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{{about|the country}}{{pp-vandalism|expiry=02:31, October 20, 2020|small=yes}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|Country in the Caribbean}}{{Use dmy dates|date=November 2017}}{{Coord|22|00|N|80|00|W|display=title}}

| image_flag = Flag of Cuba.svg| image_coat = Coat of Arms of Cuba.svg| alt_coat = A shield in front of a fasces crowned by the Phrygian Cap, all supported by an oak branch and a laurel wreath| symbol_type = Coat of armsesitalics=off"Homeland or Death, we shall overcome!"}}{{lowerHTTP://WWW.BC.GOB.CU/ENGLISH/CUBAN_BILLS.ASP >TITLE=CUBAN PESO BILLS DATE=2015, 14 February 2017, }}La Bayamesa{{raise>0.2emBayamo Song }}{{lowerHTTP://MIPAIS.CUBA.CU/CAT_EN.PHP?IDCAT=91&IDPADRE=83&NIVEL=2 >TITLE=NATIONAL SYMBOLS ACCESSDATE=7 SEPTEMBER 2009, }}}}(File:United States Navy Band - La Bayamesa.ogg|center)| image_map = CUB orthographic.svg| image_map2 = Cuba - Location Map (2013) - CUB - UNOCHA.svg| alt_map = | map_caption =| capital = Havana23N23type:city}}| largest_city = capitalCuban Spanish>Spanish| ethnic_groups = {hide}unbulleted list
| {{#expr: 100 *7160399/11167325 round 1{edih}% White
| {{#expr: 100 *2972882/11167325 round 1}}% Mixed{{small|(including Mulatto, Mestizo, Zambo, or Pardo)}}
| {{#expr: 100 *1034044/11167325 round 1}}% Black
}}| ethnic_groups_year = 2012
official 2012 Census {{webarchive>url= |date=3 June 2014 }}Cubans>CubanUnitary state>Unitary Marxism–Leninism One-party state>one-party Socialist state republicTHE CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF CUBA, 1976 (AS AMENDED TO 2002) PUBLISHER= NATIONAL ASSEMBLY OF PEOPLE'S POWER URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE= 17 JANUARY 2013, For discussion of the 1992 amendments, see {{Harvnb2003}}.First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba>First Secretary of the Communist PartyRaúl Castro}}President of Cuba>President| leader_name2 = Miguel Díaz-CanelFirst Vice President}}| leader_name3 = Salvador Valdés MesaSecond Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba>Second Secretary of the Communist PartyJosé Machado Ventura}}National Assembly of People's Power>President of the National AssemblyEsteban Lazo Hernández}}| legislature = National Assembly of People's PowerIndependence}}Ten Years War>Declaration of Independence| established_date1 = 10 October 1868Cuban War of Independence>War of Independence| established_date2 = 24 February 1895Treaty of Paris (1898)>Recognized (handed over from Spain to the United States)| established_date3 = 10 December 1898| established_event4 = Republic declared (independence from United States)| established_date4 = 20 May 1902| established_event5 = Cuban Revolution| established_date5 = 26 July 1953 – 1 January 1959| established_event6 = Current constitution| established_date6 = 24 February 1976| area_km2 = 109,884| area_rank = 104th | area_sq_mi = 42,426 | percent_water = 0.94 ACCESSDATE=JULY 10, 2019, | population_census_year = 2018| population_census_rank = 82nd| population_density_km2 = 102.1| population_density_sq_mi = 264.9 | population_density_rank = 114thUS$ 254.865 billionWORLD BANK GDP PPP 2015, 28 APRIL 2017 PDFACCESSDATE=18 JANUARY 2018, | GDP_PPP_year = 2015| GDP_PPP_rank = ACCESSDATE=18 JANUARY 2018, | GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = PUBLISHER=, | GDP_nominal_year = 2017| GDP_nominal_rank = 63rdPUBLISHER=, | GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 76th| Gini = 38.0 | Gini_year = 2000ACCESSDATE=21 JULY 2013, Reuters, | Gini_rank = | HDI = 0.777 | HDI_year = 2017 | HDI_change = increase PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, 15 December 2015, | HDI_rank = 73rd| currency = {hide}unbulleted list
| Peso (CUP)
| Convertible pesoa
{edih}| currency_code = CUC
Cuba Time>CST| utc_offset = −5| utc_offset_DST = −4Daylight saving time in Cuba>CDT| drives_on = right| calling_code = +53| cctld =}}| footnote_a = From 1993 to 2004, the United States dollar was used alongside the peso, until the dollar was replaced by the convertible peso.}}Cuba ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-Cuba-pronunciation.ogg|ˈ|k|juː|b|É™}}; {{IPA-es|ˈkuβa}}), officially the Republic of Cuba ({{Audio-es|República de Cuba|RCUB.ogg}}), is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos. Cuba is located in the northern Caribbean where the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean meet. It is east of the Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), south of both the U.S. state of Florida and the Bahamas, west of Haiti and north of both Jamaica and the Cayman Islands. Havana is the largest city and capital; other major cities include Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey. The area of the Republic of Cuba is {{convert|110,860|km2|sqmi|sp=us}} ({{convert|109,884|km2|sqmi|sp=us}} without the territorial waters). The island of Cuba is the largest island in Cuba and in the Caribbean, with an area of {{convert|105,006|km2|sqmi|sp=us}}, and the second-most populous after Hispaniola, with over 11 million inhabitants.WEB, Cuba profile: Facts,weblink BBC News, 26 March 2013, The territory that is now Cuba was inhabited by the Ciboney Taíno people from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonization in the 15th century.Allaire, p. 678 From the 15th century, it was a colony of Spain until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when Cuba was occupied by the United States and gained nominal independence as a de facto United States protectorate in 1902. As a fragile republic, in 1940 Cuba attempted to strengthen its democratic system, but mounting political radicalization and social strife culminated in a coup and subsequent dictatorship under Fulgencio Batista in 1952.WEB,weblink Remarks of Senator John F. Kennedy at Democratic Dinner, Cincinnati, Ohio, John F. Kennedy Presidential Library & Museum –, 6 October 1960, 14 February 2017, Open corruption and oppression under Batista's rule led to his ousting in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which afterwards established communist rule under the leadership of Fidel Castro.WEB,weblink Fidel Castro, Encyclopædia Britannica, 26 June 2017, Castro created a one-party government to exercise dictatorial control over all aspects of Cuba's political, economic, and cultural life. All political dissent and opposition were ruthlessly suppressed, BOOK, Fernández, Gonzalo, 2009, Cuba's Primer – Castro's Earring Economy, 9780557065738, The number of individuals who have been jailed or deprived of their freedom in labor camps over the 50 years of Castro's dictatorship is estimated at around 200,000, WEB,weblink Fidel Castro – Cuba's hero and dictator, 26 November 2016, Deutsche Welle, Since 1965, the state has been governed by the Communist Party of Cuba. The country was a point of contention during the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, and a nuclear war nearly broke out during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. Cuba is one of a few extant Marxist–Leninist socialist states, where the role of the vanguard Communist Party is enshrined in the Constitution. Independent observers have accused the Cuban government of numerous human rights abuses, including arbitrary imprisonment.NEWS,weblink World Report 2018: Rights Trends in Cuba, 2018-01-18, Human Rights Watch, 2018-07-15, en, Culturally, Cuba is considered part of Latin America.BOOK, Rangel, Carlos, The Latin Americans: Their Love-Hate Relationship with the United States, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1977, New York, 3–5, 978-0-15-148795-0, BOOK, Skidmore, Thomas E., Peter H. Smith, Modern Latin America, Oxford University Press, 2005, 6, Oxford and New York, 1–10, 978-0-19-517013-9, It is a multiethnic country whose people, culture and customs derive from diverse origins, including the aboriginal Taíno and Ciboney peoples, the long period of Spanish colonialism, the introduction of African slaves and a close relationship with the Soviet Union in the Cold War.Cuba is a sovereign state and a founding member of the United Nations, the G77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States, ALBA and Organization of American States. It has currently one of the world's only planned economies, and its economy is dominated by the exports of sugar, tobacco, coffee and skilled labor. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has high human development and is ranked the eighth highest in North America, though 67th in the world.WEB,weblink Human Development Report 2015 – "Rethinking Work for Human Development", Human Development Report, HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme, It also ranks highly in some metrics of national performance, including health care and education.WEB,weblink GHO – By category – Life expectancy – Data by country, Field Listing: Literacy {{webarchive|url= |date=24 November 2016 }}. CIA World Factbook. It is the only country in the world to meet the conditions of sustainable development put forth by the WWF.JOURNAL, Cabello, Juan José, etal., 2012, An approach to sustainable development: the case of Cuba, Environment, Development and Sustainability, 14, 4, 573–591, 10.1007/s10668-012-9338-8,


Historians believe the name Cuba comes from the Taíno language, however "its exact derivation [is] unknown".WEB, Cuba – Cultural institutions {{!, history – geography|url=|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|accessdate=18 August 2017|page=11|language=en}} The exact meaning of the name is unclear but it may be translated either as 'where fertile land is abundant' (cubao),The Dictionary of the Taino Language (plate 8) Alfred Carrada {{webarchive|url= |date=19 February 2009 }}{{Unreliable source?|date=September 2009}} or 'great place' (coabana).Dictionary – Taino indigenous peoples of the Caribbean Dictionary -- {{webarchive|url= |date=30 April 2008 }}{{Unreliable source?|date=June 2009}}Fringe theory writers who believe that Christopher Columbus was Portuguese state that Cuba was named by Columbus for the town of Cuba in the district of Beja in Portugal.Augusto Mascarenhas Barreto: O Português. Cristóvão Colombo Agente Secreto do Rei Dom João II. Ed. Referendo, Lissabon 1988. English: The Portuguese Columbus: secret agent of King John II, Palgrave Macmillan, {{ISBN|0-333-56315-8}}da Silva, Manuel L. and Silvia Jorge da Silva. (2008). Christopher Columbus was Portuguese, Express Printing, Fall River, MA. 396pp. {{ISBN|978-1-60702-824-6}}.


Pre-Columbian era

File:Hatuey monument, Baracoa, Cuba.JPG|left|thumb|upright|Monument of Hatuey, an early TaínoTaínoBefore the arrival of the Spanish, Cuba was inhabited by three distinct tribes of indigenous peoples of the Americas. The Taíno (an Arawak people), the Guanahatabey and the Ciboney people.The ancestors of the Ciboney migrated from the mainland of South America, with the earliest sites dated to 5,000 BP.BOOK, Art and archaeology of pre-Columbian Cuba, 22, 1996, Ramón Dacal Moure, Manuel Rivero de la Calle, University of Pittsburgh Press, 978-0-8229-3955-9,weblink The Taíno arrived from Hispanola sometime in the 3rd century A.D. When Columbus arrived they were the dominant culture in Cuba, having an estimated population of 150,000.The Taíno were farmers, while the Ciboney were farmers as well as fishers and hunter-gatherers.

Spanish colonization and rule (1492–1898)

After first landing on an island then called Guanahani, Bahamas, on 12 October 1492,BOOK, Ted Henken, Cuba: a global studies handbook,weblink 2008, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-85109-984-9, 30, (gives the landing date in Cuba as 27 October) Christopher Columbus commanded his three ships: La Pinta, La Niña and the Santa María, to land on Cuba's northeastern coast on 28 October 1492.BOOK, Cuba Oficina Del Censo, Cuba: Population, History and Resources 1907,weblink 2009, BiblioBazaar, LLC, 978-1-110-28818-2, 28, (gives the landing date in Cuba as 28 October) (This was near what is now Bariay, Holguín Province.) Columbus claimed the island for the new Kingdom of Spain{{Harvnb|Gott|2004|p=13}} and named it Isla Juana after Juan, Prince of Asturias.BOOK, Alfred J., Andrea, Overfield, James H., The Human Record, 1, Letter by Christopher Columbus concerning recently discovered islands, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005, 8, 978-0-618-37040-5, File:DiegoVelazquezCuellar.jpg|thumb|upright|Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, conquistadorconquistadorIn 1511, the first Spanish settlement was founded by Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar at Baracoa. Other towns soon followed, including San Cristobal de la Habana, founded in 1515, which later became the capital. The native Taíno were forced to work under the encomienda system,WEB,weblink Encomienda or Slavery? The Spanish Crown's Choice of Labor Organization in Sixteenth-Century Spanish America, Latin American Studies, PDF, 19 July 2013, which resembled a feudal system in Medieval Europe.{{Harvnb|McAlister|1984|p=164}} Within a century the indigenous people were virtually wiped out due to multiple factors, primarily Eurasian infectious diseases, to which they had no natural resistance (immunity), aggravated by harsh conditions of the repressive colonial subjugation.BOOK, Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies, Diamond, Jared M., W.W. Norton & Co, New York, NY, 1998,weblink 978-0-393-03891-0, In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of those few natives who had previously survived smallpox.BOOK
, Joseph Patrick
, Byrne
, Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues: A-M
, 2008
, 413
, 978-0-313-34102-1,
J. N. Hays (2005). Epidemics and Pandemics: Their Impacts on Human History {{webarchive|url= |date=27 November 2016 }}. p.82. {{ISBN|1-85109-658-2}}On 18 May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto departed from Havana at the head of some 600 followers into a vast expedition through the Southeastern United States, starting at La Florida, in search of gold, treasure, fame and power.Davidson, James West. After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection Volume 1. Mc Graw Hill, New York 2010, Chapter 1, p. 1 On 1 September 1548, Dr. Gonzalo Perez de Angulo was appointed governor of Cuba. He arrived in Santiago, Cuba on 4 November 1549 and immediately declared the liberty of all natives.{{Harvnb|Wright|1916|p=183}}. He became Cuba's first permanent governor to reside in Havana instead of Santiago, and he built Havana's first church made of masonry.{{Harvnb|Wright|1916|p=229}}. After the French took Havana in 1555, the governor's son, Francisco de Angulo, went to Mexico.{{Harvnb|Wright|1916|p=246}}.(File:Darlington map of Cuba 1680.png|thumb|upright=1.6|left|British map of Cuba 1680)Cuba developed slowly and, unlike the plantation islands of the Caribbean, had a diversified agriculture. But what was most important was that the colony developed as an urbanized society that primarily supported the Spanish colonial empire. By the mid-18th century, its colonists held 50,000 slaves, compared to 60,000 in Barbados; 300,000 in Virginia, both British colonies; and 450,000 in French Saint-Domingue, which had large-scale sugar cane plantations.weblink" title="">Melvin Drimmer, "Reviewed Work: Slavery in the Americas: A Comparative Study of Virginia and Cuba by Herbert S. Klein", The William and Mary Quarterly Vol. 25, No. 2 (Apr. 1968), pp. 307–309, in JSTOR, accessed 1 March 2015File:Descriptionis Ptolemaicæ avgmentvm siue Occidentis notitia breui commentario illustrata p193.tif|thumb|Map of Cuba by Cornelius WytflietCornelius WytflietThe Seven Years' War, which erupted in 1754 across three continents, eventually arrived in the Spanish Caribbean. Spain's alliance with the French pitched them into direct conflict with the British, and in 1762 a British expedition of five warships and 4,000 troops set out from Portsmouth to capture Cuba. The British arrived on 6 June, and by August had Havana under siege.Thomas, Hugh. Cuba: The Pursuit of Freedom (2nd edition). Chapter One. When Havana surrendered, the admiral of the British fleet, George Pocock and the Commander of the Land Forces George Keppel, the 3rd Earl of Albemarle, entered the city as a conquering new governor and took control of the whole western part of the island. The British immediately opened up trade with their North American and Caribbean colonies, causing a rapid transformation of Cuban society. They imported food, horses and other goods into the city, as well as thousands of slaves from West Africa to work on the underdeveloped sugar plantations.File:LindsayCambridge.jpg|thumb|The British invasion and occupation of Havana in 1762]]Though Havana, which had become the third-largest city in the Americas, was to enter an era of sustained development and increasing ties with North America during this period, the British occupation of the city proved short-lived. Pressure from London sugar merchants, fearing a decline in sugar prices, forced negotiations with the Spanish over colonial territories. Less than a year after Britain seized Havana, it signed the Peace of Paris together with France and Spain, ending the Seven Years' War. The treaty gave Britain Florida in exchange for Cuba. The French had recommended this to Spain, advising that declining to give up Florida could result in Spain instead losing Mexico and much of the South American mainland to the British. Many in Britain were disappointed, believing that Florida was a poor return for Cuba and Britain's other gains in the war.The real engine for the growth of Cuba's commerce in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century was the Haitian Revolution. When the enslaved peoples of what had been the Caribbean's richest colony freed themselves through violent revolt, Cuban planters perceived the region's changing circumstances with both a sense of fear and opportunity. They were afraid because of the prospect that slaves might revolt in Cuba, too, and numerous prohibitions during the 1790s on the sale of slaves in Cuba that had previously been slaves in French colonies underscored this anxiety. The planters saw opportunity, however, because they thought that they could exploit the situation by transforming Cuba into the slave society and sugar-producing "pearl of the Antilles" that Haiti had been before the revolution.BOOK, Freedom's Mirror: Cuba and Haiti in the Age of Revolution, Ferrer, Ada, Cambridge University Press, 2014, 978-1107029422, New York, 5, As the historian Ada Ferrer has written, "At a basic level, liberation in Saint-Domingue helped entrench its denial in Cuba. As slavery and colonialism collapsed in the French colony, the Spanish island underwent transformations that were almost the mirror image of Haiti's."BOOK, Freedom's Mirror: Cuba and Haiti in the Age of Revolution, Ferrer, Ada, Cambridge University Press, 2014, 978-1107029422, New York, 10, Estimates suggest that between 1790 and 1820 some 325,000 Africans were imported to Cuba as slaves, which was four times the amount that had arrived between 1760 and 1790.BOOK, Freedom's Mirror: Cuba and Haiti in the Age of Revolution, Ferrer, Ada, Cambridge University Press, 2014, New York, 36, File:Slaves Unloading Ice in Cuba 1832.jpg|thumb|left|SlavesSlavesAlthough a smaller proportion of the population of Cuba was enslaved, at times slaves arose in revolt. In 1812 the Aponte Slave Rebellion took place but it was suppressed.BOOK, Childs, Matt D., The 1813 Aponte Rebellion in Cuba and the Struggle against Atlantic Slavery, 2006, The University of North Carolina Press, 978-0-8078-5772-4, 320 pages, The population of Cuba in 1817 was 630,980, of which 291,021 were white, 115,691 free people of color (mixed-race), and 224,268 black slaves.{{Harvnb|Scheina|2003|p=352}}. This was a much higher proportion of free blacks to slaves than in Virginia, for instance, or the other Caribbean islands. Historians such as Swedish Magnus Mõrner, who studied slavery in Latin America, found that manumissions increased when slave economies were in decline, as in 18th-century Cuba and early 19th-century Maryland of the United States.Magnus Mõrner, Race Mixture in Latin America, Boston, 1967, pp. 124–125In part due to Cuban slaves working primarily in urbanized settings, by the 19th century, there had developed the practice of coartacion, or "buying oneself out of slavery", a "uniquely Cuban development", according to historian Herbert S. Klein.Herbert S. Klein, Slavery in the Americas: A Comparative Study of Virginia and Cuba, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967, p. 196 Due to a shortage of white labor, blacks dominated urban industries "to such an extent that when whites in large numbers came to Cuba in the middle of the nineteenth century, they were unable to displace Negro workers." A system of diversified agriculture, with small farms and fewer slaves, served to supply the cities with produce and other goods.In the 1820s, when the rest of Spain's empire in Latin America rebelled and formed independent states, Cuba remained loyal. Its economy was based on serving the empire.{{explain|date=December 2017}} By 1860, Cuba had 213,167 free people of color, 39% of its non-white population of 550,000. By contrast, Virginia, with about the same number of blacks, had only 58,042 or 11% who were free; the rest were enslaved. In the antebellum years, after Nat Turner's Slave Rebellion of 1831, Virginia discouraged manumissions and strengthened restrictions against free blacks, as did other Southern states. In addition, there was a high demand for slaves, and Virginia planters sold many in the internal domestic slave trade, who were shipped or taken overland to the Deep South, which had greatly expanded its cotton production.

Independence movements

{{see also|Cuban War of Independence}}File:Carlos Manuel de Cespedes.jpg|thumb|upright|Carlos Manuel de CéspedesCarlos Manuel de CéspedesFull independence from Spain was the goal of a rebellion in 1868 led by planter Carlos Manuel de Céspedes. De Céspedes, a sugar planter, freed his slaves to fight with him for an independent Cuba. On 27 December 1868, he issued a decree condemning slavery in theory but accepting it in practice and declaring free any slaves whose masters present them for military service.{{sfn|Chomsky|Carr|Smorkaloff|2004|pp=115–7}} The 1868 rebellion resulted in a prolonged conflict known as the Ten Years' War. Two thousand Cuban Chinese joined the rebels. Chinese had been imported as indentured laborers. A monument in Havana honors the Cuban Chinese who fell in the war.{{Harvnb|Westad|2012|pp=227–8}}The United States declined to recognize the new Cuban government, although many European and Latin American nations did so.WEB,weblink Historia de las Guerras de Liberación de Cuba, {{Unreliable source?|date=September 2009}} In 1878, the Pact of Zanjón ended the conflict, with Spain promising greater autonomy to Cuba. In 1879–1880, Cuban patriot Calixto García attempted to start another war known as the Little War but did not receive enough support.WEB,weblink The Little War (La Guerra Chiquita), {{Unreliable source?|date=September 2009}} Slavery in Cuba was abolished in 1875 but the process was completed only in 1886.{{Harvnb|Scott|2000|p=3}}{{sfn|Chomsky|Carr|Smorkaloff|2004|pp=37–8}}An exiled dissident named José Martí founded the Cuban Revolutionary Party in New York in 1892. The aim of the party was to achieve Cuban independence from Spain.BOOK, Ground warfare: an international encyclopedia, Part 25, Volume 1, 549, 2002, Stanley Sandler, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-57607-344-5,weblink 6 September 2009, In January 1895 Martí traveled to Montecristi and Santo Domingo to join the efforts of Máximo Gómez. Martí recorded his political views in the Manifesto of Montecristi.BOOK, Spanish-americans: Lives And Faces, 171, David Arias,weblink 2005, 978-1-4120-4717-3, Trafford Publishing, Victoria, BC, Canada, 6 September 2009, Fighting against the Spanish army began in Cuba on 24 February 1895, but Martí was unable to reach Cuba until 11 April 1895. Martí was killed in the battle of Dos Rios on 19 May 1895. His death immortalized him as Cuba's national hero.File:Calixto García and William Ludlow in Cuba, 1898.jpg|thumb|Calixto García, a general of Cuban separatist rebels, (right) with U.S. Brigadier General William LudlowWilliam LudlowAround 200,000 Spanish troops outnumbered the much smaller rebel army, which relied mostly on guerrilla and sabotage tactics. The Spaniards began a campaign of suppression. General Valeriano Weyler, military governor of Cuba, herded the rural population into what he called reconcentrados, described by international observers as "fortified towns". These are often considered the prototype for 20th-century concentration camps.BOOK, Of Planting and Planning: The Making of British Colonial Cities, Chapman and Hall, Robert K. Home, 1997, 978-0-419-20230-1, 195,weblink 6 September 2009, Between 200,000 and 400,000 Cuban civilians died from starvation and disease in the camps, numbers verified by the Red Cross and United States Senator Redfield Proctor, a former Secretary of War. American and European protests against Spanish conduct on the island followed.WEB,weblink Cuban Reconcentration Policy and its Effects, The Spanish–American War, Spanish–American War, 29 January 2007, {{Unreliable source?|date=September 2009}}The U.S. battleship Maine was sent to protect U.S. interests, but soon after arrival, it exploded in Havana harbor and sank quickly, killing nearly three quarters of the crew. The cause and responsibility for the sinking of the ship remained unclear after a board of inquiry. Popular opinion in the U.S., fueled by an active press, concluded that the Spanish were to blame and demanded action.BOOK, The American Battleship,weblink 18, Samuel Loring, Morison, Morison, Samuel Eliot, Polmar, Norman, 2003, St. Paul, Minn., MBI Publishing Company, 978-0-7603-0989-6, 15 September 2009, Spain and the United States declared war on each other in late April 1898.Over the previous decades, five U.S. presidents—Polk, Pierce, Buchanan, Grant, and McKinley—had tried to buy the island of Cuba from Spain.{{Harvnb|Falk|1988|p=64}}.WEB,weblink Franklin Pierce: Foreign Affairs—Miller Center, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 March 2016,

Republic (1902–1959)

First years (1902–1925)

(File:Raising the Cuban flag on the Governor General's Palace at noon on May 20, 1902.gif|thumb|left|Raising the Cuban flag on the Governor General's Palace at noon on 20 May 1902)After the Spanish–American War, Spain and the United States signed the Treaty of Paris (1898), by which Spain ceded Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and Guam to the United States for the sum of {{Nowrap|US$20 million}}WEB,weblink Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain, 10 December 1898, The Avalon Project, Yale Law School, and Cuba became a protectorate of the United States. Cuba gained formal independence from the U.S. on 20 May 1902, as the Republic of Cuba.BOOK, Louis A. Pérez, Cuba Between Empires: 1878–1902,weblink 19 July 2013, 1998, University of Pittsburgh Pre, 978-0-8229-7197-9, xv, Under Cuba's new constitution, the U.S. retained the right to intervene in Cuban affairs and to supervise its finances and foreign relations. Under the Platt Amendment, the U.S. leased the Guantánamo Bay Naval Base from Cuba.Following disputed elections in 1906, the first president, Tomás Estrada Palma, faced an armed revolt by independence war veterans who defeated the meager government forces.BOOK, Corruption in Cuba: Castro and Beyond, 63, Sergio, Diaz-Briquets, Jorge F Pérez-López, University of Texas Press, Austin, 2006, 978-0-292-71321-5,weblink 6 September 2009, The U.S. intervened by occupying Cuba and named Charles Edward Magoon as Governor for three years. Cuban historians have characterized Magoon's governorship as having introduced political and social corruption.{{Harvnb|Thomas|1998|pp=283–7}}. In 1908, self-government was restored when José Miguel Gómez was elected President, but the U.S. continued intervening in Cuban affairs. In 1912, the Partido Independiente de Color attempted to establish a separate black republic in Oriente Province,BOOK, The War of 1898, and U.S. interventions, 1898–1934: an encyclopedia, Benjamin Beede, 134, 1994, Garland, New York, 978-0-8240-5624-7,weblink 6 September 2009, but was suppressed by General Monteagudo with considerable bloodshed.In 1924, Gerardo Machado was elected president. During his administration, tourism increased markedly, and American-owned hotels and restaurants were built to accommodate the influx of tourists. The tourist boom led to increases in gambling and prostitution in Cuba.BOOK, Terry K Sanderlin, Ed D, The Last American Rebel in Cuba,weblink 19 July 2013, 24 April 2012, AuthorHouse, 978-1-4685-9430-0, 7, The Wall Street Crash of 1929 led to a collapse in the price of sugar, political unrest, and repression. Protesting students, known as the Generation of 1930, turned to violence in opposition to the increasingly unpopular Machado. A general strike (in which the Communist Party sided with Machado),BOOK, Fulgencio Batista, 1, 50, Argote-Freyre, Frank, Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, N.J., 2006, 978-0-8135-3701-6,weblink uprisings among sugar workers, and an army revolt forced Machado into exile in August 1933. He was replaced by Carlos Manuel de Céspedes y Quesada.BOOK, Wilber Albert Chaffee, Gary Prevost, Cuba: A Different America,weblink 19 July 2013, 1992, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0-8476-7694-1, 4, File:1933-Pentarchy w Batista.jpg|thumb|The Pentarchy of 1933. Fulgencio BatistaFulgencio Batista

Revolution of 1933–1940

In September 1933, the Sergeants' Revolt, led by Sergeant Fulgencio Batista, overthrew Cespedes.BOOK, Jones, Melanie, Jacqueline West, South America, Central America and the Caribbean 2002,weblink 19 July 2013, 2001, Routledge, 978-1-85743-121-6, 303, A five-member executive committee (the Pentarchy of 1933) was chosen to head a provisional government.BOOK, Jaime Suchlicki, Cuba: From Columbus to Castro and Beyond,weblink 19 July 2013, 2002, Potomac Books, Inc., 978-1-57488-436-4, 95, Ramón Grau San Martín was then appointed as provisional president. Grau resigned in 1934, leaving the way clear for Batista, who dominated Cuban politics for the next 25 years, at first through a series of puppet-presidents. The period from 1933 to 1937 was a time of "virtually unremitting social and political warfare".{{Harvnb|Domínguez|1978|p=76}} On balance, during the period 1933–1940 Cuba suffered from fragile politic structures, reflected in the fact that it saw three different presidents in two years (1935–1936), and in the militaristic and repressive policies of Batista as Head of the Army.

Constitution of 1940

A new constitution was adopted in 1940, which engineered radical progressive ideas, including the right to labor and health care.{{Harvnb|Domínguez|1978|p=?}}. Batista was elected president in the same year, holding the post until 1944.BOOK, Frank R. Villafana, Expansionism: Its Effects on Cuba's Independence,weblink 19 July 2013, 31 December 2011, Transaction Publishers, 978-1-4128-4656-1, 201, He is so far the only non-white Cuban to win the nation's highest political office.{{Harvnb|Horowitz|1988|p = 662}}BOOK, Cuba, Leslie, Bethell, 978-0-521-43682-3, 1993, Cambridge University Press, {{Harvnb|Sweig|2004|p=4}} His government carried out major social reforms. Several members of the Communist Party held office under his administration.{{Harvnb|Sweig|2004|p=?}}. Cuban armed forces were not greatly involved in combat during World War II—though president Batista did suggest a joint U.S.-Latin American assault on Francoist Spain to overthrow its authoritarian regime.NEWS, Batista's Boot,weblink Time (magazine), Time, 18 January 1943, 20 April 2013, Batista adhered to the 1940 constitution's strictures preventing his re-election.{{Harvnb|Domínguez|1978|p=101}} Ramon Grau San Martin was the winner of the next election, in 1944. Grau further corroded the base of the already teetering legitimacy of the Cuban political system, in particular by undermining the deeply flawed, though not entirely ineffectual, Congress and Supreme Court.{{Harvnb|Domínguez|1978|pp=110–1}} Carlos Prío Socarrás, a protégé of Grau, became president in 1948. The two terms of the Auténtico Party brought an influx of investment, which fueled an economic boom, raised living standards for all segments of society, and created a middle class in most urban areas.{{Harvnb|Alvarez|2004}}.File:HavanaSlums1954.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.95|Slum (bohio) dwellings in Havana, Cuba in 1954, just outside Havana baseball stadium. In the background is advertising for a nearby casinocasinoAfter finishing his term in 1944 Batista lived in Florida, returning to Cuba to run for president in 1952. Facing certain electoral defeat, he led a military coup that preempted the election.WEB,weblink A Coup in Cuba - History Today,, Back in power, and receiving financial, military, and logistical support from the United States government,BOOK, Guerra, Lillian, Beyond Paradox, A Century of Revolution, Greg, Grandin, Gilbert M., Joseph, 2010, Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 199–238, American Encounters/Global Interactions, 978-0-8223-4737-8, Batista suspended the 1940 Constitution and revoked most political liberties, including the right to strike. He then aligned with the wealthiest landowners who owned the largest sugar plantations, and presided over a stagnating economy that widened the gap between rich and poor Cubans.Historical Dictionary of the 1950s, by James Stuart Olson, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2000, {{ISBN|0-313-30619-2}}, pp. 67–68. Batista outlawed the Cuban Communist Party in 1952.{{Harvnb|Sweig|2004|p=6}} After the coup, Cuba had Latin America's highest per capita consumption rates of meat, vegetables, cereals, automobiles, telephones and radios, though about one third of the population was considered poor and enjoyed relatively little of this consumption.BOOK, Authoritarian Regimes in Latin America,weblink Paul H. Lewis, 186, Rowman & Littlefield, Oxford, UK, 978-0-7425-3739-2, 14 September 2009, 2006, In 1958, Cuba was a relatively well-advanced country by Latin American standards, and in some cases by world standards.{{Harvnb|Smith|Llorens|1998}}. On the other hand, Cuba was affected by perhaps the largest labor union privileges in Latin America, including bans on dismissals and mechanization. They were obtained in large measure "at the cost of the unemployed and the peasants", leading to disparities.{{Harvnb|Baklanoff|1998}}. Between 1933 and 1958, Cuba extended economic regulations enormously, causing economic problems.{{Harvnb|Thomas|1998|p = 1173}}. Unemployment became a problem as graduates entering the workforce could not find jobs. The middle class, which was comparable to that of the United States, became increasingly dissatisfied with unemployment and political persecution. The labor unions supported Batista until the very end. Batista stayed in power until he was forced into exile in December 1958.BOOK, Maureen Ihrie, Salvador Oropesa, World Literature in Spanish: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia,weblink 19 July 2013, 31 October 2011, ABC-CLIO, 978-0-313-08083-8, 262,

Revolution and Communist party rule (1959–present)

File:CheyFidel.jpg|thumb|upright=0.75|left|Che Guevara and Fidel Castro, photographed by Alberto KordaAlberto KordaIn the 1950s, various organizations, including some advocating armed uprising, competed for public support in bringing about political change.BOOK, Aviva Chomsky, A History of the Cuban Revolution,weblink 19 July 2013, 23 November 2010, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-4443-2956-8, 37–38, In 1956, Fidel Castro and about 80 supporters landed from the yacht Granma in an attempt to start a rebellion against the Batista government. It was not until 1958 that Castro's July 26th Movement emerged as the leading revolutionary group.By late 1958 the rebels had broken out of the Sierra Maestra and launched a general popular insurrection. After Castro's fighters captured Santa Clara, Batista fled with his family to the Dominican Republic on 1 January 1959. Later he went into exile on the Portuguese island of Madeira and finally settled in Estoril, near Lisbon. Fidel Castro's forces entered the capital on 8 January 1959. The liberal Manuel Urrutia Lleó became the provisional president.{{Harvnb|Falk|1988|p=67}}.From 1959 to 1966 Cuban insurgents fought a six-year rebellion in the Escambray Mountains against the Castro government. The government's vastly superior numbers eventually crushed the insurgency. The rebellion lasted longer and involved more soldiers than the Cuban Revolution.Ros (2006) pp. 159–201.WEB, Anti-Cuba Bandits: terrorism in past tense,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 22 February 2007, The United States Department of State has estimated that 3,200 people were executed from 1959 to 1962.WEB,weblink Background Note: Cuba,, 21 June 2012, 19 July 2013, According to Amnesty International, official death sentences from 1959–87 numbered 237 of which all but 21 were actually carried out.When the State Kills: The Death Penalty v. Human Rights, Amnesty International Publications, 1989 Other estimates for the total number of political executions range from 4,000 to 33,000.WEB,weblink Cuba or the Pursuit of Freedom Hugh Thomas,, 19 July 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 7 June 2013, WEB,weblink Power Kills, R.J. Rummel, University of Hawaii, 19 July 2013, Black Book of Communism. p. 664. The vast majority of those executed directly following the 1959 revolution were policemen, politicians, and informers of the Batista regime accused of crimes such as torture and murder, and their public trials and executions had widespread popular support among the Cuban population.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Chase, Michelle, Greg Grandin, Joseph Gilbert, A Century of Revolution, The Trials,weblink 17 September 2015, 2010, Duke University Press, Durham, NC, 978-0822347378, 163–198, File:Guantanamo Naval Base aerial photo 1962.jpg|thumb|Since 1959, Cuba has regarded the U.S. presence in (Guantanamo Bay Naval Base|Guantánamo Bay]] as illegal."US rejects Cuba demand to hand back Guantanamo Bay base {{webarchive |url= |date=7 December 2016 }}". BBC News. 30 January 2015.)The United States government initially reacted favorably to the Cuban revolution, seeing it as part of a movement to bring democracy to Latin America.BOOK, Stephen G. Rabe, Eisenhower and Latin America: The Foreign Policy of Anticommunism,weblink 19 July 2013, 1988, UNC Press Books, 978-0-8078-4204-1, 123–125, Castro's legalization of the Communist party and the hundreds of executions of Batista agents, policemen and soldiers that followed caused a deterioration in the relationship between the two countries. The promulgation of the Agrarian Reform Law, expropriating thousands of acres of farmland (including from large U.S. landholders), further worsened relations. In response, between 1960 and 1964 the U.S. imposed a range of sanctions, eventually including a total ban on trade between the countries and a freeze on all Cuban-owned assets in the U.S.BOOK, U.S. International Trade Commission, The Economic Impact of U.S. Sanctions with Respect to Cuba, 978-1-4578-2290-2,weblink Section 2–3, p. 2, In February 1960, Castro signed a commercial agreement with Soviet Vice-Premier Anastas Mikoyan.In March 1960, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower gave his approval to a CIA plan to arm and train a group of Cuban refugees to overthrow the Castro regime.WEB, This Day in History — 7/9/1960,weblink, 19 July 2013, The invasion (known as the Bay of Pigs Invasion) took place on 14 April 1961, during the term of President John F. Kennedy. About 1,400 Cuban exiles disembarked at the Bay of Pigs, but failed in their attempt to overthrow Castro.BOOK, Richard A. Crooker, Cuba,weblink 19 July 2013, 2005, Infobase Publishing, 978-1-4381-0497-3, 43–44, In January 1962, Cuba was suspended from the Organization of American States (OAS), and later the same year the OAS started to impose sanctions against Cuba of similar nature to the U.S. sanctions.WEB,weblink Case Studies in Sanctions and Terrorism: Case 60-3, US v. Cuba (1960– : Castro), Peterson Institute for International Economics, October 2011, 14 February 2017, The Cuban Missile Crisis occurred in October 1962. By 1963, Cuba was moving towards a full-fledged Communist system modeled on the USSR.Faria, Miguel A. Cuba in Revolution – Escape From a Lost Paradise, 2002, Hacienda Publishing, Inc., Macon, Georgia, pp. 163–228File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-L0614-040, Berlin, Fidel Castro an der Grenze.jpg|thumb|Fidel Castro and members of the East German PolitburoPolitburoDuring the 1970s, Fidel Castro dispatched tens of thousands of troops in support of Soviet-supported wars in Africa. He supported the MPLA in Angola and Mengistu Haile Mariam in Ethiopia.{{Harvnb|Domínguez|1989|p=?}}.The standard of living in the 1970s was "extremely spartan" and discontent was rife.BOOK, The Cambridge History of Latin America, Bethell, Leslie, 978-0-521-62327-8, 1998-08-13,weblink {{Page needed|date=August 2010}} Fidel Castro admitted the failures of economic policies in a 1970 speech. In 1975 the OAS lifted its sanctions against Cuba, with the approval of 16 member states, including the U.S. The U.S., however, maintained its own sanctions.Castro's rule was severely tested in the aftermath of the Soviet collapse in 1991 (known in Cuba as the Special Period). The country faced a severe economic downturn following the withdrawal of Soviet subsidies worth {{Nowrap|$4 billion}} to {{Nowrap|$6 billion}} annually, resulting in effects such as food and fuel shortages.JOURNAL, Health consequences of Cuba's Special Period, 2474886, 2008, 179, 3, 18663207, 257, 10.1503/cmaj.1080068, CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal, harv, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 14 March 2016, Doing Business with Cuba – The Complete Guide, 12 January 2015, Patricia Maroday, The government did not accept American donations of food, medicines, and cash until 1993. On 5 August 1994, state security dispersed protesters in a spontaneous protest in Havana.{{Harvnb|Gershman|Gutierrez|2009|p=?}}.File:FidelCastro645.jpg|thumb|left|Fidel Castro with South African President Thabo Mbeki and Swedish Prime Minister Göran PerssonGöran PerssonCuba has since found a new source of aid and support in the People's Republic of China. In addition, Hugo Chávez, then-President of Venezuela, and Evo Morales, President of Bolivia, became allies and both countries are major oil and gas exporters. In 2003, the government arrested and imprisoned a large number of civil activists, a period known as the "Black Spring".WEB,weblink Cuba's Long Black Spring, Carlos Lauria, Monica Campbell, María Salazar, The Committee to Protect Journalists, 18 March 2008, WEB,weblink Cuba – No surrender by independent journalists, five years on from "black spring", Reporters Without Borders, March 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 July 2009, In February 2008, Fidel Castro announced his resignation as President of Cuba following the onset of his reported serious gastrointestinal illness in July 2006.WEB, Castro resigns as Cuban president: official media, Agence France-Presse,weblink 19 February 2008, 19 February 2008, {{Dead link|date=July 2013}} On 24 February his brother, Raúl Castro, was declared the new President.NEWS, Raul Castro named Cuban president,weblink BBC News, 24 February 2008, 24 February 2008, In his inauguration speech, Raúl promised that some of the restrictions on freedom in Cuba would be removed.NEWS, Byte by byte, The Economist,weblink 19 March 2008, 4 April 2008, In March 2009, Raúl Castro removed some of his brother's appointees.NEWS,weblink Raúl Castro replaces top Cuban officials, 2 March 2009, 15 September 2009, The Guardian, London, On 3 June 2009, the Organization of American States adopted a resolution to end the 47-year ban on Cuban membership of the group.WEB,weblink China View 2009-06-04: OAS plenary votes to end Cuba's exclusion,, 4 June 2009, 19 July 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 August 2013, The resolution stated, however, that full membership would be delayed until Cuba was "in conformity with the practices, purposes, and principles of the OAS". Fidel Castro restated his position that he was not interested in joining after the OAS resolution had been announced.WEB,weblink China View 2009-06-04: Cuba's Fidel Castro calls OAS a "U.S. Trojan horse",, 4 June 2009, 19 July 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 August 2013, File:Press conference, Havana.jpg|thumb|right|Raúl Castro and U.S. President Barack ObamaBarack ObamaEffective 14 January 2013, Cuba ended the requirement established in 1961, that any citizens who wish to travel abroad were required to obtain an expensive government permit and a letter of invitation.CNN: "Cuba eases travel restriction for citizens" by Ben Brumfield {{webarchive |url= |date=4 March 2016 }} 16 October 2012 |Until now, Cubans had to pay $150 for an exit visa. A resident in the country that the Cuban wanted to visit would also have to write a letter of invitation. Fees associated with the letter ran as high as $200. That's a steep price in a country where the average official monthly income is about $20.BBC: "Leaving Cuba: The difficult task of exiting the island" by Sarah Rainsford {{webarchive |url= |date=7 December 2016 }} 12 July 2012Washington Office on Latin America: "Cubans Allowed to Travel Abroad Without Exit Visas" By Geoff Thale and Clay Boggs {{webarchive |url= |date=2 April 2016 }} 16 October 2012 In 1961 the Cuban government had imposed broad restrictions on travel to prevent the mass emigration of people after the 1959 revolution;BOOK, Henken, Ted, Cuba, 2013, ABC-CLIO, 9781610690126, 245, it approved exit visas only on rare occasions."Cubans line up for the chance to leave" by Girish Gupta, USA Today, 14 January 2013 Requirements were simplified: Cubans need only a passport and a national ID card to leave; and they are allowed to take their young children with them for the first time.PBS: "Cuba Opens Travel Abroad for Most Citizens, Eliminating Exit Visa Requirement" {{webarchive |url= |date=28 November 2016 }} 14 January 2013 However, a passport costs on average five months' salary. Observers expect that Cubans with paying relatives abroad are most likely to be able to take advantage of the new policy.USA Today: "Cubans can leave, but to where and with what?" by Girish Gupta, 11 November 2012 In the first year of the program, over 180,000 left Cuba and returned.International Business Times: "Cuba's First Year Of Immigration Reform: 180,000 People Leave The Country ... And Come Back" By Patricia Rey Mallén {{webarchive |url= |date=9 August 2016 }} 14 January 2014{{as of|2014|December|}}, talks with Cuban officials and American officials, including President Barack Obama, resulted in the release of Alan Gross, fifty-two political prisoners, and an unnamed non-citizen agent of the United States in return for the release of three Cuban agents currently imprisoned in the United States. Additionally, while the embargo between the United States and Cuba was not immediately lifted, it was relaxed to allow import, export, and certain limited commerce.WEB,weblink Cuba Frees American Alan Gross, Held for Five Years, NBC News, Andrea Mitchell, Eric McClam, 18 December 2014,

Government and politics

File:CubaElectio.JPG|thumb|Sign promoting the 2008 parliamentary election ]]The Republic of Cuba is one of the world's last remaining socialist countries following the Marxist–Leninist ideology. The Constitution of 1976, which defined Cuba as a socialist republic, was replaced by the Constitution of 1992, which is "guided by the ideas of José Martí and the political and social ideas of Marx, Engels and Lenin." The constitution describes the Communist Party of Cuba as the "leading force of society and of the state".The First Secretary of the Communist Party is concurrently President of the Council of State (President of Cuba) and President of the Council of Ministers (sometimes referred to as Prime Minister of Cuba).NEWS,weblink Country profile: Cuba, BBC News, 20 August 2009, 7 September 2009, {{update inline|date=April 2018}} Members of both councils are elected by the National Assembly of People's Power. The President of Cuba, who is also elected by the Assembly, serves for five years and there is no limit to the number of terms of office.File:Comité Central PCC.jpg|thumb|The headquarters of the Communist Party ]]The People's Supreme Court serves as Cuba's highest judicial branch of government. It is also the court of last resort for all appeals against the decisions of provincial courts.Cuba's national legislature, the National Assembly of People's Power (Asamblea Nacional de Poder Popular), is the supreme organ of power; 609 members serve five-year terms. The assembly meets twice a year; between sessions legislative power is held by the 31 member Council of Ministers. Candidates for the Assembly are approved by public referendum. All Cuban citizens over 16 who have not been convicted of a criminal offense can vote.WEB, Cuba 1976 (rev. 2002),weblink Constitue, 28 April 2015, Article 131 of the Constitution states that voting shall be "through free, equal and secret vote". Article 136 states: "In order for deputies or delegates to be considered elected they must get more than half the number of valid votes cast in the electoral districts".No political party is permitted to nominate candidates or campaign on the island, including the Communist Party.Cuba: Elections and Events 1991–2001 {{webarchive |url= |date=1 March 2007 }} Latin American Election Statistics Home The Communist Party of Cuba has held six party congress meetings since 1975. In 2011, the party stated that there were 800,000 members, and representatives generally constitute at least half of the Councils of state and the National Assembly. The remaining positions are filled by candidates nominally without party affiliation. Other political parties campaign and raise finances internationally, while activity within Cuba by opposition groups is minimal.Cuba is considered an authoritarian regime according to the 2016 Democracy IndexWEB, Democracy Index 2016: Revenge of the 'deplorables',weblink, The Economist Intelligence Unit, 20 July 2017, 25 January 2017, and 2017 Freedom in the World survey."Country Status and ratings overview", Freedom in the World 1973–2016, Freedom House. Retrieved 2 August 2016.In February 2013, Cuban president Raúl Castro announced he would resign in 2018, ending his five-year term, and that he hopes to implement permanent term limits for future Cuban Presidents, including age limits.NEWS,weblink Cuba's Raul Castro announces retirement in 5 years, USA Today, 25 February 2013, 23 April 2014, After Fidel Castro died on 25 November 2016, the Cuban government declared a nine-day mourning period. During the mourning period Cuban citizens were prohibited from playing loud music, partying, and drinking alcohol.NEWS,weblink A Nation in Mourning: Images of Cuba After Fidel Castro, Lima, Tomas Munita, Mauricio, 3 December 2016, The New York Times, 7 February 2017, Ahmed, Azam, 0362-4331,

Administrative divisions

The country is subdivided into 15 provinces and one special municipality (Isla de la Juventud). These were formerly part of six larger historical provinces: Pinar del Río, Habana, Matanzas, Las Villas, Camagüey and Oriente. The present subdivisions closely resemble those of the Spanish military provinces during the Cuban Wars of Independence, when the most troublesome areas were subdivided. The provinces are divided into municipalities.(File:CubaSubdivisions.png|thumb|upright=2|Provinces of Cuba){| class="background:transparent"Pinar del RíoArtemisaHavanaMayabequeMatanzasCienfuegosVilla ClaraSancti Spíritus| Ciego de ÁvilaCamagüeyLas TunasGranmaHolguínSantiago de CubaGuantánamoIsla de la Juventud|

Human rights

File:Damas de Blanco demonstration in Havana, Cuba.jpg|thumb|left|Ladies in White demonstration in HavanaHavanaThe Cuban government has been accused of numerous human rights abuses including torture, arbitrary imprisonment, unfair trials, and extrajudicial executions (also known as "El Paredón").WEB, 7 April 1967,weblink Information about human rights in Cuba, Comision Interamericana de Derechos Humanos, Spanish, 9 July 2006, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 June 2006, NEWS,weblink Cuba, Bureau of Public Affairs, United States Department of State, 25 March 2010, 1 April 2011, Human Rights Watch has stated that the government "represses nearly all forms of political dissent" and that "Cubans are systematically denied basic rights to free expression, association, assembly, privacy, movement, and due process of law".WEB,weblink Cuba Country Summary, 2007, Human Rights Watch, 16 January 2019, In 2003, the European Union (EU) accused the Cuban government of "continuing flagrant violation of human rights and fundamental freedoms".WEB,weblink EU-Cuba relations, 4 September 2003, European Communities, 6 September 2009, It has continued to call regularly for social and economic reform in Cuba, along with the unconditional release of all political prisoners.BOOK, Laursen, F., The EU in the Global Political Economy, P.I.E. Peter Lang, 2009, 978-90-5201-554-5,weblink 279, The United States continues an embargo against Cuba "so long as it continues to refuse to move toward democratization and greater respect for human rights",WEB,weblink Cuban Democracy Act, 1992, U.S. Department of State, 6 September 2009, though the UN General Assembly has, since 1992, passed a resolution every year condemning the ongoing impact of the embargo and claiming it violates the Charter of the United Nations and international law.WEB, The US Embargo Against Cuba: Its Impact on Economic and Social Rights,weblink Amnesty International, 29 December 2013, September 2009, Cuba considers the embargo itself a violation of human rights.NEWS,weblink 30 October 2013, 2 June 2014, Record number of nations oppose US embargo of Cuba in UN vote, RT News, On 17 December 2014, United States President Barack Obama announced the re-establishment of diplomatic relations with Cuba, pushing for Congress to put an end to the embargo.NEWS, Historic thaw in U.S., Cuba standoff,weblink CNN, 19 December 2014, File:Radio Republica.jpg|thumb|Cuban dissidents Antonio Rodiles, Antúnez and Orlando Gutierrez-BoronatOrlando Gutierrez-BoronatCuba had the second-highest number of imprisoned journalists of any nation in 2008 (China had the highest) according to various sources, including the Committee to Protect Journalists and Human Rights Watch.WEB,weblink CPJ's 2008 prison census: Online and in jail, Committee to Protect Journalists, BOOK, World Report 2008: Events of 2007, Seven Stories Press, 2008, 978-1-58322-774-9, Human Rights Watch, 207,weblink Cuban dissidents face arrest and imprisonment. In the 1990s, Human Rights Watch reported that Cuba's extensive prison system, one of the largest in Latin America, consists of 40 maximum-security prisons, 30 minimum-security prisons, and over 200 work camps.WEB,weblink Cuba's Repressive Machinery – V. General Prison Conditions, Human Rights Watch, 29 March 2013, According to Human Rights Watch, Cuba's prison population is confined in "substandard and unhealthy conditions, where prisoners face physical and sexual abuse".In July 2010, the unofficial Cuban Human Rights Commission said there were 167 political prisoners in Cuba, a fall from 201 at the start of the year. The head of the commission stated that long prison sentences were being replaced by harassment and intimidation.NEWS,weblink Number of Cuban political prisoners dips – rights group, 5 July 2010, 2 June 2014, BBC News, During the entire period of Castro's rule over the island, an estimated 200,000 people had been imprisoned or deprived of their freedoms for political reasons.

Foreign relations

{{See also|Cuban medical internationalism}}File:Havana11.JPG|thumb|Propaganda sign in front of the United States Interests Section in HavanaUnited States Interests Section in HavanaCuba has conducted a foreign policy that is uncharacteristic of such a minor, developing country.{{Harvnb|Domínguez|1989|p=6}}: "Cuba is a small country, but it has the foreign policy of a big power."{{Harvnb|Feinsilver|1989|p=2}}: "Cuba has projected disproportionately greater power and influence through military might ... through economic largesse ... as a mediator in regional conflicts, and as a forceful and persuasive advocate of Third World interests in international forums. Cuba's scientific achievements, while limited, are also being shared with other Third World countries, thereby furthering Cuban influence and prestige abroad." Under Castro, Cuba was heavily involved in wars in Africa, Central America and Asia. Cuba supported Algeria in 1961–1965,{{Harvnb|Gleijeses|1996|pp=159, 161}}: "Cuba's relationship with Algeria in 1961–5 ... clashes with the image of Cuban foreign policy—cynical ploys of a [Soviet] client state—that prevails not only in the United States but also in many European capitals. ... The aid Cuba gave Algeria in 1961–2 had nothing to do with the East-West conflict. Its roots predate Castro's victory in 1959 and lie in the Cubans' widespread identification with the struggle of the Algerian people." and sent tens of thousands of troops to Angola during the Angolan Civil War.{{Harvnb|Gleijeses|2010|p=327}}: "The dispatch of 36,000 Cuban soldiers to Angola between November 1975 and April 1976 stunned the world; ... by 1988, there were 55,000 Cuban soldiers in Angola." Other countries that featured Cuban involvement include Ethiopia,{{Harvnb|Gleijeses|2002|p=392}}: "After Angola, Cuba's largest military intervention was in Ethiopia, where in 1978 16,000 Cuban troops helped repulse the invading Somali army."{{Harvnb|Tareke|2009|pp=62–3}}. Tareke refers here to the training given to 10 members of the Eritrean Liberation Front in 1968 during the Eritrean struggle for independence. Guinea,{{Harvnb|Gleijeses|1997|p=50}}: "On 14–16 October 1960, [Guinean president Ahmed Sékou] Touré went to Havana. It was the first visit of an African chief of state to Cuba. The following year Cuba's foreign aid programme to Third World governments began when fifteen students from Guinea arrived in Havana to attend the university or technical institutes." Guinea-Bissau,{{Harvnb|Gleijeses|1997|p=45}}: "Joining the rebellion in 1966, and remaining through the war's end in 1974, this was the longest Cuban intervention in Africa before the despatch of troops to Angola in November 1975. It was also the most successful. As the Guinean paper Nõ Pintcha declared, 'The Cubans' solidarity was decisive for our struggle{{' "}}. Mozambique,{{Harvnb|Gleijeses|2002|p=227}}. The Cuban contribution to the independence of Mozambique was not very important. and Yemen.{{sfn|Ramazani|1975|p=91 }} Lesser known actions include the 1959 missions to the Dominican Republic.NEWS, Waterloo Daily Courier, 24 June 1959, Waterloo, Iowa, AP 1950 Invasion Wiped Out Says Trujillo, 7, {{Unreliable source?|date=September 2009}} The expedition failed, but a prominent monument to its members was erected in their memory in Santo Domingo by the Dominican government, and they feature prominently at the country's Memorial Museum of the Resistance.WEB, Resistencia 1916–1966,weblink, 24 April 2013, In 2008, the European Union (EU) and Cuba agreed to resume full relations and cooperation activities.WEB,weblink Joint declarations concerning areas and modalities provisionally identified for cooperation, 26 November 2008, European Commission, 6 September 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2011, Cuba is a founding member of the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas.WEB, Hirst, Joel D., 2 December 2010, The Bolivarian Alliance of the Americas,weblink Council on Foreign Relations,, 24 April 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 15 June 2013, dead, At the end of 2012, tens of thousands of Cuban medical personnel worked abroad,WEB, Millman, Joel, 15 January 2011, New Prize in Cold War: Cuban Doctors,weblink The Wall Street Journal,, 24 April 2013, with as many as 30,000 doctors in Venezuela alone via the two countries' oil-for-doctors programme.WEB, Arsenault, Chris, 31 December 2012, Cuban doctors prescribe hope in Venezuela,weblink Al Jazeera English,, 24 April 2013, As the article discusses, the oil-for-doctors programme has not been welcomed uncritically in Venezuela. The initial impetus for Cuban doctors' going to Venezuela was a Chavez-government welfare project called Misión Barrio Adentro ({{Harvnb|Albornoz|2006}}).File:Парад в честь 70-летия Великой Победы - 42.jpg|thumb|Raúl Castro with Mongolian President Elbegdorj during the Moscow Victory Day Parade, 9 May 2015]]In 1996, the United States, then under President Bill Clinton, brought in the Cuban Liberty and Democratic Solidarity Act, better known as the Helms–Burton Act.{{Harvnb|Roy|2000}}.Roy's study was described as "systematic and fair" by Jorge Domínguez—see JOURNAL, Domínguez, Jorge I., 2001, Reviews: Cuba, the United States, and the Helms-Burton Doctrine: International Reactions by Joaquín Roy, Journal of Latin American Studies, 33, 4, 888–890, 3653779, 10.1017/s0022216x0133626x, In 2009, United States President Barack Obama stated on 17 April, in Trinidad and Tobago that "the United States seeks a new beginning with Cuba",WEB,weblink Obama Says U.S., Cuba Taking Critical Steps Toward a New Day, 21 April 2009, Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State, 6 September 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 November 2009, and reversed the Bush Administration's prohibition on travel and remittances by Cuban-Americans from the United States to Cuba.WEB,weblink U.S. Administration Announcement on U.S. Policy Toward Cuba, 13 April 2009, Bureau of International Information Programs, U.S. Department of State, 6 September 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 August 2009, Five years later, an agreement between the United States and Cuba, popularly called "The Cuban Thaw", brokered in part by Canada and Pope Francis, began the process of restoring international relations between the two countries. They agreed to release political prisoners and the United States began the process of creating an embassy in Havana.NEWS, Daniel Trotta and Steve Holland, U.S., Cuba restore ties after 50 years,weblink 13 January 2015, Reuters, 17 December 2014, Havanna and Washington, NEWS, Baker, Peter, U.S. to Restore Full Relations With Cuba, Erasing a Last Trace of Cold War Hostility,weblink 13 January 2015, The New York Times, 17 December 2014, NEWS, Frances Robles and Julie Hirschfeld Davis, U.S. Frees Last of the 'Cuban Five,' Part of a 1990s Spy Ring,weblink 13 January 2015, The New York Times, 18 December 2014, NEWS, Parlapiano, Alicia, How America's Relationship With Cuba Will Change,weblink 13 January 2015, The New York Times, 17 December 2014, NEWS, Mark Landler and Michael R. Gordon, Journey to Reconciliation Visited Worlds of Presidents, Popes and Spies,weblink 13 January 2015, The New York Times, 17 December 2014, This was realized on 30 June 2015, when Cuba and the U.S. reached a deal to reopen embassies in their respective capitals on 20 July 2015NEWS, Jackson, David, Obama, Cuba announce embassy openings,weblink 1 July 2015, 1 July 2015, and reestablish diplomatic relations.WEB, Jaffe, Greg, U.S. and Cuba reach deal to reopen embassies and reestablish ties,weblink The Washington Post, 30 June 2015, Earlier in the same year, the White House announced that President Obama would remove Cuba from the American government's list of nations that sponsor terrorism,NEWS,weblink Cuba to Be Removed From U.S. List of Nations That Sponsor Terrorism, Archibold, Randal C., Davis, Julie Hirschfield, The New York Times, 14 April 2015, 15 April 2015, WEB,weblink Obama Nixing Cuba From List of State Sponsors of Terrorism, Gamboa, Suzanne, Abdullah, Halimah, NBC News, 14 April 2015, 15 April 2015, which Cuba reportedly welcomed as "fair".WEB,weblink Cuba praises 'fair' US pledge on terrorism list, BBC News, 15 April 2015, 15 April 2015, On 17 September 2017, the United States considered closing its Cuban embassy following mysterious sonic attacks on its staff.NEWS,weblink Tillerson Says U.S. May Close Cuba Embassy Over Mystery Ailments, Harris, Gardiner, 2017-09-17, The New York Times, 2017-10-29, en-US, 0362-4331,

Crime and law enforcement

{{See also|Law enforcement in Cuba|Crime in Cuba}}File:Cuba police car 01.JPG|thumb|A Lada Riva police car in HolguínHolguínAll law enforcement agencies are maintained under Cuba's Ministry of the Interior, which is supervised by the Revolutionary Armed Forces. In Cuba, citizens can receive police assistance by dialing "106" on their telephones.WEB,weblink Emergency Phone Numbers,, 10 June 2013, The police force, which is referred to as "Policía Nacional Revolucionaria" or PNR is then expected to provide help. The Cuban government also has an agency called the Intelligence Directorate that conducts intelligence operations and maintains close ties with the Russian Federal Security Service.


{{As of|2009}}, Cuba spent about {{Nowrap|US$91.8 million}} on its armed forces.WEB, The SIPRI Military Expenditure Database,weblink Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, 19 July 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 28 March 2010, In 1985, Cuba devoted more than 10% of its GDP to military expenditures.NEWS, Williams, John Hoyt, Cuba: Havana's Military Machine,weblink 19 July 2013, The Atlantic, 1 August 1988, In response to perceived American aggression, such as the Bay of Pigs Invasion, Cuba built up one of the largest armed forces in Latin America, second only to that of Brazil.WEB,weblink Cuban armed forces and the Soviet military presence, From 1975 until the late 1980s, Soviet military assistance enabled Cuba to upgrade its military capabilities. After the loss of Soviet subsidies, Cuba scaled down the numbers of military personnel, from 235,000 in 1994 to about 60,000 in 2003.Cuban army called key in any post-Castro scenario Anthony Boadle Reuters 2006{{Unreliable source?|date=September 2009}}In 2017, Cuba signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.WEB,weblink Chapter XXVI: Disarmament â€“ No. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, United Nations Treaty Collection, 7 July 2017,


(File:Tree map export 2009 Cuba.jpeg|thumb|Cuban export composition, 2009)The Cuban state claims to adhere to socialist principles in organizing its largely state-controlled planned economy. Most of the means of production are owned and run by the government and most of the labor force is employed by the state. Recent years have seen a trend toward more private sector employment. By 2006, public sector employment was 78% and private sector 22%, compared to 91.8% to 8.2% in 1981.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 9 October 2007, Social Policy at the crossroads, PDF,, 5 February 2009, Government spending is 78.1% of GDP.NEWS,weblink What countries have a planned economy?, Reference, 18 October 2016, Any firm that hires a Cuban must pay the Cuban government, which in turn pays the employee in Cuban pesos.WEB,weblink Cuba's repressive machinery: Summary and recommendations, Human Rights Watch, 1999, The average monthly wage {{as of|2013|July|lc=y}} is 466 Cuban pesos—about US$19.Cuba has a dual currency system, whereby most wages and prices are set in Cuban pesos (CUP), while the tourist economy operates with Convertible pesos (CUC), set at par with the US dollar.NEWS, Cuba's economy: Money starts to talk,weblink The Economist, 19 July 2013, 20 July 2013, Every Cuban household has a ration book (known as libreta) entitling it to a monthly supply of food and other staples, which are provided at nominal cost.NEWS, Inequality: The deal's off,weblink The Economist, 21 July 2013, 24 March 2012, Before Fidel Castro's 1959 revolution, Cuba was one of the most advanced and successful countries in Latin America.WEB,weblink American Experience – Fidel Castro – People & Events, PBS, 17 December 2014, Cuba's capital, Havana, was a "glittering and dynamic city". The country's economy in the early part of the century, fuelled by the sale of sugar to the United States, had grown wealthy. Cuba ranked 5th in the hemisphere in per capita income, 3rd in life expectancy, 2nd in per capita ownership of automobiles and telephones, and 1st in the number of television sets per inhabitant. Cuba's literacy rate, 76%, was the fourth highest in Latin America. Cuba also ranked 11th in the world in the number of doctors per capita. Several private clinics and hospitals provided services for the poor. Cuba's income distribution compared favorably with that of other Latin American societies. However, income inequality was profound between city and countryside, especially between whites and blacks. Cubans lived in abysmal poverty in the countryside. According to PBS, a thriving middle class held the promise of prosperity and social mobility. According to Cuba historian Louis Perez of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, "Havana was then what Las Vegas has become."WEB,weblink Before the Revolution, Natasha Geiling, Smithsonian, 17 December 2014, In 2016, the Miami Herald wrote, "... about 27 percent of Cubans earn under $50 per month; 34 percent earn the equivalent of $50 to $100 per month; and 20 percent earn $101 to $200. Twelve percent reported earning $201 to $500 a month; and almost 4 percent said their monthly earnings topped $500, including 1.5 percent who said they earned more than $1,000."Study: Cubans don't make much, but it's more than state salaries indicate, Miami Herald, 12 July 2016File:SantiagoPeople 01.JPG|thumb|left|Cigar production in Santiago de CubaSantiago de CubaAfter the Cuban revolution and before the collapse of the Soviet Union, Cuba depended on Moscow for substantial aid and sheltered markets for its exports. The loss of these subsidies sent the Cuban economy into a rapid depression known in Cuba as the Special Period. Cuba took limited free market-oriented measures to alleviate severe shortages of food, consumer goods, and services. These steps included allowing some self-employment in certain retail and light manufacturing sectors, the legalization of the use of the US dollar in business, and the encouragement of tourism. Cuba has developed a unique urban farm system called organopónicos to compensate for the end of food imports from the Soviet Union. The U.S. embargo against Cuba was instituted in response to nationalization of U.S.-citizen-held property and was maintained at the premise of perceived human rights violations. It is widely viewed that the embargo hurt the Cuban economy. In 2009, the Cuban Government estimated this loss at $685 million annually.WEB,weblink The Costs of the Embargo {{!, Dollars & Sense||access-date=18 October 2016}}Cuba's leadership has called for reforms in the country's agricultural system. In 2008, Raúl Castro began enacting agrarian reforms to boost food production, as at that time 80% of food was imported. The reforms aim to expand land use and increase efficiency.NEWS,weblink Cuban leader looks to boost food production, CNN, 17 April 2008, 14 September 2009, Venezuela supplies Cuba with an estimated {{convert|110000|oilbbl|m3}} of oil per day in exchange for money and the services of some 44,000 Cubans, most of them medical personnel, in Venezuela.NEWS, Venezuela's Maduro pledges continued alliance with Cuba,weblink 19 July 2013, Reuters, WEB, Cuba Ill-Prepared for Venezuelan Shock,weblink Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy, 23 July 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 April 2013, (File:Havana - Cuba - 2566.jpg|thumb|Cubans are now permitted to own small businesses in certain sectors.) In 2005, Cuba had exports of {{Nowrap|US$2.4 billion}}, ranking 114 of 226 world countries, and imports of {{Nowrap|US$6.9 billion}}, ranking 87 of 226 countries.WEB, 29 June 2006,weblink Rank Order Exports, The World Factbook, CIA, 30 April 2014, Its major export partners are Canada 17.7%, China 16.9%, Venezuela 12.5%, Netherlands 9%, and Spain 5.9% (2012).WEB,weblink Cuba, The World Factbook, CIA, 6 April 2009, Cuba's major exports are sugar, nickel, tobacco, fish, medical products, citrus fruits, and coffee; imports include food, fuel, clothing, and machinery. Cuba presently holds debt in an amount estimated at {{Nowrap|$13 billion}},WEB, Calzon, Frank, 13 March 2005,weblink Cuba makes poor trade partner for Louisiana, Center for a Free Cuba, 7 September 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2008, approximately 38% of GDP.WEB,weblink Rank Order – GDP (purchasing power parity), CIA Fact Book, 9 July 2006, According to the Heritage Foundation, Cuba is dependent on credit accounts that rotate from country to country. Cuba's prior 35% supply of the world's export market for sugar has declined to 10% due to a variety of factors, including a global sugar commodity price drop that made Cuba less competitive on world markets.WEB, 6 December 2001,weblink Cuba's Sugar Industry and the Impact of Hurricane Michele, International Agricultural Trade Report, 9 July 2006, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 June 2006, It was announced in 2008 that wage caps would be abandoned to improve the nation's productivity.WEB, Cuba to abandon wage caps,weblink the Guardian, 7 May 2015, Lee, Glendinning, {{As of|2010|alt=In 2010}}, Cubans were allowed to build their own houses. According to Raúl Castro, they could now improve their houses, but the government would not endorse these new houses or improvements.WEB,weblink Gobierno de Castro otorga a cubanos permiso para construir viviendas "por esfuerzo propio" en,, 7 November 2010, There is virtually no homelessness in Cuba, and 85% of Cubans own their homes and pay no property taxes or mortgage interest. Mortgage payments may not exceed 10% of a household's combined income.WEB,weblink Homeless in Cuba? Not Likely {{!, Community Alliance|last=Chief|first=Editor in||access-date=18 October 2016}}On 2 August 2011, The New York Times reported that Cuba reaffirmed its intent to legalize "buying and selling" of private property before the year's end. According to experts, the private sale of property could "transform Cuba more than any of the economic reforms announced by President Raúl Castro's government".NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Damien, Cave, Cuba Prepares for Private Property, 2 August 2011, It would cut more than one million state jobs, including party bureaucrats who resist the changes.NEWS,weblink Cuba National Assembly approves economic reforms, 2 August 2011, BBC News, The reforms created what some call "New Cuban Economy".WEB, Categoría: Lucha de nuestros pueblos,weblink Los nuevos lineamientos económicos,, 1 April 2014, 23 April 2014, WEB,weblink New Cuban Economy, PDF, 23 April 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 July 2013, In October 2013, Raúl said he intended to merge the two currencies, but {{as of|2016|August|lc=y}}, the dual currency system remains in force.In August 2012, a specialist of the "Cubaenergia Company" announced the opening of Cuba's first Solar Power Plant. As a member of the Cubasolar Group, there was also a mention of ten additional plants in 2013.WEB,weblink Cuba to Open Solar Power Plant - Cuba's Havana,, 9 August 2012, 10 June 2013, In May 2019, Cuba imposed rationing of staples such as chicken, eggs, rice, beans, soap and other basics. (Some two-thirds of food in the country is imported.) A spokesperson blamed the increased U.S. trade embargo although economists believe that an equally important problem is the massive decline of aid from Venezuela and the failure of Cuba's state-run oil company which had subsidized fuel costs.NEWS, Cuba rations chicken, eggs and rice as economic crisis worsens, May 10, 2019,weblink National Post, May 12, 2019, Cuba imports roughly two-thirds of its food at an annual cost of more than $2.7 billion and brief shortages of individual products have been common for years. In recent months, a growing number of products have started to go missing for days or weeks at a time, and long lines have sprung up within minutes of the appearance of scarce products like chicken or flour.,


Cuba's natural resources include sugar, tobacco, fish, citrus fruits, coffee, beans, rice, potatoes, and livestock. Cuba's most important mineral resource is nickel, with 21% of total exports in 2011.WEB,weblink World Competitiveness Map, International Trade Center, 9 November 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 November 2013, The output of Cuba's nickel mines that year was 71,000 tons, approaching 4% of world production.WEB,weblink Nickel, United States Geological Survey, 9 November 2013, {{As of| 2013}} its reserves were estimated at 5.5 million tons, over 7% of the world total. Sherritt International of Canada operates a large nickel mining facility in Moa. Cuba is also a major producer of refined cobalt, a by-product of nickel mining.WEB,weblink The Mineral Industry of Cuba, Ivette E. Torres, 1997, U.S. Geological Survey, 6 September 2009, Oil exploration in 2005 by the US Geological Survey revealed that the North Cuba Basin could produce about {{convert|4.6|Goilbbl|m3}} to {{convert|9.3|Goilbbl|m3}} of oil. In 2006, Cuba started to test-drill these locations for possible exploitation.NEWS,weblink Wayne S. Smith, After 46 years of failure, we must change course on Cuba, The Guardian, 1 November 2006, 6 September 2009, London,


File:Varaderos beach (5982433102).jpg|thumb|VaraderoVaraderoTourism was initially restricted to enclave resorts where tourists would be segregated from Cuban society, referred to as "enclave tourism" and "tourism apartheid".{{Harvnb|Espino|2000}}. Contact between foreign visitors and ordinary Cubans were de facto illegal between 1992 and 1997.{{Harvnb|Corbett|2002|p=33}}. The rapid growth of tourism during the Special Period had widespread social and economic repercussions in Cuba, and led to speculation about the emergence of a two-tier economy.JOURNAL,weblink Tourism in Cuba During the Special Period, Elisa, Facio, Maura Toro-Morn, and Anne R. Roschelle, University of Iowa College of Law, Transnational Law & Contemporary Problems, 14, 119, Spring 2004, harv, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 22 August 2006, Cuba has tripled its market share of Caribbean tourism in the last decade;{{when|date=July 2013}} as a result of significant investment in tourism infrastructure, this growth rate is predicted to continue.{{Harvnb|Crespo|Negrón Díaz|1997}}. {{Nowrap|1.9 million}} tourists visited Cuba in 2003, predominantly from Canada and the European Union, generating revenue of {{Nowrap|US$2.1 billion}}.WEB, December 2005,weblink Background Note: Cuba, U.S. Department of State, 9 July 2006, Cuba recorded 2,688,000 international tourists in 2011, the third-highest figure in the Caribbean (behind the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico).WEB, UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2013 Edition,weblink Tourism Trends and Marketing Strategies UNWTO, 21 July 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 July 2013, The medical tourism sector caters to thousands of European, Latin American, Canadian, and American consumers every year.A recent study indicates that Cuba has a potential for mountaineering activity, and that mountaineering could be a key contributor to tourism, along with other activities, e.g. biking, diving, caving). Promoting these resources could contribute to regional development, prosperity, and well-being.JOURNAL, Apollo, M. & Rettinger, R., 2018-03-07, Mountaineering in Cuba: improvement of true accessibility as an opportunity for regional development of communities outside the tourism enclaves, Current Issues in Tourism, 1–8, 10.1080/13683500.2018.1446920, 1368-3500, The Cuban Justice minister downplays allegations of widespread sex tourism.NEWS, Tamayo, Juan O., Cuba's Justice Minister says the government fights prostitution,weblink 2 January 2014, Miami Herald, 16 October 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 October 2013, According to a Government of Canada travel advice website, "Cuba is actively working to prevent child sex tourism, and a number of tourists, including Canadians, have been convicted of offences related to the corruption of minors aged 16 and under. Prison sentences range from 7 to 25 years."WEB, Travel Advice and Advisories for Cuba: Sex tourism,weblink Government of Canada, 4 January 2014, Some tourist facilities were extensively damaged on 8 September 2017 when Hurricane Irma hit the island. The storm made landfall in the Camagüey Archipelago; the worst damage was in the keys north of the main island, however, and not in the most significant tourist areas.WEB,weblink Storm Gains Strength as It Nears Florida, The New York, Times,


(File:Cuba rel94.jpg|thumb|A general map of Cuba)Cuba is an archipelago of islands located in the northern Caribbean Sea at the confluence with the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. It lies between latitudes 19° and 24°N, and longitudes 74° and 85°W. The United States lies 150 kilometers (93 miles) across the Straits of Florida to the north and northwest (to the closest tip of Key West, Florida), and the Bahamas 21 km (13 mi) to the north. Mexico lies 210 kilometers (130 miles) across the Yucatán Channel to the west (to the closest tip of Cabo Catoche in the State of Quintana Roo).Haiti is 77 km (48 mi) to the east, Jamaica (140 km/87 mi) and the Cayman Islands to the south. Cuba is the principal island, surrounded by four smaller groups of islands: the Colorados Archipelago on the northwestern coast, the Sabana-Camagüey Archipelago on the north-central Atlantic coast, the Jardines de la Reina on the south-central coast and the Canarreos Archipelago on the southwestern coast.File:Sierra Maestra panorama1.jpg|thumb|Sierra MaestraSierra Maestra The main island, named Cuba, is {{convert|1250|km|abbr=on}} long, constituting most of the nation's land area ({{convert|104556|km2|abbr=on|0}}) and is the largest island in the Caribbean and 17th-largest island in the world by land area. The main island consists mostly of flat to rolling plains apart from the Sierra Maestra mountains in the southeast, whose highest point is Pico Turquino ({{convert|1974|m|abbr=on}}).The second-largest island is Isla de la Juventud (Isle of Youth) in the Canarreos archipelago, with an area of {{convert|2200|km2|abbr=on|0}}. Cuba has an official area (land area) of {{convert|109884|km2|abbr=on|0}}. Its area is {{convert|110860|km2|abbr=on|0}} including coastal and territorial waters.


(File:Koppen-Geiger Map CUB present.svg|thumb|Köppen climate classification of Cuba.)File:Valle vinales 1.jpg|thumb|Viñales ValleyViñales ValleyWith the entire island south of the Tropic of Cancer, the local climate is tropical, moderated by northeasterly trade winds that blow year-round. The temperature is also shaped by the Caribbean current, which brings in warm water from the equator. This makes the climate of Cuba warmer than that of Hong Kong, which is at around the same latitude as Cuba but has a subtropical rather than a tropical climate. In general (with local variations), there is a drier season from November to April, and a rainier season from May to October. The average temperature is {{convert|21|°C|1}} in January and {{convert|27|°C|1}} in July. The warm temperatures of the Caribbean Sea and the fact that Cuba sits across the entrance to the Gulf of Mexico combine to make the country prone to frequent hurricanes. These are most common in September and October.Hurricane Irma hit the island on 8 September 2017, with winds of 260 kilometres per hour,WEB,weblink Florida braces for Hurricane Irma after Cuba landfall,, at the Camagüey Archipelago; the storm reached Ciego de Avila province around midnight and continued to pound Cuba the next dayweblink{{dead link|date=January 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} The worst damage was in the keys north of the main island. Hospitals, warehouses and factories were damaged; much of the north coast was without electricity. By that time, nearly a million people, including tourists, had been evacuated. The Varadero resort area also reported widespread damage; the government believed that repairs could be completed before the start of the main tourist season.WEB,weblink Irma kills 10 people in Cuba, Hilary Clarke and Patrick Oppmann,, CNN, Subsequent reports indicated that ten people had been killed during the storm, including seven in Havana, most during building collapses. Sections of the capital had been flooded. Hurricane Jose was not expected to strike Cuba.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2017-09-12, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 September 2017,


File:Large group of american crocodiles.jpg|thumbnail|Large group of American crocodileAmerican crocodileCuba signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 12 June 1992, and became a party to the convention on 8 March 1994.WEB,weblink List of Parties,, It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, with one revision, that the convention received on 24 January 2008.WEB,weblink Plan de Acción Nacional 2006/2010 sobre la Diversidad Biológica. República de Cuba,, The revision comprises an action plan with time limits for each item, and an indication of the governmental body responsible for delivery. That document contains virtually no information about biodiversity. However, the country's fourth national report to the CBD contains a detailed breakdown of the numbers of species of each kingdom of life recorded from Cuba, the main groups being: animals (17,801 species), bacteria (270), chromista (707), fungi, including lichen-forming species (5844), plants (9107) and protozoa (1440).WEB,weblink IV Informe Nacional al Convento sobre la Diversidad Biológica. República de Cuba. 2009,, As elsewhere in the world, vertebrate animals and flowering plants are well documented, so the recorded numbers of species are probably close to the true numbers. For most or all other groups, the true numbers of species occurring in Cuba are likely to exceed, often considerably, the numbers recorded so far.


{{bar box|title=Self-identified race (2012 Census)|title bar=#fff|left1= Race|float=right|bars={{bar percent|White|Blue|64.1}}{{bar percent|Mulatto, Mestizo, Zambo, or Pardo|Green|27.6}}{{bar percent|Black|Red|9.3}}{{bar percent|Asian|Black|0.1}}|caption=}}{|class="wikitable" style="float: right; margin-left: 10px"! colspan="4" style="text-align:center; background:#cfb;"|Population{{UN_Population|ref}}! style="background:#cfb;"|Year! style="background:#cfb;"|Million1950 style="text-align:right;"|5.92000 style="text-align:right;"|11.1{{UN_Population{{#expr:{{formatnum:{{UN_PopulationR}}/1e6 round 1}}(File:Escuela Lenin(estudiantes).JPG|thumb|Students of the Escuela Lenin)According to the official census of 2010, Cuba's population was 11,241,161, comprising 5,628,996 men and 5,612,165 women.WEB,weblink ANUARIO DEMOGRAFICO DE CUBA 2010, Oficina Nacional de Estadisticas, Its birth rate (9.88 births per thousand population in 2006)WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 26 September 2007, Population, birth rate falling in Cuba: Official, The Peninsula On-line, 19 July 2013, is one of the lowest in the Western Hemisphere. Although the country's population has grown by about four million people since 1961, the rate of growth slowed during that period, and the population began to decline in 2006, due in the country's low fertility rate (1.43 children per woman) coupled with emigration.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 13 January 2009, Population Decrease Must be Reverted,, 19 July 2013, Indeed, this drop in fertility is among the largest in the Western HemisphereWEB, 1997,weblink United Nations World Fertility Patterns 1997, United Nations, 9 July 2006, and is attributed largely to unrestricted access to legal abortion: Cuba's abortion rate was 58.6 per 1000 pregnancies in 1996, compared to an average of 35 in the Caribbean, 27 in Latin America overall, and 48 in Europe. Similarly, the use of contraceptives is also widespread, estimated at 79% of the female population (in the upper third of countries in the Western Hemisphere).WEB,weblink The Incidence of Abortion Worldwide, Stanley K. Henshaw, Susheela Singh, Taylor Haas, International Family Planning Perspectives, 1999, 25(Supplement):S30 – S38, 11 May 2006,

Ethnoracial groups

Cuba's population is multiethnic, reflecting its complex colonial origins. Intermarriage between diverse groups is widespread, and consequently there is some discrepancy in reports of the country's racial composition: whereas the Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies at the University of Miami determined that 62% of Cubans are black,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 21 August 2013, A barrier for Cuba's blacks, Miami Herald, the 2002 Cuban census found that a similar proportion of the population, 65.05%, was white.In fact, the Minority Rights Group International determined that "An objective assessment of the situation of Afro-Cubans remains problematic due to scant records and a paucity of systematic studies both pre- and post-revolution. Estimates of the percentage of people of African descent in the Cuban population vary enormously, ranging from 34% to 62%".WEB,weblink World Directory of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples – Cuba: Afro-Cubans, A 2014 study found that, based on ancestry informative markers (AIM), autosomal genetic ancestry in Cuba is 72% European, 20% African, and 8% Indigenous.JOURNAL,weblink 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004488, 25058410, 4109857, Cuba: Exploring the History of Admixture and the Genetic Basis of Pigmentation Using Autosomal and Uniparental Markers, PLoS Genetics, 10, 7, e1004488, 2014, Marcheco-Teruel, Beatriz, Parra, Esteban J., Fuentes-Smith, Evelyn, Salas, Antonio, Buttenschøn, Henriette N., Demontis, Ditte, Torres-Español, María, Marín-Padrón, Lilia C., Gómez-Cabezas, Enrique J., Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa, Mosquera-Miguel, Ana, Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio, Carracedo, Ángel, Børglum, Anders D., Mors, Ole, Around 35% of maternal lineages derive from Cuban Indigenous People, compared to 39% from Africa and 26% from Europe, but male lineages were European (82%) and African (18%), indicating a historical bias towards mating between foreign men and native women rather than the inverse.File:Distribution of ancestral contributions in Cuba as inferred from autosomal AIMs.png|Ancestral contributions in Cubans as inferred from autosomal AIMs.File:Distribution of ancestral contributions in Cuba as inferred from Y-chromosome markers.png|Ancestral contributions in Cubans as inferred from Y-chromosome markers.File:Distribution of ancestral contributions in Cuba as inferred from mtDNA markers.png|Ancestral contributions in Cubans as inferred from mtDNA markers.Asians make up about 1% of the population, and are largely of Chinese ancestry, followed by Japanese.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 29 November 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink 30 November 2016, BOOK,weblink Cuba: a Lonely Planet travel survival kit, Lonely Planet, 9780864424037, 1997, Many are descendants of farm laborers brought to the island by Spanish and American contractors during the 19th and early 20th century.WEB,weblink A Short History of the Chinese in Cuba, Lisa Chiu, News & Issues, The current recorded number of Cubans with Chinese ancestry is 114,240.WEB,weblink Central America :: Cuba — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency,, 2019-07-30, Afro-Cubans are descended primarily from the Yoruba people, Bantu people from the Congo basin, Carabali people and Arará from the DahomeyWEB,weblink SonenTero: AFRICAN ROOTS OF CUBAN CULTURE, Tero, Toivanen, 8 July 2009, as well as several thousand North African refugees, most notably the Sahrawi Arabs of Western Sahara.WEB, 31 March 2006,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 25 November 2006, Sahrawi children inhumanely treated in Cuba, former Cuban official,, 9 July 2006,

Immigration and emigration

Immigration and emigration have played a prominent part in Cuba's demographic profile. Between the 18th and early 20th century, large waves of Canarian, Catalan, Andalusian, Galician, and other Spanish people immigrated to Cuba. Between 1899–1930 alone, close to a million Spaniards entered the country, though many would eventually return to Spain.WEB,weblink La inmigración entre 1902 y 1920,, 7 November 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 June 2009, Other prominent immigrant groups included French,WEB,weblink Etat des propriétés rurales appartenant à des Français dans l'île de Cuba, Cuban Genealogy Center, 10 July 2007, 19 July 2013, Portuguese, Italian, Russian, Dutch, Greek, British, and Irish, as well as small number of descendants of U.S. citizens who arrived in Cuba in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.Post-revolution Cuba has been characterized by significant levels of emigration, which has led to a large and influential diaspora community. During the three decades after January 1959, more than one million Cubans of all social classes — constituting 10% of the total population — emigrated to the United States, a proportion that matches the extent of emigration to the U.S. from the Caribbean as a whole during that period.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Powell, John,weblink Encyclopedia of North American Immigration, 68–71, Cuban immigration, Facts on File, 2005, 30 November 2016, 9781438110127, {{Harvnb|Pedraza|2007|p=?}}.{{Harvnb|Falk|1988|p=74}}: "[A] tenth of the entire Caribbean population has . . . [emigrated to the U.S.] over the past 30 years".WEB,weblinkweblink 9 July 2009, US Census Press Releases,, 19 July 2013, dead, {{Harvnb|Pedraza|2007|p=5}} Prior to 13 January 2013, Cuban citizens could not travel abroad, leave or return to Cuba without first obtaining official permission along with applying for a government issued passport and travel visa, which was often denied.weblink Those who left the country typically did so by sea, in small boats and fragile rafts. On 9 September 1994, the U.S. and Cuban governments agreed that the U.S. would grant at least 20,000 visas annually in exchange for Cuba's pledge to prevent further unlawful departures on boats.NEWS,weblink Visa Lottery for Cubans, Press, The Associated, 1994-10-13, The New York Times, 2019-01-16, en-US, 0362-4331, As of 2013 the top emigration destinations were the United States, Spain, Italy, Puerto Rico, and Mexico.WEB,weblink Cuba Migration Profiles, UNICEF, 16 January 2019,


File:2012-Catedral de San Cristobal anagoria 01.JPG|thumb|Havana CathedralHavana CathedralIn 2010, the Pew Forum estimated that religious affiliation in Cuba is 65% Christian (60% Roman Catholic or about 6.9 million in 2016, 5% Protestant or about 575,000 in 2016), 23% unaffiliated, 17% folk religion (such as santería), and the remaining 0.4% consisting of other religions.WEB, Religious Composition by Country,weblink Global Religious Landscape, Pew Forum, 9 July 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 9 September 2013, dead, dmy-all, Cuba is officially a secular state. Religious freedom increased through the 1980s,{{Harvnb|Smith|1996|p=105}}: "The expansion of religious liberty began more than a decade ago, for example, and Cuban citizens, by and large, are free to practice their faiths without fear of persecution." with the government amending the constitution in 1992 to drop the state's characterization as atheistic.{{Harvnb|Domínguez|2003|p=4}}.Roman Catholicism is the largest religion, with its origins in Spanish colonization. Despite less than half of the population identifying as Catholics in 2006, it nonetheless remains the dominant faith.WEB,weblink Catholic church in Cuba strives to re-establish the faith, David Einhorn, National Catholic Reporter, 31 March 2006, 7 September 2009, Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI visited Cuba in 1998 and 2011, respectively, and Pope Francis visited Cuba in September 2015.WEB,weblink Pope Francis in Cuba: pontiff arrives in Santiago – as it happened, Woolf, Nicky, Am, the Guardian, 21 March 2016, Holpuch, a, York, Angela Bruno in New, Havana, with Jonathan Watts in, Rome, Stephanie Kirchgaessner in, WEB, Cuba to Free 3,500 Prisoners Ahead of Pope Visit,weblink, Voice of America, 11 September 2015, Prior to each papal visit, the Cuban government pardoned prisoners as a humanitarian gesture.WEB, Miroff, Nick, Cuba pardons more than 3,500 prisoners ahead of Pope Francis visit,weblink, The Washington Post, 11 September 2015, 11 September 2015, WEB, Alexander, Harriett, Cuba pardons 3,522 prisoners ahead of Pope Francis visit,weblink, The Telegraph, 11 September 2015, The government's relaxation of restrictions on house churches in the 1990s led to an explosion of Pentecostalism, with some groups claiming as many as 100,000 members. However, Evangelical Protestant denominations, organized into the umbrella Cuban Council of Churches, remain much more vibrant and powerful.BOOK, Edmonds, E.B., Gonzalez, M.A., Caribbean Religious History: An Introduction, NYU Press, 2010, 978-0-8147-2250-3,weblink 171, The religious landscape of Cuba is also strongly defined by syncretisms of various kinds. Christianity is often practiced in tandem with Santería, a mixture of Catholicism and mostly African faiths, which include a number of cults. La Virgen de la Caridad del Cobre (the Virgin of Cobre) is the Catholic patroness of Cuba, and a symbol of Cuban culture. In Santería, she has been syncretized with the goddess Oshun.Cuba also hosts small communities of Jews (500 in 2012), Muslims, and members of the Bahá'í Faith.WEB, 13 June 2005,weblink Government officials visit Baha'i center, Baha', Several well-known Cuban religious figures have operated outside the island, including the humanitarian and author Jorge Armando Pérez.


The official language of Cuba is Spanish and the vast majority of Cubans speak it. Spanish as spoken in Cuba is known as Cuban Spanish and is a form of Caribbean Spanish. Lucumí, a dialect of the West African language Yoruba, is also used as a liturgical language by practitioners of Santería,BOOK,weblink Santeria from Africa to the New World, George Brandon, 56, Indiana University Press, 978-0-253-21114-9, 1 March 1997, and so only as a second language.WEB,weblink Lucumi: A Language of Cuba (Ethnologue), 10 March 2010, Haitian Creole is the second most spoken language in Cuba, and is spoken by Haitian immigrants and their descendants.NEWS,weblink Cuban Creole choir brings solace to Haiti's children, 10 March 2010, BBC News, Other languages spoken by immigrants include Galician and Corsican.WEB,weblink Languages of Cuba, 31 October 2010,

Largest cities

{{see also|List of cities in Cuba}}{{Largest cities of Cuba}}


{{See also|Media of Cuba}}The Cuban government and Communist Party of Cuba control almost all media in Cuba.


{{See also|List of newspapers in Cuba}}

Reflections of Fidel Castro Speeches of Raúl Castro


{{See also|Television in Cuba}}Five Communist controlled national channels:


Internet in Cuba has some of the lowest penetration rates in the Western hemisphere, and all content is subject to review by the Department of Revolutionary Orientation. ETECSA operates 118 cybercafes in the country.WEB, Cuba's New Internet Service is Also No Bed of Roses,weblink MIT Technology Review, 19 July 2013, The government of Cuba provides an online encyclopedia website called EcuRed that operates in a "wiki" format.WEB,weblink EcuRed – EcuRed, es,, 10 June 2013, Internet access is limited.Resolución 120 del 2007 del Ministro del MIC la cual está vigente desde el ·0 de Septiembre de 2007 The sale of computer equipment is strictly regulated. Internet access is controlled, and e-mail is closely monitored.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 27 July 2011, Internet in Cuba, Reporters Without Borders,


(File:Casa de la Trova Santiago Cuba.jpg|thumb|left|A local musical house, Casa de la Trova in Santiago de Cuba)Cuban culture is influenced by its melting pot of cultures, primarily those of Spain and Africa. After the 1959 revolution, the government started a national literacy campaign, offered free education to all and established rigorous sports, ballet and music programs.NEWS, For Cuba, a Harsh Self-Assessment,weblink, 24 July 2013,


{{multiple image| align = right| image1 = Gloria Estefan 2009.jpg| width1 = 100| alt1 = | caption1 = | image2 = Celia Cruz 1.jpg| width2 = 100| alt2 = | caption2 = | footer = Gloria Estefan and Celia Cruz}}Cuban music is very rich and is the most commonly known expression of Cuban culture. The central form of this music is Son, which has been the basis of many other musical styles like "Danzón de nuevo ritmo", mambo, cha-cha-chá and salsa music. Rumba ("de cajón o de solar") music originated in the early Afro-Cuban culture, mixed with Hispanic elements of style.BOOK, Moore, Robin, Nationalizing Blackness: Afrocubanismo and Artistic Revolution in Havana, 1920–1940, 1997, University of Pittsburgh Press, 978-0-8229-5645-7, The Tres was invented in Cuba from Hispanic cordophone instruments models (the instrument is actually a fusion of elements from the Spanish guitar and lute). Other traditional Cuban instruments are of African origin, Taíno origin, or both, such as the maracas, güiro, marímbula and various wooden drums including the mayohuacán.Popular Cuban music of all styles has been enjoyed and praised widely across the world. Cuban classical music, which includes music with strong African and European influences, and features symphonic works as well as music for soloists, has received international acclaim thanks to composers like Ernesto Lecuona. Havana was the heart of the rap scene in Cuba when it began in the 1990s.During that time, reggaetón grew in popularity. In 2011, the Cuban state denounced reggaeton as degenerate, directed reduced "low-profile" airplay of the genre (but did not ban it entirely) and banned the megahit Chupi Chupi by Osmani García, characterizing its description of sex as "the sort which a prostitute would carry out."WEB, Victor Kaonga, Malawi,weblink Cuba: Reggaeton Hit 'Chupi Chupi' Denounced by Authorities, Global Voices, 7 December 2011, 19 July 2013, In December 2012, the Cuban government officially banned sexually explicit reggaeton songs and music videos from radio and television.WEB, Scott Shetler,weblink Cuban Government to Censor Reggaeton For Being "Sexually Explicit",, 7 December 2012, 19 July 2013, WEB,weblink Cuban Government Censors Reggaeton and "Sexually Explicit" Songs, ABC News, 6 December 2012, 19 July 2013, As well as pop, classical and rock are very popular in Cuba.


(File:Cubanfood.jpg|thumb|A traditional meal of ropa vieja (shredded flank steak in a tomato sauce base), black beans, yellow rice, plantains and fried yuca with beer)(File:La Havane (1) Tamales pliés.jpg|thumb|Cuban-style tamales)Cuban cuisine is a fusion of Spanish and Caribbean cuisines. Cuban recipes share spices and techniques with Spanish cooking, with some Caribbean influence in spice and flavor. Food rationing, which has been the norm in Cuba for the last four decades, restricts the common availability of these dishes.{{Harvnb|Alvarez|2001}}. The traditional Cuban meal is not served in courses; all food items are served at the same time.The typical meal could consist of plantains, black beans and rice, ropa vieja (shredded beef), Cuban bread, pork with onions, and tropical fruits. Black beans and rice, referred to as moros y cristianos (or moros for short), and plantains are staples of the Cuban diet. Many of the meat dishes are cooked slowly with light sauces. Garlic, cumin, oregano, and bay leaves are the dominant spices.


Cuban literature began to find its voice in the early 19th century. Dominant themes of independence and freedom were exemplified by José Martí, who led the Modernist movement in Cuban literature. Writers such as Nicolás Guillén and José Z. Tallet focused on literature as social protest. The poetry and novels of Dulce María Loynaz and José Lezama Lima have been influential. Romanticist Miguel Barnet, who wrote Everyone Dreamed of Cuba, reflects a more melancholy Cuba.weblink" title="">Costa Rica – Journey into the Tropical Garden of Eden, Tobias Hauser.{{Unreliable source?|date=September 2009}}Alejo Carpentier was important in the Magic realism movement. Writers such as Reinaldo Arenas, Guillermo Cabrera Infante, and more recently Daína Chaviano, Pedro Juan Gutiérrez, Zoé Valdés, Guillermo Rosales and Leonardo Padura have earned international recognition in the post-revolutionary era, though many of these writers have felt compelled to continue their work in exile due to ideological control of media by the Cuban authorities.


Dance holds a privileged position in Cuban culture. Popular dance is considered an essential part of life, and concert dance is supported by the government and includes internationally renowned companies such as the Ballet Nacional de Cuba.BOOK, John, S., Contemporary Dance in Cuba: Tecnica Cubana as Revolutionary Movement, McFarland & Company, 2012, 978-0-7864-9325-8,weblink 23,


File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-1985-1004-023, Teofilo Stevenson cropped.jpg|left|thumb|Cuban former boxer Teófilo StevensonTeófilo StevensonDue to historical associations with the United States, many Cubans participate in sports that are popular in North America, rather than sports traditionally played in other Latin American nations. Baseball is the most popular. Other sports and pastimes include football, basketball, volleyball, cricket, and athletics. Cuba is a dominant force in amateur boxing, consistently achieving high medal tallies in major international competitions. Cuban boxers are not permitted to turn professional by their government. However, many boxers defect to the U.S. and other countries.WEB,weblink Cuban boxer defected unsuccessfully 38 times before realizing U.S. dream, WEB,weblink From Cuba to world champion: Arduous defection continues to drive Erislandy Lara, Cuba also provides a national team that competes in the Olympic Games.WEB,weblink Cuba - Comité Olímpico Cubano - National Olympic Committee,, 10 June 2013,


File:Università de La Habana.jpg|right|thumb|University of HavanaUniversity of HavanaThe University of Havana was founded in 1728 and there are a number of other well-established colleges and universities. In 1957, just before Castro came to power, the literacy rate was fourth in the region at almost 80% according to the United Nations, higher than in Spain.WEB,weblink Still Stuck on Castro – How the press handled a tyrant's farewell, 24 March 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 20 September 2012, dead, {{Unreliable source?|date=September 2009}} Castro created an entirely state-operated system and banned private institutions. School attendance is compulsory from ages six to the end of basic secondary education (normally at age 15), and all students, regardless of age or gender, wear school uniforms with the color denoting grade level. Primary education lasts for six years, secondary education is divided into basic and pre-university education.WEB,weblink The Cuban Education System: Lessons and Dilemmas. Human Development Network Education. World Bank, PDF, 7 November 2010, Cuba's literacy rate of 99.8 percentWEB,weblink unstats - Millennium Indicators,, 23 June 2010, 7 November 2010, is the tenth-highest globally, due largely to the provision of free education at every level.NEWS,weblink Latin lessons: What can we Learn from the World's most Ambitious Literacy Campaign?, The Independent, 7 November 2010, 19 July 2013, Cuba's high school graduation rate is 94 percent.Getting a Reading on High Literacy in Cuba {{webarchive |url= |date=8 April 2016 }}. Teachers College, Columbia University. 22 December 2009.Higher education is provided by universities, higher institutes, higher pedagogical institutes, and higher polytechnic institutes. The Cuban Ministry of Higher Education operates a distance education program that provides regular afternoon and evening courses in rural areas for agricultural workers. Education has a strong political and ideological emphasis, and students progressing to higher education are expected to have a commitment to the goals of Cuba. Cuba has provided state subsidized education to a limited number of foreign nationals at the Latin American School of Medicine.WEB,weblink Students graduate from Cuban school – Americas –, MSNBC, 25 July 2007, 7 November 2010, NEWS,weblink Cuba-trained US doctors graduate, 25 July 2007, 7 September 2009, BBC News, According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, the top-ranking universities in the country are Universidad de la Habana (1680th worldwide), Instituto Superior Politécnico José Antonio Echeverría (2893rd) and the University of Santiago de Cuba (3831st).WEB, Cuba,weblink Ranking Web of Universities, 23 July 2015,


Cuba's life expectancy at birth is 78.3 years (76.2 for males and 80.4 for females). This ranks Cuba 55th in the world and 5th in the Americas, behind Canada, Chile, Costa Rica and the United States. Infant mortality declined from 32 infant deaths per 1,000 live births in 1957, to 10 in 1990–95,WEB,weblink World population Prospects: The 2006 Revision: Highlights, United Nations., PDF, 19 July 2013, 6.1 in 2000–2005 and 5.13 in 2009. Historically, Cuba has ranked high in numbers of medical personnel and has made significant contributions to world health since the 19th century. Today, Cuba has universal health care and despite persistent shortages of medical supplies, there is no shortage of medical personnel.{{Harvnb|Whiteford|Branch|2008|p=2}} Primary care is available throughout the island and infant and maternal mortality rates compare favorably with those in developed nations. That a developing nation like Cuba has health outcomes rivaling the developed world is referred to by researchers as the Cuban Health Paradox.WEB,weblink Cuba's Most Valuable Export: Its Healthcare Expertise, Frist, Bill, 8 June 2015, Forbes, 18 November 2018, Cuba ranks 30th on the 2019 Bloomberg Healthiest Country Index, which is the only developing country to rank that high.NEWS, Miller, Lee J, Lu, Wei, February 24, 2019, These Are the World’s Healthiest Nations,weblink Bloomberg, March 16, 2019, Disease and infant mortality increased in the 1960s immediately after the revolution, when half of Cuba's 6,000 doctors left the country.Cuba: A Different America, By Wilber A. Chaffee, Gary Prevost, Rowland and Littlefield, 1992, p. 106 Recovery occurred by the 1980s, and the country's health care has been widely praised.{{Harvnb|Feinsilver|1989|pp=4–5}}: "Its success has been acclaimed by Dr. Halfdan Mahler, the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO), and Dr. Carlysle Guerra de Macedo, Director-General of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), as well as by medical professionals from the United States and other capitalist countries who have observed the Cuban health system in action. Despite U.S. hostility toward Cuba, a U.S. government document stated in 1982 that the 'Cuban Revolution has managed social achievements, especially in education and health care, that are highly respected in the Third World ..., [including] a national health care program that is superior in the Third World and rivals that of numerous developed countries.{{' "}} The Communist government asserted that universal health care was a priority of state planning and progress was made in rural areas.Lundy, Karen Saucier. Community Health Nursing: Caring for the Public's Health. Jones and Bartlett: 2005, p. 377. Like the rest of the Cuban economy, medical care suffered from severe material shortages following the end of Soviet subsidies in 1991, and a tightening of the U.S. embargo in 1992.BOOK, Global Health Policy, Local Realities: The Fallacy of the Level Playing Field, 69,weblink Whiteford, Linda M., Manderson, Lenore, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Boulder, Col., 2000, 978-1-55587-874-0, 14 September 2009, Challenges include low salaries for doctors,NEWS, Editorial, 16 May 2015, Be more libre,weblink, 20 May 2015, poor facilities, poor provision of equipment, and the frequent absence of essential drugs.WEB, The Committee Office, House of Commons,weblink Cuban Health Care Systems and its implications for the NHS Plan, Select Committee on Health, 28 March 2001, 19 July 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 August 2013, Cuba has the highest doctor-to-population ratio in the world and has sent thousands of doctors to more than 40 countries around the world.BOOK, Doctors in a Divided Society: The Profession and Education of Medical Practitioners in South Africa, Mignonne Breier, Angelique Wildschut, Education, Science and Skills Development Research Programme, HSRC Press, 2007, 978-0-7969-2153-6, 16, 81,weblink According to the World Health Organization, Cuba is "known the world over for its ability to train excellent doctors and nurses who can then go out to help other countries in need". {{as of|2014|September|}}, there are around 50,000 Cuban-trained health care workers aiding 66 nations.Cuban medical team heading for Sierra Leone {{webarchive |url= |date=28 December 2016 }}. World Health Organization. September 2014. Cuban physicians have played a leading role in combating the Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa.Alexandra Sifferlin (5 November 2014). Why Cuba Is So Good at Fighting Ebola {{webarchive |url= |date=10 October 2016 }}. Time. Retrieved 28 April 2015.Import and export of pharmaceutical drugs is done by the Quimefa Pharmaceutical Business Group (FARMACUBA) under the Ministry of Basic Industry (MINBAS). This group also provides technical information for the production of these drugs.WEB,weblink Centro de Promoción del Comercio Exterior y la Inversión Extranjera de Cuba – CEPEC,, 10 June 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 June 2012, Isolated from the West by the US embargo, Cuba developed the successful lung cancer vaccine, Cimavax, which is now available to US researchers for the first time, along with other novel Cuban cancer treatments. The vaccine has been available for free to the Cuban population since 2011.Erin Schumaker (14 May 2015). Cuba's Had A Lung Cancer Vaccine For Years, And Now It's Coming To The U.S. {{webarchive |url= |date=3 May 2016 }} The Huffington Post. Retrieved 18 May 2015. According to Roswell Park Cancer Institute CEO Candace Johnson: "They've had to do more with less, so they've had to be even more innovative with how they approach things. For over 40 years, they have had a preeminent immunology community."Rob Quinn (12 May 2015). USA about to get Cuba's lung cancer vaccine {{webarchive |url= |date=23 April 2016 }}. USA Today. Retrieved 14 May 2015. During the thaw in Cuba–U.S. relations starting in December 2014 under the Obama administration, a growing number of U.S. lung cancer patients traveled to Cuba to receive vaccine treatment. The end of the thaw under the Trump Administrarion has resulted in a tightening of travel restrictions, making it harder for U.S. citizens to travel to Cuba for treatment.NEWS, Jacobs, Sally, 10 January 2018, Cuba has a lung cancer vaccine. Many U.S. patients can't get it without breaking the law,weblink USA Today, 16 October 2018, In 2015, Cuba became the first country to eradicate mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis,WEB,weblink WHO validates elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis in Cuba, WHO, 30 June 2015, 30 August 2015, a milestone hailed by the World Health Organization as "one of the greatest public health achievements possible".WEB, O'Carroll, Lisa, 30 June 2015, Cuba first to eliminate mother-to-baby HIV transmission,weblink, 1 July 2015,

See also





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, Alvarez, José, 2001
, Rationed Products and Something Else: Food Availability and Distribution in 2000
, Cuba in Transition, Volume 11
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BOOK, Baklanoff, Eric N., 1998
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, Domínguez, Jorge I., 2003
, A Constitution for Cuba's Political Transition: The Utility of Retaining (and Amending) the 1992 Constitution
, Coral Gables, FL, Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies, University of Miami
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