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Alveolar consonant

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Alveolar consonant
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factoids
{{Place_of_articulation}}Alveolar consonants ({{IPAc-en|æ|l|ˈ|v|iː|ə|l|ər|,_|ˌ|æ|l|v|i|ˈ|oʊ|l|ər}}) are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. Alveolar consonants may be articulated with the tip of the tongue (the apical consonants), as in English, or with the flat of the tongue just above the tip (the "blade" of the tongue; called laminal consonants), as in French and Spanish. The laminal alveolar articulation is often mistakenly called dental, because the tip of the tongue can be seen near to or touching the teeth. However, it is the rearmost point of contact that defines the place of articulation, is where the oral cavity ends, and it is the resonant space of the oral cavity that gives consonants and vowels their characteristics.{{cns|text=The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants. Rather, the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that are not palatalized like English palato-alveolar sh, or retroflex.|date=March 2016}} To disambiguate, the bridge ({{IPA|[s̪, t̪, n̪, l̪]}}, etc.) may be used for a dental consonant, or the under-bar ({{IPA|[s̠, t̠, n̠, l̠]}}, etc.) may be used for the postalveolars. {{IPA|[s̪]}} differs from dental {{IPA|[θ]}} in that the former is a sibilant and the latter is not. {{IPA|[s̠]}} differs from postalveolar {{IPA|[ʃ]}} in being unpalatalized.{{cn|date=March 2016}}The bare letters {{IPA|[s, t, n, l]}}, etc. cannot be assumed to specifically represent alveolars. The language may not make such distinctions, such that two or more coronal places of articulation are found allophonically, or the transcription may simply be too broad to distinguish dental from alveolar. If it is necessary to specify a consonant as alveolar, a diacritic from the Extended IPA may be used: {{IPA|[s͇, t͇, n͇, l͇]}}, etc., though that could also mean extra-retracted.E.g. in Laver (1994) Principles of Phonetics, p. 559–560 The letters {{angbr|s, t, n, l}} are frequently called 'alveolar', and the language examples below are all alveolar sounds.(The Extended IPA diacritic was devised for speech pathology and is frequently used to mean "alveolarized", as in the labioalveolar sounds {{IPA|[p͇, b͇, m͇, f͇, v͇]}}, where the lower lip contacts the alveolar ridge.)

In IPA

Alveolar consonants are transcribed in the IPA as follows:{| class="wikitable"! rowspan="2" | IPA! rowspan="2" | Description! colspan="4" | Example
! Language! Orthography! IPA! Meaning in English
! (File:Xsampa-n.png)| alveolar nasal
English language>English| run[ɹʌn]}}|
! (File:Xsampa-t.png)| voiceless alveolar stop
English language>English| stop[stÉ’p]}}|
! (File:Xsampa-d.png)| voiced alveolar stop
English language>English| debt[dɛt]}}|
! (File:Xsampa-s.png)| voiceless alveolar fricative
English language>English| suit[suːt]}}|
! (File:Xsampa-z.png)| voiced alveolar fricative
English language>English| zoo[zuː]}}|
! (File:Xsampa-ts.png)| voiceless alveolar affricate
English language>English| pizza[pit͡sə]}}|
! (File:Xsampa-dz.png)| voiced alveolar affricate
Italian language>Italian| zaino[ˈd͡zaino]}}| backpack
! (File:Xsampa-K2.png)| voiceless alveolar lateral fricative
Welsh language>Welsh| llwyd[ɬʊɪd]}}| grey
! (File:Xsampa-Kslash.png)| voiced alveolar lateral fricative
Zulu language>Zulu| dlala[ˈɮálà]}}| to play
! t͡ɬ| voiceless alveolar lateral affricate
Tsez language>Tsez| элIни[ˈʔe̞t͡ɬni]}}| winter
! d͡ɮ| voiced alveolar lateral affricate| ?| ?| ?| ?
! (File:Xsampa-rslash2.png)| alveolar approximant
English language>English| red[ɹɛd]}}|
! (File:Xsampa-l.png)| alveolar lateral approximant
English language>English| loop[lup]}}|
! (File:Xsampa-l eor5.png)| velarized alveolar lateral approximant
English language>English| milk[mɪɫk]}}|
! (File:Xsampa-4.png)| alveolar flap
English language>English| better[bɛɾɚ]}}|
! (File:Xsampa-lslash.png)| alveolar lateral flap
Venda language>Venda|[vuɺa]}}| to open
! (File:Xsampa-r.png)| alveolar trill
Spanish language>Spanish| perro[pero]}}| dog
! (File:IPA alveolar ejective.png)| alveolar ejective
Georgian language>Georgian| ტიტა[tʼitʼa]}}| tulip
! (File:IPA alveolar ejective fricative.png)| alveolar ejective fricative
Amharic language>Amharic| ጼጋ[sʼɛɡa]}}|
! (File:Alveolar lateral ejective fricative2.PNG)| alveolar lateral ejective fricative
Adyghe language>Adyghe| плӀы[pɬ’ə]}}|
! (File:Xsampa-d lessthan.png)| voiced alveolar implosive
Vietnamese language>Vietnamese| đã[ɗɐː]}}| Past tense indicator
! (File:Xsampa-doublebarslash.png)| alveolar lateral click release (many distinct consonants)
Khoekhoe language>Nama| ǁî[ǁĩː]}}| discussed
(File:Places of articulation.svg|thumb|250px|Places of articulation ({{cfy|text=passive & active|date=March 2016}}):1. Exo-labial, 2. Endo-labial, 3. Dental, 4. Alveolar, 5. Post-alveolar, 6. Pre-palatal, 7. Palatal, 8. Velar, 9. Uvular, 10. Pharyngeal, 11. Glottal, 12. Epiglottal, 13. Radical, 14. Postero-dorsal, 15. Antero-dorsal, 16. Laminal, 17. Apical, 18. Sub-laminal)

Lack of alveolars

The alveolar or dental consonants {{IPA|[t]}} and {{IPA|[n]}} are, along with {{IPA|[k]}}, the most common consonants in human languages.Ian Maddieson and Sandra Ferrari Disner, 1984, Patterns of Sounds. Cambridge University Press Nonetheless, there are a few languages that lack them. A few languages on Bougainville Island and around Puget Sound, such as Makah, lack nasals and therefore {{IPA|[n]}}, but have {{IPA|[t]}}. Colloquial Samoan, however, lacks both {{IPA|[t]}} and {{IPA|[n]}}, but it has a lateral alveolar approximant {{IPA|/l/}}. (Samoan words written with t and n are pronounced with {{IPA|[k]}} and {{IPA|[Å‹]}} in colloquial speech.) In Standard Hawaiian, {{IPA|[t]}} is an allophone of {{IPA|/k/}}, but {{IPA|/l/}} and {{IPA|/n/}} exist.

{{vanchor|Labioalveolar}} consonants

In labioalveolars, the lower lip contacts the alveolar ridge. Such sounds are typically the result of a severe overbite. In the Extensions to the IPA for disordered speech, they are transcribed with the alveolar diacritic on labial letters: {{angbr IPA|m͇ p͇ b͇ f͇ v͇}}.

See also

Notes

{{reflist}}

References

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