Catalan language

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Catalan language
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{{Redirect|Catala|the ship|SS Catala}}{{pp-pc1|small=yes}}{{short description|Romance language}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2012}}

| states = Andorra, France, Italy, Spain| region = ACCESSDATE=14 NOVEMBER 2017, First language>L1 plus Second language; 2018)HTTPS://WWW.PLATAFORMA-LLENGUA.CAT/MEDIA/UPLOAD/PDF/INFORMECAT2018_1528713023.PDFLANGUAGE=CATALAN, 7 June 2018, Report on the Catalan language by Plataforma per la Llengua based on recent reference sociolinguistic surveys| date = 2012| familycolor = Indo-EuropeanItalic languages>ItalicRomance languages>RomanceWestern Romance languages>Western RomanceGallo-Romance languages>Gallo-RomanceSome Iberian scholars may alternatively classify Catalan as Iberian Romance/East Iberian.Occitano-Romance languages>Occitano-Romance| ancestor = Old CatalanInstitut d'Estudis Catalans>IEC)Valencian (regulated by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua>AVL)Latin script>Latin (Catalan alphabet)Catalan BrailleAndorra}} (File:Flag of Catalonia.svgAlghero (Sardinia, Italy)>{{flagSpain)>(File:Flag of Catalonia.svg|24px) Pyrénées-Orientales (France)}}| agency = Institut d'Estudis CatalansAcadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua| iso1 = ca| iso2 = cat| iso3 = cat| lingua = 51-AAA-e| map = Catalan language in Europe.png| mapalt = Domínio geolinguístico do catalão#00A86B#50C878#77dd77|Territories where Catalan is not historically spoken but is official}}| mapsize = 300px| notice = IPA| sign = Signed Catalan| glotto = stan1289| glottorefname = Catalan}}{{Catalan language}}Catalan ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|æ|t|əl|æ|n|,_|-|ə|n|,_|ˌ|k|æ|t|ə|ˈ|l|æ|n}};Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh autonym: ; {{IPA-ca|kətəˈla|ec}}) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain. It is the only official language of Andorra,{{sfn|Wheeler|2010|p=191}} and a co-official language of the Spanish autonomous communities of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands and Valencia (where the language is known as Valencian). It also has semi-official status in the Italian comune of Alghero.NEWS,weblink Italy's Last Bastion of Catalan Language Struggles to Keep It Alive, Minder, Raphael, 2016-11-21, The New York Times, 0362-4331, 2017-01-21, It is also spoken in the eastern strip of Aragon, in some villages of Region of Murcia called Carche and in the Pyrénées-Orientales department of France. These territories are often called or "Catalan Countries".Catalan evolved from Vulgar Latin in the Middle Ages around the eastern Pyrenees. 19th-century Spain saw a Catalan literary revival,{{sfn|Wheeler|2010|p=190–191}}{{sfn|Costa Carreras|Yates|pp=6–7|2009}} culminating in the early 1900s.

Etymology and pronunciation

File:Extensió de la llengua catalana als Països Catalans.png|thumb|upright=1.1|Catalan Countries (): (In orange, strict Catalan-speaking area) NE modern Spain (Catalonia, Valencian Community and Balearic Islands), SE. France (Roussillon, touching the Pyrenees) and Comune of Alghero (NW coast of Sardinia, Island belonging to ItalyItalyFile:Aragonese Empire 1443.svg|thumb|upright=1.1|The Crown of Aragon in 1443. King James the Conqueror [1208–1276] dictated his autobiographical chronicles entirely in Catalan. Some of this territory nowadays makes up the Catalan CountriesCatalan CountriesThe word Catalan is derived from the territorial name of Catalonia, itself of disputed etymology. The main theory suggests that (Latin Gathia Launia) derives from the name Gothia or Gauthia ("Land of the Goths"), since the origins of the Catalan counts, lords and people were found in the March of Gothia, whence Gothland > Gothlandia > Gothalania > Catalonia theoretically derived.{{sfn|García Venero|2006}}{{sfn|Burke|1900|p=154}}In English, the term referring to a person first appears in the mid 14th century as Catelaner, followed in the 15th century as Catellain (from French). It is attested a language name since at least 1652. The word Catalan can be pronounced in English as {{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|æ|t|əl|æ|n}}, {{IPAc-en|k|æ|t|ə|ˈ|l|æ|n}} or {{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|æ|t|əl|ə|n}}.The endonym is pronounced {{IPA-ca|kətəˈla|}} in the Eastern Catalan dialects, and {{IPA-ca|kataˈla|}} in the Western dialects. In the Valencian Community, the term {{IPA-ca|valensiˈa|}} is frequently used instead. The names "Catalan" and "Valencian" are two names for the same language.{{sfn|Lledó|2011|p=334–337}}{{sfn|Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua|2005}}{{inconsistent|reason=The section on Catalan-speaking territories says that Valencian is the name for the variety spoken in Valencia, not for the language spoken in other regions, such as Catalonia and the Balearic Islands.|date=January 2018}} See also status of Valencian below.


{{further|History of Catalan}}File:Homilies d'Organya.jpg|thumb|upright=0.85|Homilies d'OrganyàHomilies d'OrganyàFile:Greuges de Guitard Isarn.jpg|thumb|Fragment of the Greuges de Guitard Isarn (ca. 1080–1095), one of the earliest texts written almost completely in Catalan,{{sfn|Veny|1997|pp=9–18}}{{sfn|Moran|2004|pp=37–38}} predating the famous Homilies d'OrganyàHomilies d'Organyà(File:Linguistic map Southwestern Europe-en.gif|thumb|Linguistic map of Southwestern Europe)

Middle Ages

{{further|Old Catalan|Phonological history of Catalan}}By the 9th century, Catalan had evolved from Vulgar Latin on both sides of the eastern end of the Pyrenees, as well as the territories of the Roman province of Hispania Tarraconensis to the south.{{sfn|Costa Carreras|Yates|year=2009|pp=6–7}} From the 8th century onwards the Catalan counts extended their territory southwards and westwards at the expense of the Muslims, bringing their language with them.{{sfn|Costa Carreras|Yates|year=2009|pp=6–7}} This process was given definitive impetus with the separation of the County of Barcelona from the Carolingian Empire in 988.{{sfn|Costa Carreras|Yates|2009|pp=6–7}}In the 11th century, documents written in macaronic Latin begin to show Catalan elements,{{sfn|Moran|2004|pp=37–38}} with texts written almost completely in Romance appearing by 1080.{{sfn|Moran|2004|pp=37–38}} Old Catalan shared many features with Gallo-Romance, diverging from Old Occitan between the 11th and 14th centuries.{{sfn|Riquer|1964}}During the 11th and 12th centuries the Catalan rulers expanded up to north of the Ebro river,{{sfn|Costa Carreras|Yates|pp=6–7|year=2009}} and in the 13th century they conquered the Land of Valencia and the Balearic Islands.{{sfn|Costa Carreras|Yates|pp=6–7|2009}} The city of Alghero in Sardinia was repopulated with Catalan speakers in the 14th century. The language also reached Murcia, which became Spanish-speaking in the 15th century.{{sfn|Wheeler|2010|p=190}}In the Low Middle Ages, Catalan went through a golden age, reaching a peak of maturity and cultural richness.{{sfn|Costa Carreras|Yates|year=2009|pp=6–7}} Examples include the work of Majorcan polymath Ramon Llull (1232–1315), the Four Great Chronicles (13th–14th centuries), and the Valencian school of poetry culminating in Ausiàs March (1397–1459).{{sfn|Costa Carreras|Yates|year=2009|pp=6–7}} By the 15th century, the city of Valencia had become the sociocultural center of the Crown of Aragon, and Catalan was present all over the Mediterranean world.{{sfn|Costa Carreras|Yates|year=2009|pp=6–7}} During this period, the Royal Chancery propagated a highly standardized language.{{sfn|Costa Carreras|Yates|year=2009|pp=6–7}} Catalan was widely used as an official language in Sicily until the 15th century, and in Sardinia until the 17th.{{sfn|Wheeler|2010|p=190}} During this period, the language was what Costa Carreras terms "one of the 'great languages' of medieval Europe".{{sfn|Costa Carreras|Yates|2009|pp=6–7}}Martorell's outstanding{{sfn|Costa Carreras|Yates|year=2009|pp=6–7}} novel of chivalry Tirant lo Blanc (1490) shows a transition from Medieval to Renaissance values, something that can also be seen in Metge's work.{{sfn|Costa Carreras|Yates|year=2009|pp=6–7}} The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in Catalan.Trobes en llaors de la Verge Maria ("Poems of praise of the Virgin Mary") 1474.{{sfn|Costa Carreras|Yates|2009|pp=6–7}}

Start of the modern era

With the union of the crowns of Castille and Aragon (1479), the use of Spanish gradually became more prestigious{{sfn|Wheeler|2010|p=190}} and marked the start of the decline of the Catalan.{{sfn|Costa Carreras|Yates|pp=6–7|2009}}{{sfn|Wheeler|2010|p=190–191}} Starting in the 16th century, Catalan literature came under the influence of Spanish, and the urban and literary classes became bilingual.{{sfn|Wheeler|2010|p=190}}With the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659), Spain ceded the northern part of Catalonia to France, and soon thereafter the local Catalan varieties came under the influence of French, which in 1700 became the sole official language of the region.{{sfn|Wheeler|2010|p=191}}WEB,weblink L'interdiction de la langue catalane en Roussillon par Louis XIV, "CRDP, Académie de Montpellier, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 December 2010, dmy-all, Shortly after the French Revolution (1789), the French First Republic prohibited official use of, and enacted discriminating policies against, the regional languages of France, such as Catalan, Alsatian, Breton, Occitan, Flemish, and Basque.

France: 19th to 20th centuries

(File:Interdiction officielle de la langue catalana 2 avril 1700.jpg|thumb|Official Decree Prohibiting the Catalan Language in France)File:SpeakFrenchBeClean.jpg|thumb|"Speak French, be clean", school wall in Ayguatébia-TalauAyguatébia-Talau{{See also|Language policy in France|Vergonha|Patois}}Following the French capture of Algeria (1833), that region saw several waves of Catalan-speaking settlers. People from the Spanish Alacant province settled around Oran, whereas Algiers received immigration from Northern Catalonia and Menorca. Their speech was known as patuet. By 1911, the number of Catalan speakers was around 100,000. After the declaration of independence of Algeria in 1962, almost all the Catalan speakers fled to Northern Catalonia (as Pieds-Noirs) or Alacant.{{sfn|Marfany|2002}}Nowadays, France recognizes only French as an official language. Nevertheless, on 10 December 2007, the General Council of the Pyrénées-Orientales officially recognized Catalan as one of the languages of the departmentWEB,weblink Charte en faveur du Catalan, WEB,weblink La catalanitat a la Catalunya Nord, and seeks to further promote it in public life and education.

Spain: 18th to 20th centuries

{{See also|Nueva Planta decrees|Language politics in Spain under Franco|Anti-Catalanism}}The decline of Catalan continued in the 16th and 17th centuries. The defeat of the pro-Habsburg coalition in the War of Spanish Succession (1714) initiated a series of laws which, among other centralizing measures, imposed the use of Spanish in legal documentation all over Spain.In parallel, however, the 19th century saw a Catalan literary revival (), which has continued up to the present day.{{sfn|Wheeler|2010|p=191}} This period starts with Aribau's Ode to the Homeland (1833); followed in the second half of the 19th century, and the early 20th by the work of Verdaguer (poetry), Oller (realist novel), and Guimerà (drama).{{sfn|Costa Carreras|2007|pp=10–11}}In the 19th century, the region of Carche, in the province of Murcia was repopulated with Catalan speakers from the Land of Valencia.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=1}} The Second Spanish Republic (1931–1939) saw a brief period of tolerance, with most restrictions against Catalan being lifted.{{sfn|Wheeler|2010|p=191}} Despite orthographic standardization in 1913 and the official status of the language during the Second Spanish Republic (1931–39) the Francoist dictatorship banned the use of Catalan in schools and in the public administration between 1939 and 1975.NEWS,weblink Catalan: a language that has survived against the odds, Burgen, Stephen, 2012-11-22, 2017-01-18, en-GB, 0261-3077, The Guardian, {{sfn|Wheeler|2010|p=190–191}}

Present day

Since the Spanish transition to democracy (1975–1982), Catalan has been institutionalized as an official language, language of education, and language of mass media; all of which have contributed to its increased prestige.{{sfn|Wheeler|2003|p=207}} In Catalonia, there is an unparalleled large bilingual European non-state linguistic community.{{sfn|Wheeler|2003|p=207}} The teaching of Catalan is mandatory in all schools,{{sfn|Wheeler|2010|p=191}} but it is possible to use Spanish for studying in the public education system of Catalonia in two situations – if the teacher assigned to a class chooses to use Spanish, or during the learning process of one or more recently arrived immigrant students.WEB,weblink Cataluña ordena incumplir las sentencias sobre el castellano en las escuelas, 10 September 2013, Spanish, Catalonia orders violate the judgments on the Castilian in schools, There is also some intergenerational shift towards Catalan.{{sfn|Wheeler|2010|p=191}}According to the Statistical Institute of Catalonia, in 2013 the Catalan language is the second most commonly used in Catalonia, after Spanish, as a native or self-defining language: 7% of the population self-identifies with both Catalan and Spanish equally, 36.4% with Catalan and 47.5% only Spanish.WEB,weblink Idescat. Annual indicators. Language uses. First language, language of identification and habitual language. Results,, In 2003 the same studies concluded no language preference for self-identification within the population above 15 years old: 5% self-identified with both languages, 44.3% with Catalan and 47.5 with Spanish.WEB,weblink Idescat. Demographics and quality of life. Language uses. First language, language of identification and habitual language. 2003. Results,, en, 2017-01-21, In order to promote use of Catalan, the Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalonia's official Autonomous government) spends part of its annual budget on the promotion of the use of Catalan in Catalonia and in other territories.Datos lingüísticos en Cataluña {{webarchive|url= |date=15 April 2014 }}In Andorra, Catalan has always been the sole official language.{{sfn|Wheeler|2010|p=191}} Since the promulgation of the 1993 constitution, several policies favouring Catalan have been enforced, like Catalan medium education.{{sfn|Wheeler|2010|p=191}}On the other hand, there are several language shift processes currently taking place. In the Northern Catalonia area of France, Catalan has followed the same trend as the other minority languages of France, with most of its native speakers being 60 or older (as of 2004).{{sfn|Wheeler|2010|p=191}} Catalan is studied as a foreign language by 30% of the primary education students, and by 15% of the secondary.{{sfn|Wheeler|2010|p=191}} The cultural association promotes a network of community-run schools engaged in Catalan language immersion programs.In Alicante province, Catalan is being replaced by Spanish and in Alghero by Italian.{{sfn|Wheeler|2003|p=207}} There is also well ingrained diglossia in the Valencian Community, Ibiza, and to a lesser extent, in the rest of the Balearic islands.{{sfn|Wheeler|2010|p=191}}

Classification and relationship with other Romance languages

File:Romance-lg-classification-en.svg|thumb|Chart of Romance languages based on structural and comparative criteria (not on socio-functional ones). Koryakov (2001) includes Catalan in Occitano-Romance, distinct from Iberian RomanceIberian RomanceThe ascription of Catalan to the Occitano-Romance branch of Gallo-Romance languages is not shared by all linguists and philologists, particularly among Spanish ones, such as Ramón Menéndez Pidal.According to Pèire Bèc, its specific classification is as follows: Gallo-Iberian languages* Gallo-Romance languages (alternatively classified as Iberian Romance language)** Occitano-Romance languages (alternatively classified as East Iberian language)*** Catalan languageCatalan bears varying degrees of similarity to the linguistic varieties subsumed under the cover term Occitan language (see also differences between Occitan and Catalan and Gallo-Romance languages). Thus, as it should be expected from closely related languages, Catalan today shares many traits with other Romance languages.

Relationship with other Romance languages

Catalan shares many traits with the other neighboring Romance languages (Italian, Sardinian, Occitan, and Spanish).{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=1}} However, despite being spoken mostly on the Iberian Peninsula, Catalan has marked differences with the Iberian Romance group (Spanish and Portuguese) in terms of pronunciation, grammar, and especially vocabulary; showing instead its closest affinity with Occitan{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=632}}{{sfn|Feldhausen|2010|p=4}}{{sfn|Schlösser|2005|p=60f}} and to a lesser extent Gallo-Romance (French, Franco-Provençal, Gallo-Italian).Marc Howard Ross, Cultural Contestation in Ethnic Conflict, page 139. Cambridge University Press, 2007.{{sfn|Jud|1925}}{{sfn|Colón|1993|pp=33–35}}{{sfn|Moll|1958|p=47}}{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=632}}{{sfn|Feldhausen|2010|p=4}}{{sfn|Schlösser|2005|p=60f}}According to Ethnologue, the lexical similarity between Catalan and other Romance languages is: 87% with Italian; 85% with Portuguese and Spanish; 76% with Ladin; 75% with Sardinian; and 73% with Romanian.WEB, Simons, Gary F., Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Twenty-first edition,weblink Ethnologue, SIL International, 30 March 2018, Dallas, Texas, 2018, Fennig, Charles D., {| class="wikitable" style="margin:auto; text-align:center;"isoglosses with Iberian Romance, 3 isoglosses with Occitan, and 1 unique word.{{sfn>Jud|1925}}{{sfn|Colón|1993|pp=33–35}}! Gloss !! Catalan !! Occitan !! (Campidanese) Sardinian !! Italian !! French !! Spanish !! Portuguese !! RomanianLAST2=SANZYEAR=2001PUBLISHER=AKALISBN=978-84-460-1083-8, , ,A 20th century introduction from French. , lunfardo; in slang) >{| class="wikitable" style="margin:auto; text-align:center;"Moll|1958|p=47}}! Latin !! colspan="2" | Catalan !! colspan="2" | Spanish{{wiktlaacostar}} "to bring closer" ''{{wiktspa| "to put to bed"{{wiktlallevar}} "to remove;wake up" ''{{wiktspa| "to take"{{wiktlatraure}} "to remove" ''{{wiktspa| "to bring"{{wiktlacercar}} "to search" ''{{wiktspa| "to fence"{{wiktlacolgar}} "to bury" ''{{wiktspa| "to hang"{{wiktlamuller}} "wife" ''{{wiktspa| "woman or wife"During much of its history, and especially during the Francoist dictatorship (1939–1975), the Catalan language was ridiculed as a mere dialect of Spanish.{{sfn|Feldhausen|2010|p=4}}{{sfn|Schlösser|2005|p=60f}} This view, based on political and ideological considerations, has no linguistic validity.{{sfn|Feldhausen|2010|p=4}}{{sfn|Schlösser|2005|p=60f}} Spanish and Catalan have important differences in their sound systems, lexicon, and grammatical features, placing the language in features closer to Occitan (and French).{{sfn|Feldhausen|2010|p=4}}{{sfn|Schlösser|2005|p=60f}}There is evidence that, at least from the 2nd century {{smallcaps|a.d.}}, the vocabulary and phonology of Roman Tarraconensis was different from the rest of Roman Hispania.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=632}} Differentiation arose generally because Spanish, Asturian, and Galician-Portuguese share certain peripheral archaisms (Spanish , Asturian and Portuguese vs. Catalan , Occitan "to boil") and innovatory regionalisms (Sp , Ast vs. Cat , Oc "bullock"), while Catalan has a shared history with the Western Romance innovative core, especially Occitan.{{sfn|Colón|1993|p=55}}{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=632}}Like all Romance languages, Catalan has a handful of native words which are rare or only found in Catalan. These include:
  • verbs: {{sm|cōnfÄ«gere}} ‘to fasten; transfix’ > ‘to compose, write up’, {{sm|congemināre}} > ‘to combine, conjugate’, {{sm|de-ex-somnitare}} > ‘to wake; awaken’, {{sm|dÄ“nsāre}} ‘to thicken; crowd together’ > ‘to save, keep’, {{sm|Ä«gnōrāre}} > ‘to miss, yearn, pine for’, {{sm|indāgāre}} ‘to investigate, track’ > Old Catalan enagar ‘to incite, induce’, {{sm|odiāre}} > OCat ujar ‘to exhaust, fatigue’, {{sm|pācificāre}} > ‘to appease, mollify’, {{sm|repudiāre}} > ‘to reject, refuse’;
  • nouns: {{sm|brÄ«sa}} > ‘pomace’, {{sm|buda}} > ‘reedmace’, {{sm|catarrhu}} > ‘catarrh’, {{sm|congesta}} > ‘snowdrift’, {{sm|dÄ“lÄ«rium}} > ‘ardor, passion’, {{sm|fretu}} > ‘brake’, {{sm|lābem}} > ‘avalanche’, {{sm|ōra}} > ‘edge, border’, {{sm|pistrice}} > ‘fish species’, {{sm|prÅ«na}} ‘live coal’ > ‘spark’, {{sm|tardātiōnem}} > tardaó > ‘autumn’.{{sfn|Bruguera|2008|p=3046}}
The Gothic superstrate produced different outcomes in Spanish and Catalan. For example, Catalan {{wikt-lang|ca|fang}} "mud" and {{wikt-lang|ca|rostir}} "to roast", of Germanic origin, contrast with Spanish {{wikt-lang|es|lodo}} and {{wikt-lang|es|asar}}, of Latin origin; whereas Catalan {{wikt-lang|ca|filosa}} "spinning wheel" and {{wikt-lang|ca|templa}} "temple", of Latin origin, contrast with Spanish {{wikt-lang|es|rueca}} and {{wikt-lang|es|sien}}, of Germanic origin.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=632}}The same happens with Arabic loanwords. Thus, Catalan "large earthenware jar" and {{wikt-lang|ca|rajola}} "tile", of Arabic origin, contrast with Spanish {{wikt-lang|es|tinaja}} and {{wikt-lang|es|teja}}, of Latin origin; whereas Catalan {{wikt-lang|ca|oli}} "oil" and {{wikt-lang|ca|oliva}} "olive", of Latin origin, contrast with Spanish {{wikt-lang|es|aceite}} and {{wikt-lang|es|aceituna}}.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=632}} However, the Arabic element in Spanish is generally much more prevalent.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=632}}Situated between two large linguistic blocks (Iberian Romance and Gallo-Romance), Catalan has many unique lexical choices, such as {{wikt-lang|ca|enyorar}} "to miss somebody", {{wikt-lang|ca|apaivagar}} "to calm somebody down", and {{wikt-lang|ca|rebutjar}} "reject".{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=632}}

Geographic distribution

Catalan-speaking territories

{| style="float: right;"|+ Traditionally Catalan-speaking territories in dark grey; non-Catalan-speaking territories belonging to traditionally Catalan-speaking regions in light grey {{Image label beginwidth=350Catalan-speaking territories}}{{Image label small|x=0.62|y=0.15|scale=350|text=Northern Catalonia}}{{Image label small|x=0.45|y=0.29|scale=350|text=Catalonia}}{{Image label small|x=0.85|y=0.51|scale=350|text=Alghero}}{{Image label small|x=0.28|y=0.28|scale=350|text=LaFranja}}{{Image label small|x=0.185|y=0.68|scale=350|text=ValencianCommunity}}{{Image label small|x=0.07|y=0.83|scale=350|text=Carche}}{{Image label small|x=0.85|y=0.33|scale=350|text=Sardinia(Italy)}}{{Image label small|x=0.15|y=0.35|scale=350|text=Aragon(Spain)}}{{Image label small|x=0.08|y=0.89|scale=350|text=Murcia(Spain)}}{{Image label small|x=0.48|y=0.05|scale=350|text=France}}{{Image label small|x=0.43|y=0.16|scale=350|text=Andorra}}{{Image label small|x=0.535|y=0.6|scale=350|text=Balearic Islands}}{{Image label end}}Traditionally Catalan-speaking territories are sometimes called the (Catalan Countries), a denomination based on cultural affinity and common heritage, that has also had a subsequent political interpretation but no official status. Various interpretations of the term may include some or all of these regions.{| class="wikitable"Wheeler|2005|p=1}}! State !! Territory !! Catalan name !! NotesAndorra >Andorra}} Andorra A sovereign state where Catalan is the national and the sole official language. The Andorrans speak a Western Catalan variety.France >Catalonia}} Northern Catalonia Roughly corresponding to the of Pyrénées-Orientales.{{sfn2005|p=1}} Spain {{flagiconCatalonia >Aran Valley (northwest corner of Catalonia), in addition to Occitan language>Occitan, which is the local language, Catalan, Spanish and French are also spoken.{{sfn2005|p=1}}Valencian Community}} Valencian Community Excepting some regions in the west and south which have been Aragonese/Spanish-speaking since at least the 18th century.{{sfn2005|p=1}} The Western Catalan variety spoken there is known as "Valencian".Aragon}}La Franja A part of the Aragon, specifically a strip bordering Western Catalonia. It comprises the of Ribagorça, Llitera, Baix Cinca, and Matarranya.Balearic Islands}} Balearic Islands Comprising the islands of Mallorca, Menorca, Ibiza and Formentera.Region of Murcia}} Carche A small area of the Region of Murcia, settled in the 19th century.{{sfn>Wheelerp=1}}Italy >22px) Alghero A city in the Province of Sassari, on the island of Sardinia, where the peculiar Algherese dialect is spoken.

Number of speakers

The number of people known to be fluent in Catalan varies depending on the sources used. A 2004 study did not count the total number of speakers, but estimated a total of 9–9.5 million by matching the percentage of speakers to the population of each area where Catalan is spoken.WEB,weblink Sociolinguistic situation in Catalan-speaking areas. Tables. Official data about the sociolinguistic situation in Catalan-speaking areas: Catalonia (2003), Andorra (2004), the Balearic Islands (2004), Aragonese Border (2004), Northern Catalonia (2004), Alghero (2004) and Valencian Community (2004), Generalitat of Catalonia, 7 August 2008, 13 March 2012, The web site of the Generalitat de Catalunya estimated that as of 2004 there were 9,118,882 speakers of Catalan.WEB,weblink Catalan, language of Europe, Generalitat of Catalonia, 13 March 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2012, dmy-all, These figures only reflect potential speakers; today it is the native language of only 35.6% of the Catalan population.Población según lengua habitual. Datos comparados 2003–2008. Cataluña. Año 2008, Encuesta de Usos Lingüísticos de la población (2003 y 2008), Instituto de Estadística de Cataluña According to Ethnologue, Catalan had four million native speakers and five million second-language speakers in 2012.{{citation needed|date=March 2018}}The most important social characteristic of the Catalan language is that all the areas where it is spoken are bilingual in practice: together with the French language in Roussillon, with Italian in Alghero, with Spanish and French in Andorra and with Spanish in the rest of the territories.{| class="wikitable sortable"! Territory !! State !! Understand {{ref|a|1}}Sources:
  • Catalonia: Statistic data of 2001 census, from weblink.
  • Land of Valencia: Statistical data from 2001 census, from WEB,weblink Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 6 September 2005, dead, 2005-06-23, dmy-all, .
  • Land of Valencia: Statistical data from 2001 census, from weblink {{Webarchive|url= |date=16 February 2015 }}.
  • Balearic Islands: Statistical data from 2001 census, from weblink.
  • Northern Catalonia: Survey commissioned by Prefecture of Languedoc-Roussillon Region done in October 1997 and published in January 1998 WEB,weblink Archived copy,weblink" title="">weblink 14 April 2005, dead, 2005-06-23, dmy-all, .
  • Andorra: Sociolinguistic data from Andorran Government, 1999.
  • Aragon: Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic weblink.
  • Alguer: Sociolinguistic data from Euromosaic weblink.
  • Rest of World: Estimate for 1999 by the outside the Catalan Countries.
! Can speak {{ref|b|2}} style="background:#efefef;"Catalonia}} {{flag| 5,698,400 style="background:#efefef;"Valencian Community}} {{flag| 2,407,951 style="background:#efefef;"Balearic Islands}} {{flag| 706,065 style="background:#efefef;"Catalonia}} Roussillon {{flag| 125,621 style="background:#efefef;"Andorra}} {{flag| 61,975 style="background:#fff;"Aragon}} La Franja (Aragon) {{flag| 45,000 style="background:#efefef;"22px) Alghero (Sardinia) {{flag| 17,625 style="background:#fff;"Murcia}} Carche (Region of Murcia) >Spain}} No data No data style="background:#efefef;" Total Catalan Countries >| 9,062,637 style="background:#fff;" Rest of World No data 350,000 style="background:#efefef;" Total 11,150,218 9,412,637
1.{{note|a}} The number of people who understand Catalan includes those who can speak it. 2.{{note|b}} Figures relate to all self-declared capable speakers, not just native speakers.
style"font-size:110%; color: black; background-color: lawngreen;"">

Level of knowledge {| style"margin: 0 0 0.5me 1.4me; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; float: center;" border1 style"font-size:110%; color: black; background-color: lawngreen;"

! Area! Speak! Understand! Read! Write style="background-color:#CCCCCC;"| CataloniaEnquesta d'usos lingüístics de la població. 2018. IDESCAT/Generalitat de Catalunya, 2019. 81.2 94.4 85.5 65.3 style="background-color:#E4E4E4;"| Valencian Community 57.5 78.1 54.9 32.5 style="background-color:#CCCCCC;"| Balearic Islands 74.6 93.1 79.6 46.9 style="background-color:#E4E4E4;"| Roussillon 37.1 65.3 31.4 10.6 style="background-color:#CCCCCC;"| Andorra 78.9 96.0 89.7 61.1 style="background-color:#E4E4E4;"| Franja Oriental of Aragón 88.8 98.5 72.9 30.3 style="background-color:#CCCCCC;"| Alghero 67.6 89.9 50.9 28.4(% of the population 15 years old and older).

Social use

{| style="margin: 0 0 0.5me 1.4me; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; float: center;" border=1 style="font-size:110%; color: black; background-color: lawngreen;"! Area! At home! Outside home style="background-color:#CCCCCC;"| Catalonia 45 51 style="background-color:#E4E4E4;"| Valencian Community 37 32 style="background-color:#CCCCCC;"| Balearic Islands 44 41 style="background-color:#E4E4E4;"| Roussillon 1 1 style="background-color:#CCCCCC;"| Andorra 38 51 style="background-color:#E4E4E4;"| Franja Oriental of Aragón 70 61 style="background-color:#CCCCCC;"| Alghero 8 4(% of the population 15 years old and older).

Native language

{| style="margin: 0 0 0.5me 1.4me; border: 1px #aaa solid; border-collapse: collapse; float: center;" border=1 style="font-size:110%; color: black; background-color: lawngreen;"! Area! People! Percentage style="background-color:#CCCCCC;"| Catalonia 2,813,000 38.5% style="background-color:#E4E4E4;"| Valencian Community 1,047,000 21.1% style="background-color:#CCCCCC;"| Balearic Islands 392,000 36.1% style="background-color:#E4E4E4;"| Andorra 26,000 33.8% style="background-color:#CCCCCC;"| Franja Oriental of Aragon 33,000 70.2% style="background-color:#E4E4E4;"| Roussillon 35,000 8.5% style="background-color:#CCCCCC;"| Alghero 8,000 20% style="background-color: white;"| TOTAL 4,353,000 31.2%Red Cruscat del Instituto de Estudios CatalanesWEB,weblink Tv3 - Telediario: La salud del catalán - YouTube, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 May 2015, WEB,weblink, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 November 2007,


{{IPA notice}}Catalan phonology varies by dialect. Notable features include:{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=630}}
  • Marked contrast of the vowel pairs {{IPA|/É› e/}} and {{IPA|/É” o/}}, as in other Western Romance languages, other than Spanish.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=630}}
  • Lack of diphthongization of Latin short , , as in Galician and Portuguese, but unlike French, Spanish, or Italian.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=630}}
  • Abundance of diphthongs containing {{IPA|/w/}}, as in Galician and Portuguese.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=630}}
In contrast to other Romance languages, Catalan has many monosyllabic words, and these may end in a wide variety of consonants, including some consonant clusters.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=630}} Additionally, Catalan has final obstruent devoicing, which gives rise to an abundance of such couplets as "(male friend") vs. ("female friend").{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=630}}Central Catalan pronunciation is considered to be standard for the language.{{sfn|Feldhausen|2010|p=5}} The descriptions below are mostly representative of this variety.Wheeler 2005 takes the same approach For the differences in pronunciation between the different dialects, see the section on pronunciation of dialects in this article.


File:Catalan vowel chart.svg|The vowel phonemes of Standard Eastern Catalan|thumb|Carbonell|Llisterri|1999|p=62}}Catalan has inherited the typical vowel system of Vulgar Latin, with seven stressed phonemes: {{IPA|/a ɛ e i ɔ o u/}}, a common feature in Western Romance, except Spanish.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=630}} Balearic also has instances of stressed {{IPA|/ə/}}.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|pages=37, 53–54}} Dialects differ in the different degrees of vowel reduction,{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=37}} and the incidence of the pair {{IPA|/ɛ e/}}.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=38}}In Central Catalan, unstressed vowels reduce to three: {{IPA|/a e ɛ/ > [ə]}}; {{IPA|/o ɔ u/ > [u]}}; {{IPA|/i/}} remains distinct.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=54}} The other dialects have different vowel reduction processes (see the section pronunciation of dialects in this article).{| class="wikitable" style="margin:auto; text-align:center;"Wheeler|2005|pages=53–55}}The root is stressed in the first word and unstressed in the second! !! colspan="3" | Front vowels !! colspan="2" | Back vowels! Wordpair! IPAtranscription[ˈʒɛl]}}{{IPA[ˈpeðɾə]}}{{IPA[ˈbaɲə]}}{{IPA[ˈkɔzə]}}{{IPA[ˈtot]}}{{IPA|[tuˈtal]}}Carbonell|Llisterri|1999|pp61–65}}">

Consonants{| class"wikitable" style"text-align: center;"Carbonell|Llisterri|1999|pp61–65}}

! colspan="2" |! Bilabial! Alveolar/ Dental! Palatal! Velar! colspan="2" | Nasalm}}n}}ɲ}}ŋ}}! rowspan="2" | Plosive! voicelessp}}t̪|t}} {{IPAlinkk}}! voicedb}}d̪|d}} {{IPAlinkɡ}}! rowspan="2" | Affricate! voiceless|ts}}tɕ|tʃ}}|! voiced|dz}}dʑ|dʒ}}|! rowspan="2" | Fricative! voicelessf}}s}}ɕ|ʃ}}|! voicedv}})z}}ʑ|ʒ}}|! rowspan="2" | Approximant! central||j}}w}}! lateral|l}}ʎ}}|! colspan="2" | Tap|ɾ}}||! colspan="2" | Trill|r}}||{{Clear}}The consonant system of Catalan is rather conservative, as is the case with most modern Western Romance languages.
  • {{IPA|/l/}} has a velarized allophone in syllable coda position in most dialects.{{sfn|Recasens|Espinosa|2005|p=20}} However, {{IPA|/l/}} is velarized irrespective of position in Eastern dialects like Majorcan{{sfn|Recasens|Espinosa|2005|p=3}} and standard Eastern Catalan.
  • {{IPA|/v/}} occurs in Balearic,{{sfn|Carbonell|Llisterri|1992|p=53}} Alguerese, standard Valencian and some areas in southern Catalonia.{{sfn|Veny|2007|p=51}} It has merged with {{IPA|/b/}} elsewhere.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=13}}
  • Voiced obstruents undergo final-obstruent devoicing: {{IPA|/b/ > [p], /d/ > [t], /É¡/ > [k]}}.{{sfn|Lloret|2003|p=278}}
  • Voiced stops become lenited to approximants in syllable onsets, after continuants: {{IPA|/b/}} > {{IPAblink|β}}, {{IPA|/d/}} > {{IPAblink|ð}}, {{IPA|/É¡/}} > {{IPAblink|É£}}.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=10}} Exceptions include {{IPA|/d/}} after lateral consonants, and {{IPA|/b/}} after {{IPA|/f/}}. In coda position, these sounds are realized as stops,BOOK, Hualde, José, 1992, Catalan, 368, Routledge, 978-0-415-05498-0, except in some Valencian dialects where they are lenited.{{sfn|Recasens|Espinosa|2005|p=1}}
  • There is some confusion in the literature about the precise phonetic characteristics of {{IPA|/ʃ/}}, {{IPA|/Ê’/}}, {{IPA|/tʃ/}}, {{IPA|/dÊ’/}}. Some sources{{sfn|Carbonell|Llisterri|1992|p=53}} describe them as "postalveolar". Others{{sfn|Recasens|Fontdevila|Pallarès|1995|p=288}}{{sfn|Recasens|Espinosa|2007|p=145}} as "back alveolo-palatal", implying that the characters {{angbr IPA|É• Ê‘ tÉ• dÊ‘}} would be more accurate. However, in all literature only the characters for palato-alveolar affricates and fricatives are used, even when the same sources use {{angbr IPA|É• Ê‘}} for other languages like Polish and Chinese.{{harvnb|Recasens|1993}}. Here Recasens labels these Catalan sounds as "laminoalveolars palatalitzades".{{harvnb|Recasens|Pallarès|2001}}. Here the authors label these Catalan sounds as "laminal postalveolar".{{sfn|Recasens|Espinosa|2007|p=145}}
  • The distribution of the two rhotics {{IPA|/r/}} and {{IPA|/ɾ/}} closely parallels that of Spanish. Between vowels, the two contrast, but they are otherwise in complementary distribution: in the onset of the first syllable in a word, {{IPAblink|r}} appears unless preceded by a consonant. Dialects vary in regards to rhotics in the coda with Western Catalan generally featuring {{IPAblink|ɾ}} and Central Catalan dialects featuring a weakly trilled {{IPAblink|r}} unless it precedes a vowel-initial word in the same prosodic unit, in which case {{IPAblink|ɾ}} appears.{{sfn|Padgett|2003|p=2}}
  • In careful speech, {{IPA|/n/}}, {{IPA|/m/}}, {{IPA|/l/}} may be geminated. Geminated {{IPA|/ÊŽ/}} may also occur.{{sfn|Carbonell|Llisterri|1992|p=53}} Some analyze intervocalic {{IPA|[r]}} as the result of gemination of a single rhotic phoneme.{{sfn|Wheeler|1979}} This is similar to the common analysis of Spanish and Portuguese rhotics.See BOOK, Bonet, Eulàlia, Mascaró, Joan, 1997, On the Representation of Contrasting Rhotics, Issues in the Phonology and Morphology of the Major Iberian Languages, Martínez-Gil, Fernando, Morales-Front, Alfonso, Georgetown University Press, 978-0-87840-647-0, for more information.

Phonological evolution


Catalan sociolinguistics studies the situation of Catalan in the world and the different varieties that this language presents. It is a subdiscipline of Catalan philology and other affine studies and has as an objective to analyse the relation between the Catalan language, the speakers and the close reality (including the one of other languages in contact).

Preferential subjects of study

  • Dialects of Catalan
  • Variations of Catalan by class, gender, profession, age and level of studies
  • Process of linguistic normalisation
  • Relations between Catalan and Spanish or French
  • Perception on the language of Catalan speakers and non-speakers
  • Presence of Catalan in several fields: tagging, public function, media, professional sectors



(File:Catalan dialects-en.png|thumb|Main dialects of Catalan{{sfn|Feldhausen|2010|p=6}}{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=2}}{{sfn|Costa Carreras|2009|p=4}})The dialects of the Catalan language feature a relative uniformity, especially when compared to other Romance languages;{{sfn|Moll|1958|p=47}} both in terms of vocabulary, semantics, syntax, morphology, and phonology.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|pp=634–635}} Mutual intelligibility between dialects is very high,{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=1}}{{sfn|Costa Carreras|Yates|2009|p=5}}{{sfn|Feldhausen|2010|p=5}} estimates ranging from 90% to 95%. The only exception is the isolated idiosyncratic Alguerese dialect.{{sfn|Moll|1958|p=47}}Catalan is split in two major dialectal blocks: Eastern Catalan, and Western Catalan.{{sfn|Feldhausen|2010|p=5}}{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|pp=634–635}} The main difference lies in the treatment of unstressed and ; which have merged to {{IPA|/ə/}} in Eastern dialects, but which remain distinct as {{IPA|/a/}} and {{IPA|/e/}} in Western dialects.{{sfn|Moll|1958|p=47}}{{sfn|Feldhausen|2010|p=5}} There are a few other differences in pronunciation, verbal morphology, and vocabulary.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=1}}Western Catalan comprises the two dialects of Northwestern Catalan and Valencian; the Eastern block comprises four dialects: Central Catalan, Balearic, Rossellonese, and Alguerese.{{sfn|Feldhausen|2010|p=5}} Each dialect can be further subdivided in several subdialects. The terms "Catalan" and "Valencian" (respectively used in Catalonia and the Valencian Community) are two varieties of the same language."Dictamen de l'Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua sobre els principis i criteris per a la defensa de la denominació i l'entitat del valencià" {{webarchive|url= |date=23 September 2015 }}. Report from Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua about denomination and identity of Valencian. There are two institutions regulating the two standard varieties, the Institute of Catalan Studies in Catalonia and the Valencian Academy of the Language in the Valencian Community.Central Catalan is considered the standard pronunciation of the language and has the highest number of speakers.{{sfn|Feldhausen|2010|p=5}} It is spoken in the densely populated regions of the Barcelona province, the eastern half of the province of Tarragona, and most of the province of Girona.{{sfn|Feldhausen|2010|p=5}}Catalan has an inflectional grammar. Nouns have two genders (masculine, feminine), and two numbers (singular, plural). Pronouns additionally can have a neuter gender, and some are also inflected for case and politeness, and can be combined in very complex ways. Verbs are split in several paradigms and are inflected for person, number, tense, aspect, mood, and gender. In terms of pronunciation, Catalan has many words ending in a wide variety of consonants and some consonant clusters, in contrast with many other Romance languages.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=630}}{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; "Feldhausen|2010|p=5}}{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|pages=2–3}}! Block Western Catalan colspan="4" | Eastern Catalan! DialectNorthwestern Catalan>Northwestern Valencian '''Central Catalan >Balearic dialect>Balearic''' '''Northern Catalan >Algherese dialect>Alguerese'''! rowspan="2" | AreaSpain, Andorra > Spain France ItalyAndorra, Provinces of province of Lleida>Lleida, western half of province of Tarragona, La Franja >Autonomous community of Valencia, Carche >province of Barcelona>Barcelona, eastern half of province of Tarragona, most of province of Girona>Girona Balearic islands Roussillon/Northern Catalonia City of Alghero in Sardinia

{{anchor|Dialect pronunciation section}}Pronunciation


Catalan has inherited the typical vowel system of Vulgar Latin, with seven stressed phonemes: {{IPA|/a ɛ e i ɔ o u/}}, a common feature in Western Romance, except Spanish.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=630}} Balearic has also instances of stressed {{IPA|/ə/}}.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|pages=37, 53–54}} Dialects differ in the different degrees of vowel reduction,{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=37}} and the incidence of the pair {{IPA|/ɛ e/}}.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=38}}In Eastern Catalan (except Majorcan), unstressed vowels reduce to three: {{IPA|/a e ɛ/ > [ə]}}; {{IPA|/o ɔ u/ > [u]}}; {{IPA|/i/}} remains distinct.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=54}} There are a few instances of unreduced {{IPA|[e]}}, {{IPA|[o]}} in some words.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=54}} Alguerese has lowered {{IPA|[ə]}} to {{IPA|[a]}}.In Majorcan, unstressed vowels reduce to four: {{IPA|/a e ɛ/}} follow the Eastern Catalan reduction pattern; however {{IPA|/o ɔ/}} reduce to {{IPA|[o]}}, with {{IPA|/u/}} remaining distinct, as in Western Catalan.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|pages=53–54}}In Western Catalan, unstressed vowels reduce to five: {{IPA|/e ɛ/ > [e]}}; {{IPA|/o ɔ/ > [o]}}; {{IPA|/a u i/}} remain distinct.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=53}}{{sfn|Carbonell|Llisterri|1999|pp=54–55}} This reduction pattern, inherited from Proto-Romance, is also found in Italian and Portuguese.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=53}} Some Western dialects present further reduction or vowel harmony in some cases.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=53}}{{sfn|Recasens|1996|pp=75–76, 128–129}}Central, Western, and Balearic differ in the lexical incidence of stressed {{IPA|/e/}} and {{IPA|/ɛ/}}.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=38}} Usually, words with {{IPA|/ɛ/}} in Central Catalan correspond to {{IPA|/ə/}} in Balearic and {{IPA|/e/}} in Western Catalan.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=38}} Words with {{IPA|/e/}} in Balearic almost always have {{IPA|/e/}} in Central and Western Catalan as well.{{vague|date=April 2014}}{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=38}} As a result, Central Catalan has a much higher incidence of {{IPA|/ɛ/}}.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=38}}{||{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; "/e/}}, {{IPA|/ə/}}, /ɛ/{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=38}}! Word !! Western !! Majorcan !! Easternexcept Majorcan! ("thirst")/ˈset/}} {{IPA/ˈsɛt/}}! ("he sells")/ˈven/}} {{IPA/ˈbɛn/}}|{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; "Feldhausen|2010|p=5}}{{sfn|Melchor|Branchadell|2002|p=71}}! rowspan="2" | Word !! colspan="2" | Western Catalan !! colspan="4" | Eastern Catalan! Northwestern !! Valencian !! Majorcan !! Central !! Northern {{IPA {{IPA|/ˈmaɾə/}} {{IPA {{IPA|/kənˈso/}} {{IPA {{IPA|/puˈza(ɾ)/}} {{IPA {{IPA|/ˈfɛru/}}{| class="wikitable" style="margin:auto; text-align:center;"Wheeler|2005|pages=53–55}}! !! Word pairs:the first with stressed root,the second with unstressed root !! Western !! Majorcan !! Central! rowspan="4" | Frontvowels{{IPA[dʒeˈlat]}} style="background:#cef2da;"[ˈʒɛl]}}{{IPA{{IPA[ʒəˈlat]}}{{IPA[peˈɾeɾa]}} style="background:#cef2da;"[ˈpəɾə]}}{{IPA{{IPA[pəˈɾeɾə]}}{{IPA[peˈðɾeɾa]}} style="background:#cef2da;"[ˈpeðɾə]}}{{IPA{{IPA[pəˈðɾeɾə]}}{{IPA[baˈɲem]}} style="background:#cef2da;"[ˈbaɲə]}}{{IPA{{IPA[bəˈɲɛm]}}! rowspan="2" | Backvowels{{IPA[koˈzeta]}} style="background:#f2cee0;"[ˈkɔzə]}}{{IPA{{IPA[kuˈzɛtə]}}{{IPA[toˈtal]}} style="background:#f2cee0;"[ˈtot]}}{{IPA{{IPA[tuˈtal]}}


{{expand section|date=March 2014}}


Western Catalan: In verbs, the ending for 1st-person present indicative is in verbs of the 1st conjugation and -∅ in verbs of the 2nd and 3rd conjugations in most of the Valencian Community, or in all verb conjugations in the Northern Valencian Community and Western Catalonia.E.g. , , (Valencian); , , (Northwestern Catalan).Eastern Catalan: In verbs, the ending for 1st-person present indicative is , , or -∅ in all conjugations. E.g. (Central), (Balearic), and (Northern), all meaning ('I speak').{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"|+ 1st-person singular present indicative forms! colspan="3" , rowspan="2" | Conjugation !! colspan="3" | Eastern Catalan !! colspan="2" | Western Catalan !! rowspan="2" | Gloss! Central !! Northern !! Balearic !! Valencian !! Northwestern! colspan="3" | 1st| 'I speak'! colspan="3" | 2nd| 'I fear'! colspan="2" , rowspan="2" | 3rd! {{small|pure}}| 'I feel', 'I hear'! {{small|inchoative}}| 'I polish'Western Catalan: In verbs, the inchoative endings are /, , , .Eastern Catalan: In verbs, the inchoative endings are , , , .Western Catalan: In nouns and adjectives, maintenance of {{IPA|/n/}} of medieval plurals in proparoxytone words.E.g. 'men', 'youth'.Eastern Catalan: In nouns and adjectives, loss of {{IPA|/n/}} of medieval plurals in proparoxytone words.E.g. 'men', 'youth'.


Despite its relative lexical unity, the two dialectal blocks of Catalan (Eastern and Western) show some differences in word choices.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=632}} Any lexical divergence within any of the two groups can be explained as an archaism. Also, usually Central Catalan acts as an innovative element.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=632}}{| class="wikitable"|+ Selection of different words between Western and Eastern Catalan! Gloss !! "mirror" !! "boy" !! "broom" !! "navel" !! "to exit"! Eastern Catalan! Western Catalan


(File:Casa de Convalescència - IEC.JPG|thumb|left|Casa de Convalescència, Headquarters of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans){| class="wikitable" style="width:250px; float:right; margin-left: 1em;"|+ Written varieties! Catalan (IEC)! Valencian (AVL)! glossStandard Catalan, virtually accepted by all speakers,{{sfn|Wheeler|2003|p=207}} is mostly based on Eastern Catalan,{{sfn|Feldhausen|2010|p=5}}{{sfn|Wheeler|2003|p=170}} which is the most widely used dialect. Nevertheless, the standards of the Valencian Community and the Balearics admit alternative forms, mostly traditional ones, which are not current in eastern Catalonia.{{sfn|Wheeler|2003|p=170}}The most notable difference between both standards is some tonic {{angbr|e}} accentuation, for instance: (IEC) – (AVL). Nevertheless, AVL's standard keeps the grave accent {{angbr|è}}, while pronouncing it as {{IPA|/e/}} rather than {{IPA|/É›/}}, in some words like: ('what'), or . Other divergences include the use of {{angbr|tl}} (AVL) in some words instead of {{angbr|tll}} like in / ('almond'), / ('back'), the use of elided demonstratives ( 'this', 'that') in the same level as reinforced ones () or the use of many verbal forms common in Valencian, and some of these common in the rest of Western Catalan too, like subjunctive mood or inchoative conjugation in at the same level as or the priority use of morpheme in 1st person singular in present indicative ( verbs): instead of ('I buy').In the Balearic Islands, IEC's standard is used but adapted for the Balearic dialect by the University of the Balearic Islands's philological section. In this way, for instance, IEC says it is correct writing as much as ('we sing') but the University says that the priority form in the Balearic Islands must be in all fields. Another feature of the Balearic standard is the non-ending in the 1st person singular present indicative: ('I buy'), ('I fear'), ('I sleep').In Alghero, the IEC has adapted its standard to the Alguerese dialect. In this standard one can find, among other features: the definite article instead of , special possessive pronouns and determinants ('mine'), ('his/her'), ('yours'), and so on, the use of {{IPA|/v/}} in the imperfect tense in all conjugations: , , ; the use of many archaic words, usual words in Alguerese: instead of ('less'), instead of ('someone'), instead of ('which'), and so on; and the adaptation of weak pronouns.In 2011,Decreto 89/2011, de 5 de abril, del Gobierno de Aragón, por el que se aprueban losEstatutos de la Academia Aragonesa del Catalán. BOA núm. 77, de 18 de abril de 2011 the Aragonese government passed a decree approving the statutes of a new language regulator of Catalan in La Franja (the so-called Catalan-speaking areas of Aragon) as originally provided for by Law 10/2009.Ley 10/2009, de 22 de diciembre, de uso, protección y promoción de las lenguas propias de Aragón BOE núm. 30, de 4 de febrero de 2010. The new entity, designated as , shall allow a facultative education in Catalan and a standardization of the Catalan language in La Franja.

{{anchor|About Valencian}} Status of Valencian

{{Wikisourcelang|ca|Dictamen sobre els principis i criteris per a la defensa de la denominació i l'entitat del valencià|AVL: Dictamen sobre els principis i criteris per a la defensa de la denominació i l'entitat del valencià}}(File:Subdialectes del valencià.svg|thumb|Subdialects of Valencian)Valencian is classified as a Western dialect, along with the northwestern varieties spoken in Western Catalonia (provinces of Lleida and the western half of Tarragona).{{sfn|Feldhausen|2010|p=5}}{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|pages=2–3}} The various forms of Catalan and Valencian are mutually intelligible (ranging from 90% to 95%)Central Catalan has 90% to 95% inherent intelligibility for speakers of Valencian (1989 R. Hall, Jr.), cited in Ethnologue.Linguists, including Valencian scholars, deal with Catalan and Valencian as the same language. The official regulating body of the language of the Valencian Community, the Valencian Academy of Language (Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, AVL) declares the linguistic unity between Valencian and Catalan varieties.{{sfn|Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua|2005}}Original full text of Dictamen 1: D’acord amb les aportacions més solvents de la romanística acumulades des del segle XIX fins a l’actualitat (estudis de gramàtica històrica, de dialectologia, de sintaxi, de lexicografia…), la llengua pròpia i històrica dels valencians, des del punt de vista de la filologia, és també la que compartixen les comunitats autònomes de Catalunya i de les Illes Balears i el Principat d’Andorra. Així mateix és la llengua històrica i pròpia d’altres territoris de l’antiga Corona d’Aragó (la franja oriental aragonesa, la ciutat sarda de l’Alguer i el departament francés dels Pirineus Orientals). Els diferents parlars de tots estos territoris constituïxen una llengua, és a dir, un mateix «sistema lingüístic», segons la terminologia del primer estructuralisme (annex 1) represa en el Dictamen del Consell Valencià de Cultura, que figura com a preàmbul de la Llei de Creació de l’AVL. Dins d’eixe conjunt de parlars, el valencià té la mateixa jerarquia i dignitat que qualsevol altra modalitat territorial del sistema lingüístic, i presenta unes característiques pròpies que l’AVL preservarà i potenciarà d’acord amb la tradició lexicogràfica i literària pròpia, la realitat lingüística valenciana i la normativització consolidada a partir de les Normes de Castelló.}}The AVL, created by the Valencian parliament, is in charge of dictating the official rules governing the use of Valencian, and its standard is based on the Norms of Castelló (Normes de Castelló). Currently, everyone who writes in Valencian uses this standard, except the Royal Academy of Valencian Culture (Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana, RACV), which uses for Valencian an independent standard.Despite the position of the official organizations, an opinion poll carried out between 2001 and 2004WEB,weblink Casi el 65% de los valencianos opina que su lengua es distinta al catalán, según una encuesta del CIS, showed that the majority of the Valencian people consider Valencian different from Catalan. This position is promoted by people who do not use Valencian regularly.{{sfn|Wheeler|2003|p=207}} Furthermore, the data indicates that younger generations educated in Valencian are much less likely to hold these views. A minority of Valencian scholars active in fields other than linguistics defends the position of the Royal Academy of Valencian Culture (Acadèmia de Cultura Valenciana, RACV), which uses for Valencian a standard independent from Catalan.List of RACV academics {{webarchive|url= |date=14 December 2016 }}This clash of opinions has sparked much controversy. For example, during the drafting of the European Constitution in 2004, the Spanish government supplied the EU with translations of the text into Basque, Galician, Catalan, and Valencian, but the latter two were identical.Isabel I Vilar, Ferran. "Traducció única de la Constitució europea". I-Zefir. 30 Oct 2004. 29 Apr 2009.


Word choices

Despite its relative lexical unity, the two dialectal blocks of Catalan (Eastern and Western) show some differences in word choices.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=632}} Any lexical divergence within any of the two groups can be explained as an archaism. Also, usually Central Catalan acts as an innovative element.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=632}}Literary Catalan allows the use of words from different dialects, except those of very restricted use.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=632}} However, from the 19th century onwards, there has been a tendency towards favoring words of Northern dialects to the detriment of others, {{clarify span|even though nowadays there is a greater freedom of choice.|date=July 2016}}{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=632}}

Latin and Greek loanwords

Like other languages, Catalan has a large list of loanwords from Greek and Latin. This process started very early, and one can find such examples in Ramon Llull's work.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=632}} In the 14th and 15th centuries Catalan had a far greater number of Greco-Latin loanwords than other Romance languages, as is attested for example in Roís de Corella's writings.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=632}} The incorporation of learned, or "bookish" words from its own ancestor language, Latin, into Catalan is arguably another form of lexical borrowing through the influence of written language and the liturgical language of the Church. Throughout the Middle Ages and into the early modern period, most literate Catalan speakers were also literate in Latin; and thus they easily adopted Latin words into their writing—and eventually speech—in Catalan.

Word formation

The process of morphological derivation in Catalan follows the same principles as the other Romance languages,{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=631}} where agglutination is common. Many times, several affixes are appended to a preexisting lexeme, and some sound alternations can occur, for example {{IPA|[əˈlɛktrik]}} ("electrical") vs. {{IPA|[ələktrisiˈtat]}}. Prefixes are usually appended to verbs, as in ("foresee").{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=631}}There is greater regularity in the process of word-compounding, where one can find compounded words formed much like those in English.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=631}}{| class="wikitable"Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=631}}! Type !! Example !! Gloss| "banknote paper"| "military staff"| "typewriter"| "parachute"| "robin" (bird)

Writing system

(File:Catalan geminated L in a dictionary.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|The word ("novel") in a dictionary. The geminated L () is a distinctive character used in Catalan.)File:Billboard in Barcelona (detail).png|thumb|upright=0.8|Billboard in BarcelonaBarcelona{| class="wikitable" style=" text-align: center;"! Main forms > > > > > > > > > > > > ! Modified forms > colspan="2" colspan="2" colspan="6" |Catalan uses the Latin script, with some added symbols and digraphs.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=6}} The Catalan orthography is systematic and largely phonologically based.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=6}} Standardization of Catalan was among the topics discussed during the First International Congress of the Catalan Language, held in Barcelona October 1906. Subsequently, the Philological Section of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans (IEC, founded in 1911) published the Normes ortogràfiques in 1913 under the direction of Antoni Maria Alcover and Pompeu Fabra. In 1932, Valencian writers and intellectuals gathered in Castelló de la Plana to make a formal adoption of the so-called Normes de Castelló, a set of guidelines following Pompeu Fabra's Catalan language norms.BOOK,weblink The Architect of Modern Catalan: Selected writings, 2009, John Benjamins Publishing, 9027289247, Carreras, Joan Costa, en, Yates, Alan, {| class="wikitable"Wheeler|2005|p=7}}! !! Pronunciation !! Examples{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=7}}! /s/}} {{IPA|[fəˈlis]}} ("happy")! rowspan="2" | /ɡ/}} ({{IPA[ˈɡɛrə]}} ("war")/ɡw/}} elsewhere {{IPA|[ˈɡwan]}} ("glove")! [tʃ]}} in final position {{IPA|[ˈratʃ]}} ("trickle")! /ʃ/}} ({{IPA[ˈkaʃə]}} ("box")! /ʎ/}} {{IPA|[ʎɔk]}} ("place")! /l:/}}, but usually {{IPA[nuˈβɛlə]}} ("novel")! /ɲ/}} {{IPA|[kətəˈɫuɲə]}} ("Catalonia")! rowspan="2" | /k/}} before and {{IPA|[ˈki]}} ("who")/kw/}} before other vowels {{IPA|[ˈkwatrə]}} ("four")! /s/}}Intervocalic is pronounced {{IPA[ˈɡɾɔsə]}} ("big-{{smallcaps[ˈkazə]}} ("house")! , [ddʒ]}} {{IPA[midˈdʒo]}} ("sock")! [tʃ]}} {{IPA|[dəsˈpatʃ]}} ("office")! [ddz]}} {{IPA|[ˈdoddzə]}} ("twelve"){| class="wikitable"Wheeler|2005|p=7}}! !! Notes !! Examples{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=7}}! /s/}} before and corresponds to in other contexts ("happy-{{smallcapsfeminine-plural}}") ("I hunt") - ("you hunt")! rowspan="2" | /ʒ/}} before and corresponds to in other positions ("to envy") - ("they envy")[tʃ]}}corresponds to ~ or ~ in other positions {{IPAmasculine}}") - {{IPAfeminine}}") - {{IPAfeminine plural}}") {{IPA! /ɡ/}} before and corresponds to in other positions ("shop") - ("shops")! /ɡw/}} before and corresponds to in other positions ("language") - ("languages")! /k/}} before and corresponds to in other positions ("cow") - ("cows")! /kw/}} before and corresponds to in other positions ("oblique-{{smallcapsfeminine plural}}")! [ʃ~tʃ]}} initially and in onsets after a consonant{{IPA[ɡz]}} before stress, {{IPA[ˈʃarʃə]}} ("net") {{IPA[əɡˈzaktə]}} ("exact"), {{IPA|[ˈfaks]}} ("fax")


The grammar of Catalan is similar to other Romance languages. Features include:{{sfn|Swan|2001|pp=97–98}}

Gender and number inflection

(File:Flexió of word Gat.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|Gender and number inflection of the word ("cat")){||{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"! !! masculine !! feminine! singular! plural|{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"! !! masculine !! feminine! singular! plural|{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"! !! masculine !! feminine! singular ! plural|{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"! !! masculine !! feminine! singular }}! plural s}}In gender inflection, the most notable feature is (compared to Portuguese, Spanish or Italian), the loss of the typical masculine suffix . Thus, the alternance of /, has been replaced by ø/.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=630}} There are only a few exceptions, like / ("scarce").{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=630}} Many not completely predictable morphological alternations may occur, such as:{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=630}}
  • Affrication: / ("insane") vs. / ("ugly")
  • Loss of : / ("flat") vs. / ("second")
  • Final obstruent devoicing: / ("felt") vs. / ("said")
Catalan has few suppletive couplets, like Italian and Spanish, and unlike French. Thus, Catalan has / ("boy"/"girl") and / ("cock"/"hen"), whereas French has / and /.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=630}}There is a tendency to abandon traditionally gender-invariable adjectives in favour of marked ones, something prevalent in Occitan and French. Thus, one can find / ("boiling") in contrast with traditional /.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=630}}As in the other Western Romance languages, the main plural expression is the suffix , which may create morphological alternations similar to the ones found in gender inflection, albeit more rarely.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=630}}The most important one is the addition of before certain consonant groups, a phonetic phenomenon that does not affect feminine forms: / ("the pulse"/"the pulses") vs. / ("the dust"/"the dusts").{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=630–631}}


File:Begur - Plaça de la Vila - Catalunya.jpg|thumb|Sign in the town square of Begur, Catalonia, Spain. In (literally "square of the town"), since the noun ("town") is feminine singular, the definite article carries the corresponding form, ("the").]]{||{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"Fabra|1926|pp=29–30}}! !! masculine !! feminine! singular! plural|{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"|+ Contractions of the definite article! colspan="2" rowspan="2" |! colspan="3" | preposition! a !! de !! per! rowspan="2" | article || el! els|{| class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;"|+ Indefinite article! !! masculine !! feminine! singular! pluralThe inflection of determinatives is complex, specially because of the high number of elisions, but is similar to the neighboring languages.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=631}} Catalan has more contractions of preposition + article than Spanish, like ("of + the [plural]"), but not as many as Italian (which has , , , etc.).{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=631}}Central Catalan has abandoned almost completely unstressed possessives (, etc.) in favour of constructions of article + stressed forms (, etc.), a feature shared with Italian.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=631}}Fabra|1926|p42}}">

Personal pronouns{| class"wikitable" style"text-align:center; float:right;"Fabra|1926|p42}}

! colspan="2" |   !! singular !! plural! colspan="2" | 1st person! rowspan="3" | 2nd person !! informal! formal! respectful ()Archaic in most dialects.! rowspan="2" | 3rd person !! masculine! feminineThe morphology of Catalan personal pronouns is complex, specially in unstressed forms, which are numerous (13 distinct forms, compared to 11 in Spanish or 9 in Italian).{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=631}} Features include the gender-neutral and the great degree of freedom when combining different unstressed pronouns (65 combinations).{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=631}}Catalan pronouns exhibit T–V distinction, like all other Romance languages (and most European languages, but not Modern English). This feature implies the use of a different set of second person pronouns for formality.This flexibility allows Catalan to use extraposition extensively, much more than French or Spanish. Thus, Catalan can have ("they recommended me to him"), whereas in French one must say , and Spanish .{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=631}} This allows the placement of almost any nominal term as a sentence topic, without having to use so often the passive voice (as in French or English), or identifying the direct object with a preposition (as in Spanish).{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=631}}{{clear}}

Verbs{| class"wikitable" style"float:right; margin-left:1em"! style="background:#e0e0ff;"|Non-finite || colspan="6" style="background:#e0e0ff;"|Form style="text-align: center;" style="text-align: center;" style="text-align: center;" (, , , ) style="text-align: center;"! style="background:#e0e0ff;"|Indicative || style="background:#e0e0ff;"| || style="background:#e0e0ff;"| || style="background:#e0e0ff;"|[] || style="background:#e0e0ff;"| || style="background:#e0e0ff;"|[] || style="background:#e0e0ff;"|[] style="text-align: center;" style="text-align: center;" style="text-align: center;" style="text-align: center;" style="text-align: center;" style="text-align: center;"! style="background:#e0e0ff;"|Subjunctive || style="background:#e0e0ff;"| || style="background:#e0e0ff;"| || style="background:#e0e0ff;"|[] || style="background:#e0e0ff;"| || style="background:#e0e0ff;"|[] || style="background:#e0e0ff;"|[] style="text-align: center;" style="text-align: center;" style="text-align: center;"! style="background:#e0e0ff;"|Imperative || style="background:#e0e0ff;"| || style="background:#e0e0ff;"| || style="background:#e0e0ff;"|[] || style="background:#e0e0ff;"| || style="background:#e0e0ff;"|[] || style="background:#e0e0ff;"|[] style="text-align: center;"Like all the Romance languages, Catalan verbal inflection is more complex than the nominal. Suffixation is omnipresent, whereas morphological alternations play a secondary role.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=631}} Vowel alternances are active, as well as infixation and suppletion. However, these are not as productive as in Spanish, and are mostly restricted to irregular verbs.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=631}}The Catalan verbal system is basically common to all Western Romance, except that most dialects have replaced the synthetic indicative perfect with a periphrastic form of ("to go") + infinitive.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=631}}Catalan verbs are traditionally divided into three conjugations, with vowel themes , , , the last two being split into two subtypes. However, this division is mostly theoretical.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=631}} Only the first conjugation is nowadays productive (with about 3500 common verbs), whereas the third (the subtype of , with about 700 common verbs) is semiproductive. The verbs of the second conjugation are fewer than 100, and it is not possible to create new ones, except by compounding.{{sfn|Enciclopèdia Catalana|p=631}}{{clear}}


The grammar of Catalan follows the general pattern of Western Romance languages. The primary word order is subject–verb–object.The World Atlas of Language Structures. However, word order is very flexible. Commonly, verb-subject constructions are used to achieve a semantic effect. The sentence "The train has arrived" could be translated as or . Both sentences mean "the train has arrived", but the former puts a focus on the train, while the latter puts a focus on the arrival. This subtle distinction is described as "what you might say while waiting in the station" versus "what you might say on the train."{{sfn|Wheeler|Yates|Dols|1999}}

Catalan names

In Spain, every person officially has two surnames, one of which is the father's first surname and the other is the mother's first surname.{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=8}} The law contemplates the possibility of joining both surnames with the Catalan conjunction i ("and").{{sfn|Wheeler|2005|p=8}}article 19.1 of Law 1/1998 stipulates that "the citizens of Catalonia have the right to use the proper regulation of their Catalan names and surnames and to introduce the conjunction between surnames"

Sample text

Selected text{{sfn|Swan|2001|p=112}} from Manuel de Pedrolo's 1970 novel ("A love affair outside the city").{| border="0" style="width:100%; text-align:left;"! Original || Word-for-word translation{{sfn|Swan|2001|p=112}} || Free translation[past auxiliary]}} know (=I met) I was about eighteen years old when I met| Raül, at Manresa railway station.| My father had died, unexpectedly and still young,| a couple of years before; and from that time| I still harbour memories of great loneliness.| My relationship with my mother| had not improved; quite the contrary,| and arguably it was getting even worse| as I grew up.| There did not exist, at no point had there ever existed between us| shared interests or affection.| I guess I was seeking... a person| in whom I could center my emotional life.

Loanwords in Catalan and English{| class"wikitable"

! English word !! Catalan word !! Catalan meaning !! Notesbarracks >{{wiktca>barraca}}
"mud hut" Eng < Fr baraques < Cat/Sp barracas.{{sfn|Collins English Dictionary}}barracoon >barracó}} or {{wiktca >barracón < barraca'' (Sp < Cat).{{sfn>Collins English Dictionary}}surge) ''{{wiktca >Middle French
sourgir < Old Catalan surgir''.{{sfn>Gove|1993}}paella >{{wiktca>paella}} "small cooking pot" Eng < Cat < Old French pael(l)e (mod. poêle ‘skillet’) < Latin patella ‘small pan’ (> Sp padilla).{{sfn1993}}cul-de-sac >{{wiktca>cul-de-sac}} "with no exit" French language < Old Catalan/Occitan (> English).{{sfn>Gove|1993}}capicua}} ''{{wiktca|cucumber >{{wiktca>cogombre}} "fruit used in salads" Eng < Old French / Occitan cocombre.{{sfn1993}}

See also

{{Div col}}


{{Div col end}}




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  • BOOK, Moran, Josep, Treballs de lingüística històrica catalana, 1994, Publicacions de l'Abadia de Monsterrat, Barcelona, 84-7826-568-6, 55–93,weblink Catalan, harv,
  • BOOK, Moran, Josep, Estudis d'història de la llengua catalana, 2004, Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat, Barcelona, 84-8415-672-9, 37–38,weblink Catalan, harv,
  • BOOK, Padgett, Jaye, 2003, Systemic Contrast and Catalan Rhotics, University of California, Santa Cruzp=2, harv,
  • BOOK, Recasens, Daniel, 1993, Fonètica i Fonologia, Enciclopèdia Catalana, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Recasens, Daniel, Fontdevila, Jordi, Pallarès, Maria Dolors, 1995, Velarization Degree and Coarticulatory Resistance for /l/ in Catalan and German, Journal of Phonetics, 23, 1, 288, 10.1016/S0095-4470(95)80031-X, harv,
  • BOOK, Recasens, Daniel, 1996, Fonètica descriptiva del català: assaig de caracterització de la pronúncia del vocalisme i el consonantisme català al segle XX, 2nd, Barcelona, Institut d'Estudis Catalans, 9788472833128, 75–76, 128–129, harv,
  • BOOK, Recasens, Daniel, Pallarès, Maria Dolors, 2001, De la fonètica a la fonologia: les consonants i assimilacions consonàntiques del català, Editorial Ariel, Barcelona, 978-84-344-2884-3, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Recasens, Daniel, Espinosa, Aina, 2005, Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35, 1, 1, 20, 10.1017/S0025100305001878, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Recasens, Daniel, Espinosa, Aina, 2007, An Electropalatographic and Acoustic Study of Affricates and Fricatives in Two Catalan Dialects, Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 37, 2, 145, 10.1017/S0025100306002829, harv,
  • BOOK, Riquer, Martí de, Història de la Literatura Catalana, 1964, Ariel, Barcelona, Catalan, Vol.1, harv,
  • BOOK, Russell-Gebbett, Paul, Mediaeval Catalan Linguistic Texts, Dolphin Book Co. Ltd., Oxford, 1965, Paul S. N. Russell-Gebbettref=harv,
  • BOOK, Schlösser, Rainer, Die romanischen Sprachen, 2005, C.H. Beck, Munich, harv,
  • BOOK, Swan, Michael, Learner English: A Teacher's Guide to Interference and Other Problems, Volume 1, 2001, Cambridge University Press,weblink harv, 9780521779395,
  • JOURNAL, Thomas, Earl W., 1962, 43–48, The Resurgence of Catalan, Hispania, 45, 1, 10.2307/337523, harv, 337523,
  • BOOK, Wheeler, Max W., 1979, Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford, Blackwell, 978-0-631-11621-9,
  • BOOK, Wheeler, Max, Yates, Alan, Dols, Nicolau, 1999, Catalan: A Comprehensive Grammar, London, Routledge, harv,
  • BOOK, Wheeler, Max, The Romance Languages, 2003, Routledge, London, 0-415-16417-6, 170–208,weblink 5. Catalan,
  • BOOK, Wheeler, Max, 2005, The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford, 54, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-925814-7, harv,
  • BOOK, Wheeler, Max, 2006, Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, harv,
  • BOOK, Wheeler, Max, Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World, 2010, Elsevier, Oxford, 978-0-08-087774-7, 188–192,weblink Catalan, harv,
  • BOOK, Veny, Joan, Homenatge a Arthur Terry, 1997, Publicacions de l'Abadia de Montserrat, Barcelona, 84-7826-894-4, 9–18,weblink greuges de Guitard isarn, Senyor de Caboet (1080–1095), harv,
  • BOOK, Veny, Joan, 2007, Petit Atles lingüístic del domini català, 1 & 2, Barcelona, Institut d'Estudis Catalans, 51, 978-84-7283-942-7, harv,

External links

{{InterWiki|code=ca}}{{sisterlinks|d=Q7026|voy=Catalan phrasebook|wikt=Category:Catalan language|c=Category:Catalan language|n=no|q=no|s=no|b=Catalan|v=no}}{{External links|date=November 2016}}
  • {{DMOZ|Science/Social_Sciences/Linguistics/Languages/Natural/Indo-European/Italic/Romance/Catalan}}
Institutions About the Catalan language
  • weblink" title="">Gramàtica de la Llengua Catalana (Catalan grammar)
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Monolingual dictionaries Bilingual and multilingual dictionaries Automated translation systems
  • weblink" title="">Traductor automated, online translations of text and web pages (Catalan ↔ English, French and Spanish)
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  • Apertium (free software) translates text, documents or web pages, online or offline, between Catalan and Aranese, English, Esperanto, French, Occitan, Portuguese and Spanish
  • online translations Catalan English and other languages
Phrasebooks Learning resources Catalan-language online encyclopedia {{Navboxes|title=Linguistics|list ={{Romance languages}}{{Occitano-Romance languages and dialects}}{{Catalan dialects}}}}{{Navboxes|title=Geopolitical use|list =}}{{Authority control}}

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