Macedonian language

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Macedonian language
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{{about|the South Slavic language|the extinct language|Ancient Macedonian language}}{{pp-protect|small=yes}}{{Use dmy dates|date=June 2019}}{{short description|Language spoken in North Macedonia}}

''maˈkɛdɔnski|}}North Macedonia, Albania, Bulgaria,HTTP://WWW.BRITANNICA.COM/EBCHECKED/TOPIC/354297/MACEDONIAN-LANGUAGE ENCYCLOPEDIA=BRITANNICA.COM PUBLISHER=ETHNOLOGUE.COM ACCESSDATE=2014-08-07, Greece, Romania, Serbia|region = BalkansMacedonians (ethnic group)>Macedonians|speakers = 1.4–2.5 million|date = 1986–2011Ethnologue {{ethnolink>mkd}}) and 2.5 million ({{Harvcoltxt1998}}) have been cited. The general academic consensus is that there are approximately 2 million speakers of the Macedonian language, accepting that "it is difficult to determine the total number of speakers of Macedonian due to the official policies of the neighbouring Balkan states and the fluid nature of emigration." {{Harvcoltxt1985|p=?}}.|familycolor = Indo-EuropeanBalto-Slavic languages>Balto-SlavicSlavic languages>SlavicSouth Slavic languages>South SlavicEastern South Slavic languages>Eastern South SlavicCyrillic script>Cyrillic (Macedonian alphabet)Macedonian BrailleDialects of Macedonian>Macedonian dialectsNorth Macedonia}}AlbaniaWEBSITE=COUNCIL OF EUROPEACCESSDATE=25 APRIL 2017ARCHIVE-DATE=8 DECEMBER 2015DF=DMY-ALL, {{ROU}}HTTP://CONVENTIONS.COE.INT/TREATY/COMMUN/LISTEDECLARATIONS.ASP?NT=148&CM=8&DF=23/01/05&CL=ENG&VL=1 >TITLE=EUROPEAN CHARTER FOR REGIONAL OR MINORITY LANGUAGES DATE= DATE=16 OCTOBER 2009ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20091016012251/HTTP://WWW.A1.COM.MK/VESTI/DEFAULT.ASPX?VESTID=114939ACCESSDATE=1 JUNE 2016, {{dead linkbot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}|agency = Macedonian Language Institute "Krste Misirkov" at the Ss. Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje|iso1 = mk|iso2b = mac|iso2t=mkd|iso3=mkd|glotto=mace1250|glottorefname=Macedonian|lingua = 53-AAA-ha (part of 53-AAA-h)|notice=IPA|map=Idioma macedonio.PNG#0080FFreason=Aromanian and Albanian speaking majorities are included in dark blue#88C4FFreason=Same area is listed as Bulgarian dialects according to wikipedia.|date=September 2015}} }}}}Macedonian ({{IPAc-en|ˌ|m|æ|s|ᵻ|ˈ|d|oʊ|n|i|ə|n}}; , {{small|translit.}} {{transl|mk|makedonski jazik}}, {{IPA-mk|maˈkɛdɔnski ˈjazik|pron|Mk-Makedonski jazik.ogg}}) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in North Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia. It is the official language of North Macedonia and a recognized minority language in parts of Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Romania, and Serbia.Standard Macedonian was implemented as the official language of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia in 1945WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2012-03-08, МИА – Македонска Информативна Агенција – НА ДЕНЕШЕН ДЕН,, 2010-08-15, and has since developed a modern literature. Most of the codification was formalized during the same period.BOOK, {{Google books, 60aFAS1crFEC, 213, yes, |title=Studies in contact linguistics|first= G.|last= Gilbert|first2= Glenn G.|last2= Gilbert|first3=Janet M.|last3= Fuller|first4=Linda L.|last4= Thornburg|first5=Peter |last5=Lang|isbn=978-0-8204-7934-7|page=213|date=2006 |accessdate=2014-08-07}}Friedman, V. (1998) "The implementation of standard Macedonian: problems and results" in International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Vol. 131, pp. 31–57Macedonian dialects form a continuum with Bulgarian dialects; they in turn form a broader continuum with Serbo-Croatian through the transitional Torlakian dialects.The uniqueness of the Macedonian language in comparison to Bulgarian is a matter of political controversy in Bulgaria.Mirjana N. Dedaić, Mirjana Misković-Luković. South Slavic discourse particles (John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2010), p. 13Victor Roudometof. Collective memory, national identity, and ethnic conflict: Greece, Bulgaria, and the Macedonian question (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002), p. 41Language profile Macedonian {{Webarchive|url= |date=2009-03-11 }}, UCLA International Institute

Classification and related languages

The modern Macedonian language belongs to the eastern group of the South Slavic branch of Slavic languages in the Indo-European language family, together with Bulgarian and the extinct Old Church Slavonic. Some authors classify to this group also the Torlakian dialects. Macedonian's closest relative is Bulgarian,{{Harvcoltxt|Levinson|O'Leary|1992|p=239}} with which it has a high degree of mutual intelligibility. The next closest relative is Serbo-Croatian.Language contact between Macedonian and Serbo-Croatian reached its height during Yugoslav times when most Macedonians learned Serbo-Croatian as a compulsory language of education and knew and used a mixture of Serbian and Macedonian Serbian, or "pseudo-Serbian."BOOK, {{Google books, yes, vi_VCm51kpkC, 515, |title=Languages and Linguistics of Europe: A Comprehensive Guide|last=Kortmann|first=Bernd|last2=van der Auwera|first2=Johan|date=2011-07-27|publisher=|page=420|accessdate=2014-08-07}} There are claims that Macedonian was intentionally Serbianized first during the process of its standardization.{{efn|See:The Implementation of Standard Macedonian: Problems and Results Victor A. Friedman University of Chicago Published in: International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Vol. 131, 1998. 31-57.Voss C., The Macedonian Standard Language: Tito—Yugoslav Experiment or Symbol of ‘Great Macedonian’ Ethnic Inclusion? in C. Mar-Molinero, P. Stevenson as ed. Language Ideologies, Policies and Practices: Language and the Future of Europe, Springer, 2016, {{ISBN|0230523889}}, p. 126.De Gruyter as contributor. The Slavic Languages. Volume 32 of Handbooks of Linguistics and Communication Science (HSK), Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, 2014, p. 1472. {{ISBN|3110215470}}.Sociétés politiques comparées, #25, mai 2010, Tchavdar Marinov, Historiographical Revisionism and Re-Articulation of Memory in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia p. 7.Lerner W. Goetingen, Formation of the standard language - Macedonian in the Slavic languages, Volume 32, Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, 2014, {{ISBN|3110393689}}, chapter 109.}}All South Slavic languages, including Macedonian, form a dialect continuum. Macedonian, along with Bulgarian and Torlakian, falls into the Balkan Slavic linguistic area, which is part of the broader Balkan sprachbund, a group of languages that share typological, grammatical and lexical features based on geographical convergence, rather than genetic proximity. Other principal languages in this continuum are Romanian, Greek and Albanian, all of which belong to different genetic branches of the Indo-European family (Romanian is a Romance language, whereas Greek and Albanian comprise separate branches).Macedonian and Bulgarian are sharply divergent from the remaining South Slavic languages, Serbo-Croatian and Slovene,BOOK, {{Google books, yes, _kn5c5dJmNUC, 431, |title=Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction Blackwell textbooks in linguistics|first=Benjamin W.|last=Fortson|publisher=John Wiley and Sons|isbn=1-4051-8896-0| page= 431 |date=2009-08-31 |accessdate=2014-08-07}} and indeed all other Slavic languages, in that they do not use noun cases (except for the vocative, and apart from some traces of once productive inflections still found scattered throughout the languages) and have lost the infinitive. They are also the only Slavic languages with any definite articles (unlike standard Bulgarian, which uses only one article, standard Macedonian as well as some south-eastern Bulgarian dialectsBOOK, Ernest A., Scatton, Comrie, Greville G., Corbett, Bernard, The Slavonic Languages, 245, Routledge, 1993, London, have a set of three based on an external frame of reference: unspecified, proximal and distal definite article). Bulgarian and Macedonian are the only Indo-European languages that make use of the narrative mood.BOOK, Campbell, George L., Compendium of the World's Languages, Routlege, 2000, 274, 1031, London, File:Trijazicnik.PNG|thumb|The "A Dictionary of Three languages" (1875) written by Georgi Pulevski. It was a conversational phrasebook composed in "question-and-answer" style in three parallel columns; in Macedonian, Albanian, and Turkish; all three spelled in CyrillicCyrillicPrior to the codification of the standard language (Standard Macedonian), Macedonian dialects were described by linguists as being dialects of BulgarianMazon, André. Contes slaves de la Macédoine sud-occidentale : Étude linguistique ; textes et traduction ; Notes de folklore, Paris 1923, p. 4.Селищев, Афанасий. Избранные труды, Москва 1968.K. Sandfeld, Balkanfilologien (København, 1926, MCMXXVI). or SerbianJames Minahan. One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups, p.438 (Greenwood Press, 2000)Bernard Comrie. The Slavonic Languages, p.251 (Routledge, 1993)., or forming an entirely distinct language. Similarly, Torlakian was also widely regarded as Bulgarian.BOOK, {{Google books, yes, F2SRqDzB50wC, 129, |title=Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world|first= Keith|last= Brown|first2=Sarah|last2= Ogilvie|isbn=0-08-087774-5| page=120 |publisher= Elsevier |date= 2008|accessdate=2014-08-07}} The boundaries between the South Slavic languages had yet to be "conceptualized in modern terms,"Joseph, Brian D. et al. When Languages Collide: Perspectives on Language Conflict, Competition and Coexistence; Ohio State University Press (2002), p.261 and codifiers of Serbian even found it necessary to argue that Bulgarian was not a Serbian dialect as late as 1822. Many Macedonian intellectuals maintained that their language "was neither a dialect of Serbian nor of Bulgarian, but a language in its own right".Max K. Adler. Marxist Linguistic Theory and Communist Practice: A Sociolinguistic Study; Buske Verlag (1980), p.215 Prior to the standardization of Macedonian, a number of linguists, among them Antoine Meillet,Antoine Meillet (French, linguist, 1928): Their dialects, differing among themselves, are not truly Serbian nor truly Bulgarian, especially if one is thinking of written Bulgarian, which is based on dialects quite far removed from the Macedonian dialects. In reality these dialects do not properly belong to either the one or the other of the two groups under dispute.1. Todor Dimitrovski, Blaže Koneski, Trajko Stamatoski. About the Macedonian language; "Krste Misirkov" Institute of the Macedonian Language, 1978; p.31.2. Kulturen Život. Macedonian Review, Volume 10; Kulturen Zhivot., 1980; p.105 André Vaillant,Vaillant, André (1938), "Le Problème du slave macédonien, Bulletin de la Société linguistique, 39, 2(# 116): 194–210, cited in Fishman, J. A. (ed) (1993), The Earliest Stage of Language Planning, New York, p. 164. Mieczysław Małecki,Małecki, M. (1938), Z zagadnień dialektologii macedońskiej, Rocznik slawistyczny, 14: 119–144, cited in Fishman, J. A. (ed) (1993), The Earliest Stage of Language Planning, New York, p. 164. and Samuil Bernstein,"Несмотря на значительное диаметральное разнообразие, македонские говоры представляют собою единство и заметно отличаются от народных говоров Фракии, Родоп, Мизии и Балкан" [Despite their considerable diametrical diversity, Macedonian dialects represent a [linguistic] whole and differ markedly from the folk dialects of Thrace, the Rhodopes, Moesia and the Balkans]. Berstein, S. (1938), Great Soviet Encyclopedia, no. 36, p. 743, cited in Bernstein (1944), Несколько замечаний о македонском литературном языке [Some remarks on the Macedonian literary language]. also considered Macedonian dialects as comprising an independent language distinct from both Bulgarian and Serbian. Some linguists, including Otto KronsteinerKronsteiner, Otto, Der Zerfall Jugoslawiens und die Zukunft der makedonischen Literatursprache: Der späte Fall von Glottotomie? Herausgeber Schriftenreihe Die slawischen Sprachen, Erscheinungsjahr 1992, p. 142-171 and Michael Clyne,Chris Kostov, Contested Ethnic Identity: The Case of Macedonian Immigrants in Toronto, 1900–1996, Peter Lang, 2010, {{ISBN|3-034-30196-0}}, p. 9 especially in Bulgaria, still consider Macedonian a variety or dialect of Bulgarian,BOOK, Baker, Colin, Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education, 415, {{Google books, yes, YgtSqB9oqDIC, 415, }} "Macedonian is similar to Bulgarian and is sometimes been {{sic}} regarded as a variety of that language. [...] Macedonian is spoken by about 200,000 people in Bulgaria, where it is viewed as a dialect of Bulgaria, and also in the province of Macedonia in northern Greece where the language is called Slavika. However, in the Republic of Macedonia, a separate Macedonian literary language has been in existence since 1944, and most scholars now accept Macedonian as a separate language. The Macedonian standard language is based on a difference group of dialects from the Bulgarian [...]."R.E.Asher, J.M.Y.Simpson (editors), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, (1994), vol.1, p.429: "From a strictly linguistic point of view Macedonian can be called a Bulgarian dialect, as structurally it is most similar to Bulgarian. Indeed, Bulgarian scholars reject Macedonian as an individual language, but since it now has the status of a literary language, most other scholars accept its independent existence."Linguasphere 53-AAA-h but this view is politically controversial.{{Google books |plainurl= |id=id=ppbuavUZKEwC |page=116 |title=Who are the Macedonians?, Hugh Poulton, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000, ISBN 1-85065-534-0, p. 116. }}BOOK, {{Google books, yes, EnEFNOcYIrUC, 281, |title=When languages collide: perspectives on language conflict, language competition, and language coexistence|first= Brian D.|last= Joseph|page=281|isbn=0-8142-0913-0 |publisher= Ohio State University Press |date=2003 |accessdate=2014-08-07}}According to Olga Mišeska–Tomić:{{bquote|Macedonian is structurally related to Bulgarian more than to any other South Slavic language. But the core of its standard was not formed out of dialects or variants that had ever been covered by the Bulgarian standard. Consequently, its autonomy could not have resulted from a conscious distancing of a variant of a pluricentric language. Like the other South Slavic standards, the Macedonian standard was based on dialects which had never before been covered by a standard.{{Citation| last = Mišeska–Tomić| first = Olga| chapter = Macedonian as an Ausbau language| editor-last = Clyne| editor-first = Michael G. | title = Pluricentric Languages: Differing Norms in Different Nations| publisher = Walter de Gruyter| publication-date = 1992| page = 449| isbn = 9783110128550}}|source=}}Modern questions of classification are largely shaped by political and social factors. Structurally, Macedonian, Bulgarian and southeastern forms of Serbo-Croatian (Torlakian) form a dialectical continuumBOOK, {{Google books, yes, vi_VCm51kpkC, 515, |title=The Languages and Linguistics of Europe: A Comprehensive Guide |publisher= |date=2011-07-27 |accessdate=2014-08-07}} that is a legacy of the linguistic developments during the height of the Preslav and Ohrid literary schools.Florin Curta. Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages; 500–1250. ; Cambridge. Pg 216Although it has been claimed that Standard Macedonian was codified on the base of those dialects (i.e. the Prilep-Bitola dialect) most unlike Bulgarian,BOOK, {{Google books, yes, CZUhoFE-OoQC, 120, |title=Sociolinguistic variation and change|first= Peter|last= Trudgill|publisher= Edinburgh University Press|date=2002|isbn=0-7486-1515-6| page=120|accessdate=2014-08-07}} this interpretation stems from the works of Krste Misirkov, who suggested that Standard Macedonian should abstract on those dialects "most distinct from the standards of the other Slavonic languages".Dedaić, Mirjana N. et al. South Slavic Discourse Particles; John Benjamins Publishing (2010) p. 13 Likewise, this view does not take into account the fact that a Macedonian koiné language was already in existence.Bernard Comrie. The Slavonic Languages; Taylor & Francis (2002), p. 251 The codifiers ultimately chose the same dialects, but did so because they were "most widespread and most likely to be adopted by speakers of other dialects."John Shea. Macedonia and Greece: The Struggle to Define a New Balkan Nation; McFarland (2008), p.208

Geographical distribution

File:Struga Poetry Evenings Festival Macedonia 1.jpg|thumb|Sign in North Macedonia advertising the Struga Poetry EveningsStruga Poetry Evenings{{Further|Geographical distribution of the Macedonian language}}The population of the Republic of Macedonia was 2,022,547 in 2002, with 1,644,815 speaking Macedonian as their native language.Popis na Naselenie, Domaćinstva i Stanovi vo Republika Makedonija, 2002 – Vkupno naselenie na Republika Makedonija spored majčin jazik. Outside the Republic, there are Macedonians living in other parts of the geographical area of Macedonia. There are ethnic Macedonian minorities in neighbouring Albania, in Bulgaria, in Greece, and in Serbia. According to the official Albanian census of 1989, 4,697 ethnic Macedonians reside in Albania.{{Harvcoltxt|Artan|Gurraj|2001|p=219}}A large number of Macedonians live outside the traditional Balkan Macedonian region, with Australia, Canada, and the United States having the largest emigrant communities. According to a 1964 estimate, approximately 580,000 Macedonians live outside the Macedonian Republic,{{Harvcoltxt|Topolinjska|1998|p=?}} nearly 30% of the total population. The Macedonian language has the status of official language only in the Republic of Macedonia, and is a recognized minority and official language in parts of Albania (Pustec),NEWS,weblink Minorités en Albanie : les Macédoniens craignent la réorganisation territoriale du pays, Naumovski, Jaklina, 25 January 2014, Balkan Courriers, 16 May 2014, “ON THE STATUS OF THE MINORITIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA”, Albanian Helsinki Committee with support of the Finnish Foundation ‘KIOS’ and “Finnish NGO Foundation for Human Rights”. Hosted at SEE developed by the Applied Research and Communications Fund in Sofia ( under a two-year project sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development USAID.Minority Rights in Albania {{webarchive|url= |date=2007-11-17 }}, page 3 - Albanian Helsinki Committee, September 1999 Romania, and Serbia (Jabuka and Plandište). There are provisions for learning the Macedonian language in Romania as Macedonians are an officially recognized minority group. Macedonian is taught in some universities in Australia, Canada, Croatia, Italy, Poland, Russia, Serbia, the United States, the United Kingdom, and other countries.


{{anchor|Slavic speakers of Greek Macedonia}}File:Abecedar 1925 frontpage.jpg|thumb|The front page of the Abecedar, school book published by the Greek government in 1925. The book was in the Lerin dialect and Latin scriptLatin scriptThe varieties spoken by the Slavophone minority in parts of northern Greece, especially those in the Greek provinces of Western and Central Macedonia, are today usually classified as part of the Macedonian language, with those in Eastern Macedonia being transitional towards Bulgarian.Schmieger, R. 1998. "The situation of the Macedonian language in Greece: sociolinguistic analysis", International Journal of the Sociology of Language 131, 125–55.; Friedman (2001). Bulgarian linguistics traditionally regards them all as part of the Bulgarian language together with the rest of Macedonian.{{Citation |author=Institute of Bulgarian Language |title=Единството на българския език в миналото и днес |publisher=Bulgarian Academy of Sciences |year=1978 |page=4 |language=Bulgarian |location=Sofia |oclc=6430481}}; {{Citation |title=Българска диалектология (Bulgarian dialectology)|last=Стойков (Stoykov)|first=Стойко |authorlink=Stoyko Stoykov |origyear=1962 |year=2002 |location=София |publisher=Акад. изд. "Проф. Марин Дринов" |language=Bulgarian |url= |isbn=954-430-846-6 |oclc=53429452}}Шклифов, Благой. Проблеми на българската диалектна и историческа фонетика с оглед на македонските говори, София 1995, с. 14.; Шклифов, Благой. Речник на костурския говор, Българска диалектология, София 1977, с. кн. VIII, с. 201–205, However, the codification of standard Macedonian has been in effect only in the Republic of Macedonia, and the Slavonic dialects spoken in Greece are thus practically "roofless",BOOK, Trudgill, P., 2000, Greece and European Turkey: From Religious to Linguistic Identity, Stephen, Barbour, Cathie, Carmichael, Language and Nationalism in Europe, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 259, 0-19-823671-9, with their speakers having little access to standard or written Macedonian.Most of the language speakers in Greece do not identify ethnically as "Macedonians", but as ethnic Greeks (Slavophone Greeks) or dopii (locals). Therefore, the simple term "Macedonian" as a name for the Slavic language is often avoided in the Greek context, and vehemently rejected by most Greeks, for whom Macedonian has very different connotations. Instead, the language is often called simply "Slavic" or "Slavomacedonian", with "Macedonian Slavic" often being used in English. Speakers themselves variously refer to their language as makedonski, makedoniski ("Macedonian"),Lois Whitman (1994): Denying ethnic identity: The Macedonians of Greece Helsinki Human Rights Watch. p.39 {{Google books |plainurl= |id=JxCnAHCCuxYC |title= }} slaviká (, "Slavic"), dópia or entópia (, "local/indigenous [language]"),WEB,weblink Greek Helsinki Monitor – Report about Compliance with the Principles of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, 2009-01-12, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink 2003-05-23, balgàrtzki in some parts of the region of Kastoria, bògartski ("Bulgarian") in some parts of Dolna PrespaШклифов, Благой and Екатерина Шклифова, Български диалектни текстове от Егейска Македония, София 2003, с. 28–36, 172 – Shkifov, Blagoy and Ekaterina Shklifova. Bulgarian dialect texts from Aegean Macedonia, Sofia 2003, p. 28-36, 172 along with naši ("our own") and stariski ("old").Lois Whitman (1994): Denying ethnic identity: The Macedonians of Greece Helsinki Human Rights Watch. p.37 {{Google books |plainurl= |id=JxCnAHCCuxYC |title= }} In Kastoria, however, the name "Macedonian" is used as well by the local people.BOOK, {{Google books, yes, ZmesOn_HhfEC, 33, |title=The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World|first= Loring M.|last= Danforth| page=62 |publisher= |date= |accessdate=2014-08-07}}The exact number of speakers in Greece is difficult to ascertain, with estimates ranging between 20,000 and 250,000.{{Citation|title=Janua Linguarum — The Gateway to Language|year=2004|publisher=Council of Europe|isbn=92-871-5312-4|author=Michel Candelier, ed. ; Ana-Isabel Andrade ...}}, See Page 90,WEB
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, 2008-09-08
, bot: unknown
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, 2010-06-25
, {{Citation|title = Macedonia and Greece: The Struggle to Define a New Balkan Nation|first = Hugh|last = Poulton|isbn = 0-7864-0228-8|publisher = McFarland|year = 1997|page = 193}} Jacques Bacid estimates in his 1983 book that "over 200,000 Macedonian speakers remained in Greece".Jacques Bacid, Ph.D. Macedonia Through the Ages. Columbia University, 1983. Other sources put the numbers of speakers at 180,000WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 2009-10-27, GeoNative – Macedonia,, 2014-08-07, {{Unreliable source?|date=May 2009}}BOOK, L. M., Danforth, The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World, 1995, Princeton University Press, 220,000JOURNAL, Hill, P., Macedonians in Greece and Albania: A Comparative study of recent developments, Nationalities Papers, 27, 1, 17–30, 1999, 10.1080/009059999109163, and 250,000, whereas Yugoslav sources vary, some putting the estimated number of "Macedonians in Greek Macedonia" at 150,000–200,000 and others at 300,000.BOOK, Poulton, H., 2000, Who are the Macedonians?, C. Hurst & Co., 167, As often occurs with Yugoslav sources, there appears to be confusion about the number of Macedonians in Greek Macedonia at present: some Yugoslav sources put the latter figure at 300,000, whereas more sober estimates put the number at 150,000–200,000, The Encyclopædia BritannicaWEB,weblink Greece,, and the Reader's Digest World Guide both put the figure of ethnic Macedonians in Greece at 1.8% or c.200,000 people, with the native language roughly corresponding with the figures.{{citation needed|reason=Complete citation needed for Reader's Digest World Guide|date=July 2016}} The UCLA also states that there are 200,000 Macedonian speakers in Greece.WEB,weblink Profile of, UCLA Language Materials, Project, 31 December 1600, 2006-12-13,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-02-09, dead, WEB,weblink UCLA Language Materials Project: Language Profile,, 2014-06-23, 2014-08-07,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-06-05, dead, A 2008 article in the Greek newspaper Eleftherotypia put the estimate at 20,000.Eleftherotypia article {{webarchive|url= |date=2012-01-14 }}The largest group of speakers are concentrated in the Florina, Kastoria, Edessa, Giannitsa, Ptolemaida and Naousa regions. During the Greek Civil War, the codified Macedonian language was taught in 87 schools with 10,000 students in areas of northern Greece under the control of Communist-led forces, until their defeat by the National Army in 1949.{{Citation|title= Macedonia Its Disputed History|last= Simpson|first= Neil|authorlink=|year= 1994|publisher= Aristoc Press|location= Victoria|isbn= 0-646-20462-9UNITED NATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS COUNCIL URL=HTTP://CM.GREEKHELSINKI.GR/UPLOADS/2009_FILES/SPECIAL_RAPPORTEUR_ON_MINORITIES_VISIT_TO_GREECE_2008.PDF URL-STATUS=DEAD WEBSITE=GREEK HELSINKI MONITOR, 2009-02-18,

Relationship to Bulgarian

{{See also|Bulgarian language|Bulgarian dialects}}The historical and linguistic relationships between the Macedonian and Bulgarian languages are special and complicated. Macedonian researchers claim Macedonian is spoken in southwestern Bulgaria, whereas Bulgarian and Greek linguists argue Macedonian is a variety of Bulgarian.The rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire began to degrade its specific social system, and especially the so-called Rum millet, through constant identification of the religious creed with ethnicity.BOOK, {{Google books, yes, htMUx8qlWCMC, 47, |title=Europe and the Historical Legacies in the Balkans|first= Raymond|last= Detrez|first2=Barbara|last2= Segaert|first3=Peter |last3=Lang|isbn=90-5201-374-8|pages=36–38 |publisher= |date=2008 |accessdate=2014-08-07}} The national awakening of each ethnic group was complex and most of the groups interacted with each other.During the Bulgarian national revival, which occurred in the first half of the 19th century, the Bulgarian and Macedonian Slavs under the supremacy of the Greek Orthodox clergy wanted to create their own Church and schools which would use a common modern "Macedono-Bulgarian" literary standard, called simply Bulgarian.BOOK, {{Google books, yes, 1jSg3lxgSy8C, 134, |title=Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia Historical Dictionaries of Europe|first= Dimitar|last= Bechev|publisher= Scarecrow Press|isbn=0-8108-6295-6|page=134|date=2009-04-13 |accessdate=2014-08-07}} The national elites active in this movement used mainly ethnolinguistic principles to differentiation between "Slavic-Bulgarian" and "Greek" groups.From Rum Millet to Greek and Bulgarian Nations: Religious and National Debates in the Borderlands of the Ottoman Empire, 1870–1913. Theodora Dragostinova, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. At that time, every ethnographic subgroup in the Macedonian-Bulgarian linguistic area wrote in their own local dialect and choosing a "base dialect" for the new standard was not an issue. Subsequently, during the 1850s and 1860s a long discussion was held in the Bulgarian periodicals about the need for a dialectal group (eastern, western or compromise) upon which to base the new standard and which dialect that should be.WEB,weblink Венедиктов Г. К. Болгарский литературный язык эпохи Возрождения. Проблемы нормализации и выбора диалектной основы. Отв. ред. Л. Н. Смирнов. М.: "Наука", 163–170. (Rus.), PDF, 1990, 2014-08-07, During the 1870s this issue became contentious, and sparked fierce debates.Ц. Билярски, Из българския възрожденски печат от 70-те години на XIX в. за македонския въпрос, сп. "Македонски преглед", г. XXIII, София, 2009, кн. 4, с. 103–120.In 1878, a distinct Bulgarian state was established. The new state did not include the region of Macedonia which remained outside its borders in the frame of the Ottoman Empire. As a consequence, the idea of a common compromise standard was rejected by the Bulgarian codifiers during the 1880s and the eastern Bulgarian dialects were chosen as a basis for standard Bulgarian.BOOK, {{Google books, yes, wawGFWNuHiwC, 440, |title=Pluricentric languages: differing norms in different nations|editor-first= Michael G. |editor-last=Clyne|publisher=Walter de Gruyter & Co.|isbn=3110128551| page=440 |date= 1992|accessdate=2014-08-07}} Macedono-Bulgarian writers and organizations who continued to seek greater representation of Macedonian dialects in the Bulgarian standard were deemed separatists.{{efn|See:"Macedonian Language and Nationalism During the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries", Victor Friedman, p. 286{{Google books |plainurl= |id=I9p_m7oXQ00C |page=145 |title=Nationalism, Globalization, and Orthodoxy: The Social Origins of Ethnic Conflict in the Balkans}}, Victor Roudometof, Roland Robertson, p. 145"Though Loza adhered to the Bulgarian position on the issue of the Macedonian Slavs' ethnicity, it also favored revising the Bulgarian orthography by bringing it closer to the dialects spoken in Macedonia." Historical Dictionary of the Republic of Macedonia, Dimitar Bechev, Scarecrow Press, 2009, {{ISBN|0-8108-6295-6}}, p. 241.The Young Macedonian Literary Association's Journal, Loza, was also categorical about the Bulgarian character of Macedonia: "A mere comparison of those ethnographic features which characterize the Macedonians (we understand: Macedonian Bulgarians), with those which characterize the free Bulgarians, their juxtaposition with those principles for nationality which we have formulated above, is enough to prove and to convince everybody that the nationality of the Macedonians cannot be anything except Bulgarian." Freedom or Death, The Life of Gotsé Delchev, Mercia MacDermott, The Journeyman Press, London & West Nyack, 1978, p. 86."Macedonian historiography often refers to the group of young activists who founded in Sofia an association called the ‘Young Macedonian Literary Society’. In 1892, the latter began publishing the review Loza [The Vine], which promoted certain characteristics of Macedonian dialects. At the same time, the activists, called ‘Lozars’ after the name of their review, ‘purified’ the Bulgarian orthography from some rudiments of the Church Slavonic. They expressed likewise a kind of Macedonian patriotism attested already by the first issue of the review: its materials greatly emphasized identification with Macedonia as a genuine ‘fatherland’. In any case, it is hardly surprising that the Lozars demonstrated both Bulgarian and Macedonian loyalty: what is more interesting is namely the fact that their Bulgarian nationalism was somehow harmonized with a Macedonian self-identification that was not only a political one but also demonstrated certain ‘cultural’ contents. "We, the People: Politics of National Peculiarity in Southeastern Europe", Diana Miškova, Central European University Press, 2009, {{ISBN|963-97762-8-9}}, p. 120.}} One example is the Young Macedonian Literary Association, which the Bulgarian government outlawed in 1892. Though standard Bulgarian was taught in the local schools in Macedonia till 1913,BOOK, {{Google books, yes, KfqbujXqQBkC, |title=The National Question in Yugoslavia: Origins, History, Politics|first=Ivo|last=Banač |isbn=0-8014-9493-1| page= 317 |publisher=Cornell University Press|date=1988 |accessdate=2014-08-07}} the fact of political separation became crucial for the development of a separate Macedonian language.BOOK, {{Google books, yes, itlREOzLnM0C, 14, |title=Papers from the Sixth International Conference on Historical Linguistics, v. 34|issn=0304-0763|first= Jacek|last= Fisiak|isbn=90-272-3528-7| pages= 13–14 |publisher=John Benjamins Publishing|date= 1985 |accessdate=2014-08-07}}With the advent of Macedonian nationalism, the idea of linguistic separatism emerged in the late 19th century,BOOK, {{Google books, yes, T-gHxC8J4PwC, 161, |title=The Earliest Stage of Language Planning: The "First Congress" Phenomenon|first= Joshua A. |last=Fishman|first2= Walter |last2=de Gruyter|isbn=3-11-013530-2| pages=161–162 |publisher= |date= 1993 |accessdate=2014-08-07}} and the need for a separate Macedonian standard language subsequently appeared in the early 20th century.BOOK, {{Google books, yes, ZmesOn_HhfEC, 67, |title=The Macedonian conflict: ethnic nationalism in a transnational world|first= Loring M.|last= Danforth |isbn=0-691-04356-6| page=67 |publisher=Princeton University Press|date=1995 |accessdate=2014-08-07}} In the Interwar period, the territory of today's Republic of Macedonia became part of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Bulgarian was banned for use and the local vernacular fell under heavy influence from the official Serbo-Croatian language.BOOK, {{Google books, yes, ycNApODqgRUC, 143, |title=Conflict and Chaos in Eastern Europe|first= Dennis P. |last=Hupchick|isbn= 0-312-12116-4|page= 143 |publisher= Palgrave Macmillan|date=1995-03-15 |accessdate=2014-08-07}} However, the political and paramilitary organizations of the Macedonian Slavs in Europe and the Americas, the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) and the Macedonian Patriotic Organization (MPO), and even their left-wing offsets, the IMRO (United) and the Macedonian-American People's League continued to use literary Bulgarian in their writings and propaganda in the interbellum. During the World wars Bulgaria's short annexations over Macedonia saw two attempts to bring the Macedonian dialects back towards Bulgarian. This political situation stimulated the necessity of a separate Macedonian language and led gradually to its codification after the Second World War. It followed the establishment of SR Macedonia, as part of Communist Yugoslavia and finalized theprogressive split in the common Macedonian–Bulgarian language.BOOK, {{Google books, yes, MlXQ5zKb_VQC, 23, |title=Language, discourse and borders in the Yugoslav successor states – Current issues in language and society monographs, Birgitta Busch, Helen Kelly-Holmes, Multilingual Matters, 2004, ISBN 1-85359-732-5, pp. 24–25. |publisher= |date= |accessdate=2014-08-07}}During the first half of the 20th century the national identity of the Macedonian Slavs shifted from predominantly Bulgarian to ethnic Macedonian and their regional identity had become their national one."Up until the early 20th century and beyond, the international community viewed Macedonians as a regional variety of Bulgarians, i.e. Western Bulgarians." {{Google books |plainurl= |id=-7TgkO8utHIC |title=Nationalism and Territory: Constructing Group Identity in Southeastern Europe, Geographical perspectives on the human past : Europe: Current Events, George W. White, Rowman & Littlefield, 2000 }}, {{ISBN|0-8476-9809-2}}."At the end of the WWI there were very few historians or ethnographers, who claimed that a separate Macedonian nation existed... Of those Slavs who had developed some sense of national identity, the majority probably considered themselves Bulgarians, although they were aware of differences between themselves and the inhabitants of Bulgaria... The question as of whether a Macedonian nation actually existed in the 1940s when a Communist Yugoslavia decided to recognize one is difficult to answer. Some observers argue that even at this time it was doubtful whether the Slavs from Macedonia considered themselves a nationality separate from the Bulgarians." {{Google books |plainurl= |id=ZmesOn_HhfEC |page=66 |title=The Macedonian conflict: ethnic nationalism in a transnational world, Loring M. Danforth, Princeton University Press, 1997 }}, {{ISBN|0-691-04356-6}}"During the 20th century, Slavo-Macedonian national feeling has shifted. At the beginning of the 20th century, Slavic patriots in Macedonia felt a strong attachment to Macedonia as a multi-ethnic homeland. They imagined a Macedonian community uniting themselves with non-Slavic Macedonians... Most of these Macedonian Slavs also saw themselves as Bulgarians. By the middle of the 20th. century, however Macedonian patriots began to see Macedonian and Bulgarian loyalties as mutually exclusive. Regional Macedonian nationalism had become ethnic Macedonian nationalism... This transformation shows that the content of collective loyalties can shift." {{Google books |plainurl= |id=6RveDmHbIv8C |page=147 |title=Region, Regional Identity and Regionalism in Southeastern Europe, Ethnologia Balkanica Series, Klaus Roth, Ulf Brunnbauer, LIT Verlag Münster, 2010 }}, {{ISBN|3-8258-1387-8}}. Although, there was no clear separating line between these two languages on level of dialect then, the Macedonian standard was based on its westernmost dialects. Afterwards, Macedonian became the official language in the new republic, Serbo-Croatian was adopted as a second official language, and Bulgarian was proscribed. Moreover, in 1946–1948 the newly standardized Macedonian language was introduced as a second language even in Southwestern Bulgaria.{{Google books |plainurl= |id=dVRFMPV02UMC |page=260 |title=Performing Democracy: Bulgarian Music and Musicians in Transition, Donna A. Buchanan, University of Chicago Press, 2006}}, {{ISBN|0-226-07827-2}}. Subsequently, the sharp and continuous deterioration of the political relationships between the two countries, the influence of both standard languages during the time, but also the strong Serbo-Croatian linguistic influence in Yugoslav era, led to a horizontal cross-border dialectal divergence.BOOK, {{Google books, yes, vi_VCm51kpkC, 515, |title=The Languages and Linguistics of Europe: A Comprehensive Guide|first= Bernd|last= Kortmann|first2=Johan |last2=van der Auwera|first3= Walter |last3=de Gruyter| ISBN= 3-11-022026-1| page=515 |publisher= |date=2011-07-27 |accessdate=2014-08-07}} Although some researchers have described the standard Macedonian and Bulgarian languages as varieties of a pluricentric language,BOOK, {{Google books, yes, iiab62MpOkcC, 1541, |title=Sociolinguistics: an international handbook of the science of language and society|first= Ulrich|last= Ammon|first2=Walter|last2= de Gruyter| ISBN= 3-11-017148-1| page=154 |publisher= |date= 2005|accessdate=2014-08-07}} they in fact have separate dialectal bases; the Prilep-Bitola dialect and Central Balkan dialect, respectively. The prevailing academic consensus (outside of Bulgaria and Greece) is that Macedonian and Bulgarian are two autonomous languages within the eastern subbranch of the South Slavic languages.Trudgill, Peter (1992), "Ausbau sociolinguistics and the perception of language status in contemporary Europe", International Journal of Applied Linguistics 2 (2): 167–177 Macedonian is thus an ausbau language; i.e. it is delimited from Bulgarian as these two standard languages have separate dialectal bases.BOOK, {{Google books, yes, G2bsJdYrwD4C, 71, |title=The Slavic Languages, Roland Sussex, Paul Cubberley, Cambridge University Press, 2006, ISBN 1-139-45728-4, p. 71 |publisher= |date=2006-09-21 |accessdate=2014-08-07}}BOOK, {{Google books, yes, h6BjBjMNaiYC, 66, |title=The Changing Scene in World Languages: Issues and Challenges, Marian B. Labrum, John Benjamins Publishing, 1997, ISBN 90-272-3184-2, p. 66 |publisher= |date= |accessdate=2014-08-07}}Fishman, Joshua. "Languages late to literacy: finding a place in the sun on a crowded beach". In: Joseph, Brian D. et al. (ed.), When Languages Collide: Perspectives on Language Conflict, Competition and Coexistence; Ohio State University Press (2002), pp. 107–108.


The total number of Macedonian speakers is highly disputed. Although the precise number of speakers is unknown, figures of between 1.6 million (from Ethnologue) and 2–2.5 million have been cited; see {{Harvcoltxt|Topolinjska|1998}} and {{Harvcoltxt|Friedman|1985}}. The general academic consensus{{Citation needed|date=December 2010}} is that there are approximately 2 million speakers of the Macedonian language, accepting that "it is difficult to determine the total number of speakers of Macedonian due to the official policies of the neighbouring Balkan states and the fluid nature of emigration" {{Harvcoltxt|Friedman|1985|p=?}}. According to the censuses and figures, the number of speakers of Macedonian is:{|class="wikitable"! rowspan=2|State! colspan=3|Number! Census data! Lower range! Higher range!North MacedoniaFORMAT=PDF ACCESSDATE=2014-08-07, | 1,344,815FORMAT=PDF ACCESSDATE=2014-08-07, !AlbaniaACCESSDATE=2015-01-20ARCHIVE-DATE=2016-03-09, dead, |4,443PUBLISHER=CULTURALPOLICIES.NET ACCESSDATE=2015-01-20, !BulgariaPUBLISHER=CENSUSRESULTS.NSI.BG ACCESSDATE=2014-08-07 ARCHIVE-DATE=16 JULY 2012, dead, |1,404WEB
, Bulgarian 2011 census
, 2011-12-05
, dead
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 2011-12-08


{| class="infobox" style="width:400px;"(File:Macedonian Slavic dialects.png|400px)Dialect divisions of MacedonianAfter Z. Topolińska and B. Vidoeski (1984), Polski-macedonski gramatyka konfrontatiwna, z.1, PAN.|
{{legend|#71889F|Lower Polog}}{{legend|#A6A8AA|Crna Gora}}{{legend|#DADDDF|Kumanovo / Kratovo}}
{{legend|#FAf5E0|Central}}{{legend|#EAB9AC|Upper Polog}}{{legend|#C58474|Reka}}{{legend|#F8AD98|Mala Reka / Galičnik}}{{legend|#E89580|Debar}}{{legend|#E0785E|Drimkol / Golo Brdo}}{{legend|#F8F594|Vevčani / Radožda}}{{legend|#F5AA77|Upper Prespa / Ohrid}}{{legend|#C7814E|Lower Prespa}}|
{{legend|#AAC84F|Mariovo / Tikveš}}{{legend|#B7E62B|Štip / Strumica}}{{legend|#D9F486|Maleševo / Pirin}}
{{legend|#AE9E62|Korča}}{{legend|#DBC985|Kostur}}{{legend|#EDED90|Nestram}}{{legend|#F8DA63|Solun / Voden}}{{legend|#D8CB64|Ser / Drama}}Based on a large group of features, Macedonian dialects can be divided into Eastern and Western groups (the boundary runs approximately from Skopje and Skopska Crna Gora along the rivers Vardar and Crna). In addition, a more detailed classification can be based on the modern reflexes of the Proto-Slavic reduced vowels (yers), vocalic sonorants, and the back nasal *ǫ. That classification distinguishes between the following 5 groups:{{Harvcoltxt|Comrie|Corbett|2002|p=247}}Western Dialects: Eastern Dialects: The Ser-Drama-Lagadin-Nevrokop dialect and Maleševo-Pirin dialect are also considered Bulgarian dialects.


This discusses the phonological system of Standard Macedonian (unless otherwise noted) based on the Prilep-Bitola dialect. For discussion of other dialects, see Macedonian dialects. Macedonian possesses five vowels, one semivowel, three liquid consonants, three nasal stops, three pairs of fricatives, two pairs of affricates, a non-paired voiceless fricative, nine pairs of voiced and unvoiced consonants and four pairs of stops. Out of all the Slavic languages, Macedonian has the most frequent occurrence of vowels relative to consonants with a typical Macedonian sentence having on average 1.18 consonants for every one vowel.Istoričeskaja tipologija slavjanskih jazykov (Kiev, 1986)Friedman|2001|p10}}{{Harvcoltxt|Lunt|1952|pp10–11}}">

Vowels{| class"wikitable" style"text-align: center"Friedman|2001|p10}}{{Harvcoltxt|Lunt|1952|pp10–11}}

!! Front! Central! Back! Closei}}|u}}! Mide̞|ɛ}}ə}})o̞|ɔ}}! Open|ä|a}}|SchwaThe schwa is phonemic in many dialects (varying in closeness to {{IPAblink|ʌ}} or {{IPAblink|ɨ}}) but its use in the standard language is marginal. When writing a dialectal word and keeping the schwa for aesthetic effect, an apostrophe is used; for example, {{angbr|к’смет}}, {{angbr|с’нце}}, etc. When spelling aloud, each consonant is followed by the schwa. The individual letters of acronyms are pronounced with the schwa in the same way: {{angbr|МПЦ}} ({{IPA|[mə.pə.t͡sə]}}). The lexicalized acronyms {{angbr|СССР}} ({{IPA|[ɛs.ɛs.ɛs.ɛr]}}) and {{angbr|МТ}} ({{IPA|[ɛm.tɛ]}}) (a brand of cigarettes), are among the few exceptions.Vowel lengthVowel length is not phonemic. Vowels in stressed open syllables in disyllablic words with stress on the penult can be realized as long, e.g. {{angbr|Велес}} {{IPA-mk|ˈvɛːlɛs||Mk-Veles.ogg}} 'Veles'. The sequence {{IPA|/aa/}} is often realized phonetically as {{IPA|[aː]}}; e.g. {{angbr|саат}} {{IPA|/saat/}} {{IPA|[saːt]}} 'colloq. hour'.


(File:LinguisticdivideinMacedonian1.png|thumb|upright=1.04|right|Map of the use of the intervocalic phoneme kj in the Macedonian language (1962))(File:LinguisticdivideinMacedonian2.png|thumb|right|upright=1.04|Map of the use of the intervocalic phoneme gj in the Macedonian language (1962)){| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"Friedman|2001|p=11}}{{Harvcoltxt|Lunt|1952|pp=11–12}}! colspan="2" |! Labial! Dental! Alveolar! Palatal! Velar! colspan="2" | Nasalm}}n̪}}{{ref1}}|ɲ}}|! rowspan="2" | Plosive! {{small|voiceless}}p}}t̪}}|c}}k}}! {{small|voiced}}b}}d̪}}|ɟ}}ɡ}}! rowspan="2" | Affricate! {{small|voiceless}}|t̪͡s̪}}|t͡ʃ}}|! {{small|voiced}}|d̪͡z̪}}|d͡ʒ}}|! rowspan="2" | Fricative! {{small|voiceless}}f}}s̪}}|ʃ}}| x! {{small|voiced}}v}}z̪}}|ʒ}}|! colspan="2" | Approximant|ɫ̪}}{{ref1}}lʲ}}j}}|! colspan="2" | Trill||r}}{{ref1}}||{{note|1|1}} The alveolar trill ({{IPA|/r/}}) is syllabic between two consonants; for example, {{angbr|прст}} {{IPA|[ˈpr̩st]}} 'finger'. The dental nasal ({{IPA|/n/}}) and dental lateral ({{IPA|/ɫ/}}) are also syllabic in certain foreign words; e.g. {{angbr|њутн}} {{IPA|[ˈɲutn̩]}} 'newton', {{angbr|Попокатепетл}} {{IPA|[pɔpɔkaˈtɛpɛtɫ̩]}} 'Popocatépetl', etc.The labiodental nasal {{IPA|[ɱ]}} occurs as an allophone of {{IPA|/m/}} before {{IPA|/f/}} and {{IPA|/v/}} (e.g. {{angbr|трамвај}} {{IPA|[ˈtraɱvaj]}} 'tram'). The velar nasal {{IPA|[ŋ]}} similarly occur as an allophone of {{IPA|/n/}} before {{IPA|/k/}} and {{IPA|/ɡ/}} (e.g. {{angbr|англиски}} {{IPA|[ˈaŋɡliski]}} 'English'). The latter realization is avoided by some speakers who strive for a clear, formal pronunciation.

Phonological processes

At morpheme boundaries (represented in spelling) and at the end of a word (not represented in spelling), voicing opposition is neutralized.


The word stress in Macedonian is , meaning it falls on the third from last syllable in words with three or more syllables, and on the first or only syllable in other words. This is sometimes disregarded when the word has entered the language more recently or from a foreign source. The following rules apply:
  • Disyllabic words are stressed on the second-to-last syllable.
For example, {{angbr|дете}} {{IPA|[ˈdɛtɛ]}} 'child', {{angbr|мајка}} {{IPA|[ˈmajka]}} 'mother' and {{angbr|татко}} {{IPA|[ˈtatkɔ]}} 'father'. For example, {{angbr|планина}} {{IPA|[ˈpɫanina]}} 'mountain', {{angbr|планината}} {{IPA|[pɫaˈninata]}} 'the mountain' and {{angbr|планинарите}} {{IPA|[pɫaniˈnaritɛ]}} 'the mountaineers'.Exceptions include:
  • Verbal adverbs (i.e. words suffixed with {{angbr|-ќи}}): e.g. {{angbr|викајќи}} {{IPA|[viˈkajci]}} 'shouting', {{angbr|одејќи}} {{IPA|[ɔˈdÉ›jci]}} 'walking'.
  • Foreign loanwords: e.g. {{angbr|клише}} {{IPA|[kliˈʃɛ]}} 'cliché', {{angbr|генеза}} {{IPA|[ɡɛˈnÉ›za]}} 'genesis', {{angbr|литература}} {{IPA|[litÉ›raˈtura]}} 'literature', {{angbr|Александар}} {{IPA|[alÉ›kˈsandar]}}, 'Alexander' (Possibly based on hellenised variations of indigenous Bryges and/or Enchele naming conventions), etc.


Macedonian grammar is markedly analytic in comparison with other Slavic languages, having lost the common Slavic case system. The Macedonian language shows some special and, in some cases, unique characteristics due to its central position in the Balkans. Literary Macedonian is the only South Slavic literary language that has three forms of the definite article, based on the degree of proximity to the speaker, and a perfect tense formed by means of an auxiliary verb "to have", followed by a past participle in the neuter, also known as the verbal adjective.


Macedonian nouns (именки, imenki) belong to one of three genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter) and are inflected for number (singular and plural), and marginally for case. The gender opposition is not distinctively marked in the plural.WEB,weblink Friedman, Victor, 2001, Macedonian, 40, Slavic and Eurasian Language Resource Center (SEELRC), Duke University, 2016-04-15, live,weblink" title="">weblink 28 July 2014, The Macedonian nominal system distinguishes two numbers (singular and plural), three genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter), case and definiteness. Definiteness is expressed by three definite articles pertaining to the position of the object (unspecified, proximate, and distal), which are suffixed to the noun.{|class="wikitable" |+The definite articles!rowspan="2" |!colspan="3" | Singular!colspan="3" | Plural!Masculine!Feminine!Neuter!Masculine!Feminine!Neuter!Unspecified| −ot (−от)| −ta (−та)| −to (−то) −te (−те)| −ta (−та)!Proximate| −ov (−ов)| −va (−ва)| −vo (−во) −ve (−ве)| −va (−ва)!Distal| −on (−он)| −na (−на)| −no (−но) −ne (−не)| −na (−на)


Macedonian has a complex system of verbs. Generally speaking Macedonian verbs have the following characteristics, or categories as they are called in Macedonistics: tense, mood, person, type, transitiveness, voice, gender and number.According to the categorization, all Macedonian verbs are divided into three major groups: a-group, e-group and i-group. Furthermore, the i-subgroup is divided into three more subgroups: a-, e- and i-subgroups. This division is done according to the ending (or the last vowel) of the verb in the simple present, singular, third person.BOOK, Бојковска, Стојка, Лилјана Минова, Ѓуркова, Димитар Пандев, Живко Цветковски, Општа граматика на македонскиот јазик, Саветка Димитрова, АД Просветно Дело, Скопје, December 2008, 9789989006623, General Grammar of the Macedonian language, {{Full citation needed|date=May 2014}} Regarding the form, the verb forms can be either simple or complex.{{col-begin}}{{col-2}}The Macedonian simple verb forms are:
  • Present tense (сегашно време)
  • Imperfect (минато определено несвршено време, 'past definite incomplete tense')
  • Aorist (минато определено свршено време, 'past definite complete tense')
  • Imperative (заповеден начин)
  • Verbal l-form (глаголска л-форма)
  • Verbal adjective (глаголска придавка)
  • Verbal noun (глаголска именка)
  • Verbal adverb (глаголски прилог)
{{col-2}}The Macedonian complex verb forms are:
  • Perfect of imperfective verbs (минато неопределено несвршено време, 'past indefinite incomplete tense')
  • Perfect of perfective verbs ( минато неопределено свршено време, 'past indefinite complete tense')
  • Past perfect tense (предминато време)
  • Future tense (идно време)
  • Future-in-the-past (минато-идно време)
  • Future perfect tense (идно прекажано)
  • Potential mood (можен начин)
  • Have-construction (има-конструкција)
  • Be-construction (сум-конструкција)
  • To-construction (да-конструкција)


Prepositions (предлози, predlozi) are part of the closed word class that are used to express the relationship between the words in a sentence. Because Macedonian lost its case system, the prepositions are very important for creation and expression of various grammatical categories. The most important Macedonian preposition is 'na' ('of', 'on', 'to'). Regarding the form, the prepositions can either be simple or complex. Based on the meaning the preposition express, they can be divided into prepositions of time, place, manner and quantity.Кепески, К. (1946), Македонска граматика, Скопје, Државно книгоиздавателство на Македонија.


(File:Police car of Macedonia 04.JPG|thumb|Macedonian police car, with the Macedonian word for "police".)As a result of the close relationship with Bulgarian and Serbo-Croatian, Macedonian shares a considerable amount of its lexicon with these languages. Other languages that have been in positions of power, such as Ottoman Turkish and, increasingly, English have also provided a significant proportion of the loanwords. Prestige languages, such as Old Church Slavonic—which occupies a relationship to modern Macedonian comparable to the relationship of medieval Latin to modern Romance languages—and Russian also provided a source for lexical items.During the standardization process, there was deliberate care taken to try to purify the lexicon of the language. Serbianisms and Bulgarianisms, which had become common due to the influence of these languages in the region were rejected in favor of words from native dialects and archaisms. One example was the word for "event", настан {{IPA|[ˈnastan]}}, which was found in certain examples of folk poetry collected by the Miladinov Brothers in the 19th century, whereas the Macedonian writer Krste Misirkov had previously used the word собитие {{IPA|[sɔˈbitiÉ›]}}, a Russian loanword (событие).In his most famous work "On the Macedonian Matters" (available online {{webarchive|url= |date=2014-12-20 }}), Misirkov uses the word собитие (a Russian loan taken from Bulgarian) where настан is used today. This is not to say that there are no Serbianisms, Bulgarianisms or even Russianisms in the language, but rather that they were discouraged on a principle of "seeking native material first".{{Harvcoltxt|Friedman|1998|p=?}}The language of the writers at the turn of the 19th century abounded with Russian and, more specifically, Old Church Slavonic lexical and morphological elements that in the contemporary norm are substituted with native words or calqued using productive morphemes.Т. Димитровски. Литературната лексика на македонскиот писмен јазик во XIX в. и нашиот однос кон неа: Реферати на македонските слависти за VI Меѓународен славистички конгрес во Прага, Скопје, 1968 (T. Dimitrovski. The literary vocabulary of the Macedonian written language in the 19th century and our attitude to it. Abstracts of Macedonian Slavists for the 6th International Slavic Studies Congress in Prague. Skopje, 1968) Thus, the now slightly archaicized forms with suffixes â€“ние and â€“тел, adjectives with the suffixes â€“телен and others, are now constructed following patterns more typical of Macedonian morphology. For example, дејствие (Russ. действие) corresponds to дејство 'action', лицемерие (Russ. лицемерие) → лицемерство 'hypocrisy', развитие (Russ. развитие) → развиток 'development', определение (Russ. определение) → определба 'determination, orientation', движение (Russ. движение) → движење 'movement', продолжител (Russ. продолжитель) → продолжувач 'extender, continuator', победител (Russ. победитель) → победник 'winner, victor', убедителен (Russ. убедительный) → убедлив 'convincing, persuasive', etc. Many of these words are now obsolete or archaic (as with развитие), synonymous (лицемерие and лицемерство) or have taken on a slightly different nuance in meaning (дејствие 'military act' vs. дејство 'act, action' in a general sense).The use of Ottoman Turkish loanwords is discouraged in the formal register when a native equivalent exists (e.g. комшија (← Turk. komÅŸu) vs. сосед (← PSl. *sÇ«sÄ›dÑŠ) 'neighbor'), and these words are typically restricted to the archaic, colloquial, and ironic registers.Friedman, V. (1998) "The implementation of standard Macedonian: problems and results" in International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Vol. 131, pp. 31–57, p. 8New words were coined according to internal logic and others calqued from related languages (especially Serbo-Croatian) to replace those taken from Russian, which include известие (Russ. известие) → извештај 'report', количество (Russ. количество) → количина 'amount, quantity', согласие (Russ. согласие) → слога 'concord, agreement', etc. This change was aimed at bringing written Macedonian closer to the spoken language, effectively distancing it from the more Russified Bulgarian language, representing a successful puristic attempt to abolish a lexicogenic tradition once common in written literature.

Writing system


The modern Macedonian alphabet was developed by linguists in the period after the Second World War, who based their alphabet on the phonetic alphabet of Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, though a similar writing system was used by Krste Misirkov in the early 20th century. The Macedonian language had previously been written using the Early Cyrillic alphabet, or later using the Cyrillic script with local adaptations from either the Serbian or Bulgarian alphabets.The following table provides the upper and lower case forms of the Macedonian alphabet, along with the IPA value for each letter:{| cellpadding="10" style="margin:auto; text-align:center;"Cyrillic''International Phonetic Alphabet''>A (Cyrillic)>А а{{IPABe (Cyrillic)>Б б{{IPAVe (Cyrillic)>В в{{IPAGe (Cyrillic)>Г г{{IPADe (Cyrillic)>Д д{{IPAGje>Ѓ ѓ{{IPAYe (Cyrillic)>Е е{{IPAZhe (Cyrillic)>Ж ж{{IPAZe (Cyrillic)>З з{{IPADze>Ѕ ѕ{{IPAI (Cyrillic)>И и{{IPA|/i/}}Cyrillic''International Phonetic Alphabet''>Je (Cyrillic)>Ј ј{{IPAKa (Cyrillic)>К к{{IPAEl (Cyrillic)>Л л{{IPAл}} is pronounced {{IPA/e, i, j/}}, and {{IPAљ}} is always pronounced {{IPA/e, i, j/}}. Cf. how the final љ in биљбиљ {{nowrap/ˈbilbil/}}}} "nightingale" is changed to a л in the plural form биљбили {{nowrap/ˈbilbili/}}}}.Lje{{IPA>/l/}}Em (Cyrillic){{IPA>/m/}}En (Cyrillic){{IPA>/n/}}Nje{{IPA>/ɲ/}}O (Cyrillic){{IPA>/ɔ/}}Pe (Cyrillic){{IPA>/p/}}Er (Cyrillic){{IPA>/r/}}Es (Cyrillic){{IPA>/s/}}Cyrillic''International Phonetic Alphabet''>Te (Cyrillic)>Т т{{IPAKje>Ќ ќ{{IPAU (Cyrillic)>У у{{IPAEf (Cyrillic)>Ф ф{{IPAKha (Cyrillic)>Х х{{IPATse (Cyrillic)>Ц ц{{IPAChe (Cyrillic)>Ч ч{{IPADzhe>Џ џ{{IPASha (Cyrillic)>Ш ш{{IPA|/ʃ/}}


Macedonian orthography is consistent and phonemic in practice, an approximation of the principle of one grapheme per phoneme. A principle represented by Adelung's saying, "write as you speak and read as it is written" ("пишувај како што зборуваш и читај како што е напишано"). However, there are occasional inconsistencies or exceptions.


The Lord's Prayer{{col-begin|width=auto}}{{col-break}}
Оче наш (Cyrillic alphabet)
Оче наш, кој си на небесата, да се свети името Твое, да дојде царството Твое, да биде волјата Твоја, како на небото, така и на земјата; лебот наш насушен дај ни го денес и прости ни ги долговите наши како и ние што им ги проштеваме на нашите должници; и не нѐ воведувај во искушение, но избави нѐ од лукавиот. Зашто Твое е Царството и Силата и Славата, во вечни векови. Амин!''
Oče naš (Latinic version)
Oče naš, koj si na nebesata da se sveti imeto Tvoe, da dojde carstvoto Tvoe, da bide voljata Tvoja, kako na neboto, taka i na zemjata; lebot naš nasušen daj ni go denes i prosti ni gi dolgovite naši kako i nie što im gi proštevame na našite dolžnici I ne nè voveduvaj vo iskušenie, no izbavi nè od lukaviot. Zašto Tvoe e Carstvoto i Silata i Slavata, vo večni vekovi. Amin!


{{South Slavic languages sidebar}}The region of Macedonia and the country of North Macedonia are both located on the Balkan peninsula. The Slavs first came to the Balkan Peninsula in the sixth and seventh centuries AD. In the ninth century, the Byzantine monksColumbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–05, s.v. "Cyril and Methodius, Saints"; Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica Incorporated, Warren E. Preece – 1972, p.846, s.v., "Cyril and Methodius, Saints" and "Eastern Orthodoxy, Missions ancient and modern"; Encyclopedia of World Cultures, David H. Levinson, 1991, p.239, s.v., "Social Science"; Eric M. Meyers, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, p.151, 1997; Lunt, Slavic Review, June, 1964, p. 216; Roman Jakobson, Crucial problems of Cyrillo-Methodian Studies; Leonid Ivan Strakhovsky, A Handbook of Slavic Studies, p.98; V.Bogdanovich, History of the ancient Serbian literature, Belgrade, 1980, p.119The Columbia Encyclopaedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–05, O.Ed. Saints Cyril and Methodius "Cyril and Methodius, Saints) 869 and 884, respectively, "Greek missionaries, brothers, called Apostles to the Slavs and fathers of Slavonic literature."Encyclopædia Britannica, Major alphabets of the world, Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets, 2008, O.Ed. "The two early Slavic alphabets, the Cyrillic and the Glagolitic, were invented by St. Cyril, or Constantine (c. 827–869), and St. Methodius (c. 825–884). These men were Greeks from Thessaloniki who became apostles to the southern Slavs, whom they converted to Christianity."BOOK, Hastings, Adrian, The construction of nationhood: ethnicity, religion, and nationalism, 1997, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 0-521-62544-0, 126, . the activity of the brothers Constantine (later renamed Cyril) and Methodius, aristocratic Greek priests who were sent from Constantinople., BOOK, Fletcher, R. A., The barbarian conversion: from paganism to Christianity, 1999, University of California Press, Berkeley, Calif., 0-520-21859-0, 327, BOOK, Cizevskij, Dmitrij, Serge Aleksandr Zenkovsky, Zenkovsky, Serge A., Porter, Richard E., Comparative History of Slavic Literatures, Vanderbilt University Press, 0-8265-1371-9, vi, "Two Greek brothers from Salonika, Constantine who later became a monk and took the name Cyril and Methodius., BOOK, The illustrated guide to the Bible, 1998, Oxford University Press, New York, 0-19-521462-5, 14, In Eastern Europe, the first translations of the Bible into the Slavonic languages were made by the Greek missionaries Cyril and Methodius in the 860s, BOOK, Smalley, William Allen, Translation as mission: Bible translation in the modern missionary movement, 1991, Mercer, Macon, Ga., 978-0-86554-389-8, 25, The most important instance where translation and the beginning church did coincide closely was in Slavonic under the brothers Cyril, Methodius, with the Bible completed by A.D. 880 This was a missionary translation but unusual again (from a modern point of view) because not a translation into the dialect spoken where the missionaries were The brothers were Greeks who had been brought up in Macedonia., Saints Cyril and Methodius developed the first writing system for the Slavonic languages. At this time, the Slavic dialects were so close as to make it practical to develop the written language on the dialect of a single region. The Ohrid Literary School was established in Ohrid in 886 by Saint Clement of Ohrid on orders of Boris I of Bulgaria. In the fourteenth century, the Ottoman Turks invaded and conquered most of the Balkans, incorporating Macedonia into the Ottoman Empire. Although the written language, now called Old Church Slavonic, remained static as a result of Turkish domination, the spoken dialects moved further apart.{{citation needed|date=June 2019}}The earliest lexicographic evidence of the Macedonian dialects, described as Bulgarian,Littera et Lingua {{webarchive|url= |date=2013-11-12 }}, {{ISSN|1312-6172}}, Пролет 2010, Лилия Илиева, Нови данни за българската поезия през XVI и XVII век. can be found in a lexicon from the 16th century written in the Greek alphabet.'Un Lexique Macedonien Du XVIe Siecle', Giannelli, Ciro. Avec la collaboration de Andre Vaillant, 1958 The concept of the various Macedonian dialects as a part of the Bulgarian languageConcise encyclopedia of languages of the world, Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie, Elsevier, 2008, {{ISBN|0-08-087774-5}}, pp. 120; 663. can be seen also from early vernacular texts from Macedonia such as the four-language dictionary of Daniel Moscopolites, the works of Kiril Peichinovich and Yoakim Karchovski, and some vernacular gospels written in the Greek alphabet. These written works influenced by or completely written in the local Slavic vernacular appeared in Macedonia in the 18th and beginning of the 19th century and their authors referred to their language as Bulgarian.F. A. K. Yasamee "NATIONALITY IN THE BALKANS: THE CASE OF THE MACEDONIANS" in Balkans: A Mirror of the New World Order, Istanbul: EREN, 1995; pp. 121–132.In 1845 the Russian scholar Viktor Grigorovich travelled in the Balkans to study the south Slavic dialects of Macedonia. His work articulated for the first time a distinct pair of two groups of Bulgarian dialects: Eastern and Western (spoken in today Western Bulgaria and North Macedonia). According to his findings, a part of the Western Bulgarian variety, spoken in Macedonia, was characterized by traces of Old Slavic nasal vowels.{{Harvcoltxt|Seriot|1997|p=177}} During the increase of national consciousness in the Balkans, standards for the languages of Slovene, Serbo-Croatian and Bulgarian were created. As Turkish influence in Macedonia waned, schools were opened up that taught the Bulgarian standard language in areas with significant Bulgarian population.{{citation needed|date=June 2019}}However, the Russian linguist of Bulgarian origin, Petar Draganov (1857–1928), after his visit to North Macedonia, strongly opposed this 'Bulgarian origin of the Macedonian dialects', and he claimed that Macedonia is a separate ethnogeographic unit of the Balkans and the Macedonian dialects form a separate language.BOOK, {{Google books, yes, hE5PxJjrI8AC, 80, |title=and the Macedonians: a history By Andrew Rossos |publisher= |date= |accessdate=2014-08-07}} Similar ideas were proposed in Krste Misirkov's works. Misirkov was born in a village near Pella in Greek Macedonia. Although literature had been written in the Slavic dialects of Macedonia before, arguably the most important book published in relation to the Macedonian language was Misirkov's On Macedonian Matters, published in 1903. In that book, he argued for creation of a standard literary Macedonian language from the central dialects of Macedonia that would use a phonemic orthography.{{citation needed|date=June 2019}}After the first two Balkan wars, the region of Macedonia was split between Greece, Bulgaria, and Serbia (later Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, Yugoslavia). Serbia occupied the area that is currently North Macedonia incorporating it into the Kingdom as "Southern Serbia". During this time, Yugoslav Macedonia became known as Vardar Banovina (Vardar province) and the language of public life, education and the church was Serbo-Croatian. In the other two parts of Macedonia the respective national languages, Greek and Bulgarian, were made official. In Bulgarian (Pirin) Macedonia, the local dialects continued to be described as dialects of Bulgarian.{{citation needed|date=June 2019}}(File:Reseniie na asnom za jazik.jpg|thumbnail|right|Decision about language on ASNOM, 2 August 1944)During the second World War, most of Yugoslav Macedonia was occupied by the Bulgarian army, who was allied with the Axis. The standard Bulgarian language was reintroduced in schools and liturgies. The Bulgarians were initially welcomed as liberators from Serbian domination until connections were made between the imposition of the Bulgarian language and unpopular Serbian assimilation policies.The A to Z of Bulgaria, Raymond Detrez, Scarecrow Press, Incorporated, 2010, {{ISBN|0-8108-7202-1}}, p. 485. Even the Macedonian communists were then pro-Bulgarian oriented, but later the Bulgarians were seen as conquerors by the communist movement.{{Google books |plainurl=yes |id=ZMyZdvTympMC |page=119 |title=Yugoslavism: Histories of a Failed Idea, 1918–1992, Dejan Djokíc, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2003}}, {{ISBN|1-85065-663-0}} {{Dead link|date=August 2014}} However, there were pro-Bulgarian groups which advocated independence as a second Bulgarian state,BOOK, {{Google books, yes, fqUSGevFe5MC, 167, |title=War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941–1945: Occupation and Collaboration |isbn=978-0-8047-7924-1 |first=Jozo |last=Tomasevich |publisher=Stanford University Press |page=167 |date=2002 |accessdate=2014-08-07}} and others, who supported the union with Bulgaria.{{Google books |plainurl= |id=bhNG-62oEcQC |page=67 |title=The Struggle for Greece, 1941–1949, Christopher M. Woodhouse, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2002}}, {{ISBN|1-85065-487-5}} {{Dead link|date=August 2014}}The eventual outcome was that almost all of Vardar Banovina (i.e. the areas that geographically became known as Vardar Macedonia) was incorporated into the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia as a constituent Socialist Republic with the Macedonian language holding official status within both the Federation and Republic. The Macedonian language was proclaimed the official language of the Republic of Macedonia at the First Session of the Assembly for the National Liberation of Macedonia, held on 2 August 1944. The first official Macedonian grammar was developed by Krume Kepeski. One of the most important contributors in the standardisation of the Macedonian literary language was Blaže Koneski. The first document written in the literary standard Macedonian language is the first issue of the Nova Makedonija newspaper in 1944. Makedonska Iskra (Macedonian Spark) was the first Macedonian newspaper published in Australia, from 1946 to 1957. A monthly with national distribution, it commenced in Perth and later moved to Melbourne and Sydney.

Political views on the language

As with the issue of Macedonian ethnicity, the politicians, linguists and common people from North Macedonia and neighbouring countries have opposing views about the existence and distinctiveness of the Macedonian language.In the ninth century AD, saints Cyril and Methodius introduced Old Church Slavonic, the first Slavic language of literacy. Written with their newly invented Glagolitic script, this language was based largely on the dialect of Slavs spoken around Thessaloniki; this dialect is closest to present-day Macedonian and Bulgarian.{{Harvcoltxt|Dostál|1965|p=69}}Although described as being dialects of Bulgarian{{Citation |title=Българска диалектология (Bulgarian dialectology)|last=Стойков (Stoykov)|first=Стойко |authorlink=Stoyko Stoykov |origyear=1962 |year=2002 |location=София |publisher=Акад. изд. "Проф. Марин Дринов" |language=Bulgarian |url= |isbn=954-430-846-6 |oclc=53429452 }}{{Citation |author=Institute of Bulgarian Language |title=Единството на българския език в миналото и днес |publisher=Bulgarian Academy of Sciences |year=1978 |page=4 |language=Bulgarian |location=Sofia |oclc=6430481}} or Serbian prior to the establishment of the standard, the current academic consensus (outside of Bulgaria) is that Macedonian is an autonomous language within the South Slavic dialect continuum.{{Harvcoltxt|Trudgill|1992|p=?}}

Bulgarian view

{{See also|Macedonians (Bulgarians)}}In most sources in and out of Bulgaria before the Second World War, the southern Slavonic dialect continuum covering the area of today's North Macedonia and Northern Greece was referred to as a group of Bulgarian dialects. The local variants of the name of the language were also balgàrtzki, bùgarski or bugàrski; i.e. Bulgarian.Шклифов, Благой and Екатерина Шклифова, Български деалектни текстове от Егейска Македония, София 2003, с. 28–33 (Shklifov, Blagoy and Ekaterina Shklifova. Bulgarian dialect texts from Aegean Macedonia Sofia 2003, p. 28–36) Although Bulgaria was the first country to recognize the independence of the Republic of Macedonia, most of its academics, as well as the general public, regard the language spoken there as a form of Bulgarian.{{ref|Mahon1}} However, after years of diplomatic impasse caused by an academic dispute, in 1999 the government in Sofia solved the problem of the Macedonian language by signing a s: in the official languages of the two countries - in Macedonian, pursuant the Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia, and in Bulgarian, pursuant the Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria.WEB,weblink 1999/02/22 23:50 Bulgaria Recognises Macedonian Language,, 2014-08-07,

Greek view

{{See also|Macedonia naming dispute}}Greeks were objecting to the use of the "Macedonian" name in reference to the modern Slavic language, calling it "Slavomacedonian" (), a term coined by some members of the Slavic-speaking community of northern Greece itself.Although acceptable in the past, current use of this name in reference to both the ethnic group and the language can be considered pejorative and offensive by ethnic Macedonians. In the past, the Macedonian Slavs in Greece seemed relieved to be acknowledged as Slavomacedonians. Pavlos Koufis, a native of Greek Macedonia, pioneer of ethnic Macedonian schools in the region and local historian, says in Laografika Florinas kai Kastorias (Folklore of Florina and Kastoria), Athens 1996:"[During its Panhellenic Meeting in September 1942, the KKE mentioned that it recognises the equality of the ethnic minorities in Greece] the KKE recognised that the Slavophone population was ethnic minority of Slavomacedonians. This was a term, which the inhabitants of the region accepted with relief. [Because] Slavomacedonians = Slavs+Macedonians. The first section of the term determined their origin and classified them in the great family of the Slav peoples."The Greek Helsinki Monitor reports:"... the term Slavomacedonian was introduced and was accepted by the community itself, which at the time had a much more widespread non-Greek Macedonian ethnic consciousness. Unfortunately, according to members of the community, this term was later used by the Greek authorities in a pejorative, discriminatory way; hence the reluctance if not hostility of modern-day Macedonians of Greece (i.e. people with a Macedonian national identity) to accept it."In 3 June 2018, the Greek Minister of Shipping and Island Policy, Panagiotis Kouroublis, acknowledged that Greece fully recognizes the term "Macedonian language" for the modern Slavic language, since the 1977 UN Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names,WEB,weblink Kouroublis: In 1977, Greece recognized «Macedonian language» (original: Κουρουμπλής: To 1977 η Ελλάδα αναγνώρισε «μακεδονική γλώσσα»), Skai Channel, 3 June 2018, a fact confirmed on 6 June by the Greek Foreign Minister Nikos Kotzias, who stated that the language was recognized by the New Democracy-led government of that time. Kotzias also revealed classified documents confirming the use of the term "Macedonian Language" by the past governments of Greece, as well as pointing out to official statements of the Greek Prime Minister Evangelos Averoff who in 1954 and 1959 used the term "Macedonian language" to refer to the South Slavic language.WEB,weblink The classified documents submitted by Kotzias about the Republic of Macedonia, el:Τα απόρρητα έγγραφα που κατέθεσε ο Κοτζιάς για ΠΓΔΜ),, The Press Project, el, 6 June 2018, 23 August 2018, WEB,weblink The classified files submitted by Nikos Kotzias in the Parliament (pics), el:Τα απόρρητα αρχεία που κατέθεσε στη Βουλή ο Νίκος Κοτζιάς (pics),, CNN, el, 18 June 2018, 24 August 2018, New Democracy has denied these claims, noting that the 1977 UN document states clearly that the terminology used therein (i.e. the characterization of the languages) does not imply any opinion of the General Secretariat of the UN regarding the legal status of any country, territory, borders etc. Furthermore, New Democracy stated that in 2007 and 2012, as governing party, it included Greece's objections in the relevant UN documents."ND dismisses accusations that it recognized "macedonian" language since 1977", Prot Thema newspaper, 8 June 2018 In Greek.On 12 June 2018, North Macedonia's Prime Minister Zoran Zaev, announced that the recognition of the Macedonian language by Greece is reaffirmed in the Prespa agreement, which thus, formally ends the dispute over the language's name.WEB, Zaev:We made a deal - Republic of North Macedonia, with Macedonian language and Macedonian identity,weblink, Кајгана, mk, 12 June 2018, 12 June 2018,

See also






  • {hide}citation|last=Comrie|first=Bernard|last2=Corbett|first2=Greville|year=2002|chapter=The Macedonian language|title=The Slavonic Languages|place=New York|publisher=Routledge Publications
  • {{citation|last=Dostál|first=Antonín|year=1965|title=The Origins of the Slavonic Liturgy|journal=Dumbarton Oaks Papers|volume=19|pages=67–87|doi=10.2307/1291226|jstor=1291226|publisher=Dumbarton Oaks, Trustees for Harvard University
  • {{citation|last=Hill|first=P.|year=1999|title=Macedonians in Greece and Albania: A comparative study of recent developments|journal=Nationalities Papers|volume=27|issue=1|doi=10.1080/009059999109163|page=17
  • {hide}citation|last=Friedman|first=Victor|editor-last=Garry|editor-first=Jane|editor2-last=Rubino|editor2-first=Carl|year=2001|chapter=Macedonian|title=Facts about the World's Languages: An Encyclopedia of the Worlds Major Languages, Past and Present|place=New York|publisher=Holt|pages=435–439
  • {{citation|last=Friedman|first=Victor|year=1998|title=The implementation of standard Macedonian: problems and results|journal=International Journal of the Sociology of Language|volume=131|pages=31–57|doi=10.1515/ijsl.1998.131.31
  • {{citation

|chapter=Local self-government and decentralization: case of Albania. History, reforms and challenges.
|title=Local Self Government and Decentralization in South-East Europe:Proceedings of the Workshop held in Zagreb, 6th April 2001
  • {{citation|last=Levinson|first=David|last2=O'Leary|first2=Timothy|title=Encyclopedia of World Cultures|publisher=G.K. Hall|year =1992|page=239|isbn=0-8161-1808-6 }}
  • {{citation|last=Lunt|first=Horace G.|year=1952|title=Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language|place=Skopje
  • {{citation|last=Mahon|first=Milena|year=1998|title=The Macedonian question in BulgariaNations and Nationalism (journal)>Nations and Nationalism|volume=4|issue=3|pages=389–407|doi=10.1111/j.1354-5078.1998.00389.x
  • {{citation|last=Poulton|first=Hugh|title=Who Are the Macedonians?|year=2000|publisher=C. Hurst & Co. Ltd.|place=United Kingdom|isbn=0-253-34598-7|url-access=registration|url=
  • {{citation|last=Seriot|first=Patrick|editor-last=Tabouret-Keller|editor-first=Andrée|year=1997|chapter=Faut-il que les langues aient un nom? Le cas du macédonien|url=|title=Le nom des langues. L'enjeu de la nomination des langues|volume=1|place=Louvain|publisher=Peeters|pages=167–190
weblink>archivedate=5 September 2001}}
  • {{citation|last=Topolinjska|first=Z.|year=1998|title=In place of a foreword: facts about the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian language|journal=International Journal of the Sociology of Language|volume=131|pages=1–11|doi=10.1515/ijsl.1998.131.1
  • {{citation|last=Trudgill|first=Peter|year=1992|title=Ausbau sociolinguistics and the perception of language status in contemporary Europe|journal=International Journal of Applied Linguistics|volume=2|issue=2|pages=167–177|doi=10.1111/j.1473-4192.1992.tb00031.x
  • {hide}citation|last=Bojkovska|first=Stojka|year=2008|title=Grammar of the Macedonian language|location=Skopje|publisher=Prosvetno Delo
  • {hide}citation|last=Friedman|first=Victor|editor-last=Garry|editor-first=Jane|editor2-last=Rubino|editor2-first=Carl|year=2001|chapter=Macedonian|title=Facts about the World's Languages: An Encyclopedia of the Worlds Major Languages, Past and Present|place=New York|publisher=Holt|pages=435–439
  • {{citation|last=Friedman|first=Victor|year=2001|title=Macedonian|publisher=SEELRC|url=
  • {{citation|last=Lunt|first=Horace G.|year=1952|title=Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language|place=Skopje

Further reading

  • {{Citation|last=Kramer|first=Christina|authorlink=Christina Kramer|year=2003|title=Macedonian: A Course for Beginning and Intermediate Students.|edition=2nd|publisher=University of Wisconsin Press|isbn=978-0-299-18804-7
}} work=The Conversation, 19 April 2018,
  • WEB, Margaronis, Maria, Greece's invisible minority - the Macedonian Slavs,weblink BBC, 24 February 2019,

External links

{{InterWiki|code=mk}}{{Wikivoyage|Macedonian phrasebook|Macedonian|a phrasebook}}{{wiktionary category}}{{Commons category|Macedonian language}}


{{Macedonian language|state=expanded}}{{Macedonian dialects}}{{North Macedonia topics}}{{Slavic languages}}{{Authority control}}

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Eastern Philosophy
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