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Mikhail Lomonosov
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Kholmogory District>Mishaninskaya, Archangelgorod Governorate, Tsardom of Russiadf=yes4171119}}| death_place = Saint Petersburg, Russian EmpireRussians>RussianChristian Wolff (philosopher)>Christian Wolff| fields = Natural science, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, philology, poetry, opticsSlavic Greek Latin AcademySaint Petersburg State University>St. Petersburg AcademyUniversity of MarburgSaint Petersburg State University>St. Petersburg Academy| spouse = Elizabeth Christine Zilch}}Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov ({{IPAc-en|ˌ|l|ɒ|m|ə|ˈ|n|ɒ|s|ɒ|f}};"Lomonosov". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. |a=Ru-Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov.ogg}}; {{OldStyleDate|November 19|1711|November 8}} – {{OldStyleDate|April 15|1765|April 4}}) was a Russian polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. Among his discoveries were the atmosphere of Venus and the law of conservation of mass in chemical reactions. His spheres of science were natural science, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, art, philology, optical devices and others. Lomonosov was also a poet and influenced the formation of the modern Russian literary language.

Early life and family

Lomonosov was born in the village of Mishaninskaya (later renamed Lomonosovo in his honor) in Archangelgorod Governorate, on an island not far from Kholmogory, in the far north of Russia.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=11}} His father, Vasily Dorofeyevich Lomonosov, was a prosperous peasant fisherman turned ship owner, who amassed a small fortune transporting goods from Arkhangelsk to Pustozyorsk, Solovki, Kola, and Lapland.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=11}} Lomonosov's mother was Vasily's first wife, a deacon's daughter, Elena Ivanovna Sivkova.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=12}}He remained at Denisovka until he was ten, when his father decided that he was old enough to participate in his business ventures, and Lomonosov began accompanying Vasily on trading missions.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=12}}Learning was young Lomonosov's passion, however, not business. The boy's thirst for knowledge was insatiable. Lomonosov had been taught to read as a boy by his neighbor Ivan Shubny, and he spent every spare moment with his books.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=12}} He continued his studies with the village deacon, S.N. Sabelnikov, but for many years the only books he had access to were religious texts. When he was fourteen, Lomonosov was given copies of Meletius Smotrytsky's Modern Church Slavonic (a grammar book) and Leonty Magnitsky's Arithmetic.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=13}} Lomonosov was a Russian orthodox all his life, but had close encounters with Old Believers schism in early youth and later in life he became a deist.BOOK, Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov: his life and work, 1980, Mir, 161, Galina Evgenʹevna Pavlova, Aleksandr Sergeevich Fedorov, The atheistic direction of Lomonosov's scientific and artistic creativity was not always consistent. His world outlook, just as that of many other representatives of the age of enlightenment, possessed elements of deism according to which God, having created the universe, assumed no control over its development which was governed by the laws of nature. Lomonosov's deism was no chance factor. As Karl Marx aptly put it, deism was the most convenient and easiest way for many materialists of the 17th-18th centuries to abandon religion., BOOK, Pushkin's Lyric Intelligence, 2008, Oxford University Press, 9780191552939, 130, Andrew Kahn, No atheistic conclusions spring from 'The Orb of Day has Set' to reverse Lomonosov's deism, but the poem still intrudes a painful gap between man and nature., In 1724, his father married for the third and final time. Lomonosov and his stepmother Irina had an acrimonious relationship. Unhappy at home and intent on obtaining a higher education, which Lomonosov could not receive in Mishaninskaya, he was determined to leave the village.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=15}}

Education in Moscow and Kiev

File:Lomonosov-house marburg1.jpg|thumb|upright|The Lomonosov house in MarburgMarburgIn 1730, at nineteen, Lomonosov went to Moscow on foot, because he was determined to "study sciences".{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=15}} Shortly after arrival, he admitted into the Slavic Greek Latin Academy by falsely claiming to be a son of a Kholmogory nobleman.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=16}} In 1734 that initial falsehood as well as another lie for him to be son of a priest nearly got him expelled from the academy but the investigation ended without severe consequences.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=20}}Lomonosov lived on three kopecks a day, eating only black bread and kvass, but he made rapid progress scholastically.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=17}} It is believed that in 1735, after three years in Moscow he was sent to Kiev to study for short period at the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy. He quickly became dissatisfied with the education he was receiving there, and returned to Moscow to resume his studies there.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=17}} In five years Lomonosov completed a twelve-year study course and in 1736, among 12 best graduates, was awarded a scholarship at the St. Petersburg Academy.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=23}} He plunged into his studies and was rewarded with a four-year grant to study abroad, in Germany, first at the University of Marburg and then in Freiberg.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=24}}

Education abroad

The University of Marburg was among Europe's most important universities in the mid-18th century due to the presence of the philosopher Christian Wolff, a prominent figure of the German Enlightenment. Lomonosov became one of Wolff's students while at Marburg from November 1736 to July 1739. Both philosophically and as a science administrator, this connection would be the most influential of Lomonosov's life. In 1739–1740 he studied mineralogy, metallurgy, and mining at Bergrat {{ill|Johann Friedrich Henckel|de|lt=Johann Friedrich Henckel's}} laboratory in Freiberg, Saxony; there he intensified his studies of German literature.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=}}File:Lomonosov Poltava 1762 1764.jpg|thumb|left|The most grandiose of Lomonosov's mosaics depicts the Battle of PoltavaBattle of PoltavaLomonosov quickly mastered the German language, and in addition to philosophy, seriously studied chemistry, discovered the works of 17th century Irish theologian and natural philosopher, Robert Boyle, and even began writing poetry. He also developed an interest in German literature. He is said to have especially admired Günther. His Ode on the Taking of Khotin from the Turks, composed in 1739, attracted a great deal of attention in Saint Petersburg.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=}} Contrary to his adoration for Wolff, Lomonosov went into fierce disputes with Henckel over the training and education courses he and his two compatriot students were getting in Freiberg as well as over very limited financial support which Henckel was instructed to provide to the Russians after numerous debts they made in Marburg. As the result, Lomonosov left Freiberg without permission and wandered for quite a while over Germany and Holland unsuccessfully trying to get a permission from Russian envoys to return to the St.Petersburg Academy.{{citation needed|date=April 2018}}During his residence in Marburg, Lomonosov boarded with Catharina Zilch, a brewer's widow.Pavlova, Galina E., and Fedorov, Aleksandr S. Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov: His Life and Work (English Translation). Mir: Moscow, 1980. He fell in love with Catharina’s daughter Elizabeth Christine Zilch. They were married in June 1740.Pavlova, Galina E., and Fedorov, Aleksandr S. Mikhail Vasilievich Lomonosov: His Life and Work (English Translation). Mir: Moscow, 1980. {{ISBN|0-8285-2895-0}}, {{ISBN|978-0-8285-2895-5}} Lomonosov found it extremely difficult to maintain his growing family on the scanty and irregular allowance granted him by the Russian Academy of Sciences. As his circumstances became desperate, he resolved and got permission to return to Saint Petersburg.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=}}

Return to Russia

Lomonosov returned to Russia in June 1741, after being abroad 4 years and 8 months. A year later he was named an Adjunct of the Russian Academy of Science in the physics department.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=}} In May 1743, Lomonosov was accused, arrested, and held under house arrest for eight months, after he supposedly insulted various people associated with the Academy. He was released and pardoned in January 1744 after apologising to all involved.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=}}Lomonosov was made a full member of the Academy, and named Professor of chemistry, in 1745.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=}} He established the Academy's first chemistry laboratory.Cornwell, Neil and Christian, Nicole. Reference Guide to Russian Literature, p. 514. Taylor & Francis: London, 1998 Eager to improve Russia’s educational system, in 1755, Lomonosov joined his patron Count Ivan Shuvalov in founding Moscow University.In 1760, he was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 1764, he was elected Foreign Member of the Academy of Sciences of the Institute of Bologna R. Crease and V. Shiltsev, "Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765): Scientist in Politically Turbulent Times" in Il Nuovo Saggiatore, vol. 33, issue 5–6 (2017), pp. 43–56weblink {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180130092120weblink |date=30 January 2018 }} In 1764, Lomonosov was appointed to the position of the State Councillor which was of Rank V in the Russian Empire's Table of Ranks. He died on 4 April (o.s.), 1765 in Saint Petersburg. He is widely and deservingly regarded as the "Father of Russian Science",V. Shiltsev, "Mikhail Lomonosov and the dawn of Russian science", Physics Today (February 2012), vol. 65,weblink though many of his scientific accomplishments were relatively unknown outside Russia until long after his death and gained proper appreciation only in late 19th and, especially, in 20th centuries.

Physicist

File:Ekaterina II and Lomonosov.jpg|thumb|Catherine II of RussiaCatherine II of RussiaIn 1756, Lomonosov tried to replicate Robert Boyle's experiment of 1673.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=120}} He concluded that the commonly accepted phlogiston theory was false. Anticipating the discoveries of Antoine Lavoisier, he wrote in his diary: "Today I made an experiment in hermetic glass vessels in order to determine whether the mass of metals increases from the action of pure heat. The experiments – of which I append the record in 13 pages – demonstrated that the famous Robert Boyle was deluded, for without access of air from outside the mass of the burnt metal remains the same".That is the Law of Mass Conservation in chemical reaction, which was well-known today as "in a chemical reaction, the mass of reactants is equal to the mass of the products." Lomonosov, together with Lavoisier, is regarded as the one who discovered the law of mass conservation.JOURNAL, 10, 3, 119–127, Pomper, Philip, Lomonosov and the Discovery of the Law of the Conservation of Matter in Chemical Transformations, Ambix, October 1962, 10.1179/amb.1962.10.3.119, He stated that all matter is composed of corpuscles – molecules that are "collections" of elements – atoms. In his dissertation "Elements of Mathematical Chemistry" (1741, unfinished), the scientist gives the following definition: "An element is a part of a body that does not consist of any other smaller and different bodies ... corpuscle is a collection of elements forming one small mass."BOOK,weblink Mikhail Vasil'evich, Lomonosov, Mikhail Vasil'evich Lomonosov on the Corpuscular Theory, Henry M., Leicester, Harvard University Press, 1959, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 56–57, In a later study (1748), he uses term "atom" instead of "element", and "particula" (particle) or "molecule" instead of "corpuscle".He regarded heat as a form of motion, suggested the wave theory of light, contributed to the formulation of the kinetic theory of gases, and stated the idea of conservation of matter in the following words: "All changes in nature are such that inasmuch is taken from one object insomuch is added to another. So, if the amount of matter decreases in one place, it increases elsewhere. This universal law of nature embraces laws of motion as well, for an object moving others by its own force in fact imparts to another object the force it loses" (first articulated in a letter to Leonhard Euler dated 5 July 1748, rephrased and published in Lomonosov's dissertation "Reflexion on the solidity and fluidity of bodies", 1760).

Astronomer

File:LomonossowEffekt.svg|thumb|Scheme of the Lomonosov-Effect during a transit of Venustransit of VenusLomonosov was the first to discover and appreciate the atmosphere of Venus during his observation of the transit of Venus of 1761 in a small observatory near his house in St Petersburg.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=}}JOURNAL, The 1761 Discovery of Venus' Atmosphere: Lomonosov and Others, Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage, Vladimir, Shiltsev, 17, 1, 85–112, March 2014, 2014JAHH...17...85S, In June 2012 a group of astronomers carried out experimental reconstruction of Lomonosov's discovery of Venusian atmosphere with antique refractors during the transit of Venus (5–6 June 2012).A.Koukarine, et al., "Experimental Reconstruction of Lomonosov's Discovery of Venus's Atmosphere with Antique Refractors During the 2012 Transit of Venus" (2012) They concluded that Lomonosov's telescope was fully adequate to the task of detecting the arc of light around Venus off the Sun's disc during ingress or egress if proper experimental techniques as described by Lomonosov in his 1761 paperV. Shiltsev, "Lomonosov's Discovery of Venus Atmosphere in 1761: English Translation of Original Publication with Commentaries" (2012) are employed.V. Shiltsev, I. Nesterenko, and R. Rosenfeld,"Replicating the discovery of Venus's atmosphere", Physics Today, Feb. 2013 / Volume 66, Issue 2, p. 64 WEB,weblink Archived copy, 15 May 2013, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20130704225233weblink">weblink 4 July 2013, dmy-all, File:Lomonosov 1761German Fig.jpg|thumb|left|Diagrams from Mikhail Lomonosov's "The Appearance of Venus on the Sun, Observed at the St. PetersburgSt. PetersburgIn 1762, Lomonosov presented an improved design of a reflecting telescope to the Russian Academy of Sciences forum. His telescope had its primary mirror adjusted at an angle of four degrees to the telescope's axis. This made the image focus at the side of the telescope tube, where the observer could view the image with an eyepiece without blocking the image. However, this invention was not published until 1827, so this type of telescope has become associated with a similar design by William Herschel, the Herschelian telescope."On an optic pipe improvement" – Lomonosov M.V. Selected works in two volumes. Volume I: Natural sciences and philosophy. Moscow: Nauka (Science) publishing house, 1986 {{Ru icon}}. Name in Russian: «Об усовершенствовании зрительных труб» – М.В. Ломоносов. Избранные произведения. В двух томах. Т. 1. Естественные науки и философия. М.: Наука. 1986

Chemist and geologist

In 1759, with his collaborator, academician Joseph Adam Braun, Lomonosov was the first person to record the freezing of mercury and to carry out initial experiments with it.Lomonosov M.V. Meditations on Solidity and Fluidity of Bodies (1760) / translation and commentary by Vladimir Shiltsev (2018);weblink Believing that nature is subject to regular and continuous evolution, he demonstrated the organic origin of soil, peat, coal, petroleum and amber. In 1745, he published a catalogue of over 3,000 minerals, and in 1760, he explained the formation of icebergs.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=}}In 1763, he published On The Strata of the Earth – his most significant geological work.Lomonosov M.V. On the strata of the Earth: a translation of "O sloiakh zemnykh" / translated by S.M. Rowland, S. Korolev. Boulder: Geological Soc. of America, 2012. 41 p. (Special paper; 485)

Geographer

Lomonosov's observation of iceberg formation led into his pioneering work in geography. Lomonosov got close to the theory of continental drift,Life and Death of Alfred Wegener {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080111224004weblink |date=11 January 2008 }} by Alexey Fedorchuk {{Ru icon}} theoretically predicted the existence of Antarctica (he argued that icebergs of the South Ocean could be formed only on a dry land covered with ice),Eduard Belcher Prediction of Antarctica by Lomonosov{{dead link|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}  {{Ru icon}} and invented sea tools which made writing and calculating directions and distances easier. In 1764, he organized an expedition (led by Admiral Vasili Chichagov) to find the Northeast Passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans by sailing along the northern coast of Siberia.{{sfn|Menshutkin|1952|p=}}

Mosaicist

File:Lomonosov Grave.jpg|thumb|left|Grave of Lomonosov in Lazarevskoe Cemetery, Alexander Nevsky Lavra, Saint PetersburgSaint PetersburgLomonosov was proud to restore the ancient art of mosaics. In 1754, in his letter to Leonhard Euler, he wrote that his three years of experiments on the effects of chemistry of minerals on their colour led to his deep involvement in the mosaic art. In 1763, he set up a glass factory that produced the first stained glass mosaics outside of Italy. There were forty mosaics attributed to Lomonosov, with only twenty-four surviving to the present day. Among the best is the portrait of Peter the Great and the Battle of Poltava, measuring {{convert|4.8|×|6.4|m}}.WEB, Elena Lavrenova,weblink Lomonosov biography, Foxdesign.ru, 2 May 2011, WEB,weblink М.В. Ломоносов: к 300-летию со дня рождения, narfu.ru, 2 May 2011, WEB,weblink М.А. Безбородое М.В. Ломоносов. Фабрика В Усть-Рудицах, Grokhovs1.chat.ru, 5 December 2001, 2 May 2011,

Grammarian, poet, historian

In 1755 Lomonosov wrote a grammar that reformed the Russian literary language by combining Old Church Slavonic with the vernacular tongue. To further his literary theories, he wrote more than 20 solemn ceremonial odes, notably the Evening Meditation on the God's Grandeur. He applied an idiosyncratic theory to his later poems – tender subjects needed words containing the front vowel sounds E, I, Y and U, whereas things that may cause fear (like "anger", "envy", "pain" and "sorrow") needed words with back vowel sounds O, U and Y. That was a version of what is now called sound symbolism.In 1760 Lomonosov published a History of Russia.A Chronological Abridgement of the Russian History, by Michail Lomonosovhist.msu.ru In addition, he attempted to write a grand epic about Peter the Great, to be based on the Aeneid by Vergil, but he died before he could finish it.Alex Preminger, Terry V.F. Brogan. The New Princeton encyclopedia of poetry and poetics. MJF Books, 1993. (originally from the Pennsylvania State University), p. 1104

Legacy

File:5217-0001-reverse.png|thumb|upright|1992 Russian gold coingold coinHis granddaughter Sophia Konstantinova (1769–1844) married Russian military hero and statesman General Nikolay Raevsky. His great-granddaughter was Princess Maria (Raevskaya) Volkonskaya, the wife of the Decembrist Prince Sergei Volkonsky.BOOK, Sutherland, Christine, The Princess of Siberia: The Story of Maria Volkonsky and the Decembrist Exiles, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1984, 978-0-374-23727-1, The city of Lomonosov, Russia (former Oranienbaum, Russia from 1710–1948), and a lunar crater bear his name, as does a crater on Mars and the asteroid 1379 Lomonosowa. The Imperial Porcelain Factory, Saint Petersburg was renamed after him from 1925 to 2005. In 1948, the underwater Lomonosov Ridge in the Arctic Ocean was named in his honor.  Moscow State University was renamed '’M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University'’ in his honor in 1940.{{citation needed|date=April 2018}}The Lomonosov Gold Medal was established in 1959 and is awarded annually by the Russian Academy of Sciences to a Russian and a foreign scientist.{{citation needed|date=April 2018}}Lomonosovskaya Station on the Nevsko-Vasileostrovskaya Line of the Saint Petersburg Metro is named after him. It was opened in 1970.The street "Lomonosova iela" in the Maskavas ForÅ¡tate district of Riga is named in honor of Lomonosov. During the Soviet era a main street in Tallinn, Estonia, was named in his honor as "Lomonossovi M.", but from 1991 it was renamed Gonsiori after Jakob Johann Gonsior, a 19th-century alderman and lawyer.WEB, Hamilton, Simon, A Rambling Dictionary of Tallinn Street Names,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110626010846weblink">weblink 26 June 2011, dmy-all, The Akademik Lomonosov, the first of a series of Russian floating nuclear power stations, is named for him. It is expected to be operational at Pevek, Chukotka in September 2019.Russian floating nuclear power station undergoes mooring tests, NuclearPowerDaily.com, 7 July 2016, accessed 25 July 2016.WEB, Work starts on on-shore infrastructure for Russian floating plant,weblink World Nuclear News, 4 January 2019,

Works

English translations
  • BOOK, Panegyric to the Sovereign Emperor, Peter the Great., Lomonosov, Mikhail, Translated by Ronald Hingley in Marc Raeff, ed. Russian Intellectual History: An Anthology, 1966, 978-0391009059, Prometheus Books,
  • BOOK, Mikhail Vasil'evich Lomonosov on the Corpuscular Theory, Lomonosov, Mikhail, Translated by Henry M. Leicester, 1970, Harvard University Press, 978-0674574205,weblink


German translations

See also

{{Div col|colwidth=30em}} {{Div col end}}

References

Citations

{{Reflist}}

Sources

  • BOOK, harv, Russia's Lomonosov, Chemist Courtier, Physicist Poet, Menshutkin, Boris N., 1952, Princeton University Press, Princeton, B0007DKTQU,weblink's+Lomonosov,+Chemist+Courtier,+Physicist+Poet&dq=Russia's+Lomonosov,+Chemist+Courtier,+Physicist+Poet,

Further reading

  • JOURNAL, Crease, Robert, Mikhail Who?, Physics World, November 2011,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Shiltsev, Vladimir, Nov. 19, 1711: Birth of Mikhail Lomonosov, Russia's first modern scientist, APS News, November 2011, 20, 10,weblink
  • JOURNAL, Shiltsev, Vladimir, Mikhail Lomonosov and the dawn of Russian science, Physics Today, February 2012, 65, 2, 40–46, 2012PhT....65b..40S, 10.1063/PT.3.1438, {{dead link|date=January 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}
  • JOURNAL, Crease, Robert, Transit Watching, Physics World, August 2012,
weblink
  • JOURNAL, Crease, Robert, Shiltsev, Vladimir, Pomor Polymath: The Upbringing of Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov, 1711–1730, Physics in Perspective, December 2013, 15, 4, 10.1007/s00016-013-0113-5, 391–414, 2013PhP....15..391C,
  • JOURNAL, Lomonosov's Dedication to His Russian grammar, C.A. Johnson, Slavic Review, 23, 2, June 1964, 328–332, 10.2307/2492939, 2492939,
  • Peter Hoffmann: Michail Vasil'evič Lomonosov (1711–1765). Ein Enzyklopädist im Zeitalter der Aufklärung. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2011. {{ISBN|978-3-631-61797-7}}
  • Norbert Nail (March 2012): Russi intra muros: Studenten aus Sankt Petersburg 1736–1739 bei Christian Wolff in Marburg. Zum 300. Geburtstag des Universalgelehrten Michail Vasil'evič Lomonosov am 19. November 2011. In: Studenten-Kurier 1/2012, pp. 15–19. {{ISSN|0931-0444}}
  • Steven Usitalo (2013): The Invention of Mikhail Lomonosov (A Russian National Myth), Academic Studies Press. {{ISBN|978-1618111739}}
  • M.W. Lomonossow in Freiberg. Herausgegeben anlässlich der Einweihung des Lomonossow-Hauses in der Freiberger Fischerstraße am 7. Februar 2014 (russisch u. deutsch). Freiberg: TU Bergakademie 2014. (Darin: F. Naumann, Michail Wassiljewitsch Lomonossows Weg in die Wissenschaft; F. Naumann, Das Lomonossow-Haus und seine Geschichte; C. Drebenstedt / B. Meyer, Deutsch-Russische Montanbeziehungen im Wandel der Zeit]. [Russian and German]
  • R.Crease and V.Shiltsev, "Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765): Scientist in Politically Turbulent Times" in Il Nuovo Saggiatore, vol. 33, issue 5–6 (2017), pp. 43–56weblink
  • Robert Crease / Vladimir Shiltsev: Fueling Peter's Mill: Mikhail Lomonosov's Educational Training in Russia and Germany, 1731–1741. In: Physics in Perspective, Vol. 20, Issue 3, September 2018, pp. 272–304.weblink

External links

{{Sister project links|Mikhail Lomonosov}} {{Age of Enlightenment}}{{Authority control}}

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