Albanian language

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Albanian language
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{{short description|Indo-European language}}{{Use dmy dates|date=April 2012}}

| states = Albania, Greece, Italy, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia and Albanian diaspora| ethnicity = Albanians5.37|2}} million in the Balkans | date = 2011| ref = e18| familycolor = Indo-EuropeanProto-Albanian language>Proto-AlbanianGheg Albanian>GhegTosk Albanian>ToskArbëresh language>Arbëresh| dia4 = ArvanitikaIstrian Albanian>Istrian {{extinct}}Latin script>Latin (Albanian alphabet)Albanian BrailleAlbania}}{{flagMontenegro}}{{ref labela}}{{flagaCHAPTER-URL=HTTP://WWW.WIPO.INT/WIPOLEX/EN/TEXT.JSP?FILE_ID=187544#LINKTARGET_1506 PUBLISHER=WIPO QUOTE=SERBIAN, BOSNIAN, ALBANIAN AND CROATIAN SHALL ALSO BE IN THE OFFICIAL USE., Italy}}{{flag|Serbia}}{{flag|Croatia}}{{flag|Romania}}| agency = Officially by the Social Sciences and Albanological Section of the Academy of Sciences of Albania| iso1 = sq| iso2b = alb| iso2t = sqi| lingua = 55-AAA-aaa to 55-AAA-ahe (25 varieties)| iso3 = sqi| lc1 = aaeArbëresh language>Arbëresh| lc2 = aat| ld2 = Arvanitika| lc3 = alnGheg Albanian>Gheg| lc4 = alsTosk Albanian>Tosk| glotto = alba1267| glottorefname = Albanian| map = Albanian dialects.svgThe Albanian dialects of the Albanian language.{{small>(The map does not indicate where the language is majority or minority.)}}}}| notice = IPA}}Albanian ({{IPAc-en|æ|l|ˈ|b|eɪ|n|i|É™|n}}; {{IPA-sq|ʃcip|}} or {{IPA-sq|ˈɟuha ˈʃcipÉ›|}}) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Albanians in the Balkans and the Albanian diaspora in the Americas, Europe and Oceania.WEB, Fatjona Mejdini,weblink Albania Aims to Register its Huge Diaspora, Balkan Insight, 2013-05-03, 2017-01-17, With about 7.5 million speakers,{{sfn|Rusakov|2017|p=552}} it comprises an independent branch within the Indo-European languages and is not closely related to any other language in Europe.{{sfn|Fortson IV|2011|p=446}}First attested in the 15th century, it is the last Indo-European branch to appear in written records. This is one of the reasons why its still-unknown origin has long been a matter of dispute among linguists and historians.{{sfn|Fortson IV|2011|p=446}} Albanian is considered to be the descendant of one of the Paleo-Balkan languages of antiquity. For more historical and geographical reasons than specifically linguistic ones, there are various modern historians and linguists who believe that the Albanian language may have descended from a southern Illyrian dialect
  • {{harvnb|Ceka|2005|pages=40–42, 59}}
  • Thunmann, Johannes E. "Untersuchungen uber die Geschichte der Oslichen Europaischen Volger". Teil, Leipzig, 1774.
  • see Malcolm, Noel. Origins: Serbs, Vlachs, and Albanians. Malcolm is of the opinion that the Albanian language was an Illyrian dialect preserved in Dardania and then it (re-?)conquered the Albanian lowlands
  • Indo-European language and culture: an introduction By Benjamin W. Fortson Edition: 5, illustrated Published by Wiley-Blackwell, 2004 {{ISBN|1-4051-0316-7}}, {{ISBN|978-1-4051-0316-9}}
  • Stipčević, Alexander. Iliri (2nd edition). Zagreb, 1989 (also published in Italian as "Gli Illiri")
  • NGL Hammond The Relations of Illyrian Albania with the Greeks and the Romans. In Perspectives on Albania, edited by Tom Winnifrith, St. Martin’s Press, New York 1992
  • Encyclopedia of Indo-European culture By J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams Edition: illustrated Published by Taylor & Francis, 1997 {{ISBN|1-884964-98-2}}, {{ISBN|978-1-884964-98-5}} spoken in much the same region in classical times. Alternative hypotheses hold that Albanian may have descended from Thracian or Daco-Moesian, other ancient languages spoken farther east than Illyrian.{{sfn|Fortson IV|2011|p=446}}BOOK, Villar, Francisco, Los indoeuropeos y los orígenes de Europa, es, Gredos, Madrid, 1996,weblink 84-249-1787-1, harv, 313–314, 316,
Not enough is known of these languages to completely prove or disprove the various hypotheses.{{harvnb|Mallory|Adams|1997|p=9}};{{harvnb|Fortson|2004}}The two main Albanian dialects, Gheg and Tosk which are primarily distinguished by phonological differences, are mutually intelligible,{{sfn|Demiraj|Esposito|2009|p=23}}{{sfn|Fortson IV|2004|p=390}} with Gheg spoken in the north and Tosk spoken in the south of the Shkumbin river.{{sfn|Demiraj|Esposito|2009|p=23}} Their characteristicsIn Tosk /a/ before a nasal has become a central vowel (shwa), and intervocalic /n/ has become /r/. These two sound changes have affected only the pre-Slav stratum of the Albanian lexicon, that is the native words and loanwords from Greek and Latin (page 23) Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World By Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie Contributor Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie Edition: illustrated Published by Elsevier, 2008 {{ISBN|0-08-087774-5}}, {{ISBN|978-0-08-087774-7}} in the treatment of the native and loanwords from other languages, have led to the conclusion that the dialectal split occurred after Christianisation of the region (4th century AD) and at the time of the Slavic migration to the Balkans,{{cite book|author=Douglas Q. Adams|title=Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture|url=|date=January 1997|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-1-884964-98-5|pages=9, 11|quote=The Greek and Latin loans have undergone most of the far-reaching phonological changes which have so altered the shape of inherited words while Slavic and Turkish words do not show those changes. Thus Albanian must have acquired much of its present form by the time Slavs entered into Balkans in the fifth and sixth centuries AD [...] borrowed words from Greek and Latin date back to before Christian era'' [...] Even very common words such as mik "friend" (

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