settlement.BOOK, Conway, Jill,weblink Biography – Gregory Blaxland – Australian Dictionary of Biography, Adbonline.anu.edu.au, 14 July 2011, Blaxland, Gregory (1778–1853), In 1824, Hamilton Hume and former Royal Navy Captain William Hovell led an expedition to find new grazing land in the south of the colony, and also to find an answer to the mystery of where New South Wales' western rivers flowed. In 1826, the British claim was extended to the whole Australian continent when Major Edmund Lockyer established a settlement on King George Sound (modern-day Albany).BOOK, Grey, Jeffrey, A Military History of Australia, Cambridge University Press, Port Melbourne, 2008, Third, 978-0-521-69791-0, 28–40, By 1850, large areas of the inland were still unknown to Europeans, but explorers remained ambitious to discover new lands for agriculture or answer scientific enquiries.WEB,weblink Early explorers, Australia's Culture Portal, 6 November 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110408183209weblink">weblink 8 April 2011, A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850sBOOK, James Jupp, Director Centre for Immigration and Multicultural Studies James Jupp, The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and Their Origins,weblink 2001, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-80789-0, 35–36, and the Eureka Rebellion against mining licence fees in 1854 was an early expression of civil disobedience.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||pages=227–29}} Between 1855 and 1890, the six colonies individually gained responsible government, managing most of their own affairs while remaining part of the British Empire.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||p=556}} The Colonial Office in London retained control of some matters, notably foreign affairs,{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||pages=138–39}} defence,NEWS, Colonial Defence and Imperial Repudiation,weblink 13 November 1860, vol XVII, issue 1349, Daily Southern Cross, 4 April 2010, and international shipping.

Nationhood

File:Anzac2.jpg|alt=Photo of an ANZAC memorial with an elderly man playing a bugle. Rows of people are seated behind the memorial. Many small white crosses with red poppies have been stuck into the lawn in rows on either side of the memorial.|left|thumb|The Last Post is played at an Anzac Day ceremony in Port Melbourne, Victoria. Similar ceremonies are held in many suburbs and towns.]]On 1 January 1901, federation of the colonies was achieved after a decade of planning, consultation and voting.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||pages=243–44}} This established the Commonwealth of Australia as a dominion of the British Empire.WEB, History of the Commonwealth,weblink Commonwealth Network, Commonwealth of Nations, 16 February 2015, The name "the Commonwealth of Australia" is prescribed in section 3 (covering clause 3) of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900 (Imp). The Federal Capital Territory (later renamed the Australian Capital Territory) was formed in 1911 as the location for the future federal capital of Canberra. Melbourne was the temporary seat of government from 1901 to 1927 while Canberra was being constructed.WEB,weblink When Melbourne was Australia's capital city, Otto, Kristin, 25 June – 9 July 2007, University of Melbourne, 29 March 2010, Melbourne, Victoria,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100402083202weblink">weblink 2 April 2010, yes, The Northern Territory was transferred from the control of the South Australian government to the federal parliament in 1911.BOOK, Gavin Souter, Lion & Kangaroo: The Initiation of Australia,weblink 2012, Xoum Publishing, 978-1-922057-00-6, 141, In 1914, Australia joined Britain in fighting World War I, with support from both the outgoing Commonwealth Liberal Party and the incoming Australian Labor Party.Macintyre, Stuart (1986) The Oxford History of Australia, vol. 4, p. 142C. Bean Ed. (1941). Volume I – The Story of Anzac: the first phase {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080828064649weblink |date=28 August 2008 }}, First World War Official Histories, Eleventh Edition. Australians took part in many of the major battles fought on the Western Front.WEB,weblink First World War 1914–1918, Australian War Memorial, 5 December 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061207011059weblink">weblink 7 December 2006, yes, Of about 416,000 who served, about 60,000 were killed and another 152,000 were wounded.BOOK, Tucker, Spencer, Encyclopedia of World War I, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, CA, 2005, 273, 978-1-85109-420-2,weblink Many Australians regard the defeat of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs) at Gallipoli as the birth of the nation — its first major military action.Macintyre, Stuart (2000). A Concise History of Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 151–53, {{ISBN|0-521-62359-6}}.BOOK, Reed, Liz, Bigger than Gallipoli: war, history, and memory in Australia, 2004, 5, Crawley, WA, University of Western Australia, 978-1-920694-19-7, The Kokoda Track campaign is regarded by many as an analogous nation-defining event during World War II.JOURNAL, Nelson, Hank, 1997, Gallipoli, Kokoda and the Making of National Identity, Journal of Australian Studies, 53, 1, 148–60,weblink Britain's Statute of Westminster 1931 formally ended most of the constitutional links between Australia and the UK. Australia adopted it in 1942,{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||p=609}} but it was backdated to 1939 to confirm the validity of legislation passed by the Australian Parliament during World War II.WEB,weblink Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 (Cth), National Archives of Australia, 28 July 2014, WEB,weblink$file/StatuteWestminAdopt1942.pdf, Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942, ComLaw, 30 March 2010, The shock of the United Kingdom's defeat in Asia in 1942 and the threat of Japanese invasion caused Australia to turn to the United States as a new ally and protector.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||pages=22–23}} Since 1951, Australia has been a formal military ally of the US, under the ANZUS treaty.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||p=30}}After World War II Australia encouraged immigration from mainland Europe. Since the 1970s and following the abolition of the White Australia policy, immigration from Asia and elsewhere was also promoted.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||pages=338–39, 681–82}} As a result, Australia's demography, culture, and self-image were transformed.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||pages=442–43}} The passing of the Australia Act 1986 ended all possibility for any vestigial role of the British government in the government in Australia and removed the already seldom-used option of judicial appeals to the Privy Council in London.WEB,weblink Australia Act 1986, 17 June 2010, Australasian Legal Information Institute, yes,weblink 2 February 2012, In a 1999 referendum, 55% of voters and a majority in every state rejected a proposal to become a republic with a president appointed by a two-thirds vote in both Houses of the Australian Parliament. Since the publication of the landmark critique The Lucky Country (1964) by Donald Horne and the election of the Whitlam Government in 1972,NEWS,weblink Whitlam turned focus on to Asia, Woodard, Garry, 11 November 2005, The Age, 30 March 2010, Melbourne, there has been an increasing focus in foreign policy on ties with other Pacific Rim nations, while maintaining close ties with Australia's traditional allies and trading partners.BOOK, The Pacific Basin since 1945: A history of the foreign relations of the Asian, Australasian, and American rim states and the Pacific islands, Thompson, Roger C., 978-0-582-02127-3, Longman, 1994,

Geography

{{See also|Environmental issues in Australia}}

General characteristics

(File:Reliefmap of Australia.png|thumb|upright=1.5|alt=Map showing the topography of Australia, showing some elevation in the west and very high elevation in mountains in the southeast|Topographic map of Australia. Dark green represents the lowest elevation and dark brown the highest)Surrounded by the Indian and Pacific oceans,{{refn|Australia describes the body of water south of its mainland as the Southern Ocean, rather than the Indian Ocean as defined by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO). In 2000, a vote of IHO member nations defined the term "Southern Ocean" as applying only to the waters between Antarctica and 60 degrees south latitude.WEB,weblink Rosenberg, Matt, The New Fifth Ocean – The World's Newest Ocean – The Southern Ocean, About.com: Geography, 20 August 2009, 5 April 2010, |name="Southern Ocean"|group="N"}} Australia is separated from Asia by the Arafura and Timor seas, with the Coral Sea lying off the Queensland coast, and the Tasman Sea lying between Australia and New Zealand. The world's smallest continentWEB,weblink Continents: What is a Continent?, National Geographic Society, 22 August 2009, "Most people recognize seven continents — Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia, from largest to smallest — although sometimes Europe and Asia are considered a single continent, Eurasia." and sixth largest country by total area,WEB,weblink Australia, Encyclopædia Britannica, 22 August 2009, "Smallest continent and sixth largest country (in area) on Earth, lying between the Pacific and Indian oceans." Australia — owing to its size and isolation — is often dubbed the "island continent",WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100423151730weblink">weblinkweblink Geoscience Australia, Islands, 23 April 2010, "Being surrounded by ocean, Australia often is referred to as an island continent. As a continental landmass it is significantly larger than the many thousands of fringing islands ..." and is sometimes considered the world's largest island.WEB,weblink Australia in Brief: The island continent, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (Australia), Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 29 May 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090604082917weblink">weblink 4 June 2009, yes, "Mainland Australia, with an area of 7.69 million square kilometres, is the Earth's largest island but smallest continent." Australia has {{convert|34218|km|mi|0}} of coastline (excluding all offshore islands),WEB,weblink State of the Environment 2006, Department of the Environment and Water Resources, 19 May 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070710224519weblink">weblink 10 July 2007, and claims an extensive Exclusive Economic Zone of {{convert|8148250|km2|sqmi}}. This exclusive economic zone does not include the Australian Antarctic Territory.WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090620022412weblink">weblinkweblink Geoscience Australia, Oceans and Seas – Geoscience Australia, 20 June 2009, Apart from Macquarie Island, Australia lies between latitudes 9° and 44°S, and longitudes 112° and 154°E.File:Heron Island.jpg|thumb|left|Heron Island, a coral cay in the southern Great Barrier Reef]]The Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef,WEB, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, 1980, Protected Areas and World Heritage – Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070528210526weblink">weblink 28 May 2007, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Department of the Environment and Heritage, 19 May 2007, lies a short distance off the north-east coast and extends for over {{convert|2000|km|mi|-1}}. Mount Augustus, claimed to be the world's largest monolith,NEWS,weblink Mount Augustus, The Sydney Morning Herald, 17 February 2005, 30 March 2010, is located in Western Australia. At {{convert|2228|m|ft|0}}, Mount Kosciuszko is the highest mountain on the Australian mainland. Even taller are Mawson Peak (at {{convert|2745|m|ft|0|disp=or}}), on the remote Australian external territory of Heard Island, and, in the Australian Antarctic Territory, Mount McClintock and Mount Menzies, at {{convert|3492|m|ft|0}} and {{convert|3355|m|ft|0}} respectively.WEB,weblink Geoscience Australia, Highest Mountains, 2 February 2012, 15 May 2014, Australia's size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with tropical rainforests in the north-east, mountain ranges in the south-east, south-west and east, and dry desert in the centre.WEB,weblink Parks and Reserves—Australia's National Landscapes, Environment.gov.au, 23 November 2011, 4 January 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120104114011weblink">weblink 4 January 2012, The desert or semi-arid land commonly known as the outback makes up by far the largest portion of land.BOOK, Australia: Portrait of a continent, Loffler, Ernst, Anneliese Loffler, A. J. Rose, Denis Warner, 1983, Hutchinson Group (Australia), Richmond, Victoria, 978-0-09-130460-7, 37–39, Australia is the driest inhabited continent; its annual rainfall averaged over continental area is less than 500 mm. The population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, is among the lowest in the world,WEB,weblink Countries of the World (by lowest population density), WorldAtlas, 30 March 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100310190629weblink">weblink 10 March 2010, no, although a large proportion of the population lives along the temperate south-eastern coastline.WEB,weblink 1301.0 – Year Book Australia, 2008, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 7 February 2008, 23 April 2010, File:The great dividing range.jpg|thumb| The Great Dividing RangeGreat Dividing RangeEastern Australia is marked by the Great Dividing Range, which runs parallel to the coast of Queensland, New South Wales and much of Victoria. The name is not strictly accurate, because parts of the range consist of low hills, and the highlands are typically no more than {{convert|1600|m|ft|0}} in height.BOOK, Johnson, David, 2009, The Geology of Australia, 2, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-76741-5, 202, The coastal uplands and a belt of Brigalow grasslands lie between the coast and the mountains, while inland of the dividing range are large areas of grassland.JOURNAL, Seabrooka, Leonie, McAlpinea, Clive, Fenshamb, Rod, 2006, Cattle, crops and clearing: Regional drivers of landscape change in the Brigalow Belt, Queensland, Australia, 1840–2004, Landscape and Urban Planning, 78, 4, 375–76, 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2005.11.007, These include the western plains of New South Wales, and the Einasleigh Uplands, Barkly Tableland, and Mulga Lands of inland Queensland. The northernmost point of the east coast is the tropical-rainforested Cape York Peninsula.{{WWF ecoregion| name = Einasleigh upland savanna| id=aa0705 | accessdate =16 June 2010}}{{WWF ecoregion|name=Mitchell grass downs | id=aa0707 | accessdate =16 June 2010}}{{WWF ecoregion | name = Eastern Australia mulga shrublands| id=aa0802 | accessdate =16 June 2010}}{{WWF ecoregion| name = Southeast Australia temperate savanna | id=aa0803 | accessdate =16 June 2010}}The landscapes of the Top End and the Gulf Country {{mdash}} with their tropical climate {{mdash}} include forest, woodland, wetland, grassland, rainforest and desert.{{WWF ecoregion|name=Arnhem Land tropical savanna|id=aa0701|accessdate=16 June 2010}}WEB, 27 June 2009, Rangelands – Overview, Australian Natural Resources Atlas, Australian Government,weblink 16 June 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100313224717weblink">weblink 13 March 2010, {{WWF ecoregion| name = Cape York Peninsula tropical savanna | id=aa0703| accessdate=16 June 2010}} At the north-west corner of the continent are the sandstone cliffs and gorges of The Kimberley, and below that the Pilbara. To the south of these and inland, lie more areas of grassland: the Ord Victoria Plain and the Western Australian Mulga shrublands.BOOK, Van Driesum, Rob, 2002, Outback Australia, Lonely Planet, 978-1-86450-187-2, 306, {{WWF ecoregion| name = Victoria Plains tropical savanna | id=aa0709 | accessdate =16 June 2010}}{{WWF ecoregion| name = Western Australian Mulga shrublands | id=aa1310 | accessdate =16 June 2010}} At the heart of the country are the uplands of central Australia. Prominent features of the centre and south include Uluru (also known as Ayers Rock), the famous sandstone monolith, and the inland Simpson, Tirari and Sturt Stony, Gibson, Great Sandy, Tanami, and Great Victoria deserts, with the famous Nullarbor Plain on the southern coast.{{WWF ecoregion| name = Central Ranges xeric scrub | id=aa1302 | accessdate =16 June 2010}}BOOK, Banting, Erinn, 2003, Australia: The land, Crabtree Publishing Company, 978-0-7787-9343-4, 10, {{WWF ecoregion| name = Tirari-Sturt stony desert | id=aa1309 | accessdate =16 June 2010}}{{WWF ecoregion| name = Great Sandy-Tanami desert | id=aa1304 | accessdate =16 June 2010}}

Geology

missing image!
- Ausgeolbasic.jpg -
upright=1.25|Basic geological regions of Australia, by age
Lying on the Indo-Australian Plate, the mainland of Australia is the lowest and most primordial landmass on Earth with a relatively stable geological history.Pirajno, F., Occhipinti, S.A. and Swager, C.P., 1998. Geology and tectonic evolution of the Palaeoproterozoic Bryah, Padbury and Yerrida basins, Western Australia: implications for the history of the south-central Capricorn orogen. Precambrian Research, 90: 119–40.Pain, C.F., Villans, B.J., Roach, I.C., Worrall, L. & Wilford, J.R. (2012) "Old, flat and red – Australia's distinctive landscape". In: Shaping a Nation: A Geology of Australia. Blewitt, R.S. (Ed.) Geoscience Australia and ANU E Press, Canberra. pp. 227–75 {{ISBN|978-1-922103-43-7}} The landmass includes virtually all known rock types and from all geological time periods spanning over 3.8 billion years of the Earth's history. The Pilbara Craton is one of only two pristine Archaean 3.6–2.7 Ga (billion years ago) crusts identified on the Earth.Gray DR & Foster DA (2004). "Tectonic review of the Lachlan Orogen: historical review, data synthesis and modern perspectives." Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 51: 773–817.Having been part of all major supercontinents, the Australian continent began to form after the breakup of Gondwana in the Permian, with the separation of the continental landmass from the African continent and Indian subcontinent. It separated from Antarctica over a prolonged period beginning in the Permian and continuing through to the Cretaceous.Hawkesworth CJ et al. (2010). "The generation and evolution of the continental crust." Journal of the Geological Society 167: 229–48. When the last glacial period ended in about 10,000 BC, rising sea levels formed Bass Strait, separating Tasmania from the mainland. Then between about 8,000 and 6,500 BC, the lowlands in the north were flooded by the sea, separating New Guinea, the Aru Islands, and the mainland of Australia.Hillis RR & Muller RD. (eds) 2003. Evolution and dynamics of the Australian Plate. Geological Society of Australia Special Publication 22: 432 p. The Australian continent is currently moving toward Eurasia at the rate of 6 to 7 centimetres a year.Cawood PA. 2005. Terra Australis Orogen: Rodinia breakup and development of the Pacific and Iapetus margins of Gondwana during the Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic. Earth-Science Reviews 69: 249–79.The Australian mainland's continental crust, excluding the thinned margins, has an average thickness of 38 km, with a range in thickness from 24 km to 59 km.McKenzie et al. (ed) 2004. Australian Soils and Landscapes: an illustrated compendium. CSIRO Publishing: 395 p. Australia's geology can be divided into several main sections, showcasing that the continent grew from west to east: the Archaean cratonic shields found mostly in the west, Proterozoic fold belts in the centre and Phanerozoic sedimentary basins, metamorphic and igneous rocks in the east.Bishop P & Pillans B. (eds) 2010. Australian Landscapes. Geological Society of London Special Publication 346.The Australian mainland and Tasmania are situated in the middle of the tectonic plate, and currently have no active volcanoes,WEB,weblink Land of earthquakes and volcanoes?, Kevin Mccue, 25 April 2010, 26 February 2010, Australian Geographic, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100306150520weblink">weblink 6 March 2010, but due to passing over the East Australia hotspot, recent volcanism has occurred during the Holocene, in the Newer Volcanics Province of western Victoria and southeastern South Australia. Volcanism also occurs in the island of New Guinea (considered geologically as part of the Australian continent), and in the Australian external territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands.Van Ufford AQ & Cloos M. 2005. Cenozoic tectonics of New Guinea. AAPG Bulletin 89: 119–40. Seismic activity in the Australian mainland and Tasmania is also low, with the greatest number of fatalities having occurred in the 1989 Newcastle earthquake.WEB,weblink Earthquake History, Regional Seismicity And The 1989 Newcastle Earthquake, Geoscience Australia, 22 June 2004, 27 June 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040826220212weblink">weblink 26 August 2004,

Climate

File:Koppen-Geiger Map AUS present.svg|thumb|upright=1.25|Köppen climate types of Australia.JOURNAL, Beck, Hylke E., Zimmermann, Niklaus E., McVicar, Tim R., Vergopolan, Noemi, Berg, Alexis, Wood, Eric F., Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution, Scientific Data, 30 October 2018, 5, 180214, 10.1038/sdata.2018.214, 30375988, 6207062, 2018NatSD...580214B, ]]The climate of Australia is significantly influenced by ocean currents, including the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, which is correlated with periodic drought, and the seasonal tropical low-pressure system that produces cyclones in northern Australia.NEWS,weblink No more drought: it's a 'permanent dry', Kleinman, Rachel, 6 September 2007, 30 March 2010, The Age, Melbourne, NEWS,weblink Australia's epic drought: The situation is grim, Marks, Kathy, The Independent, 20 April 2007, 30 March 2010, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070422065131weblink">weblink 22 April 2007, These factors cause rainfall to vary markedly from year to year. Much of the northern part of the country has a tropical, predominantly summer-rainfall (monsoon).WEB, Australia – Climate of Our Continent, Bureau of Meteorology,weblink 17 June 2010,weblink 17 March 2009, The south-west corner of the country has a Mediterranean climate.WEB, Climate of Western Australia, Bureau of Meteorology,weblink 6 December 2009,weblink 17 March 2009, The south-east ranges from oceanic (Tasmania and coastal Victoria) to humid subtropical (upper half of New South Wales), with the highlands featuring alpine and subpolar oceanic climates. The interior is arid to semi-arid.According to the Bureau of Meteorology's 2011 Australian Climate Statement, Australia had lower than average temperatures in 2011 as a consequence of a La Niña weather pattern; however, "the country's 10-year average continues to demonstrate the rising trend in temperatures, with 2002–2011 likely to rank in the top two warmest 10-year periods on record for Australia, at {{convert|0.52|C-change|2}} above the long-term average".WEB,weblink Annual Australian Climate Statement 2011, Bom.gov.au, 4 January 2012, 15 April 2012, Furthermore, 2014 was Australia's third warmest year since national temperature observations commenced in 1910.WEB,weblink Annual climate statement of 2014, Bureau of Meteorology, 6 January 2015, 2 February 2014, WEB,weblink 2014 was Australia's warmest year on record: BoM, ABC (Australia), ABC Online, 21 January 2015, 2 February 2015, Water restrictions are frequently in place in many regions and cities of Australia in response to chronic shortages due to urban population increases and localised drought.NEWS,weblink Saving Australia's water, BBC News, 23 April 2008, 1 June 2010, NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120227083656weblink">weblink 27 February 2012, National review of water restrictions in Australia, Australian Government National Water Commission, 15 January 2010, 27 September 2012, Throughout much of the continent, major flooding regularly follows extended periods of drought, flushing out inland river systems, overflowing dams and inundating large inland flood plains, as occurred throughout Eastern Australia in 2010, 2011 and 2012 after the 2000s Australian drought.Australia's carbon dioxide emissions per capita are among the highest in the world, lower than those of only a few other industrialised nations.NEWS,weblink Australia's carbon dioxide emissions twice world rate, The Sydney Morning Herald, Smith, Deborah, 22 May 2007, 30 March 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100317133709weblink">weblink 17 March 2010, no, A carbon tax was introduced in 2012 and helped to reduce Australia's emissions but was scrapped in 2014 under the Liberal Government.WEB,weblink Carbon price helped curb emissions, ANU study finds, The Sydney Morning Herald, 17 July 2014, 8 April 2015, Since the carbon tax was repealed, emissions have again continued to rise.WEB,weblink Australia repealed its carbon tax — and emissions are now soaring, Brad, Palmer, The University of Melbourne, 6 November 2014, 8 April 2015, January 2019 was the hottest month ever in Australia. Average temperatures exceeding {{convert|30|C}} caused bushfires, deaths of wild animals and inland fish, and a rise in hospital admissions.NEWS,weblink Cox, Lisa, Watts, Jonathan, Australia's extreme heat is sign of things to come, scientists warn, The Guardian, 2 February 2019, 2 February 2019, NEWS,weblink Hannam, Peter, Clun, Rachel, 'Dome of hot air': Australia blows away heat records, Sydney Morning Herald, 2 February 2019, 2 February 2019,

Biodiversity

{{See also|Fauna of Australia|Flora of Australia|Fungi of Australia}}File:Koala climbing tree.jpg|thumb|alt=A koala holding onto a eucalyptus tree with its head turned so both eyes are visible|The koala and the leftAlthough most of Australia is semi-arid or desert, it includes a diverse range of habitats from alpine heaths to tropical rainforests. Fungi typify that diversity; an estimated 250,000 species—of which only 5% have been described—occur in Australia.Pascoe, I.G. (1991). History of systematic mycology in Australia. History of Systematic Botany in Australasia. Ed. by: P. Short. Australian Systematic Botany Society Inc. pp. 259–64. Because of the continent's great age, extremely variable weather patterns, and long-term geographic isolation, much of Australia's biota is unique. About 85% of flowering plants, 84% of mammals, more than 45% of birds, and 89% of in-shore, temperate-zone fish are endemic.WEB,weblink About Biodiversity, 18 September 2007, Department of the Environment and Heritage,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070205015628weblink">weblink 5 February 2007, Australia has the greatest number of reptiles of any country, with 755 species.BOOK, Lambertini, Marco, A Naturalist's Guide to the Tropics, 2000, 978-0-226-46828-0, University of Chicago Press,weblink excerpt, 30 March 2010, Besides Antarctica, Australia is the only continent that developed without feline species. Feral cats may have been introduced in the 17th century by Dutch shipwrecks, and later in the 18th century by European settlers. They are now considered a major factor in the decline and extinction of many vulnerable and endangered native species.Fact check: Are feral cats killing over 20 billion native animals a year? ABC News, 13 November 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2017.Australian forests are mostly made up of evergreen species, particularly eucalyptus trees in the less arid regions; wattles replace them as the dominant species in drier regions and deserts.WEB,weblink About Australia: Flora and fauna, 15 May 2010, Commonwealth of Australia, May 2008, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade website,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140211203954weblink">weblink 11 February 2014, Among well-known Australian animals are the monotremes (the platypus and echidna); a host of marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, and wombat, and birds such as the emu and the kookaburra. Australia is home to many dangerous animals including some of the most venomous snakes in the world."Snake Bite", weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150115112947weblink">The Australian Venom Compendium. The dingo was introduced by Austronesian people who traded with Indigenous Australians around 3000 BCE.SAVOLAINEN > FIRST1 = P. FIRST2 = T. FIRST3 = A.N. FIRST4 = E. FIRST5 = J., A detailed picture of the origin of the Australian dingo, obtained from the study of mitochondrial DNA, 10.1073/pnas.0401814101, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 101, 33, 12387–90, 2004, 15299143, 514485, 2004PNAS..10112387S, Many animal and plant species became extinct soon after first human settlement,NEWS,weblink Humans to blame for extinction of Australia's megafauna, The University of Melbourne, 8 June 2001, 30 March 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100402065113weblink">weblink 2 April 2010, yes, including the Australian megafauna; others have disappeared since European settlement, among them the thylacine.WEB,weblink The Thylacine Museum – A Natural History of the Tasmanian Tiger, The Thylacine Museum, 14 October 2013, WEB,weblink National Threatened Species Day, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government, 2006, 21 November 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061209084616weblink">weblink 9 December 2006, no, Many of Australia's ecoregions, and the species within those regions, are threatened by human activities and introduced animal, chromistan, fungal and plant species.WEB,weblink Invasive species, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, 17 March 2010, 14 June 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100629001302weblink">weblink 29 June 2010, no, All these factors have led to Australia's having the highest mammal extinction rate of any country in the world.WEB,weblink Australia's most endangered species, Australian Geographic, 16 June 2014, 2 October 2012, The federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 is the legal framework for the protection of threatened species.WEB,weblink About the EPBC Act, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, 14 June 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100531084042weblink">weblink 31 May 2010, no, Numerous protected areas have been created under the National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia's Biological Diversity to protect and preserve unique ecosystems;WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110312021249weblink">weblink 12 March 2011, National Strategy for the Conservation of Australia's Biological Diversity, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Artsaccessdate=14 June 2010, HTTP://WWW.ENVIRONMENT.GOV.AU/BIODIVERSITY/PUBLICATIONS/STRATEGY/CHAP1.HTML >ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110313222100/HTTP://WWW.ENVIRONMENT.GOV.AU/BIODIVERSITY/PUBLICATIONS/STRATEGY/CHAP1.HTML TITLE=CONSERVATION OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY ACROSS AUSTRALIA DATE=19 JANUARY 2009 wetlands are List of Ramsar sites in Australia>listed under the Ramsar Convention,HTTP://WWW.RAMSAR.ORG/DOCUMENT/THE-LIST-OF-WETLANDS-OF-INTERNATIONAL-IMPORTANCE-THE-RAMSAR-LIST >TITLE=THE LIST OF WETLANDS OF INTERNATIONAL IMPORTANCE RAMSAR CONVENTION >PAGES=6–7 ACCESSDATE=14 JUNE 2010, and 16 natural World Heritage Sites have been established.HTTP://WHC.UNESCO.ORG/EN/STATESPARTIES/AU>TITLE=AUSTRALIAPUBLISHER=UNESCOEnvironmental Performance Index.{{citation>title=2018 EPI Results work=Environmental Performance Index accessdate=24 September 2018 |language=en}}

Government and politics

{{Multiple image| caption_align = center| total_width = 340| image1 = Queen Elizabeth II in March 2015.jpg| width1 = 1820| height1 = 2400| alt1 = | link1 = Elizabeth II| caption1 = Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia| image2 = Peter Cosgrove 2017 (1) crop.jpg| width2 = 592| height2 = 784| alt2 = | caption2 = Peter Cosgrove, Governor-General of Australia| image3 = Scott Morrison 2014 crop.jpg| width3 = 840| height3 = 1120| caption3 = Scott Morrison, Prime Minister of Australia| alt3 = }}Australia is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.WEB,weblink How Australia's Parliament works, Australian Geographic, 16 June 2014, 11 August 2010, Elizabeth II reigns as Queen of Australia. Since she resides in the United Kingdom, she is represented in Australia by the governor-general at the federal level and by the governors at the state level, who by convention act on the advice of her ministers.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||pages=287–88}}WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080804130529weblink">weblink 4 August 2008, Governor-General's Role, Governor-General of Australia, 23 April 2010, Thus, in practice the Governor-General has no actual decision-making or de facto governmental role, and merely acts as a legal figurehead for the actions of the prime minister and the Federal Executive Council. The governor-general does have extraordinary reserve powers which may be exercised outside the prime minister's request in rare and limited circumstances, the most notable exercise of which was the dismissal of the Whitlam Government in the constitutional crisis of 1975.WEB, Parliament of Australia, 23 January 1998, 18 June 2010,weblink The Reserve Powers of the Governor-General, Downing, Susan,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100726170040weblink">weblink 26 July 2010, yes, The federal government is separated into three branches: File:Parliament House at dusk, Canberra ACT.jpg|thumb|left|alt=A large white and cream coloured building with grass on its roof. The building is topped with a large flagpole.|Parliament House, Canberra]]In the Senate (the upper house), there are 76 senators: twelve each from the states and two each from the mainland territories (the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory).WEB,weblink Senate Summary, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 23 April 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100506235552weblink">weblink 6 May 2010, no, The House of Representatives (the lower house) has 150 members elected from single-member electoral divisions, commonly known as "electorates" or "seats", allocated to states on the basis of population,WEB,weblink Voting HOR, Australian Electoral Commission, 31 July 2007, 23 April 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100525053550weblink">weblink 25 May 2010, no, with each original state guaranteed a minimum of five seats.WEB,weblink Election Summary: Tasmania, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 23 April 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100503053159weblink">weblink 3 May 2010, no, Elections for both chambers are normally held every three years simultaneously; senators have overlapping six-year terms except for those from the territories, whose terms are not fixed but are tied to the electoral cycle for the lower house; thus only 40 of the 76 places in the Senate are put to each election unless the cycle is interrupted by a double dissolution.Australia's electoral system uses preferential voting for all lower house elections with the exception of Tasmania and the ACT which, along with the Senate and most state upper houses, combine it with proportional representation in a system known as the single transferable vote. Voting is compulsory for all enrolled citizens 18 years and over in every jurisdiction,WEB,weblink Compulsory Voting in Australia, Evans, Tim, 2006, Australian Electoral Commission, 4, 21 June 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090611200653weblink">weblink 11 June 2009, no, as is enrolment (with the exception of South Australia).WEB,weblink What happens if I do not vote?, Voting Australia – Frequently Asked Questions, Australian Electoral Commission, 8 January 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071218045424weblink">weblink 18 December 2007, no, The party with majority support in the House of Representatives forms the government and its leader becomes Prime Minister. In cases where no party has majority support, the Governor-General has the constitutional power to appoint the Prime Minister and, if necessary, dismiss one that has lost the confidence of Parliament.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121014171300weblink">weblink 14 October 2012, Governor-General's Role, Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia, 13 January 2012, There are two major political groups that usually form government, federally and in the states: the Australian Labor Party and the Coalition which is a formal grouping of the Liberal Party and its minor partner, the National Party.WEB,weblink Glossary of Election Terms, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 23 April 2010, WEB,weblink State of the Parties, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 23 April 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100418163914weblink">weblink 18 April 2010, no, Within Australian political culture, the Coalition is considered centre-right and the Labor Party is considered centre-left.BOOK, Fenna, Alan, Robbins, Jane, Summers, John, Government Politics in Australia, Pearson Higher Education AU, London, 2013, 978-1-4860-0138-5, 139, Independent members and several minor parties have achieved representation in Australian parliaments, mostly in upper houses.The most recent federal election was held on 18 May 2019 and resulted in the Coalition, led by Prime Minister Scott Morrison, retaining government.NEWS, Belot, Henry, Election 2019: Scott Morrison says 'I have always believed in miracles' as Coalition retains power,weblink 19 May 2019, ABC News, 19 May 2019,

States and territories

(File:Australia states and territories labelled.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.75|A map of Australia's states and territories)Australia has six states — New South Wales (NSW), Queensland (QLD), South Australia (SA), Tasmania (TAS), Victoria (VIC) and Western Australia (WA) — and two major mainland territories — the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) and the Northern Territory (NT). In most respects, these two territories function as states, except that the Commonwealth Parliament has the power to modify or repeal any legislation passed by the territory parliaments.Australian Constitution, section 122 – Australian Legal Information Institute website.Under the constitution, the States essentially have plenary legislative power to legislate on any subject, whereas the Commonwealth (federal) Parliament may legislate only within the subject areas enumerated under section 51. For example, State parliaments have the power to legislate with respect to education, criminal law and state police, health, transport, and local government, but the Commonwealth Parliament does not have any specific power to legislate in these areas.WEB,weblink State and Territory Government, Government of Australia, 23 April 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091112011823weblink">weblink 12 November 2009, yes, However, Commonwealth laws prevail over State laws to the extent of the inconsistency.Australian Constitution, section 109. In addition, the Commonwealth has the power to levy income tax which, coupled with the power to make grants to States, has given it the financial means to incentivise States to pursue specific legislative agendas within areas over which the Commonwealth does not have legislative power.Each state and major mainland territory has its own parliament — unicameral in the Northern Territory, the ACT and Queensland, and bicameral in the other states. The states are sovereign entities, although subject to certain powers of the Commonwealth as defined by the Constitution. The lower houses are known as the Legislative Assembly (the House of Assembly in South Australia and Tasmania); the upper houses are known as the Legislative Council. The head of the government in each state is the Premier and in each territory the Chief Minister. The Queen is represented in each state by a governor; and in the Northern Territory, the Administrator.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130430111225weblink">weblink 30 April 2013, Government House Northern Territory, Role of the Administrator, 16 June 2008, 30 March 2010, In the Commonwealth, the Queen's representative is the Governor-General.WEB,weblink Governor–General of the Commonwealth of Australia, Governor-General's Role, 30 March 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080804130529weblink">weblink 4 August 2008, The Commonwealth Parliament also directly administers the following external territories: Ashmore and Cartier Islands; Australian Antarctic Territory; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Coral Sea Islands; Heard Island and McDonald Islands; and Jervis Bay Territory, a naval base and sea port for the national capital in land that was formerly part of New South Wales. The external territory of Norfolk Island previously exercised considerable autonomy under the Norfolk Island Act 1979 through its own legislative assembly and an Administrator to represent the Queen.WEB,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080806021653weblink">weblinkweblink Australian Government Attorney-General's Department, Administrator of Norfolk Island, 6 August 2008, In 2015, the Commonwealth Parliament abolished self-government, integrating Norfolk Island into the Australian tax and welfare systems and replacing its legislative assembly with a council.NEWS,weblink Norfolk Island loses its parliament as Canberra takes control, Monica Tan, Australian Associated Press, 12 May 2015, The Guardian, 21 October 2015, Macquarie Island is administered by Tasmania, and Lord Howe Island by New South Wales.

Foreign relations

File:ac.dfat.jpg|right|thumb|RG Casey House, Canberra, is the headquarters of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade.]]Over recent decades, Australia's foreign relations have been driven by a close association with the United States through the ANZUS pact, and by a desire to develop relationships with Asia and the Pacific, particularly through ASEAN, the Pacific Islands Forum and the Pacific Community, of which Australia is a founding member. In 2005 Australia secured an inaugural seat at the East Asia Summit following its accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, and in 2011 attended the Sixth East Asia Summit in Indonesia. Australia is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, in which the Commonwealth Heads of Government meetings provide the main forum for co-operation.WEB,weblink Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting, 2009, Commonwealth website, Commonwealth Secretariat, 16 April 2010, Pall Mall, London,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100326233526weblink">weblink 26 March 2010, no, Australia has pursued the cause of international trade liberalisation.BOOK, Capling, Ann, Australia and the Global Trade System: From Havana to Seattle, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2013, 978-0-521-78525-9, 116, It led the formation of the Cairns Group and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.JOURNAL, Gallagher, P.W., Setting the agenda for trade negotiations: Australia and the Cairns group, Australian Journal of International Affairs, 42, 1 April 1988, 3–8, 10.1080/10357718808444955, 1988, WEB,weblink APEC and Australia, APEC 2007, 1 June 2007, 23 April 2010, Australia is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization,WEB,weblink Australia:About, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 23 April 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100420083545weblink">weblink 20 April 2010, no, WEB,weblink Australia – Member information, World Trade Organization, 23 April 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100525011833weblink">weblink 25 May 2010, no, and has pursued several major bilateral free trade agreements, most recently the Australia–United States Free Trade AgreementWEB,weblink Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 30 March 2010, Canberra, ACT,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100317095521weblink">weblink 17 March 2010, yes, and Closer Economic Relations with New Zealand,WEB,weblink Closer Economic Relations, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 30 March 2010, Canberra, ACT,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091008192957weblink">weblink 8 October 2009, with another free trade agreement being negotiated with China — the Australia–China Free Trade Agreement — and Japan,WEB,weblink Japan-Australia Relations, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan, 19 June 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100523220358weblink">weblink 23 May 2010, no, South Korea in 2011,WEB,weblink Gillard confident of S Korean trade deal – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation), Abc.net.au, 26 April 2011, 25 April 2011, NEWS,weblinkweblink yes, 2 July 2016, S. Korea, Australia set free-trade talks deadline, Highbeam, 26 April 2011, Times of Oman (Muscat, Oman), 25 April 2011, Australia–Chile Free Trade Agreement, and {{as of|2015|November|lc=y}} has put the Trans-Pacific Partnership before parliament for ratification.WEB, Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement,weblink dfat.gov.au, 6 November 2015, Australia maintains a deeply integrated relationship with neighbouring New Zealand, with free mobility of citizens between the two countries under the Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement and free trade under the Australia–New Zealand Closer Economic Relations Trade Agreement.NEWS,weblink NZ, Australia 'should consider merger', 4 December 2006, Sydney Morning Herald, 20 March 2008, The House of Representatives Standing Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs [found] "While Australia and New Zealand are of course two sovereign nations, it seems to the committee that the strong ties between the two countries – the economic, cultural, migration, defence, governmental and people-to-people linkages – suggest that an even closer relationship, including the possibility of union, is both desirable and realistic...", New Zealand, Canada and the United Kingdom are the most favourably viewed countries in the world by Australian people,WEB,weblink Poll, 2018, Lowy Institute, WEB,weblink Sharp Drop in World Views of US, UK: Global Poll – GlobeScan, 4 July 2017, sharing a number of close diplomatic, military and cultural ties with Australia.Along with New Zealand, the United Kingdom, Malaysia and Singapore, Australia is party to the Five Power Defence Arrangements, a regional defence agreement. A founding member country of the United Nations, Australia is strongly committed to multilateralismWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090917192642weblink">weblink 17 September 2009, In Defence of Multilateralism, Arvanitakis, James, Tyler, Amy, 3 June 2008, Centre for Policy Development, and maintains an international aid program under which some 60 countries receive assistance. The 2005–06 budget provides A$2.5 billion for development assistance.Australian Government. (2005). Budget 2005–2006 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090514093434weblink |date=14 May 2009 }} Australia ranks fifteenth overall in the Center for Global Development's 2012 Commitment to Development Index.Center for Global Development. weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060302174239weblink">Commitment to Development Index: Australia, cgdev.org. Retrieved 5 January 2008.

Military

(File:Australian soldiers attend a medals parade at Camp Taji, Iraq, Nov 15, 2017.jpg|thumb|alt=Colour photograph of people wearing military uniforms standing in lines during a formal parade|Australian soldiers deployed to Iraq in 2017)Australia's armed forces — the Australian Defence Force (ADF) — comprise the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), the Australian Army and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), in total numbering 81,214 personnel (including 57,982 regulars and 23,232 reservists) {{as of|2015|November|lc=y}}. The titular role of Commander-in-Chief is vested in the Governor-General, who appoints a Chief of the Defence Force from one of the armed services on the advice of the government.BOOK, Australian Defence Almanac 2004–05, Khosa, Raspal, 2004, Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Canberra, 4, Day-to-day force operations are under the command of the Chief, while broader administration and the formulation of defence policy is undertaken by the Minister and Department of Defence.In the 2016–17 budget, defence spending comprised 2% of GDP, representing the world's 12th largest defence budgetweblink Australia has been involved in UN and regional peacekeeping, disaster relief and armed conflict, including the 2003 invasion of Iraq; it currently has deployed about 2,241 personnel in varying capacities to 12 international operations in areas including Iraq and Afghanistan.WEB, Home, Global Operations, Australian Government – Department of Defence,weblink 6 November 2015,

Economy

{{See also|Economic history of Australia|Median household income in Australia and New Zealand|Transport in Australia}}File:Boddington Gold Mine 12.jpg|thumb|alt=Buildings and equipment of a large mining operation|The Boddington Gold Mine in Western Australia is the nation's largest open cut mine.NEWS, Fitzgerald, Bridget, Newmont's half a billion dollar gold mine expansion,weblink 13 May 2019, ABC Rural, 22 October 2015, en-AU, ]]A wealthy country, Australia has a market economy, a high GDP per capita, and a relatively low rate of poverty. In terms of average wealth, Australia ranked second in the world after Switzerland from 2013 until 2018.JOURNAL, Urs, Rohner, October 2018, Global Wealth Report 2018,weblink Credit Suisse – Research Institute, English, 7, In 2018, Australia overtook Switzerland and become the country with the highest average wealth. Australia's poverty rate increased from 10.2% to 11.8%, from 2000/01 to 2013.NEWS, Richest nation but poverty increasing,weblink 12 October 2013, The Australian, 12 October 2013, AAP, It was identified by the Credit Suisse Research Institute as the nation with the highest median wealth in the world and the second-highest average wealth per adult in 2013.WEB, Global Wealth Reaches New All-Time High,weblink The Financialist, Credit Suisse, 10 October 2013, Credit Suisse Research Institute, 9 October 2013, yes,weblink 29 July 2016, The Australian dollar is the currency for the nation, including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, and Tuvalu. With the 2006 merger of the Australian Stock Exchange and the Sydney Futures Exchange, the Australian Securities Exchange became the ninth largest in the world.WEB,weblink On the International Realignment of Exchanges and Related Trends in Self-Regulation – Australian Stock Exchange, 3 January 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101213134633weblink">weblink 13 December 2010, Ranked fifth in the Index of Economic Freedom (2017),WEB, World & Global Economy Rankings on Economic Freedom,weblink The Heritage Foundation, 4 May 2017, 2017, Australia is the world's 14th largest economy and has the tenth highest per capita GDP (nominal) at US$55,692.WEB,weblink World Economic Outlook Database, October 2018, International Monetary Fund, en-us, 1 April 2019, The country was ranked third in the United Nations 2017 Human Development Index.WEB,weblink Human Development Reports, 2018, United Nations Development Programme, en, 1 April 2019, Melbourne reached top spot for the fourth year in a row on The Economist's 2014 list of the world's most liveable cities,NEWS,weblink Melbourne 'world's top city', 6 February 2004, The Age, 31 January 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090130144426weblink">weblink 30 January 2009, no, followed by Adelaide, Sydney, and Perth in the fifth, seventh, and ninth places respectively. Total government debt in Australia is about A$190 billionWEB, Hughes, Tim,weblink Australian dollar continues astronomical rise to 30-year highs as US dollar, euro tank, Courier Mail, 26 April 2011, 25 April 2011, — 20% of GDP in 2010.WEB,weblink Australia Public debt – Economy, Indexmundi.com, 9 January 2012, 15 April 2012, Australia has among the highest house prices and some of the highest household debt levels in the world.WEB,weblink Nick Bryant's Australia: Australian affordablity, BBC, 26 April 2011, An emphasis on exporting commodities rather than manufactured goods has underpinned a significant increase in Australia's terms of trade since the start of the 21st century, due to rising commodity prices. Australia has a balance of payments that is more than 7% of GDP negative, and has had persistently large current account deficits for more than 50 years.NEWS,weblink Might Australia's economic fortunes turn?, The Economist, 29 March 2007, 28 May 2010, Australia has grown at an average annual rate of 3.6% for over 15 years, in comparison to the OECD annual average of 2.5%.Australia was the only advanced economy not to experience a recession due to the global financial downturn in 2008–2009.WEB,weblink World Economic Outlook (WEO) 2010 Rebalancing Growth, International Monetary Fund, 31 May 2012, However, the economies of six of Australia's major trading partners have been in recession, which in turn has affected Australia, significantly hampering its economic growth in recent years.NEWS,weblink Australia slashes immigration as recession looms, The Independent, 16 March 2009, 26 April 2011, London, WEB, Mclennan, David,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111011082911weblink">weblink 11 October 2011, Australian economy growing as new recession fears fade, The Canberra Times, 12 April 2011, 26 April 2011, From 2012 to early 2013, Australia's national economy grew, but some non-mining states and Australia's non-mining economy experienced a recession.NEWS,weblink National economy grows but some non-mining states in recession, The Conversation, 22 March 2013, NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120416091909weblink">weblink 16 April 2012, Mining punches through recession, Courier Mail, Syvret, Paul, 7 April 2012, NEWS,weblink Non-mining states going backwards, ABC, 22 March 2013, The Hawke Government floated the Australian dollar in 1983 and partially deregulated the financial system.WEB,weblink Australian Monetary Policy in the Last Quarter of the Twentieth Century, Macfarlane, I. J., Reserve Bank of Australia Bulletin, October 1998Howard Government followed with a WorkChoices>partial deregulation of the labour market and the further privatisation of state-owned businesses, most notably in the telecommunications industry.WEB,weblink Microeconomic reforms and the revival in Australia's growth in productivity and living standards, Parham, Dean, Conference of Economists, Adelaide, 1 October 2002, 7 December 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140212150115weblink">weblinkGoods and Services Tax (Australia)>Goods and Services Tax (GST).HTTP://WWW.AUSTLII.EDU.AU/AU/JOURNALS/JATAX/2000/23.HTML>AUTHOR=TRAN-NAM, BINH YEAR=2000 VOLUME=3 PAGE=331 Taxation in Australia>Australia's tax system, personal and company Income tax in Australia are the main sources of government revenue.HTTP://WWW.BUDGET.GOV.AU/2008-09/CONTENT/FBO/HTML/PART_1.HTMPUBLISHER=BUDGET 2008–09 – AUSTRALIAN GOVERNMENT, 23 April 2010, {{asof|2018|September}}, there were 12,640,800 people employed (either full- or part-time), with an unemployment rate of 5.2%.WEB, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 6202.0 – Labour Force, Australia,weblink 24 October 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20181024151645weblink">weblink 24 October 2018, yes, {{webarchive |title=6202.0 – Labour Force, Australia, April 2012 |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120614054440weblink |date=14 June 2012 }} Data released in mid-November 2013 showed that the number of welfare recipients had grown by 55%. In 2007 228,621 Newstart unemployment allowance recipients were registered, a total that increased to 646,414 in March 2013.NEWS, Call for end to welfare poverty,weblink 15 November 2013, The Australian, 13 November 2013, Patricia Karvelas, According to the Graduate Careers Survey, full-time employment for newly qualified professionals from various occupations has declined since 2011 but it increases for graduates three years after graduation.WEB,weblink Australian Graduate Survey, graduatecareers.com.au, WEB,weblink GradStats: Employment and Salary Outcomes of Recent Higher Education Graduates, December 2014, Graduate Careers Australia, 2 September 2016, Since 2008, inflation has typically been 2–3% and the base interest rate 5–6%. The service sector of the economy, including tourism, education, and financial services, accounts for about 70% of GDP.WEB,weblink Australia. CIA – The World Factbook, Cia.gov, 22 January 2011,weblink 29 December 2010, no, Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major exporter of agricultural products, particularly wheat and wool, minerals such as iron-ore and gold, and energy in the forms of liquified natural gas and coal. Although agriculture and natural resources account for only 3% and 5% of GDP respectively, they contribute substantially to export performance. Australia's largest export markets are Japan, China, the US, South Korea, and New Zealand.WEB, Australian Bureau of Statistics,weblink Year Book Australia 2005, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160409132916weblink">weblink 9 April 2016, 21 January 2005, Australia is the world's fourth largest exporter of wine, and the wine industry contributes A$5.5 billion per year to the nation's economy.NEWS, Australian Government,weblink Welcome to wineaustralia.com, 22 October 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101023194405weblink">weblink 23 October 2010, yes, Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation,

Demographics

File:Gold Coast skyline.jpg|thumb|alt=A beach populated by people; a city can be seen in the horizon|Australia has one of the world's most highly urbanised populations with the majority living in metropolitan cities on the coast. (Pictured: Gold Coast beach and skyline, Queensland.)]]Until the Second World War, the vast majority of settlers and immigrants came from the British Isles, and a majority of Australians have some British or Irish ancestry. These Australians form a broad ethnic category known as Anglo-Celtic Australians. In the 2016 Australian census, the most commonly nominated ancestries were English (36.1%), Australian (33.5%),{{refn|group="N"|The Australian Bureau of Statistics has stated that most who list "Australian" as their ancestry are part of the Anglo-Celtic group.WEB,weblink Feature Article - Ethnic and Cultural Diversity in Australia (Feature Article), c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of, Statistics, 1 January 1995, www.abs.gov.au, }} Irish (11.0%), Scottish (9.3%), Chinese (5.6%), Italian (4.6%), German (4.5%), Indian (2.8%), Greek (1.8%), and Dutch (1.6%).WEB,weblink Main Features - Cultural Diversity Article, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of, Statistics, 28 June 2017, www.abs.gov.au, Australia's population has quadrupled since the end of World War I,WEB,weblink 3105.0.65.001—Australian Historical Population Statistics, 2006, 18 September 2007, 23 May 2006, Microsoft Excel, XLS, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian population: (1919) 5,080,912; (2006) 20,209,993,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070908212308weblink">weblink 8 September 2007, no, much of this increase from immigration. Following World War II and through to 2000, almost 5.9 million new immigrants arrived and settled in the country.WEB,weblink Background note: Australia, US Department of State, 19 May 2007, Most immigrants are skilled,WEB,weblink Fact Sheet 20 – Migration Program Planning Levels, 17 June 2010, 11 August 2009, Department of Immigration and Citizenship,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100507054151weblink">weblink 7 May 2010, yes, dmy-all, but the immigration quota includes categories for family members and refugees. By 2050, Australia's population is currently projected to reach around 42 million."Australia's population to grow to 42 million by 2050, modelling shows {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160117151726weblink |date=17 January 2016 }}". News.com.au. 17 April 2010In 2018, 29% of Australia's population were born overseas; the five largest immigrant groups were those born in England (4%), Mainland China (2.6%), India (2.4%), New Zealand (2.3%) and the Philippines (1.1%). Following the abolition of the White Australia policy in 1973, numerous government initiatives have been established to encourage and promote racial harmony based on a policy of multiculturalism.WEB,weblink The Evolution of Australia's Multicultural Policy, 18 September 2007, 2005, Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060219130703weblink">weblink 19 February 2006, In 2015–16, there were 189,770 permanent immigrants admitted to Australia, mainly from Asia.WEB,weblink 2015–16 Migration Programme Report : Programme year to 30 June 2016, Border.gov.auaccessdate=2017-08-21, The Indigenous population — Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders — was counted at 649,171 (2.8% of the total population) in 2016.WEB,weblinkpublisher=Australian Bureau of Statisticsaccessdate=27 June 2017, The increase is partly due to many people with Indigenous heritage previously having been overlooked by the census due to undercount and cases where their Indigenous status had not been recorded on the form. Indigenous Australians experience higher than average rates of imprisonment and unemployment, lower levels of education, and life expectancies for males and females that are, respectively, 11 and 17 years lower than those of non-indigenous Australians.HTTP://WWW.THEAUSTRALIAN.COM.AU/NEWS/NATION/LIFE-GAP-FIGURES-NOT-BLACK-AND-WHITE/STORY-E6FRG6NF-1111118141529 >TITLE=LIFE GAP FIGURES NOT BLACK AND WHITE WORK=THE AUSTRALIAN ACCESSDATE=7 DECEMBER 2010, HTTP://WWW.SMH.COM.AU/NATIONAL/INDIGENOUS-HEALTH-GAP-CLOSES-BY-FIVE-YEARS-20090409-A27X.HTML >TITLE=INDIGENOUS HEALTH GAP CLOSES BY FIVE YEARS WORK= THE SYDNEY MORNING HERALD ACCESSDATE=7 DECEMBER 2010, Some remote Indigenous communities have been described as having "failed state"-like conditions.HTTP://WWW.THEAGE.COM.AU/NEWS/NATIONAL/AUSTRALIA-HIDES-A-FAILED-STATE/2006/12/07/1165081088385.HTML >TITLE=AUSTRALIA HIDES A 'FAILED STATE' PUBLISHER=THE AGE DATE=8 DECEMBER 2006 AUTHORLINK=MICHELLE GRATTAN ARCHIVEDATE= 19 NOVEMBER 2008, no, In common with many other developed countries, Australia is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2004, the average age of the civilian population was 38.8 years.Parliament of Australia, Parliamentary Library (7 March 2005). weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090324202331weblink">Australia's aging workforce. A large number of Australians (759,849 for the period 2002–03;Parliament of Australia, Senate (2005). weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090413130639weblink">Inquiry into Australian Expatriates. 1 million or 5% of the total population in 2005BOOK, Imagining Australia, Duncan, Macgregor, Leigh, Andrew, Madden, David, Tynan, Peter, yes, Allen & Unwin, 2004, 978-1-74114-382-9,weblink 44, ) live outside their home country. In 2018 the average age of the Australian population was 38.8 years.HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/AS.HTML, World Factbook OCEANIA : AUSTRALIA, The World Factbook, July 12, 2018, {{Largest cities of Australia}}

Language

Although Australia has no official language, English has always been entrenched as the de facto national language.WEB,weblink Pluralist Nations: Pluralist Language Policies?, 1995 Global Cultural Diversity Conference Proceedings, Sydney, Department of Immigration and Citizenship, 11 January 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081220020910weblink">weblink 20 December 2008, yes, "English has no de jure status but it is so entrenched as the common language that it is de facto the official language as well as the national language." Australian English is a major variety of the language with a distinctive accent and lexicon,WEB,weblink The Vocabulary Of Australian English, Moore, Bruce, National Museum of Australia, 5 April 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110320004658weblink">weblink 20 March 2011, and differs slightly from other varieties of English in grammar and spelling."The Macquarie Dictionary", Fourth Edition. The Macquarie Library Pty Ltd, 2005. General Australian serves as the standard dialect.According to the 2016 census, English is the only language spoken in the home for close to 72.7% of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home are Mandarin (2.5%), Arabic (1.4%), Cantonese (1.2%), Vietnamese (1.2%) and Italian (1.2%).WEB,weblink Main Features — Cultural Diversity Article, c=AU; o=Commonwealth of Australia; ou=Australian Bureau of, Statistics, www.abs.gov.au, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170820120544weblink">weblink 20 August 2017, A considerable proportion of first- and second-generation migrants are bilingual.Over 250 Indigenous Australian languages are thought to have existed at the time of first European contact,Walsh, Michael (1991) "Overview of indigenous languages of Australia" in BOOK, Suzanne Romaine, Language in Australia,weblink 1991, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-33983-4, 27, of which fewer than twenty are still in daily use by all age groups.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131224075354weblink">weblink 24 December 2013, A mission to save indigenous languages, Australian Geographic, 18 March 2016, 19 August 2011, About 110 others are spoken exclusively by older people.WEB,weblink National Indigenous Languages Survey Report 2005, Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts, 5 September 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090709141342weblink">weblink 9 July 2009, yes, At the time of the 2006 census, 52,000 Indigenous Australians, representing 12% of the Indigenous population, reported that they spoke an Indigenous language at home.WEB,weblink 4713.0 – Population Characteristics, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, 2006, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 4 May 2010, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, 7 December 2010, Australia has a sign language known as Auslan, which is the main language of about 10,112 deaf people who reported that they spoke Auslan language at home in the 2016 census.WEB,weblink Census 2016, Language spoken at home by Sex (SA2+), Australian Bureau of Statistics, 9 August 2016, 2016 Census Tables : Australia, Canberra, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 12 May 2019,

Religion

{{bar boxlc=y|August 2016}})left1=Religion float=right|bars ={{bar percent|No religion|grey|30.1}}{{bar percent|Roman Catholic|yellow|22.6}}{{bar percent|Other Christian|lightblue|18.7}}{{bar percent|Anglican|purple|13.3}}{{bar percent|Islam|black|2.6}}{{bar percent|Buddhism|gold|2.4}}{{bar percent|Hinduism|orange|1.9}}{{bar percent|Other|green|0.8}}{{bar percent|Judaism|blue|0.4}}{{bar percent|Undefined or not stated|red|9.1}}}}Australia has no state religion; Section 116 of the Australian Constitution prohibits the federal government from making any law to establish any religion, impose any religious observance, or prohibit the free exercise of any religion.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110806061716weblink">weblink 6 August 2011, About Australia: Religious Freedom, Dfat.gov.au, 31 December 2011, In the 2016 census, 54.6% of Australians were counted as Christian, including 22.6% as Roman Catholic and 13.3% as Anglican; 30.1% of the population reported having "no religion"; 7.3% identify with non-Christian religions, the largest of these being Islam (2.6%), followed by Buddhism (2.5%), Hinduism (1.9%), Sikhism (0.6%) and Judaism (0.4%). The remaining 9.6% of the population did not provide an adequate answer. Those who reported having no religion increased conspicuously from 19% in 2006 to 30% in 2016. The largest change was between 2011 (22%) and 2016 (30.1%), when a further 2.2 million people reported having no religion.WEB,weblink Religion in Australia, 2016, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 28 June 2017, 31 January 2018, Before European settlement, the animist beliefs of Australia's indigenous people had been practised for many thousands of years. Mainland Aboriginal Australians' spirituality is known as the Dreamtime and it places a heavy emphasis on belonging to the land. The collection of stories that it contains shaped Aboriginal law and customs. Aboriginal art, story and dance continue to draw on these spiritual traditions. The spirituality and customs of Torres Strait Islanders, who inhabit the islands between Australia and New Guinea, reflected their Melanesian origins and dependence on the sea. The 1996 Australian census counted more than 7000 respondents as followers of a traditional Aboriginal religion.WEB,weblink Indigenous Traditions – Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, Abc.net.au, 14 December 1999, 31 December 2011, Since the arrival of the First Fleet of British ships in 1788, Christianity has become the major religion practised in Australia. Christian churches have played an integral role in the development of education, health and welfare services in Australia. For much of Australian history, the Church of England (now known as the Anglican Church of Australia) was the largest religious denomination. However, multicultural immigration has contributed to a decline in its relative position, and the Roman Catholic Church has benefitted from recent immigration to become the largest group. Similarly, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism and Judaism have all grown in Australia over the past half-century.WEB,weblink 2011 Census reveals Hinduism as the fastest growing religion in Australia, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 21 June 2012, 21 June 2012, Australia has one of the lowest levels of religious adherence in the world.NEWS, Australia 'among world's least religious countries',weblink 16 May 2016, SBS News, 4 July 2008, In 2001, only 8.8% of Australians attended church on a weekly basis.NCLS releases latest estimates of church attendance {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160823165653weblink |date=23 August 2016 }}, National Church Life Survey, Media release, 28 February 2004.

Health

{{See also|Health care in Australia}}Australia's life expectancy is the third highest in the world for males and the seventh highest for females.WEB,weblink How Australia compares, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110312160804weblink">weblink 12 March 2011, Life expectancy in Australia in 2010 was 79.5 years for males and 84.0 years for females.WEB,weblink Life expectancy, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 16 August 2012, 7 February 2012, Australia has the highest rates of skin cancer in the world,WEB,weblink Skin cancer – key statistics, 2008, Department of Health and Ageing,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140208171642weblink">weblink 8 February 2014, while cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death and disease, responsible for 7.8% of the total mortality and disease. Ranked second in preventable causes is hypertension at 7.6%, with obesity third at 7.5%.WEB,weblink Risks to health in Australia, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 26 February 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110226105813weblink">weblink 26 February 2011, weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110219073743weblink">Smoking – A Leading Cause of Death. The National Tobacco Campaign. Australia ranks 35th in the worldweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120829014750weblink">% Global prevalence of adult obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²): country rankings 2012 IASO and near the top of developed nations for its proportion of obese adultsWEB,weblink About Overweight and Obesity, Department of Health and Ageing,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100507033011weblink">weblink 7 May 2010, no, and nearly two thirds (63%) of its adult population is either overweight or obese.WEB,weblink Overweight and obesity, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Total expenditure on health (including private sector spending) is around 9.8% of GDP.WEB,weblink Health care in Australia, 2008, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, About Australia,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100404084746weblink">weblink 4 April 2010, yes, 11 May 2010, Australia introduced universal health care in 1975.WEB,weblink Medicare – Background Brief, Biggs, Amanda, 29 October 2004, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, ACT, Parliament of Australia: Parliamentary Library, 16 April 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100414012007weblink">weblink 14 April 2010, yes, Known as Medicare, it is now nominally funded by an income tax surcharge known as the Medicare levy, currently set at 2%.WEB,weblink Medicare levy, Australian Taxation Office, 18 October 2017, 9 April 2018, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130629085049weblink">weblink 29 June 2013, The states manage hospitals and attached outpatient services, while the Commonwealth funds the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (subsidising the costs of medicines) and general practice.

Education

File:JCMSR.jpg|thumb|left|Five Australian universities rank in the top 50 of the QS World University Rankings, including the (Australian National University]] (19th).QS World University Rankings 2015/16 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161219182830weblink |date=19 December 2016 }}, topuniversities.com. Retrieved 25 January 2016.)School attendance, or registration for home schooling,NEWS, Townsend, Ian, Thousands of parents illegally home schooling,weblink 2 December 2015, ABC News, 30 January 2012, is compulsory throughout Australia. Education is the responsibility of the individual states and territoriesWEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110328132033weblink">weblink 28 March 2011, Schooling Overview, Australian Government, Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, so the rules vary between states, but in general children are required to attend school from the age of about 5 until about 16.WEB,weblink Education, Department of Immigration and Citizenship, 14 January 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140218220904weblink">weblink 18 February 2014, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110514101140weblink">weblink 14 May 2011, Our system of education, Australian Government: Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 13 January 2012, In some states (e.g., Western Australia,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120321204923weblink">weblink 21 March 2012, The Department of Education – Schools and You – Schooling, Det.wa.edu.au, 31 December 2011, the Northern TerritoryWEB, Education Act (NT) – Section 20,weblink austlii.edu.au, and New South WalesWEB, Education Act 1990 (NSW) – Section 21,weblink austlii.edu.au, WEB, Minimum school leaving age jumps to 17,weblink The Age, 30 May 2013, 28 January 2009, ), children aged 16–17 are required to either attend school or participate in vocational training, such as an apprenticeship.Australia has an adult literacy rate that was estimated to be 99% in 2003.WEB,weblink Literacy, CIA World Factbook, 10 October 2013, However, a 2011–12 report for the Australian Bureau of Statistics reported that Tasmania has a literacy and numeracy rate of only 50%.NEWS,weblink A literacy deficit, abc.net.au, 22 September 2013, 10 October 2013, In the Programme for International Student Assessment, Australia regularly scores among the top five of thirty major developed countries (member countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Catholic education accounts for the largest non-government sector.Australia has 37 government-funded universities and two private universities, as well as a number of other specialist institutions that provide approved courses at the higher education level.WEB,weblink Australian Education | Australian Education System | Education | Study in Australia, Ausitaleem.com.pk, 31 December 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120119063252weblink">weblink 19 January 2012, The OECD places Australia among the most expensive nations to attend university.Education at a Glance 2006 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160102101942weblink |date=2 January 2016 }}. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development There is a state-based system of vocational training, known as TAFE, and many trades conduct apprenticeships for training new tradespeople.WEB,weblink About Australian Apprenticeships, Australian Government, 23 April 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091111234035weblink">weblink 11 November 2009, About 58% of Australians aged from 25 to 64 have vocational or tertiary qualifications, and the tertiary graduation rate of 49% is the highest among OECD countries. The ratio of international to local students in tertiary education in Australia is the highest in the OECD countries.Education at Glance 2005 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160611100744weblink |date=11 June 2016 }} by OECD: Percentage of foreign students in tertiary education. In addition, 30.9 percent of Australia's population has attained a higher education qualification, which is among the highest percentages in the world.WEB,weblink The Most Educated Countries in the World – Yahoo Finance, Sauter, Michael B., Finance.yahoo.com, 24 September 2012, 14 November 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160204213400weblink">weblink 4 February 2016, JOURNAL,weblink And the World's Most Educated Country Is ..., Time, Samantha, Grossman, 27 September 2012, 14 November 2015, WEB,weblink 2016 Census QuickStats: Australia, www.censusdata.abs.gov.au, en, 14 February 2018,

Culture

File:Royal exhibition building tulips straight.jpg|thumb|right|alt=Ornate white building with an elevated dome in the middle, fronted by a golden fountain and orange flowers|The Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne was the first building in Australia to be listed as a UNESCO (World Heritage Site]] in 2004.WEB,weblink About Australia: World Heritage properties, Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 14 June 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100725033040weblink">weblink 25 July 2010, no, )Since 1788, the primary influence behind Australian culture has been Anglo-Celtic Western culture, with some Indigenous influences.Jupp, pp. 796–802.Teo and White, pp. 118–20. The divergence and evolution that has occurred in the ensuing centuries has resulted in a distinctive Australian culture.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||pages=98–99}}Teo and White, pp. 125–27. Since the mid-20th century, American popular culture has strongly influenced Australia, particularly through television and cinema.Teo and White, pp. 121–23. Other cultural influences come from neighbouring Asian countries, and through large-scale immigration from non-English-speaking nations.Jupp, pp. 808–12, 74–77.

Arts

Traditional designs, patterns and stories infuse contemporary Indigenous Australian art, "the last great art movement of the 20th century";NEWS,weblink Powerful growth of Aboriginal art, Henly, Susan Gough, 6 November 2005, The New York Times, its exponents include Emily Kame Kngwarreye.Smith, Terry (1996). "Kngwarreye Woman, Abstract Painter", p. 24 in Emily Kngwarreye – Paintings, North Ryde NSW: Craftsman House / G + B Arts International. {{ISBN|90-5703-681-9}}. Early colonial artists, trained in Europe, showed a fascination with the unfamiliar land. The impressionistic works of Arthur Streeton, Tom Roberts and others associated with the 19th-century Heidelberg School — the first "distinctively Australian" movement in Western art — gave expression to a burgeoning Australian nationalism in the lead-up to Federation.Australian art {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160819232829weblink |date=19 August 2016 }}, Art Gallery of New South Wales. Retrieved 27 August 2014. While the school remained influential into the new century, modernists such as Margaret Preston, and, later, Sidney Nolan and Arthur Boyd, explored new artistic trends. The landscape remained a central subject matter for Fred Williams, Brett Whiteley and other post-World War II artists whose works, eclectic in style yet uniquely Australian, moved between the figurative and the abstract.Brett Whiteley: Nature {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160820041510weblink |date=20 August 2016 }}, Art Gallery of New South Wales. Retrieved 15 April 2015. The national and state galleries maintain collections of local and international art.BOOK, Artists & Galleries of Australia, Craftsman House, Roseville, Vic., 1990, 978-976-8097-02-6, Germaine, Max, 756–58, 796–97, 809–10, 814–15, 819–20, 826–27, 829–30, Australia has one of the world's highest attendances of art galleries and museums per head of population.Ron Radford, Director of the National Gallery of Australia, quoted in NEWS, Blake, Elissa, The art of persuasion, The Sydney Morning Herald (Spectrum section), 4–5 February 2012, File:Sidney Nolan Snake.jpg|thumb|Sidney Nolan's Snake mural (1970), held at the Museum of Old and New Art in Hobart, Tasmania, is inspired by the Aboriginal creation myth of the Rainbow SerpentRainbow SerpentAustralian literature grew slowly in the decades following European settlement though Indigenous oral traditions, many of which have since been recorded in writing, are much older.Sarwal, Amit; Sarwal, Reema (2009). Reading Down Under: Australian Literary Studies Reader. SSS Publications. p. xii. {{ISBN|978-81-902282-1-3}}. 19th-century writers such as Henry Lawson and Banjo Paterson captured the experience of the bush using a distinctive Australian vocabulary. Their works are still popular; Paterson's bush poem "Waltzing Matilda" (1895) is regarded as Australia's unofficial national anthem.O'Keeffe, Dennis (2012). Waltzing Matilda: The Secret History of Australia's Favourite Song. Allen & Unwin. p. back cover. {{ISBN|978-1-74237-706-3}}. Miles Franklin is the namesake of Australia's most prestigious literary prize, awarded annually to the best novel about Australian life.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120227135804weblink">Miles Franklin Literary Award, australia.gov.au. Retrieved 18 April 2015. Its first recipient, Patrick White, went on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1973.Australia's Nobel Laureates and the Nobel Prize {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160819205739weblink |date=19 August 2016 }}, australia.gov.au. Retrieved 17 April 2015. Australian winners of the Booker Prize include Peter Carey, Thomas Keneally and Richard Flanagan.Hughes-D'Aeth, Tony (15 October 2014). "Australia's Booker prize record suggests others will come in Flanagan's wake" {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160822182813weblink |date=22 August 2016 }}, The Conversation. Retrieved 17 April 2014. Author David Malouf, playwright David Williamson and poet Les Murray are also renowned literary figures.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||p=394}}WEB,weblink Tranter, John (1977) A warrior poet living still at Anzac Cove: Review of The Vernacular Republic: Selected Poems, Johntranter.com, 29 January 1977, 14 June 2010, Many of Australia's performing arts companies receive funding through the federal government's Australia Council.WEB,weblink 2010, Arts funding guide 2010, Australia Council, 14 June 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100705002654weblink">weblink 5 July 2010, yes, There is a symphony orchestra in each state,WEB,weblink Evaluation of the Orchestras Review 2005 funding package implementation, 23 April 2010, Australia Council, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110314080534weblink">weblink 14 March 2011, and a national opera company, Opera Australia,WEB,weblink Opera Australia, Australia Council, 23 April 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080723135113weblink">weblink 23 July 2008, well known for its famous soprano Joan Sutherland.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110406111552weblink">weblink 6 April 2011, Opera in Australia, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, 5 March 2007, At the beginning of the 20th century, Nellie Melba was one of the world's leading opera singers.WEB,weblink Nellie Melba & Enrico Caruso, The Monthly, Maloney, Shane, January 2006, 23 April 2010, Ballet and dance are represented by The Australian Ballet and various state companies. Each state has a publicly funded theatre company.WEB,weblink 35 per cent increase in funding for Australia's major performing arts companies, Brandis, George, Department of Communications, Information Technology and the Arts, 8 May 2007, 23 April 2010, George Brandis,weblink 12 November 2007,

Media

File:The Story of the Kelly Gang 1906.jpg|thumb|Actor playing the bushranger Ned Kelly in The Story of the Kelly GangThe Story of the Kelly GangThe Story of the Kelly Gang (1906), the world's first feature length film, spurred a boom in Australian cinema during the silent film era.WEB,weblink Return of the Kelly Gang, UNESCO Courier, Chichester, Jo, UNESCO, 2007, 1 February 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100204220758weblink">weblink 4 February 2010, yes, After World War I, Hollywood monopolised the industry,WEB,weblink The first wave of Australian feature film production, 23 April 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090706104843weblink">weblink 6 July 2009, and by the 1960s Australian film production had effectively ceased.WEB, Australian Government: Culture Portal,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110327002350weblink">weblink 27 March 2011, Culture.gov.au – "Film in Australia", Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Commonwealth of Australia, 22 November 2007, With the benefit of government support, the Australian New Wave of the 1970s brought provocative and successful films, many exploring themes of national identity, such as Wake in Fright and Gallipoli,JOURNAL, Krausz, Peter, 2002, Australian Identity: A Cinematic Roll Call,weblink Australian Screen Education Online, 29, 24–29, 1443-1629, while Crocodile Dundee and the Ozploitation movement's Mad Max series became international blockbusters.Moran, Albert; Vieth, Errol (2009). The A to Z of Australian and New Zealand Cinema. Scarecrow Press. {{ISBN|978-0-8108-6347-7}}, p. 35. In a film market flooded with foreign content, Australian films delivered a 7.7% share of the local box office in 2015.Quinn, Karl (6 December 2015). "Australian film has had its biggest year at the box office ever. Why?" {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161229165041weblink |date=29 December 2016 }}, The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 17 February 2016. The AACTAs are Australia's premier film and television awards, and notable Academy Award winners from Australia include Geoffrey Rush, Nicole Kidman, Cate Blanchett and Heath Ledger."Ten Great Australian Moments at the Oscars" {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140308090335weblink |date=8 March 2014 }} (26 February 2014), news.com.au. Retrieved 7 February 2016.Australia has two public broadcasters (the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and the multicultural Special Broadcasting Service), three commercial television networks, several pay-TV services,NEWS,weblink BBC News, Country profile: Australia, 13 October 2009, 7 April 2010, and numerous public, non-profit television and radio stations. Each major city has at least one daily newspaper, and there are two national daily newspapers, The Australian and The Australian Financial Review. In 2010, Reporters Without Borders placed Australia 18th on a list of 178 countries ranked by press freedom, behind New Zealand (8th) but ahead of the United Kingdom (19th) and United States (20th).WEB,weblink Press Freedom Index 2010, Reporters Without Borders, Reporters Without Borders, 2010, 22 November 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101124050702weblink">weblink 24 November 2010, yes, This relatively low ranking is primarily because of the limited diversity of commercial media ownership in Australia;Barr, Trevor. "Media Ownership in Australia {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120512222707weblink |date=12 May 2012 }}", australianpolitics.com. Retrieved 2 January 2008. most print media are under the control of News Corporation and Fairfax Media.WEB,weblink Media Ownership Regulation in Australia, Parliament of Australia, Gardiner-Garden, John, Chowns, Jonathan, yes, 30 May 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100328020533weblink">weblink 28 March 2010, no,

Cuisine

File:Pavlova garnished with cream and strawberries.jpg|thumb|right|The meringue-based pavlova is generally eaten at Christmas time.]]Most Indigenous Australian tribal groups subsisted on a simple hunter-gatherer diet of native fauna and flora, otherwise called bush tucker.WEB,weblink Bush Tucker Plants, or Bush Food, Teachers.ash.org.au, 26 April 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511094258weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, no, The first settlers introduced British food to the continent, much of which is now considered typical Australian food, such as the Sunday roast.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100326134155weblink">weblink 26 March 2010, Australian food and drink, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, 23 September 2008, WEB,weblink Modern Australian recipes and Modern Australian cuisine, Special Broadcasting Service, 23 April 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100503111747weblink">weblink 3 May 2010, no, Multicultural immigration transformed Australian cuisine; post-World War II European migrants, particularly from the Mediterranean, helped to build a thriving Australian coffee culture, and the influence of Asian cultures has led to Australian variants of their staple foods, such as the Chinese-inspired dim sim and Chiko Roll.BOOK, Jonsen, Helen, Kangaroo's Comments and Wallaby's Words: The Aussie Word Book, Hippocrene Books, 1999, 978-0-7818-0737-1, 23, Vegemite, pavlova, lamingtons and meat pies are regarded as iconic Australian foods.BOOK, Santich, Barbara, Bold Palates: Australia's Gastronomic Heritage, Wakefield Press, 2012, 978-1-74305-094-1, 290, Australian wine is produced mainly in the southern, cooler parts of the country.Australia is also known for its cafe and coffee culture in urban centres, which has influenced coffee culture abroad, including New York City.NEWS,weblink Avo smash and flat whites bringing the Aussie vibe to New York, 11 May 2016, ABC News, en-AU, 3 January 2017, Australia was responsible for the flat white coffee–purported to have originated in a Sydney cafe in the mid-1980s.NEWS,weblink How the flat white conquered the coffee scene, The Independent, 9 April 2018, 4 October 2018,

Sport and recreation

File:AFL Grand Final 2010 on the Melbourne Cricket Ground.jpg|thumb|The Melbourne Cricket Ground is strongly associated with the history and development of cricket and (Australian rules football]], Australia's two most popular spectator sports.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090914092919weblink">National Sports Museum Heritage Listing, National Sports Museum. Retrieved 15 April 2015.)About 24% of Australians over the age of 15 regularly participate in organised sporting activities.Australia is unique in that it has professional leagues for four football codes. Australian rules football, the world's oldest major football code and Australia's most popular sport in terms of revenue and spectatorship, originated in Melbourne in the late 1850s, and predominates in all states except New South Wales and Queensland, where rugby league holds sway, followed by rugby union. Soccer, while ranked fourth in popularity and resources, has the highest overall participation rates.BOOK, Skinner, James, Zakus H., Dwight, Edwards, Allan, Brown, Adam, Football and Community in the Global Context: Studies in Theory and Practice, Routledge, 2013, 92–93, Coming in from the Margins: Ethnicity, Community Support and the Rebranding of Australian Soccer, 978-1-317-96905-1, The Australian national cricket team has participated in every edition of the Cricket World Cup. Australia has been very successful in the event, winning the tournament five times, the record number.NEWS,weblink Cricket World Cup 2015: Australia crush New Zealand in final, 29 March 2015, www.bbc.com, BBC Sport, Australia is a powerhouse in water-based sports, such as swimming and surfing.BOOK, Pike, Jeffrey, Australia, Langenscheidt Publishing Group, 2004, 978-981-234-799-2, 103, The surf lifesaving movement originated in Australia, and the volunteer lifesaver is one of the country's icons.BOOK, Booth, Douglas, Doug Booth, Australian Beach Cultures: The History of Sun, Sand and Surf, Routledge, 2012, 978-0-7146-8178-8, 39, Nationally, other popular sports include horse racing, basketball, and motor racing. The annual Melbourne Cup horse race and the Sydney to Hobart yacht race attract intense interest.WEB, Campbell, Peter, Rolex Sydney Hobart Yacht Race,weblink cyca.com.au, Cruising Yacht Club of Australia, 6 June 2015, In 2016, the Australian Sports Commission revealed that swimming, cycling and soccer are the three most popular participation sports.NEWS, Football named Oz's biggest club-based participation sport,weblink Football Australia, 17 December 2016, NEWS, The Top 20 sports played by Aussies young and old(er),weblink Roy Morgan, 17 December 2016, Australia is one of five nations to have participated in every Summer Olympics of the modern era,BOOK, Oxlade, Chris, Chris Oxlade (writer), Ballheimer, David, Olympics, DK, DK Eyewitness, 61, 978-0-7566-1083-8, 2005, and has hosted the Games twice: 1956 in Melbourne and 2000 in Sydney.{{Harvnb|Davison, Hirst and Macintyre||pages=479–80}} Australia has also participated in every Commonwealth Games,WEB,weblink Australian Commonwealth Games Association, Flag Bearers, 23 April 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140726210627weblink">weblink 26 July 2014, hosting the event in 1938, 1962, 1982, 2006 and 2018.WEB,weblink Commonwealth Games Federation, Past Commonwealth Games, 23 April 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100315102922weblink">weblink 15 March 2010, yes, Australia made its inaugural appearance at the Pacific Games in 2015. As well as being a regular FIFA World Cup participant, Australia has won the OFC Nations Cup four times and the AFC Asian Cup once — the only country to have won championships in two different FIFA confederations.NEWS, Linden, Julian, Factbox – Asian Cup champions Australia,weblink Reuters, Thomson Reuters, 31 January 2015, 6 June 2015, The country regularly competes among the world elite basketball teams as it is among the global top three teams in terms of qualifications to the Basketball Tournament at the Summer Olympics. Other major international events held in Australia include the Australian Open tennis grand slam tournament, international cricket matches, and the Australian Formula One Grand Prix. The highest-rating television programs include sports telecasts such as the Summer Olympics, FIFA World Cup, The Ashes, Rugby League State of Origin, and the grand finals of the National Rugby League and Australian Football League."Australian Film Commission. What are Australians Watching?" weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100611004833weblink">Free-to-Air, 1999–2004 TV. screenaustralia.gov.au Skiing in Australia began in the 1860s and snow sports take place in the Australian Alps and parts of Tasmania.

See also

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Notes

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References

{{reflist}}

Bibliography

  • BOOK, The Oxford Companion to Australian History, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1998, 978-0-19-553597-6, Davison, Graeme, Hirst, John, John Hirst (historian), Macintyre, Stuart, Stuart Macintyre, CITEREFDavison, Hirst and Macintyre,
  • BOOK, James, Jupp, 2001, The Australian people: an encyclopedia of the nation, its people, and their origins, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-80789-0, Jupp,
  • BOOK, Australian painting 1788–1990, Oxford University Press, Melbourne, 1991, 978-0-19-554901-0, Smith, Bernard, Smith, Terry, Smith,
  • BOOK, Teo, Hsu-Ming, White, Richard, 2003, Cultural history in Australia, University of New South Wales Press, 978-0-86840-589-6, Teo,

Further reading

{{further|Bibliography of Australian history}}
  • Denoon, Donald, et al. (2000). A History of Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific. Oxford: Blackwell. {{ISBN|0-631-17962-3}}.
  • Goad, Philip and Julie Willis (eds.) (2011). The Encyclopedia of Australian Architecture. Port Melbourne, Victoria: Cambridge University Press. {{ISBN|978-0-521-88857-8}}.
  • Hughes, Robert (1986). The Fatal Shore: The Epic of Australia's Founding. Knopf. {{ISBN|0-394-50668-5}}.
  • Powell, J.M. (1988). An Historical Geography of Modern Australia: The Restive Fringe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. {{ISBN|0-521-25619-4}}
  • Robinson, G.M., Loughran, R.J., and Tranter, P.J. (2000). Australia and New Zealand: Economy, Society and Environment. London: Arnold; New York: Oxford University Press. {{ISBN|0-340-72033-6}} paperback, {{ISBN|0-340-72032-8}} hardback.
  • BOOK, Judith, Brett, From Secret Ballot to Democracy Sausage: How Australia Got Compulsory Voting, Text Publishing Co, 2019, 9781925603842,

External links

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