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Bilabial consonant

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Bilabial consonant
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{{Place of articulation}}{{IPA notice}}In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a labial consonant articulated with both lips.

Transcription

The bilabial consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) are:{|class=wikitable! rowspan="2" | IPA! rowspan="2" | Description! colspan="4" | Example
! Language! Orthography! IPA! Meaning
missing image!
- Xsampa-m.png -
| bilabial nasal
English language>English| man[mæn]}}|
missing image!
- Xsampa-p.png -
| voiceless bilabial stop
English language>English| spin[spɪn]}}|
missing image!
- Xsampa-b.png -
| voiced bilabial stop
English language>English| bed[bɛd]}}|
missing image!
- Xsampa-pslash.png -
| voiceless bilabial fricative
Japanese language>Japanese| 富士山 (fujisan)[ɸuʑisaɴ]}}| Mount Fuji
missing image!
- Xsampa-B2.png -
| voiced bilabial fricative
Ewe language>Ewe| ɛʋɛ[ɛ̀βɛ̀]}}| Ewe
missing image!
- IPA-voiced bilabial approximant.png -
| bilabial approximant
Spanish language>Spanish| lobo[loβ̞o]}}| wolf
missing image!
- Xsampa-Bslash.png -
| bilabial trill
Nias language>Nias| simbi[siʙi]}}| lower jaw
22px| bilabial ejectiveAdyghe language>Adyghe| пӀэ[pʼa]}}| meat
missing image!
- Xsampa-Oslash.png -
{{IPA|ʘ̬ʘ̃ʘ̥̃ʰʘ̃ˀ}}| bilabial click release (many distinct consonants)
Nǁng language>Nǁng| ʘoe[ʘoe]}}| meat
Owere Igbo has a six-way contrast among bilabial stops: {{IPA|[p pʰ ɓ̥ b b̤ ɓ]}}. Approximately 0.7% of the world's languages lack bilabial consonants altogether, including Tlingit, Chipewyan, Oneida, and Wichita.Maddieson, Ian. 2008. Absence of Common Consonants. In: Haspelmath, Martin & Dryer, Matthew S. & Gil, David & Comrie, Bernard (eds.) The World Atlas of Language Structures Online. Munich: Max Planck Digital Library, chapter 18. Available online atweblink Accessed on 2008-09-15.The extensions to the IPA also define a {{vanchor|bilabial percussive}} ({{IPA|[ʬ]}}) for striking the lips together (smacking the lips – see percussive consonant). A lip-smack in the non-percussive sense of the lips noisily parting would be {{IPA|[ʬ↓]}}.Heselwood (2013: 121){{Citation not found}}The IPA chart shades out bilabial lateral consonants, which is sometimes read as indicating that such sounds are not possible. The fricatives {{IPA|[ɸ]}} and {{IPA|[β]}} are often lateral, but no language makes a distinction for centrality so the allophony is not noticeable.

See also

References

Notes

{{reflist}}

General references

  • {{SOWL}}
  • McDorman, Richard E. (1999). ''Labial Instability in Sound Change: Explanations for the Loss of /p/'l. H'. Chicago: Organizational Knowledge Press. {{ISBN|0-9672537-0-5}}.
{{IPA navigation}}{{phonetics-stub}}

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