Bosnian language

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Bosnian language
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Bosnia (region)>Bosnia|region =|speakers = 2.5–3 million|date = 2008AUTHOR= WEBSITE= ACCESSDATE=12 AUGUST 2012, |speakers2 = |familycolor = Indo-EuropeanBalto-Slavic languages>Balto-SlavicSlavic languages>SlavicSouth Slavic languages>South SlavicWestern South Slavic languages>Western|fam6=Serbo-CroatianLatin script>Latin (Gaj's Latin alphabet)Cyrillic script>Cyrillic (Serbian Cyrillic alphabet){{refn>group="Note"Cyrillic is an officially recognized alphabet, but in practice it is mainly used in Republika Srpska, whereas in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina mainly Latin is used.{{sfn2006Yugoslav BrailleFormerly:Arabic script>Arabic (Arebica)Bosnian Cyrillic (Bosančica)|nation={{BIH}}{{MNE}} (co-official)status}}''{{TUR}}|iso1=bs|iso2=bos|iso3=bos|glotto=bosn1245|glottorefname=Bosnian Standard|lingua=part of 53-AAA-g|notice=IPA|map=Idioma bosnio dentro del serbo croata.png}}{{South Slavic languages sidebar}}The Bosnian language ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Bosnian.ogg|ˈ|b|ɒ|z|n|i|ə|n}}; bosanski / босански {{IPA-sh|bɔ̌sanskiː|}}) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.David Dalby, Linguasphere (1999/2000, Linguasphere Observatory), p. 445, 53-AAA-g, "Srpski+Hrvatski, Serbo-Croatian".Benjamin V. Fortson, IV, Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, 2nd ed. (2010, Blackwell), p. 431, "Because of their mutual intelligibility, Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian are usually thought of as constituting one language called Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian."Václav Blažek, "On the Internal Classification of Indo-European Languages: Survey" retrieved 20 Oct 2010, pp. 15–16. Bosnian is one of three such varieties considered official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina,See Art. 6 of the Constitution of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, available at the official website of Office of the High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina along with Croatian and Serbian. It is also an officially recognized minority or regional language in Serbia,WEB,weblink European charter for regional or minority languages: Application of the charter in Serbia, Council of Europe, 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-01-03, Montenegro, and Kosovo.BOOK,weblink Handbook on Policing in Central and Eastern Europe, Driton Muharremi and Samedin Mehmeti, Springer, 2013, 129, 9781461467205, {{ref label|status|a|}}Bosnian uses both the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets, with Latin in everyday use.BOOK, Tomasz Kamusella, The Politics of Language and Nationalism in Modern Central Europe,weblink 15 January 2009, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-0-230-55070-4, In addition, today, neither Bosniaks nor Croats, but only Serbs use Cyrillic in Bosnia., It is notable among the varieties of Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian for a number of Arabic, Ottoman Turkish and Persian loanwords, largely due to the language's interaction with those cultures through Islamic ties.BOOK, Persian Literature in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Algar, Hamid, 2 July 1994, Journal of Islamic Studies, Oxford, 254–68, BOOK, Die Kultur der Bosniaken, Supplement I: Inventar des bosnischen literarischen Erbes in orientalischen Sprachen, Balić, Smail, 1978, Adolf Holzhausens, Vienna, Vienna, 111, BOOK, Das unbekannte Bosnien: Europas Brücke zur islamischen Welt, Balić, Smail, 1992, Bohlau, Cologne, Weimar and Vienna, 526, Bosnian is based on the most widespread dialect of Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of standard Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin varieties. Therefore, the Declaration on the Common Language of Bosniaks, Croats, Serbs and Montenegrins was issued in 2017 in Sarajevo.MAGAZINE, Dan, Nosovitz, 11 February 2019, What Language Do People Speak in the Balkans, Anyway?,weblink Atlas Obscura, 11 February 2019, live,weblink 6 May 2019, BOOK, Zanelli, Aldo, 2018, Eine Analyse der Metaphern in der kroatischen Linguistikfachzeitschrift Jezik von 1991 bis 1997, Analysis of Metaphors in Croatian Linguistic Journal Language from 1991 to 1997, German, Studien zur Slavistik ; 41, Hamburg, Kovač, 21, 83, 978-3-8300-9773-0, 1023608613, (NSK). (FFZG) Until the 1990s, the common language was called Serbo-CroatianRadio Free Europe – Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Or Montenegrin? Or Just 'Our Language'? Živko Bjelanović: Similar, But Different, Feb 21, 2009, accessed Oct 8, 2010 and that term is still used in English, along with "Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian" (BCMS), especially in diplomatic circles.


{{See also|Bosnian Cyrillic|Serbo-Croatian}}(File:RacsunBosanskiJezik1827.jpg|thumb|School book of Latin and Bosnian, 1827)(File:Gramatika bosanskog jezika.jpg|thumb|Bosnian Grammar, 1890)


File:Azbuka BH.svg|1000px|thumb|centre|upright=2|Old Bosnian alphabets: bosančica (top line) and arebica (bottom line), compared with contemporary latinica (middle line)]]Although Bosnians are, at the level of vernacular idiom, linguistically more homogeneous than either Serbians or Croatians, unlike those nations they failed to codify a standard language in the 19th century, with at least two factors being decisive:
  • The Bosnian elite, as closely intertwined with Ottoman life, wrote predominantly in foreign (Turkish, Arabic, Persian) languages.WEB,weblink Collection of printed books in Arabic, Turkish and Persian, 2014-05-16, 2014-05-16, Gazi Husrev-begova biblioteka, Vernacular literature written in Bosnian with the Arebica script was relatively thin and sparse.
  • The Bosnians' national emancipation lagged behind that of the Serbs and Croats, and because denominational rather than cultural or linguistic issues played the pivotal role, a Bosnian language project did not arouse much interest or support amongst the intelligentsia of the time.
{| class="wikitable"! scope="row" colspan="2" | | Ć| F| K| Nj| Š| Ž style="font-size: 131%;"! scope="row" rowspan="4" style="font-size: 61%;" | ! scope="row" style="font-size: 61%;" | Isolated }} }} }} }}(File:Hah with inverted v below.svgalt=Hah with inverted V) }} colspan="2" }} }} }} }} }} }} }} }} rowspan="2" }} rowspan="2" style="font-size: 131%;"! scope="row" style="font-size: 61%;" | Initial12px|alt=Hah with inverted V) }} }} style="font-size: 131%;"! scope="row" style="font-size: 61%;" | Medial }} }} }} }} ـ{{lrm}}}}(File:Hah with inverted v below-medi.svgalt=Hah with inverted V) }} colspan="2" }} }} }} }} }} }} }} }} rowspan="2" }} rowspan="2" style="font-size: 131%;"! scope="row" style="font-size: 61%;" | Final12px|alt=Hah with inverted V) }} }}The literature of the so-called "Bosnian revival" at the start of the 20th century was written in an idiom that was closer to the Croatian standard than to the Serbian one: it was a western Shtokavian dialect with an Ijekavian accent and used a Latin script, but had recognizable Bosnian lexical traits. The main authors were the polymath, politician and poet Safvet-beg Bašagić and the storyteller Edhem Mulabdić.The modern Bosnian standard took shape in the 1990s and 2000s. Lexically, Islamic-Oriental loanwords are more frequent; phonetically: the phoneme /x/ (letter h) is reinstated in many words as a distinct feature of vernacular Bosniak speech and language tradition; also, there are some changes in grammar, morphology and orthography that reflect the Bosniak pre-World War I literary tradition, mainly that of the Bosniak renaissance at the beginning of the 20th century.


File:Nauk krstjanski za narod slovinski - Divković (1611).jpg|Nauk krstjanski za narod slovinski, by Matija Divković, the first Bosnian printed book. Published in Venice, 1611File:Bosnian dictionary by Muhamed Hevaji Uskufi Bosnevi in 1631.jpg|Bosnian dictionary by Muhamed Hevaji Uskufi Bosnevi, 1631File:Free Will and Acts of Faith WDL2986.pdf|The Free Will and Acts of Faith, manuscript from the early 19th centuryFile:Bosnian Book of the Science of Conduct WDL7479.pdf|The Bosnian Book of the Science of Conduct by 'Abdulwahāb b.' Abdulwahāb Žepčewī, 1831File:Bosnian Grammar for High Schools. Parts 1 and 2, Study of Voice and Form WDL7482.pdf|Bosnian Grammar, 1890

Controversy and recognition

File:Political correctness in Bosnia (14151146675).jpg|thumb|A cigarette warning "Smoking seriously harms you and others around you", ostensibly in three languages. The "Bosnian" and "Croatian" versions are identical and the "Serbian" is a transliterationtransliterationThe name "Bosnian language" is a controversial issue for some Croats and Serbs, who also refer to it as the "Bosniak" language ( / ; {{IPA-sh|bǒʃɲaːtʃkiː|}}). Bosniak linguists however insist that the only legitimate name is "Bosnian" language (), and that that is the name that both Croats and Serbs should use. The controversy arises because the name "Bosnian" may seem to imply that it is the language of all Bosnians, while Bosnian Croats and Serbs reject that designation for their idioms.The language is called Bosnian language in the 1995 Dayton AccordsBOOK, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, a Grammar: With Sociolinguistic Commentary,weblink Alexander, Ronelle, 2006, Univ of Wisconsin Press, 409, 9780299211936, and is concluded by observers to have received legitimacy and international recognition at the time.BOOK, Language and Identity in the Balkans: Serbo-Croatian and Its Disintegration,weblink Greenberg, Robert D., 2004, Oxford University Press, 136, 9780191514555, The International Organization for Standardization (ISO),WEB,weblink ISO 639-2 Registration Authority, Library of Congress, United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN), and the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names (PCGN) recognize the Bosnian language. Furthermore, the status of the Bosnian language is also recognized by bodies such as the United Nations, UNESCO, and translation and interpreting accreditation agencies,BOOK, Sussex, Roland, The Slavic Languages, 2006, Cambridge University Press, 0-521-22315-6, 76, including internet translation services.Most English-speaking language encyclopedias (Routledge, Glottolog,WEB,weblink Bosnian, Glottolog, Ethnologue,WEB,weblink Bosnian, Ethnologue, etc.)Bernard Comrie (ed.): The World's Major Languages. Second Edition. Routledge, New York/London, 2009 register the language solely as "Bosnian" language. The Library of Congress registered the language as "Bosnian" and gave it an ISO-number. The Slavic language institutes in English-speaking countries offer courses in "Bosnian" or "Bosnian/Croatian/Serbian" language, not in "Bosniak" language (e.g. Columbia,WEB,weblink Spring 2016 Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian W1202 section 001, Columbia University, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-01-28, Cornell,WEB,weblink BCS 1133 – Continuing Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian I – Acalog ACMS™, Cornell University, Chicago,WEB,weblink Courses, University of Chicago, Washington,WEB,weblink Bosnian Croatian Serbian, University of Washington, KansasWEB,weblink Why Study Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian (BCS) with the KU Slavic Department?, University of Kansas, 2012-12-18, ). The same thing in German-speaking countries, where the language is taught under the name ', not ' (e.g. Vienna,WEB,weblink Institut für Slawistik » Curricula, University of Vienna, Graz,WEB,weblink Bosnisch/Kroatisch/Serbisch, University of Graz, 2015-08-26,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-07-03, dead, Trier)WEB,weblink Slavistik – Bosnisch-Kroatisch-Montenegrinisch-Serbisch, 28 July 2015, University of Trier, with very few exceptions.Some Croatian linguists (Zvonko Kovač, Ivo Pranjković, Josip Silić) support the name "Bosnian" language, whereas others (Radoslav Katičić, Dalibor Brozović, Tomislav Ladan) hold that the term Bosnian language is the only one appropriate{{clarify|date=May 2014}} and that accordingly the terms Bosnian language and Bosniak language refer to two different things{{clarify|date=May 2014}}. The Croatian state institutions, such as the Central Bureau of Statistics, use both terms: "Bosniak" language was used in the 2001 census,Central Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Croatia Census of 2001, Population by native language while the census in 2011 used the term "Bosnian" language.{{citation |url= |accessdate=January 19, 2014 |title=Central Bureau of Statistics of the Republic of Croatia, Census of 2011, Population by native language }}The majority of Serbian linguists hold that the term Bosniak language is the only one appropriate,WEB,weblink [Projekat Rastko] Odbor za standardizaciju srpskog jezika,, which was agreed as early as 1990.Svein Mønnesland, »Language Policy in Bosnia-Herzegovina«, (pp 135–155.). In: Language : Competence–Change–Contact = Sprache : Kompetenz – Kontakt – Wandel, edited by: Annikki Koskensalo, John Smeds, Rudolf de Cillia, Ángel Huguet; Berlin ; Münster : Lit Verlag, 2012., {{ISBN|978-3-643-10801-2}}, p. 143. "Already in 1990 the Committee for the Serbian language decided that only the term 'Bosniac language' should be used officially in Serbia, and this was confirmed in 1998."The original form of The Constitution of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina called the language "Bosniac language",WEB, Constitution of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 1 March 2002, High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, 3 June 2010, until 2002 when it was changed in Amendment XXIX of the Constitution of the Federation by Wolfgang Petritsch.{{citation |url= |title=Decision on Constitutional Amendments in the Federation |publisher=High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina |archive-url= |url-status=dead |archive-date=May 13, 2002 |accessdate=January 19, 2014 }} The original text of the Constitution of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina was agreed in Vienna, and was signed by Krešimir Zubak and Haris Silajdžić on March 18, 1994.{{citation |url= |title=Washington Agreement |accessdate=January 19, 2014 }}The constitution of , the Serb-dominated entity within Bosnia and Herzegovina, did not recognize any language or ethnic group other than Serbian.WEB, The Constitution of the Republika Srpska,weblink U.S. English Foundation Research, 3 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 July 2011, Bosniaks were mostly expelled from the territory controlled by the Serbs from 1992, but immediately after the war they demanded the restoration of their civil rights in those territories. The Bosnian Serbs refused to make reference to the Bosnian language in their constitution and as a result had constitutional amendments imposed by High Representative Wolfgang Petritsch. However, the constitution of refers to it as the Language spoken by Bosniaks,WEB, Decision on Constitutional Amendments in Republika Srpska,weblink High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, 3 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 January 2012, because the Serbs were required to recognise the language officially, but wished to avoid recognition of its name.BOOK, Greenberg, Robert David, Language and Identity in the Balkans: Serbo-Croatian and its Disintegration, 2004, Oxford University Press, 0-19-925815-5, 156, Serbia includes the Bosnian language as an elective subject in primary schools.NEWS, Rizvanovic, Alma, Language Battle Divides Schools,weblink 3 June 2010, Institute for War & Peace Reporting, 2 August 2005, Montenegro officially recognizes the Bosnian language: its 2007 Constitution specifically states that although Montenegrin is the official language, Serbian, Bosnian, Albanian and Croatian are also in official use.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2009-03-18, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2009-06-17, See Art. 13 of the Constitution of the Republic of Montenegro, adopted on 19 October 2007, available at the website of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of MontenegroWEB,weblink Crna Gora dobila novi Ustav, Cafe del Montenegro,weblink" title="">weblink dead, 20 October 2007, 2007-10-21, 12 August 2017,

Historical usage of the term

  • In the work Skazanie izjavljenno o pismeneh that was written between 1423 and 1426, the Bulgarian chronicler Constantine the Philosopher, in parallel with the Bulgarian, Serbian, Slovenian, Czech and Croatian, he also mentions the Bosnian language.
  • The notary book of the town of Kotor from July 3, 1436 recounts a duke buying a girl that is described as a: "Bosnian woman, heretic and in the Bosnian language called Djevena".BOOK, Muhsin Rizvić, Bosna i BoÅ¡njaci: Jezik i pismo, Preporod, 6, Sarajevo,weblink 1996, Aleksandar Solovjev, Trgovanje bosanskim robljem do god. 1661. - Glasnik Zemaljskog muzeja, N. S., 1946, 1, 151.
  • The work Thesaurus Polyglottus, published in Frankfurt am Main in 1603 by the German historian and linguist Hieronymus Megiser, mentions the Bosnian dialect alongside the Dalmatian, Croatian and Serbian one.V. Putanec, Leksikografija, Enciklopedija Jugoslavije, V, 1962, 504.BOOK, Muhsin Rizvić, Bosna i BoÅ¡njaci: Jezik i pismo, Preporod, 7, Sarajevo,weblink 1996,
  • The Bosnian Franciscan Matija Divković, regarded as the founder of the modern literature of Bosnia and Herzegovina,WEB, DIVKOVIĆ: OTAC BOSANSKE KNJIŽEVNOSTI, PRVI BOSANSKI TIPOGRAF,weblink, 30 August 2012, Ivan Lovrenović, 2012-01-30,weblink" title="">weblink 12 July 2012, dead, WEB, Matija Divković – otac bosanskohercegovačke i hrvatske književnosti u BiH,weblink, 30 August 2012,, Serbo-Croatian, 17 April 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 January 2012, asserts in his work "Nauk krstjanski za narod slovinski" ("The Christian doctrine for the Slavic peoples") from 1611 his "translation from Latin to the real and true Bosnian language" ("A privideh iz dijačkog u pravi i istinit jezik bosanski")BOOK, Muhsin Rizvić, Bosna i BoÅ¡njaci: Jezik i pismo, Preporod, 24, Sarajevo,weblink 1996,
  • Bosniak poet and Aljamiado writer Muhamed Hevaji Uskufi Bosnevi who refers to the language of his 1632 dictionary Magbuli-arif as Bosnian.WEB, ALJAMIADO AND ORIENTAL LITERATURE IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA (1463-1878),weblink, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2014-02-02,
  • One of the first grammarians, the Jesuit clergyman Bartolomeo Cassio calls the language used in his work from 1640 Ritual rimski (Roman Rite) as naÅ¡ki ("our language") or bosanski ("Bosnian"). He used the term "Bosnian" even though he was born in a Chakavian region: instead he decided to adopt a "common language" (lingua communis) based on a version of Shtokavian Ikavian.BOOK, Muhsin Rizvić, Bosna i BoÅ¡njaci: Jezik i pismo, Preporod, 8, Sarajevo,weblink 1996, Vatroslav Jagić, Iz proÅ¡lost hrvatskog jezika. Izabrani kraći spisi. Zagreb, 1948, 49.
  • The Italian linguist Jacobus Micalia (1601–1654) who states in his dictionary Blagu jezika slovinskoga (Thesaurus lingue Illyricae) from 1649 that he wants to include "the most beautiful words" adding that "of all Illyrian languages the Bosnian is the most beautiful", and that all Illyrian writers should try to write in that language.
  • 18th century Bosniak chronicler Mula Mustafa BaÅ¡eskija who argues in his yearbook of collected Bosnian poems that the "Bosnian language" is much richer than the Arabic, because there are 45 words for the verb "to go" in Bosnian.
  • The Venetian writer, naturalist and cartographer Alberto Fortis (1741–1803) calls in his work Viaggio in Dalmazia (Travels into Dalmatia) the language of Morlachs as Illyrian, Morlach and Bosnian.BOOK, Alberto Fortis, Viaggo in Dalmazia, Presso Alvise Milocco, all' Appoline, MDCCLXXIV, I, 91–92, Venice,weblink 1774, Alberto Fortis,
  • The Croatian writer and lexicographer Matija Petar Katančić published six volumes of biblical translations in 1831 described as being "transferred from Slavo-Illyrian to the pronunciation of the Bosnian language".WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2014-01-09, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-04-25,
  • Croatian writer Matija Mažuranić refers in the work Pogled u Bosnu (1842) to the language of Bosnians as Illyrian (a 19th-century synonym to South Slavic languages) mixed with Turkish words, with a further statement that they are the speakers of the Bosniak language.BOOK, Matija Mažuranić, Pogled u Bosnu, Tiskom narodne tiskarnice dra, Lj. Gaja, 52, Zagreb,weblink 1842, Matija Mažuranić,
  • The Bosnian Franciscan Ivan Franjo Jukić states in his work Zemljopis i Poviestnica Bosne (1851) that the Bosnia was the only Turkish land (i.e. under the control of the Ottoman Empire) that remained entirely pure without Turkish speakers, both in the villages and so on the highlands. Further he states "[...] a language other than the Bosnian is not spoken [in Bosnia], the greatest Turkish [i.e. Muslim] gentlemen only speak Turkish when they are at the Vizier".BOOK, Ivan Franjo Jukić (Slavoljub BoÅ¡njak), Pogled u Bosnu, Bérzotiskom narodne tiskarnice dra. Ljudevita Gaja, 16, Zagreb,weblink 1851,
  • Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski, a 19th-century Croatian writer and historian, stated in his work Putovanje po Bosni (Travels into Bosnia) from 1858, how the 'Turkish' (i.e. Muslim) Bosniaks, despite converting to the Muslim faith, preserved their traditions and the Slavic mood, and that they speak the purest variant of the Bosnian language, by refusing to add Turkish word to their vocabulary.BOOK, Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski, Putovanje po Bosni, Tiskom narodne tiskarnice dra, Lj. Gaja, 114, Zagreb,weblink 1858, Ivan Kukuljević Sakcinski,

Differences between Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian

{{See also|Serbo-Croatian phonology|Serbo-Croatian grammar}}The differences between the Bosnian, Serbian, and Croatian literary standards are minimal. Although Bosnian employs more Turkish, Persian, and Arabic loanwords—commonly called orientalisms—it is very similar to both Serbian and Croatian in its written and spoken form.WEB, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Or Montenegrin? Or Just 'Our Language'?,weblink Radio Free Europe, "Lexical differences between the ethnic variants are extremely limited, even when compared with those between closely related Slavic languages (such as standard Czech and Slovak, Bulgarian and Macedonian), and grammatical differences are even less pronounced. More importantly, complete understanding between the ethnic variants of the standard language makes translation and second language teaching impossible."BOOK, Šipka, Danko, Danko Sipka, 2019, Lexical layers of identity: words, meaning, and culture in the Slavic languages, New York, Cambridge University Press, 166, 10.1017/9781108685795, 978-953-313-086-6, 2018048005, 1061308790, The Bosnian language, as a new normative register of the Shtokavian dialect, was officially introduced in 1996 with the publication of ' in Sarajevo. According to that work, Bosnian differed from Serbian and Croatian on some main linguistic characteristics, such as: sound formats in some words, especially "h" (' versus Serbian '); substantial and deliberate usage of Oriental ("Turkish") words; spelling of future tense (') as in Croatian but not Serbian () (both forms have the same pronunciation).{{sfn|Sotirović|2014|p=48}}{{better source|date=February 2019}}

See also

{{div col}} {{div col end}}a.">

Notes {| style"margin-left:13px; line-height:150%"a.




Further reading

  • BOOK, harv, Ronelle, Alexander, 2006, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, a Grammar: With Sociolinguistic Commentary, 1–2,weblink 9780299211936,
  • BOOK, Gröschel, Bernhard, Bernhard Gröschel, Waßner, Ulrich Hermann, Lingua et linguae. Festschrift für Clemens-Peter Herbermann zum 60. Geburtstag, Shaker, 159–188, German, Bosnisch oder Bosniakisch?, Bosnian or Bosniak?, Bochumer Beitraäge zur Semiotik, n.F., 6, Aachen, 2001, 978-3-8265-8497-8, 47992691,
  • BOOK, Kafadar, Enisa, Henn-Memmesheimer, Beate, Franz, Joachim, Die Ordnung des Standard und die Differenzierung der Diskurse; Teil 1, Peter Lang, 95–106, German, Bosnisch, Kroatisch, Serbisch – Wie spricht man eigentlich in Bosnien-Herzegowina?, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian – How do people really speak in Bosnia-Herzegovina?,weblink Frankfurt am Main, 2009, 699514676,
  • JOURNAL, Kordić, Snježana, Snježana Kordić, I dalje jedan jezik, Still one language,weblink Serbo-Croatian, Sarajevske Sveske, 10, 83–89, 2005, Sarajevo, 1512-8539, 3432980, {{CROSBI, 430085, . {{ZDB|2136753-X}} |archivedate=21 September 2013 |archiveurl= |url-status=live |accessdate=22 August 2014 }} (COBISS-BH).
  • BOOK, Kordić, Snježana, 2, Gavrić, SaÅ¡a, Jezička/e politika/e u Bosni i Hercegovini i njemačkom govornom području: zbornik radova predstavljenih na istoimenoj konferenciji održanoj 22. marta 2011. godine u Sarajevu, Goethe-Institut Bosnien und Herzegowina ; Ambasada Republike Austrije ; Ambasada Å vicarske konfederacije, 60–66, Serbo-Croatian, Jezična politika: prosvjećivati ili zamagljivati?, Language policy: to clarify or to obscure?,weblink live, Sarajevo, 2011, 978-9958-1959-0-7, 918205883, 3434489, {{CROSBI, 565627, |archivedate=30 March 2013 | archiveurl= }} (ÖNB).
  • JOURNAL, Sotirović, V.B., 2014, BOSNIAN LANGUAGE AND ITS INAUGURATION: THE FATE OF THE FORMER SERBOCROAT OR CROATOSERB LANGUAGE, Sustainable Multilingualism, 3, 3, 47–61, harv, 10.7220/2335-2027.3.5,
  • {{CIA World Factbook|year=2006}}

External links

{{interwiki|code=bs}}{{Wikivoyage|Bosnian phrasebook|Bosnian|a phrasebook}}{{Commons category|Bosnian language}} ,
  • BOOK, Vilayet Printing House, Буквар: за основне школе у вилаjету босанском, Sarajevo, 1867,weblink
, {{Bosnia and Herzegovina topics2|state=collapsed}}{{Slavic languages}}{{Authority control}}

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