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Oran
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{{About|the city in Algeria}}{{More citations needed|date=March 2012}}







factoids
|subdivision_type = CountryAlgeria}}Provinces of Algeria>Province|subdivision_name1 = Oran ProvinceDistricts of Algeria>District|subdivision_name2 = Oran District|subdivision_type3 =|subdivision_name3 =|established_title = Re-founded|established_date = AD 944|leader_title = Wali (Governor)|leader_name = Saddek Benkada|area_magnitude = N/A|area_total_km2 = 2121|area_metro_km2 =|elevation_ft = 3PUBLISHER=CITYPOPULATIONARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://ARCHIVE.IS/20140817143616/HTTP://WWW.CITYPOPULATION.DE/ALGERIA-CITIES.HTMLURL-STATUS=LIVE, |population_total = 1,560,329 {{increase}}|population_as_of = 2008 for city proper, 2010 for metro area|population_density_km2 = auto|population_metro = 3,454,078|population_density_metro_km2 = autoCentral European Time>CET|utc_offset = +1|postal_code_type = Postal codes|postal_code = 31000 - 31037|website =|footnotes =}}Oran ({{IPAc-en|ɔː|ˈ|r|ɑː|n|}}, also {{IPAc-en|UK|ə|ˈ|r|ɑː|n|,_|ə|ˈ|r|æ|n}}, {{IPAc-en|US|oʊ|ˈ|r|ɑː|n|,_|oʊ|ˈ|r|æ|n|,_|ɔː|ˈ|r|ɑ̃}},AMERICAN HERITAGE DICTIONARY, Oran, 15 April 2019, WEB,weblink Oran, Collins English Dictionary, HarperCollins, 15 April 2019,weblink 15 April 2019, live, "Oran" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190415103902weblink |date=2019-04-15 }} (US) and OXFORD DICTIONARIES, Oran, 15 April 2019, MERRIAM-WEBSTER, Oran, 15 April 2019, {{IPA-fr|ɔʁɑ̃|lang}}; ) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria. It is considered the second most important city of Algeria after the capital Algiers, due to its commercial, industrial, and cultural importance. It is {{convert|432|km|0|abbr=on}} from Algiers. The total population of the city was 759,645 in 2008,WEB,weblink The provinces of Algeria and all cities of over 25,000 inhabitants, Citypopulation.de, 2008-04-14,weblink" title="archive.is/20140817143616weblink">weblink 2014-08-17, live, while the metropolitan area has a population of approximately 1,500,000JOURNAL,weblink Une périurbanisation officielle dans un site contraignant, Abdellah, Messahel, 1 June 2008, Espace populations sociétés. Space populations societies, 2008/1, 89–99, 23 June 2018, 10.4000/eps.2408,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130527225743weblink">weblink 27 May 2013, live, making it the second largest city in Algeria.About Oran {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080129140331weblink |date=2008-01-29 }}—from the city's website.A legend says that in 900 AD, lions still lived in the area. The last two lions were hunted on a mountain near Oran and are elsewhere referred to as "mountain lions".WEB,weblink Oran-dz, Oran-dz.com, 2015-01-21,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141223063105weblink">weblink 2014-12-23, live,

Etymology

The word derives from the Berber root hr, meaning lion (see also Tiaret and Souk Ahras). The name is attested in multiple Berber languages, for instance as uharu and ahra. A locally popular legend tells that in the period around AD 900, there were sightings of lions in the area. The two last lions were killed on a mountain near Oran, and it became known as La montagne des lions ("The Mountain of Lions"). Two giant lion statues stand in front of Oran's city hall, symbolizing the city.

History

See also: Timeline of Oran and History of Oran ((:fr:Histoire d'Oran|fr))

Overview

During the Roman empire, a small settlement called Unica Colonia existed in the area of current Oran, but this settlement disappeared after the Arab conquest of the Maghreb.Present-day Oran was founded in 903 by Moorish Andalusi traders.NEWS,weblink The Jewish Community of Oran, Algeria {{!, Beit Hatfutsot|newspaper=Beit Hatfutsot|language=en-US|access-date=2018-06-11|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180612140237weblink|archive-date=2018-06-12|url-status=live}} It was captured by the Castilians under Cardinal Cisneros in 1509, and Spanish sovereignty lasted until 1708, when the city was conquered by the Ottomans. Spain recaptured the city in 1732. However, its value as a trading post had decreased greatly, so King Charles IV sold the city to the Turks in 1792. Ottoman rule lasted until 1831, when the city fell to the French.Under French rule during the 19th and 20th centuries, Oran was the capital of a département of the same name (number 92). In July 1940, the British navy shelled French warships in the port after they refused a British ultimatum to surrender; this action was taken to ensure the fleet would not fall into German hands, as the Nazis had defeated France and occupied Paris. The action increased the hatred of the Vichy regime for Britain but convinced the world that the British would fight on alone against Nazi Germany and its allies. The Vichy government held Oran during World War II until its capture by the Allies in late 1942, during Operation Torch.Also, during French rule, Jews were encouraged to modernize and take on jobs they had not before including agriculture. Jews In the city were allowed to join the French Army starting October 24, 1870 when Algerian Jews were granted citizenship. French Jews would soon be targeted after not choosing to side with the Algerian Muslims who fought for independence against France.WEB, Oran,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161113090003weblink">weblink 2016-11-13, live, Jewish Virtual Library, Before the Algerian War, 1954–1962, Oran had one of the highest proportions of Europeans of any city in North Africa. In July 1962, after a ceasefire and accords with France, the FLN entered Oran and were shot at by a European. A mob attacked pied-noir neighborhoods and massacred thousands of Europeans in Oran;Benjamin Stora, Algeria, 1830–2000: A Short History (Cornell University Press, 2004) p105 453 have been said to have "disappeared."WEB,weblink Algérie 1962 : La vérité sur les massacres d'Oran, Thiolay, Boris, 2006-09-13, L'Express (France), L'Express, 12 November 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120813004854weblink">weblink 13 August 2012, live, This triggered a larger exodus of Europeans to France, which was already underway. Shortly after the end of the war, most of the Europeans and Algerian Jews living in Oran fled to France. In less than three months, Oran lost about half its population. This population lost is similar to the Jews as many fled after siding with France in the Algerian War for Independence. As the war progressed, those who supported independence in Algeria threatened those who sided with Europe causing these people to flee.

Religious history

File:Oran synagogue.jpg|upright|right|thumb|The Great Synagogue of OranGreat Synagogue of OranWith its location as the closest port to Spain and its prominence on the Mediterranean, Jewish refugees first immigrated to Oran to flee persecution and conversion to Christianity in Spain in 1391. This refuge brought other religious refugees that included both Jews again and Muslims in both 1492 and 1502. On October 24, 1870, with the French dominance, Algerian Jews were given French citizenship with the Cremieux Decree. Later, despite a World War II sentiment that favored acceptance, Oran still had a history marked by intolerance. There was a decrease in the Jewish population as Muslims were the only group granted citizenship protection in 1963, one year after Algerian independence.NEWS,weblink The Jewish Community of Oran, Algeria {{!, Beit Hatfutsot|newspaper=The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot|language=en-US|access-date=2016-11-14|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180612140237weblink|archive-date=2018-06-12|url-status=live}}

Islamic dynasties (910–1509){|class"wikitable"

!Start year!End year!Event|910|1082|Oran became a perpetual object of conflict between the Umayyads of al-Andalus and the Fatimids of Kairouan.|1082|1145|Presence of Almoravids. In 1145, Tashfin ibn Ali perished in the outskirts of Oran while trying to flee the besieging Almohad troops, who had already captured Tlemcen, and defeated the Zenata.|1145|1238|Presence of Almohads. 1147 marked the beginning of a period of persecution of Oran's Jews.|1238|1509Abdalwadid>Zianides of Tlemcen and then the Marinid dynasty of Fes. The Oranians grew rich from protection by the Emir, the customs system (tariffs), trade with Marseilles, and the Repubbliche Marinare of Genoa and Republic of Venice>Venice, with whom, in 1250, Oran signed a commercial treaty for 40 years. Toward the end of the 14th century, celebrated Arab historian Ibn Khaldoun wrote, "Oran is superior to all other cities by its trade. It's a paradise for the unhappy one. Those who arrive poor in its walls, will leave it again rich." The city excelled in the export of lead, wool, skins, fine burnous, carpets, haïks, cumin, nuts, and galls, as well as black African slaves.

Spanish period (1509–1708, 1732–1792)

File:Oran2.JPG|thumb|left|The Santa Cruz Fort, Oran. Santa Cruz is Spanish for "holy cross"]]Before the Spaniards, the Portuguese launched a failed expedition to capture the city in July 1501. Four years later, the Spanish took Mers-el-Kébir, located just four miles ({{convert|4|mi|abbr=out|disp=output only}}) to the west of the Oran. Thus began the first organized incursions against the city which, at the time, numbered 25,000 inhabitants and counted 6,000 fueros. Count Pedro Navarro, on the orders of Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, finally captured the city on May 17, 1509. The occupying forces set fire to the books and archives of the town.BOOK, Urzainqui, Tomas, Esarte, Pello, García Manzanal, Alberto, Sagredo, Iñaki, Sagredo, Iñaki, Sagredo, Iñaki, Del Castillo, Eneko, Monjo, Emilio, Ruiz de Pablos, Francisco, Guerra Viscarret, Pello, Lartiga, Halip, Lavin, Josu, Ercilla, Manuel, 2013, La Conquista de Navarra y la Reforma Europea, Pamiela, Pamplona-Iruña, 978-84-7681-803-9,
By 1554, the Turks had reached Algiers. The governor of Oran, Count Alcaudete, allied himself with Moroccan Sultan Mohammed ash-Sheikh against them. Nine years later, in 1563, Álvaro de Bazán, Marquis de Santa Cruz, built the fort of Santa-Cruz, strategically placed at the top of a mountain, l'Aïdour, more than {{convert|1000|ft|m|abbr=on}} above the sea, directly to the west of the city. Pedro Garcerán de Borja, Grand Master of the Order of Montesa, was captain of Oran when, on July 14, 1568, John of Austria (the illegitimate son of Charles I and paternal half-brother of King Philip II), led a flotilla of 33 galleys against the Algerians.File:The Fortified City of Oran on the Barbary Coast.png|thumb|A two-part map showing the port of Oran in the 18th century, by German map publisher Matthäus SeutterMatthäus SeutterIn April 1669 the Spanish governor, the Marquis of Los Vélez, expelled all the Jews who lived in Oran and Mers El KébirJOURNAL, Jonathan Israel, The Jews of Spanish Oran and Their Expulsion in 1669, Mediterranean Historical Review, 9, 2, 1994, 235–255, sending them to be resettled in either Nice, or Livorno.The Spanish rebuilt Santa Cruz Fort to accommodate their city governors. "The fortifications of the place were composed of thick and continuous walls of over two and a half km in circumference, surmounted by strong towers spaced between them," with a central castle or kasbah where the Spanish governor had his headquarters.{{citation needed|date=June 2014}} Under Spanish rule, the city continued to grow, requiring enlargement of the city walls. In spite of the improved fortifications, the city was the object of repeated attacks. Notable in this regard, Moroccan Sharif Moulay Ismail tried to force his way past the defences in 1707, only to see his army decimated.

Ottoman period (1708–1732, 1792–1831)

(File:Mosque Bey Oran.jpg|thumb|left|upright|The Bey Othmane Mosque)The Spanish occupied the city until 1708, when the Turkish Bey, Mustapha Ben Youssef (Bouchelaghem) took advantage of the War of Spanish Succession to drive them out.In 1732, Spanish forces returned under José Carrillo de Albornoz, capturing the city from Bey Hassan. Spain maintained its hold over Oran for the next six decades.
In the night after October 8, 1790, a violent earthquake claimed more than 3,000 victims in less than seven minutes. Charles IV saw no advantage in continuing the occupation of the city, which had become increasingly expensive and perilous. He initiated discussions with the Bey of Algiers. They signed a treaty on September 12, 1792 by which the Spanish transferred the city to the Ottoman Empire. After another earthquake damaged the Spanish defences, the forces of the Ottoman ruler of Algiers, Muhammad Bey (Muhammad Ben-Othman, or Muhammad Bey "el-Kebir"), took possession of Oran on October 8 of the same year. In 1792, the Ottomans settled a Jewish community there. In 1796, the Pasha Mosque (in honour of Hassan Pasha, Dey of Algiers) was built by the Turks with ransom money paid for the release of Spanish prisoners after Spain's final departure. In 1830 the Beys moved their Algerian capital from Mascara to Oran.

French period (1831–1962)

(File:Oran from steps of City Hall LCCN2004707262.jpg|thumb|left|Oran from steps of City Hall, 1894)File:Mairie d oran.JPG|thumb|right|Oran's city hallcity hallThe town of 10,000 inhabitants was still in the possession of the Ottoman Empire when a squadron under the command of captain Bourmand seized el-Kébir on December 14, 1830. The city was in a wretched state. On January 4, 1831, the French commanded by General Damrémont occupied Oran.In September 1831, General Berthezène appointed Mr. Pujol as mayor of Oran; he had been captain of cavalry in retirement and was wounded in the right hand under the Empire.In 1832, leading a force of five thousand men, the young Emir Abd al-Qadir attacked Oran. In April 1833, commander-in-chief, General Boyer, was replaced by the baron Louis Alexis Desmichels. The city's defenders, under attack by Abd al Qadir, held their ground {{citation needed|date=September 2016}}.In World War II, Oran was one of the landing points in Operation Torch, the first American action in the Europe-North Africa theatre in November 1942. The Task Force suffered some damage to its fleet, trying to land in shallow water, but the enemy ships were sunk or driven off, and Oran surrendered after heavy fire from British battleships.Rohwer & Hummelchen 1992 p. 175.

Since independence (1962)

Due to the exodus of Pieds-Noirs, the Cathédrale du Sacré-Cœur d'Oran was converted into a public library in 1984.WEB,weblink Cathédrale de Sacré Coeur, Visit Oran, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161109224206weblink">weblink 2016-11-09, 2016-11-09, Today, Oran is a major port and a commercial centre, and has three universities. The old quarter of Oran has a casbah and an 18th-century mosque. The modern section of Oran is referred to as La Ville Nouvelle and was built after 1831; this section contrasts with the older section, La Blanca.NEWS,weblink Oran {{!, Algeria|newspaper=Encyclopædia Britannica|access-date=2016-11-14|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161114171914weblink|archive-date=2016-11-14|url-status=live}}

Geography

Climate

(File:German Climate Oran.png|thumb|right|Climate in Oran.)Oran features a semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk/BSh). Oran's climate does show influences of a Mediterranean climate; however the combination of the city's relatively high average annual temperature and relatively low annual precipitation precludes it from falling under that climate category. Oran averages {{convert|326|mm|0|abbr=on}} of precipitation annually, the bulk of which falls between November and May. Summers are the warmest times of the year, with average high temperatures in the warmest month (August) approaching 32 degrees Celsius. Winters are the coolest times of the year in Oran, with high temperatures in the coolest month (January) at around 17 degrees Celsius.{{Weather box|width=auto|location = Oran|metric first = yes|single line = yes|Jan record high C = 26.4|Feb record high C = 33.0|Mar record high C = 36.6|Apr record high C = 33.2|May record high C = 40.0|Jun record high C = 39.5|Jul record high C = 45.8|Aug record high C = 43.8|Sep record high C = 40.6|Oct record high C = 39.0|Nov record high C = 33.0|Dec record high C = 30.8|Jan high C = 16.6|Feb high C = 17.7|Mar high C = 19.7|Apr high C = 21.5|May high C = 23.9|Jun high C = 27.7|Jul high C = 30.5|Aug high C = 31.6|Sep high C = 29.0|Oct high C = 25.2|Nov high C = 20.6|Dec high C = 17.7|year high C = 23.5|Jan mean C = 10.9|Feb mean C = 12.1|Mar mean C = 13.9|Apr mean C = 15.8|May mean C = 18.6|Jun mean C = 22.3|Jul mean C = 25.0|Aug mean C = 25.9|Sep mean C = 23.4|Oct mean C = 19.6|Nov mean C = 15.1|Dec mean C = 12.2|year mean C = 17.9|Jan low C = 5.1|Feb low C = 6.5|Mar low C = 8.1|Apr low C = 10.0|May low C = 13.2|Jun low C = 16.9|Jul low C = 19.4|Aug low C = 20.1|Sep low C = 17.7|Oct low C = 14.0|Nov low C = 9.5|Dec low C = 6.7|year low C = 12.3|Jan record low C = -3.0|Feb record low C = -3.0|Mar record low C = -1.3|Apr record low C = 0.0|May record low C = 3.0|Jun record low C = 5.0|Jul record low C = 11.0|Aug record low C = 9.0|Sep record low C = 7.7|Oct record low C = 3.0|Nov record low C = 0.0|Dec record low C = -6.1|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 43.6|Feb precipitation mm = 44.4|Mar precipitation mm = 35.0|Apr precipitation mm = 29.6|May precipitation mm = 27.2|Jun precipitation mm = 3.8|Jul precipitation mm = 1.8|Aug precipitation mm = 2.7|Sep precipitation mm = 13.2|Oct precipitation mm = 24.8|Nov precipitation mm = 55.5|Dec precipitation mm = 45.2|year precipitation mm = 326.8|Jan precipitation days = 8.7|Feb precipitation days = 8.5|Mar precipitation days = 7.1|Apr precipitation days = 7.2|May precipitation days = 6.9|Jun precipitation days = 2.0|Jul precipitation days = 1.3|Aug precipitation days = 1.8|Sep precipitation days = 3.6|Oct precipitation days = 6.6|Nov precipitation days = 8.4|Dec precipitation days = 8.8|year precipitation days = 70.9|unit precipitation days = 0.1 mm|Jan humidity = 79.5|Feb humidity = 76.5|Mar humidity = 74.0|Apr humidity = 70.0|May humidity = 68.0|Jun humidity = 66.2|Jul humidity = 64.7|Aug humidity = 66.5|Sep humidity = 70.2|Oct humidity = 73.9|Nov humidity = 76.3|Dec humidity = 78.6World Meteorological Organization (United Nations>UN)WEB,weblink Weather Information for Oran, Worldweather.org,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110104162150weblink">weblink 2011-01-04, live, |source 2 = climatebase.ru (extremes, humidity)WEB,weblink Oran, Algeria, Climatebase.ru, 11 February 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130502041148weblink">weblink 2 May 2013, live, |date=January 2011}}

Earthquakes

{{further|List of earthquakes in Algeria}}As Oran is located in Northern Algeria, it faces the constant threat of earthquakes that can cause damage to the city. The last major earthquake was in 1790 which killed 3,000 people. Many of the existing older buildings in the city have been reinforced and newer construction is made to withstand earthquakes from the start. While the city dates back to the 900s, the oldest remaining buildings are from the French period in the 1800s making it easier to reinforce these buildings.WEB,weblink Earthquakes In Algeria,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161109222227weblink">weblink 2016-11-09, live,

Government

{{see also|List of mayors of Oran}}

City districts

{{See also|Quarters of Oran}}

List of districts of Oran

(File:quartiers-oran-fr.svg|thumb|Neighborhoods and districts of Oran.){|class="wikitable"|+ Arabic name and names of the districts of Oran! District ! Arabic name ! Name----1 {{bg  }}الحمريEl Hamri{{ligne grise}}2 {{bg  }}حي الإمام الهواريHai Imam El-Houari----3 {{bg  }}السعادةEs-Saada----4 {{bg  }}المقريAl-Maqarri----5 {{bg  }}الحمريEl-Hamri----6 {{bg  }}البدرEl-Badr----7 {{bg  }}الصديقيةEs-Seddikia----8 {{bg  }}المنزهEl-Menzeh----9 {{bg  }}الأميرEl-Emir----10 {{bg  }}العثمانيةEl-Othmania----11 {{bg  }}بوعمامةBouamama----12 {{bg  }}محي الدينMuhieddine{{ligne grise}}

Medina Jedida

{{illm|Medina Jedida|fr|Médina Jdida}} or, new city in English, is a large historical and popular district. It was one of the Muslim quarters in the French colonial period. In this district, there is one of the biggest markets in the country, called Le Marché de Medina Jedida (Medina Jedida Market).

El Hamri

(File:Pasha mosque Oran.jpg|thumb|right|300px|Mosque of Hassan Basha)El Hamri is a large and popular district in the center of Oran, known under French rule as Lamur. The football club Mouloudia d'Oran is found there.Neighborhood streets
  • Avenue of Lamur
  • Street Captain-Rahou
  • Sebbalet Ayada
  • Place The Sahara
  • Gahwat Ettoubi
  • Street Staoueli
  • Street Djemaa Gazouna
  • Street Bougandoura
  • Street Belhadri Smain

Sidi El Houari

The historical district {{illm|Sidi El Houari, Oran|es|Sidi El Houari|lt=Sidi El Houari}} is a suburb in the north of the d'Oran city. The Saint-Louis college is there, as well as the old mosque of the Pasha dating from the 17th century. In this district the skin of Saint-Patron of the city in the name of "Sidi El Houari" rests. Other tourist curiosities: one ancient prefecture of the data base Stalingrad, the Spanish vestiges dating from the 16th century, and especially the Palate of the Bey d'Oran.

Oranian agglomeration

(File:Fort Mers el-Kebir.jpg|thumb|right|Fort Mers el-Kebir)(File:Oran Madagh.jpg|thumb|right|Oran Madagh)File:Cathédrale Oran.jpeg|thumb|right|The Great Library (ex. Cathédrale d'Oran)]]The Oranian metropolis comprises several communes.((:fr:Communes de la wilaya d'Oran|fr))(File:DZ 31 Oran.svg|400px|center)

Mers El-Kébir

Mers El Kébir is a municipality located in north-west of Oran, about seven km ({{convert|7|km|abbr=off|disp=output only}}) from the city centre. As its name indicates (The Great Port), it is a major port and has an important naval base, home to the Algerian Navy.

Aïn El-Turk

Aïn El Turk, whose name means Fountain of the Turks is also located at the North-West of Oran to {{convert|15|km|0|abbr=on}} of the center. It is a seaside town which includes several hotels and other tourist attractions.

Es-Sénia

Es Sénia, located in the south of Oran, is home to industrial parks, several university institutes (Oran-Es-Sénia University, Institut of Communication, ENSET "Higher Teacher training school," CRASC "Research center in social sciences," etc.) and the international airport.

Bir El-Djir

Bir El Djir is a commune that represents the suburbs of Oran (apart from the districts). It is the future beating heart of the Oranian agglomeration. It has several buildings which are the seats of institutions as the headquarters of Sonatrach's downstream activity, the hospital Etablissement Hospitalo-universitaire "November 1st, 1954", the convention center (Palais des Congrès), University of sciences and technology (conceived by the Japanese architect Kenzō Tange), the Institute of medical sciences, the Court of Justice and the National Centre of Research in Social and Cultural Anthropology. There is as well a stadium with a capacity of 50000 places under construction.Bir El Djir is the urban extension to the East of Oran, {{convert|8|km|0|abbr=on}} far from the city center, with a population of 118.000 inhabitants.

Misserghin

Misserghin is a small city in the Western extreme of the metropolis.{{wide image|Oran - Front de mer.jpg|1200px|Panorama of sea front at Oran, Algeria|alt=Mediterranean side – Oran}}

Transportation

{{see also|Port of Wahran}}{{Update|date=April 2016}}(File:Gare ferroviaire.jpg|thumb|right|Railway station in Oran)The city had limited means of transport, which do not cover sufficiently the non-urban zones, but today it does have a tramway and ETO (Enterprise of Oranian Transport) the company acquired new and modern buses. There is an extensive network of "clandestine" taxis in the City. A project started in 2008/9 and lasted approximately two to three years, to deliver the first line of the tramway in 2010. It should comprise 31 stations, distributed on {{convert|17.7|km|0|abbr=on}} going to Es-Sénia, in the South and Sidi Maarouf in the east side, while passing by the centre town The tramway should serve Haï Sabbah, University of Sciences and Technology (USTO), the Crossroads of the Three Private clinics, the Law courts, Dar El Baïda, the Plate-Saint Michel, the Place of the 1st November, Saint-Anthony, Boulanger, Saint-Hubert, the 3rd Ring road and finally The University of Es-Sénia. The Ahmed Ben Bella Airport, for domestic and international flights. Oran Es Senia Airport serves both, domestic and international flights, with frequent connections to the capital Algiers, served by the public airline company Air Algerie. The same company also has flights to many French cities (Marseille, Paris, Lyon, etc.) and other European and EMEA cities. The Es Senia Airport also serves passengers from most smaller towns in proximity to Oran (Sig, Mostaganem, Arzew, etc.). The airport building is a fairly limited construction and does not operate on a 24-h basis.

Sports

International marathon

Oran held its first international marathon on November 10, 2005. The event, sponsored by Toyota of Algeria, attracted runners from Morocco, Libya, Spain, France, and Kenya. The marathon served to publicize the health benefits of running and to provide a novel form of public entertainment for the city's residents.

2021 Mediterranean Games

XIX Mediterranean Games will be held in Oran in 2021.

Culture

(File:DiscoMaghrebOran RomanDeckertJuliaJoerin01012017.jpg|thumb|"Disco Maghreb" in Oran, 2017)The folk music Raï ("opinion" in Arabic), had its beginnings in Oran. This genre of music was formulated by shepherds in the 1930s through Arab and European influences. This music was surrounded by controversy due to women's key role in public performances of the music, as well as the hedonistic lyrics about love and alcohol. This led to strict governmental control in the area which led to arrests, injuries, and assassinations.BOOK, Gross, Joan, "Arab Noise and Ramadan Nights: Rai, Rap and Franco-Maghrebi Identities" The Anthology of Globalization: A Reader, Jonathan Xavier and Renato Rosaldo, Oxford, Blackwell, 2002, Many notable Raï musicians (including Cheb Hasni, Cheb Khaled, and Rachid Taha) hail from Oran. The violinist Akim el Sikameya was also born in Oran. One of Oran's most famous emigrants is Yves Saint Laurent.WEB,weblink Oran, Lonely Planet, 2016-11-14,weblink 2016-11-14, live,

Representation in other media

(File:Place d'armes.jpg|thumb|right|Place 1er novembre (ex.Place d'Armes))(File:ChapelleSantaCruz.jpeg|thumb|right|Chapelle Santa Cruz)
  • Albert Camus' essay "The Minotaur" describes life Oran
  • El Gallardo Español 1615 by Miguel de Cervantes and Albert Camus' novel The Plague (1947) take place in Oran.
  • In the movie Casablanca (1942), the route for refugees fleeing to the Americas was Paris to Marseille, across the Mediterranean to Oran, then by train, auto or foot to Casablanca. If they acquired an exit visa, they went on to Lisbon from there.
  • Paul Bowles' 1949 novel The Sheltering Sky mainly takes place in Oran.
  • Part of Arturo Pérez-Reverte's Capitán Alatriste adventure novel, Corsarios de Levante (Pirates of the Levant, 2006), takes place in early 17th-century Oran. The action of the book occurs a few years after the forced expulsion of the last Moriscos (Spanish Christians of Muslim descent) from Valencia. Oran is featured as a sun-blasted North African military stronghold. Capitán Diego Alatriste finds Oran to be manned by an impoverished garrison of Spanish Christians, living alongside Muslims (some fiercely loyal to Spain), and Sephardic Jews, descendants of refugees from the 1492 expulsions from Spain.
  • In the ITV drama series Hornblower, Lieutenant Hornblower is sent by Captain Pellew to Oran to obtain supplies, only to discover that the city was suffering from a bubonic plague epidemic.
  • The heroine of Geraldine Brooks' novel, Year of Wonders, ends up in Oran after a year in a village quarantined in 1666 because of the plague.
  • Joann Sfar's graphic novel The Rabbi's Cat 2 begins in Oran.
  • Kamel Daoud's novel The Meursault Investigation is set in a bar in Oran.WEB, ‘The Meursault Investigation,’ by Kamel Daoud,weblink New York Times Book Review, 10 January 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150612024424weblink">weblink 12 June 2015, live,

Economy and infrastructure

See also: Economy of Oran ((:fr:Économie|fr))
Oran has become a major trading centre for the wider area, serving Arzew, the area's oil/gas port as well as Sonatrach, the country's biggest oil and gas company. Sonalgas has built a new congress centre in Oran and in 2010 the 16th International Conference & Exhibition on Liquefied Natural Gas was held in the city of Oran, which attracted around 3,000 visitors and major companies from around the world. To accommodate all visitors, new hotels are currently being constructed and floating hotels will be used in the future. With a growth in urbanization, water quality and management is being harmed in Oran; this change in water quality is affecting marine life and the state of beaches in this tourism driven city.JOURNAL, Tayeb A, Chellali M, Hamou A, Debbah S, Impact of urban and industrial effluents on the coastal marine environment in Oran, Algeria, Marine Pollution Bulletin, 98, 1–2, 281-288, 2015, 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.07.013,

Tourism

Oran has numerous hotels in all categories, from luxury to basic, as well as many restaurants offering Algerian specialities and other foods. Tourists will also find a variety of cinemas, arts centres, the regional theatre, an open-air theatre, the Museum, the historic city centre of Oran, the district of Sidi El Houari, the municipal gardens, Médina Djedida with its artisanal products, the cathedral, Djebel Murdjadjo, and nearby seaside resorts. International airport Es-Senia is {{convert|7.4|mi|1|abbr=on}} from the town centre. One can also reach Oran by ferries from the ports of Marseilles, Sète, Alicante and Almería, via the national company Algérie Ferries. The Great Mosque is another attraction for tourists. The Great Mosque was built in 1796 to celebrate the end of Spanish Rule of the City.WEB,weblink Great Mosque, Visit Oran, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161109224336weblink">weblink 2016-11-09, 2016-11-09,

Attractions

The main museum in Oran is called Musée National Ahmend Zabana. Although often overlooked by tourists, it includes a natural history exhibit in addition to arts pieces like mosaics and portraits. Bey's Palace is another favorite spot for tourists, situated in Sidi al-Houari in the city center. It is an Ottoman era palace built of Islamic architecture, consists of harem, guard towers and stucco-painted halls.قصر الباي بوهران ..عانق تاريخ العثمانيين ليبكي على الأطلال اليوم {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180110061837weblink |date=2018-01-10 }}. Djazairess. Retrieved January 10, 2018.

International relations

{{See also|List_of_twin_towns_and_sister_cities_in_Africa#Algeria|l1=List of twin towns and sister cities in Algeria}}Oran is twinned with:{|class="wikitable" valign="top"|
  • {{flagicon|ESP}} Elche, Spain
  • {{flagicon|FRA}} Bordeaux, FranceWEB,weblink Bordeaux – Rayonnement européen et mondial, 2013-07-29, Mairie de Bordeaux, French,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130207154903weblink">weblink 2013-02-07, WEB,weblink Bordeaux-Atlas français de la coopération décentralisée et des autres actions extérieures, 2013-07-29, Délégation pour l’Action Extérieure des Collectivités Territoriales (Ministère des Affaires étrangères), French,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130207152951weblink">weblink 2013-02-07,
  • {{flagicon|CUB}} Havana, Cuba
  • {{flagicon|SEN}} Dakar, Senegal
  • {{flagicon|RSA}} Durban, South AfricaWEB,weblink Sister Cities Home Page, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121011232124weblink">weblink October 11, 2012, eThekwini Online: The Official Site of the City of Durban
  • {{flagicon|POL}} GdaÅ„sk, Poland
  • {{flagicon|BAN}} Rangpur, Bangladesh
  • {{flagicon|TUN}} Sfax, Tunisia
  • {{flagicon|MAR}} Oujda, Morocco

Partnerships and cooperation

  • {{flagicon|FRA}} Strasbourg, FranceWEB,weblink VILLE PARTENAIRE ET SOLIDAIRE, 2019-10-10, Ville de Strasbourg, French,

Notable residents

References

{{Reflist}}

Bibliography

{{See also|Timeline of Oran#Bibliography|l1=Bibliography of the history of Oran}}

External links

{{wikivoyage|Oran}}{{EB1911 poster|Oran}}
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100830045409weblink">EasyOran—{{fr icon}} The Oran electronic guide
  • Visit Oran—Voted in 2007 as "Oran's best website" by the ministry of culture and Panoramic Tours. Mostly dedicated to tourism. Features photo galleries, short films, news, city guides & information, hotel info & reservation forms, forum...
  • Le Souk d'Oran—Oran student's community
  • weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060614161728weblink">Oran's Community FORUM—The Community Discussion Forum for Oran and tourism.
  • {{en icon}} weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060622224658weblink">Audio interview with Oran resident about life in Oran.
  • Oran MAPS—Detailed maps of the Oran Region and City.
  • {{fr icon}} Oran-dz
{{commons category|position=left|Oran|Oran}}{hide}Geographic location|Northwest = Aïn El Turk • Mers El Kébir • Bousfer|North = Mediterranean Sea|Northeast = Aïn Bya • Aïn Franin|East = Mers El Hadjadj • Gdyel • Bir El Djir|Centre = Wahrān|West = Boutlélis|South = El Kerma • Tafraoui • Es Sénia|Southwest = Misserghin|Southeast = Oued Tlélat
|مقاطعة =
{edih}{{Oran}}{{Oran Province}}{{Province seats of Algeria}}{{Barbary Corsairs}}{{Authority control}}

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