aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{About|the group of islands|the indigenous inhabitants of Caribbean region and people of Caribbean descent|Caribbean people|the body of water surrounding them|Caribbean Sea|other uses}}{{Short description|Region to the center-east of America composed of many islands / coastal regions surrounding the Caribbean Sea}}

239,681sqmi|abbr=on}}Caribbean}}{{UN_Population|ref}}151.5abbr=on}}|GDP_nominal = |GDP_per_capita = Afro-Caribbean, White Caribbean>European, Indo-Caribbean, Latino or Hispanic (Spanish people, Portuguese people>Portuguese, Mestizo, Mulatto, Pardo, and Zambo), Chinese Caribbean, Jewish, Arab, Amerindian, Javanese people,MCWHORTER PAGE=379 YEAR=2005 ISBN=978-0-19-516670-5Hmong people>Hmong, MultiracialChristianity, Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, Rastafarianism, Native American religion, Bahá'í Faith, Chinese folk religion (including Taoism and Confucianism), Kejawèn>Kebatinan, Afro-American religion, Traditional African religion, and othersCaribbean people>Caribbean, West IndianList of sovereign states and dependent territories in the West Indies#Sovereign states>sovereign statesList of sovereign states and dependent territories in the West Indies#Dependent territories>dependent territoriesCaribbean Spanish>Spanish, English language, French language>French, Dutch language, French-based creole languages>French Creoles, English-based creole languages, Caribbean Hindustani, Languages of the Caribbean>among others|time = UTC−5 to UTC−4List of Internet top-level domains>MultipleList of country calling codes>MultipleList of metropolitan areas in the Caribbean Santo Domingo Havana Port-au-Prince San Juan, Puerto Rico>San Juan Kingston, JamaicaSantiago de Cuba Santiago de los Caballeros Nassau, Bahamas>Nassau Camagüey Cap-Haïtien Spanish Town ChaguanasGeorgetown Paramaribo|m49 = 029 – Caribbean419 – Latin America019 – Americas001 – World}}The Caribbean ({{IPAc-en|ËŒ|k|ær|áµ»|ˈ|b|iː|É™|n|,_|k|É™|ˈ|r|ɪ|b|i|É™|n}}, {{IPAc-en|local|ˈ|k|ær|ɪ|b|i|æ|n}}) is a region of the Americas that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean SeaBOOK, 483–528, A Population History of North America, Cambridge University Press, 2000, 978-0-521-49666-7, Engerman, Stanley L., Haines, Michael R., A Population History of the Caribbean, 41118518, harv, Steckel, Richard Hall, and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean)BOOK, Understanding the contemporary Caribbean, Lynne Rienner, 2003, 978-1588266637, Hillman, Richard S., London, UK, 300280211, harv, D'Agostino, Thomas J., and the surrounding coasts. The region is southeast of the Gulf of Mexico and the North American mainland, east of Central America, and north of South America.Situated largely on the Caribbean Plate, the region has more than 700 islands, islets, reefs and cays (see the list of Caribbean islands). Island arcs delineate the eastern and northern edges of the Caribbean Sea:BOOK, Ridvan, Asann, 2007, A Brief History of the Caribbean, Revised, Facts on File, Inc., New York, 3, 978-0-8160-3811-4, registration,weblink The Greater Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago on the north and the Lesser Antilles and the on the south and east (which includes the Leeward Antilles). The Lucayan Archipelago (the Bahamas and Turks and Caicos Islands), do not border the Caribbean Sea, but are still within the boundaries of the Caribbean region. On the mainland, Belize, Nicaragua, the Caribbean region of Colombia, Cozumel, the Yucatán Peninsula, Margarita Island, and the Guyanas (Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Guayana Region in Venezuela, and Amapá in Brazil) are often included due to their political and cultural ties with the region.BOOK, Higman, B. W., A ConciseHistory of the Caribbean, 2011, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 978-0521043489, xi, Geopolitically, the islands of the Caribbean (the West Indies) are often regarded as a region of North America, though sometimes they are included in Central America or left as a region of their own."North America". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia; "... associated with the continent is Greenland, the largest island in the world, and such offshore groups as the Arctic Archipelago, the Bahamas, the Greater and Lesser Antilles, the Queen Charlotte Islands, and the Aleutian Islands," but also "North America is bounded ... on the south by the Caribbean Sea," and "according to some authorities, North America begins not at the Isthmus of Panama but at the narrows of Tehuantepec." The World: Geographic Overview, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency; "North America is commonly understood to include the island of Greenland, the isles of the Caribbean, and to extend south all the way to the Isthmus of Panama." and are organized into 30 territories including sovereign states, overseas departments, and dependencies. From December 15, 1954, to October 10, 2010, there was a country known as the Netherlands Antilles composed of five states, all of which were Dutch dependencies.The Netherlands Antilles: The joy of six, The Economist Magazine, April 29, 2010 From January 3, 1958, to May 31, 1962, there was also a short-lived political union called the West Indies Federation composed of ten English-speaking Caribbean territories, all of which were then British dependencies. The West Indies cricket team continues to represent many of those nations.

Etymology and pronunciation

The region takes its name from that of the Caribs, an ethnic group present in the Lesser Antilles and parts of adjacent South America at the time of the Spanish conquest of the Americas.WEB
, Carib
, Encyclopædia Britannica
, 2008-02-20
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 2008-04-30
, inhabited the Lesser Antilles and parts of the neighbouring South American coast at the time of the Spanish conquest.
, dead
, The two most prevalent pronunciations of "Caribbean" outside the Caribbean are {{IPAc-en|ˌ|k|ær|ɪ|ˈ|b|iː|ə|n}} ({{respell|KARR|ə|BEE|ən}}), with the primary stress on the third syllable, and {{IPAc-en|k|ə|ˈ|r|ɪ|b|i|ə|n}} ({{respell|kə|RIB|ee|ən}}), with the stress on the second. Most authorities of the last century preferred the stress on the third syllable.Elster, Charles Harrington. "Caribbean", from The Big Book of Beastly Mispronunciations. p.78. (2d ed. 2005) This is the older of the two pronunciations, but the stressed-second-syllable variant has been established for over 75 years.In the early 20th century, only the pronunciation with the primary stress on the third syllable was considered correct, according to Frank Horace Vizetelly, A Desk-Book of Twenty-five Thousand Words Frequently Mispronounced (Funk and Wagnalls, 1917), p. 233. It has been suggested that speakers of British English prefer {{IPAc-en|ˌ|k|ær|ɪ|ˈ|b|iː|ə|n}} ({{respell|KARR|ə|BEE|ən}}) while North American speakers more typically use {{IPAc-en|k|ə|ˈ|r|ɪ|b|i|ə|n}} ({{respell|kə|RIB|ee|ən}}),BOOK, Ladefoged, Peter, Johnson, Keith, A Course in Phonetics,weblink 2011, Cengage Learning, 978-1-4282-3126-9, 86–, but major American dictionaries and other sources list the stress on the third syllable as more common in American English too.Random House DictionaryAmerican Heritage DictionaryMerriam WebsterSee, e.g., Elster, supra. According to the American version of Oxford Online Dictionaries, the stress on the second syllable is becoming more common in UK English and is increasingly considered "by some" to be more up to date and more "correct".Oxford Online DictionariesThe Oxford Online Dictionaries claim that the stress on the second syllable is the most common pronunciation in the Caribbean itself, but according to the Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage, the most common pronunciation in Caribbean English stresses the first syllable instead, {{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|ær|ɪ|b|i|æ|n}} ({{respell|KARR|ih|bee|an}}).BOOK, Allsopp, Richard  , Allsopp, Jeannette, Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage,weblink 2003, University of the West Indies Press, 978-976-640-145-0, 136–,


(File:CIA map of the Caribbean.png|thumb|upright=1.35|right|Map of the Caribbean)The word "Caribbean" has multiple uses. Its principal ones are geographical and political. The Caribbean can also be expanded to include territories with strong cultural and historical connections to Africa, slavery, European colonisation and the plantation system.

Geography and geology

File:Tectonic plates Caribbean.png|thumb|right|{{legend|#FAD4AF|The Caribbean PlateCaribbean PlateThe geography and climate in the Caribbean region varies: Some islands in the region have relatively flat terrain of non-volcanic origin. These islands include Aruba (possessing only minor volcanic features), Curaçao, Barbados, Bonaire, the Cayman Islands, Saint Croix, the Bahamas, and Antigua. Others possess rugged towering mountain-ranges like the islands of Saint Martin, Cuba, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Dominica, Montserrat, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Saint Kitts, Saint Lucia, Saint Thomas, Saint John, Tortola, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Trinidad and Tobago.Definitions of the terms Greater Antilles and Lesser Antilles often vary. The Virgin Islands as part of the Puerto Rican bank are sometimes included with the Greater Antilles. The term Lesser Antilles is often used to define an island arc that includes Grenada but excludes Trinidad and Tobago and the Leeward Antilles.The waters of the Caribbean Sea host large, migratory schools of fish, turtles, and coral reef formations. The Puerto Rico Trench, located on the fringe of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea just to the north of the island of Puerto Rico, is the deepest point in all of the Atlantic Ocean.WEB,weblink Puerto Rico Trench 2003: Cruise Summary Results, ten Brink, Uri, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2008-02-21, The region sits in the line of several major shipping routes with the Panama Canal connecting the western Caribbean Sea with the Pacific Ocean.


File:Johny Cay.jpg|thumb|left|Tropical monsoon climate in San Andrés island, Caribbean, ColombiaColombiaFile:Koppen-Geiger Map Caribbean present.svg|thumb|left|Köppen climate map of the islands of the Caribbean.]]The climate of the area is tropical, varying from tropical rainforest in some areas to tropical monsoon and tropical savanna in others. There are also some locations that are arid climates with considerable drought in some years, and the peaks of mountains tend to have cooler temperate climates.Rainfall varies with elevation, size and water currents, such as the cool upwellings that keep the ABC islands arid. Warm, moist trade winds blow consistently from the east, creating both rain forest and semi arid climates across the region. The tropical rainforest climates include lowland areas near the Caribbean Sea from Costa Rica north to Belize, as well as the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico, while the more seasonal dry tropical savanna climates are found in Cuba, northern Colombia and Venezuela, and southern Yucatán, Mexico. Arid climates are found along the extreme northern coast of Venezuela out to the islands including Aruba and Curacao, as well as the northwestern tip of Yucatán.While the region generally is sunny much of the year, the wet season from May through November sees more frequent cloud cover (both broken and overcast), while the dry season from December through April is more often clear to mostly sunny. Seasonal rainfall is divided into 'dry' and 'wet' seasons, with the latter six months of the year being wetter than the first half. The air temperature is hot much of the year, varying from 25 to 33 C (77 F to 90 F) between the wet and dry seasons. Seasonally, monthly mean temperatures vary from only about 5 C (7 F) in the northern most regions, to less than 3 C in the southernmost areas of the Caribbean.Hurricane season is from June to November, but they occur more frequently in August and September and more common in the northern islands of the Caribbean. Hurricanes that sometimes batter the region usually strike northwards of Grenada and to the west of Barbados. The principal hurricane belt arcs to northwest of the island of Barbados in the Eastern Caribbean. A great example being recent events of Hurricane Irma devastating the island of Saint Martin during the 2017 hurricane season.Sea surface temperatures change little annually, normally running from 30 Â°C (87 Â°F) in the warmest months to 26 Â°C (76 Â°F) in the coolest months. The air temperature is warm year round, in the 70s, 80s and 90s, and only varies from winter to summer about 2–5 degrees on the southern islands and about a 10–20 degrees difference on the northern islands of the Caribbean. The northern islands, like the Bahamas, Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic, may be influenced by continental masses during winter months, such as cold fronts.Aruba: Latitude 12°N{{Weather box| location = Oranjestad, Aruba (1981–2010, extremes 1951–2010)| metric first=Yes| single line = yes|Jan record high C = 32.5|Feb record high C = 33.0|Mar record high C = 33.9|Apr record high C = 34.4|May record high C = 34.9|Jun record high C = 35.2|Jul record high C = 35.3|Aug record high C = 36.1|Sep record high C = 36.5|Oct record high C = 35.4|Nov record high C = 35.0|Dec record high C = 34.8|year record high C =|Jan high C = 30.0|Feb high C = 30.4|Mar high C = 30.9|Apr high C = 31.5|May high C = 32.0|Jun high C = 32.2|Jul high C = 32.0|Aug high C = 32.6|Sep high C = 32.7|Oct high C = 32.1|Nov high C = 31.3|Dec high C = 30.4|year high C = 31.5|Jan mean C = 26.7|Feb mean C = 26.8|Mar mean C = 27.2|Apr mean C = 27.9|May mean C = 28.5|Jun mean C = 28.7|Jul mean C = 28.6|Aug mean C = 29.1|Sep mean C = 29.2|Oct mean C = 28.7|Nov mean C = 28.1|Dec mean C = 27.2|year mean C = 28.1|Jan low C = 24.5|Feb low C = 24.7|Mar low C = 25.0|Apr low C = 25.8|May low C = 26.5|Jun low C = 26.7|Jul low C = 26.4|Aug low C = 26.8|Sep low C = 26.9|Oct low C = 26.4|Nov low C = 25.8|Dec low C = 25.0|year low C = 25.9|Jan record low C = 21.3|Feb record low C = 20.6|Mar record low C = 21.4|Apr record low C = 21.5|May record low C = 21.8|Jun record low C = 22.7|Jul record low C = 21.2|Aug record low C = 21.3|Sep record low C = 22.1|Oct record low C = 21.9|Nov record low C = 22.0|Dec record low C = 20.5|year record low C =|Jan precipitation mm = 39.3|Feb precipitation mm = 20.6|Mar precipitation mm = 8.7|Apr precipitation mm = 11.6|May precipitation mm = 16.3|Jun precipitation mm = 18.7|Jul precipitation mm = 31.7|Aug precipitation mm = 25.8|Sep precipitation mm = 45.5|Oct precipitation mm = 77.8|Nov precipitation mm = 94.0|Dec precipitation mm = 81.8|source 1 = DEPARTAMENTO METEOROLOGICO ARUBA,WEB,weblink Departamento Meteorologico Aruba, Summary Climatological Normals 1981–2010, 15 October 2012, (extremes)WEB,weblink Departamento Meteorologico Aruba, Climate Data Aruba, 15 October 2012, | date=February 2011}}Puerto Rico: Latitude 18°N{{Weather box|metric first=Yes|location = San Juan, Puerto Rico|single line = Y|Jan record high F = 92|Feb record high F = 96|Mar record high F = 96|Apr record high F = 97|May record high F = 96|Jun record high F = 97|Jul record high F = 95|Aug record high F = 95|Sep record high F = 97|Oct record high F = 97|Nov record high F = 98|Dec record high F = 96|year record high F= 94|Jan high F = 83|Feb high F = 84|Mar high F = 85|Apr high F = 86|May high F = 87|Jun high F = 89|Jul high F = 88|Aug high F = 88|Sep high F = 89|Oct high F = 88|Nov high F = 86|Dec high F = 84|year high F=|Jan low F = 72|Feb low F = 72|Mar low F = 73|Apr low F = 74|May low F = 76|Jun low F = 78|Jul low F = 78|Aug low F = 78|Sep low F = 78|Oct low F = 77|Nov low F = 75|Dec low F = 73|year low F=|Jan record low F = 61|Feb record low F = 62|Mar record low F = 60|Apr record low F = 64|May record low F = 64|Jun record low F = 66|Jul record low F = 69|Aug record low F = 68|Sep record low F = 69|Oct record low F = 67|Nov record low F = 65|Dec record low F = 62|year record low F= 61|Jan precipitation mm = 95|Feb precipitation mm = 60|Mar precipitation mm = 49|Apr precipitation mm = 118|May precipitation mm = 150|Jun precipitation mm = 112|Jul precipitation mm = 128|Aug precipitation mm = 138|Sep precipitation mm = 146|Oct precipitation mm = 142|Nov precipitation mm = 161|Dec precipitation mm = 126|year precipitation mm= 1431PUBLISHER=WEATHER.COM ACCESSDATE=2012-06-07, |date=June 2012}}Cuba: at Latitude 22°N{{clear}}{{Weather box|location = Havana|metric first = Y|single line = Y|Jan record high C = 32.5|Feb record high C = 33.0|Mar record high C = 35.9|Apr record high C = 36.4|May record high C = 36.9|Jun record high C = 37.2|Jul record high C = 38.0|Aug record high C = 36.1|Sep record high C = 37.5|Oct record high C = 35.4|Nov record high C = 35.0|Dec record high C = 34.8|year record high C =|Jan high C = 25.8|Feb high C = 26.1|Mar high C = 27.6|Apr high C = 28.6|May high C = 29.8|Jun high C = 30.5|Jul high C = 31.3|Aug high C = 31.6|Sep high C = 31.0|Oct high C = 29.2|Nov high C = 27.7|Dec high C = 26.5|year high C = 28.8|Jan mean C = 22.2|Feb mean C = 22.4|Mar mean C = 23.7|Apr mean C = 24.8|May mean C = 26.1|Jun mean C = 27.0|Jul mean C = 27.6|Aug mean C = 27.9|Sep mean C = 27.4|Oct mean C = 26.1|Nov mean C = 24.5|Dec mean C = 23.0|year mean C = 25.2|Jan low C = 18.6|Feb low C = 18.6|Mar low C = 19.7|Apr low C = 20.9|May low C = 22.4|Jun low C = 23.4|Jul low C = 23.8|Aug low C = 24.1|Sep low C = 23.8|Oct low C = 23.0|Nov low C = 21.3|Dec low C = 19.5|year low C = 21.6|Jan record low C = 5.1|Feb record low C = 5.6|Mar record low C = 5.4|Apr record low C = 11.5|May record low C = 16.8|Jun record low C = 19.7|Jul record low C = 18.2|Aug record low C = 19.3|Sep record low C = 19.1|Oct record low C = 11.9|Nov record low C = 10.0|Dec record low C = 7.5|year record low C =|Jan rain mm = 64.4|Feb rain mm = 68.6|Mar rain mm = 46.2|Apr rain mm = 53.7|May rain mm = 98.0|Jun rain mm = 182.3|Jul rain mm = 105.6|Aug rain mm = 99.6|Sep rain mm = 144.4|Oct rain mm = 180.5|Nov rain mm = 88.3|Dec rain mm = 57.6World Meteorological Organisation (United Nations>UN),WEB,weblink World Weather Information Service – Havana, 2010-06-26date=June 2011, Climate-Charts.comWEB,weblink Casa Blanca, Habana, Cuba: Climate, Global Warming, and Daylight Charts and Data, 2010-06-26, |date=August 2010}}File:Tobacco field cuba1.jpg|thumb|A field in Pinar del Rio planted with CubaCubaFile:Jayuya.jpg|thumb|Puerto RicoPuerto RicoFile:Grand Anse Beach Grenada.jpg|thumb|right|Grand Anse beach, St. George's, GrenadaGrenadaFile:Guadeloupe (Le cimetière de Gourbeyre).jpg|thumb|A church cemetery perched in the mountains of GuadeloupeGuadeloupeFile:Stkitts-view-lookingatsea.jpg|thumb|A view of Nevis island from the southeastern peninsula of Saint KittsSaint Kitts

Island groups

Lucayan Archipelago{{efn|The Lucayan Archipelago is excluded from some definitions of "Caribbean" and instead classified as Atlantic; this is primarily a geological rather than cultural or environmental distinction.}}
  • {{flag|The Bahamas}}
  • {{flag|Turks and Caicos Islands}} (United Kingdom)
Greater Antilles Lesser Antilles

Historical groupings

(File:Spanish Caribbean Islands in the American Viceroyalties 1600.png|thumb|upright=1.35|Spanish Caribbean Islands in the American Viceroyalties 1600)(File:Political Evolution of Central America and the Caribbean 1700 and on.gif|thumb|Political evolution of Central America and the Caribbean from 1700 to present)(File:Caribbean spanish names.PNG|thumb|right|The mostly Spanish-controlled Caribbean in the 16th century)All islands at some point were, and a few still are, colonies of European nations; a few are overseas or dependent territories: The British West Indies were united by the United Kingdom into a West Indies Federation between 1958 and 1962. The independent countries formerly part of the B.W.I. still have a joint cricket team that competes in Test matches, One Day Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals. The West Indian cricket team includes the South American nation of Guyana, the only former British colony on the mainland of that continent.In addition, these countries share the University of the West Indies as a regional entity. The university consists of three main campuses in Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad and Tobago, a smaller campus in the Bahamas and Resident Tutors in other contributing territories such as Trinidad.

Countries and territories of the Caribbean today

{{multiple image|align=center|total_width=780|width1=1699|height1=1000|image1=Caribbean general map.png|caption1=Islands in and near the Caribbean|width2=3561|height2=2221|image2=Caribbean maritime boundaries map.svg|caption2=Maritime boundaries between the Caribbean (island) nations}}{{See also|Caribbean South America|West Indies}}{| class="wikitable sortable" style="border:1px solid #aaa;" style="background:#ececec;"! class="unsortable" style="width:20px" | Flag! Country or territoryWEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 18 June 2008, SPP Background, Security and Prosperity Partnership of North America,, 14 November 2010, WEB,weblink Ecoregions of North America, United States Environmental Protection Agency, 30 May 2011, WEB,weblink What's the difference between North, Latin, Central, Middle, South, Spanish and Anglo America?,, ! Sovereignty! Status! Area(km2)Unless otherwise noted, land area figures are taken from JOURNAL,weblink Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density, United Nations Statistics Division, 2008, 14 October 2010, ! Population({{UN_Population|Year}} est.){{UN_Population|ref}}! Density(people per km2)! Capital {{flagicon|Anguilla}}| Anguilla | United KingdomBritish Overseas Territories>British overseas territory {{nts|91}} {{UN_Population|Anguilla}} 164.8The Valley, Anguilla>The Valley {{flagicon|Antigua and Barbuda}}| Antigua and Barbuda| IndependentCommonwealth Realm>Constitutional monarchy {{nts|442}} {{UN_Population|Antigua and Barbuda}} 199.1St. John's, Antigua and Barbuda>St. John's {{flagicon|Aruba}}| Aruba | Kingdom of the Netherlands| Constituent kingdom {{nts|180}} {{UN_Population|Aruba}} 594.4Oranjestad, Aruba>Oranjestad {{flagicon|The Bahamas}}The BahamasSince the Lucayan Archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean rather than Caribbean Sea, the The Bahamas>Bahamas are part of the West Indies but are not technically part of the Caribbean, although the United Nations groups them with the Caribbean.| IndependentCommonwealth Realm>Constitutional monarchy {{nts|13943}} {{UN_Population|Bahamas}} 24.5Nassau, Bahamas>Nassau {{flagicon|Barbados}}| Barbados| IndependentCommonwealth Realm>Constitutional monarchy {{nts|430}} {{UN_Population|Barbados}} 595.3| Bridgetown {{flagicon|Bonaire}}| Bonaire | Kingdom of the Netherlands| Special Municipality {{nts|294}} {{ntsURL=HTTP://WWW.CBS.AN/POPULATION/POPULATION_B2.ASP ARCHIVEDATE=1 MAY 2010 ACCESSDATE=14 OCTOBER 2010, 41.1| Kralendijk {{flagicon|British Virgin Islands}}| British Virgin Islands| United KingdomBritish Overseas Territories>British overseas territory {{nts|151}} {{UN_Population|British Virgin Islands}} 152.3| Road Town {{flagicon|Cayman Islands}}| Cayman Islands| United KingdomBritish Overseas Territories>British overseas territory {{nts|264}} {{UN_Population|Cayman Islands}} 212.1George Town, Cayman Islands>George Town {{flagicon|Cuba}}| Cuba| Independent| Republic {{nts|109886}} {{UN_Population|Cuba}} 102.0| Havana {{flagicon|Curaçao}}| Curaçao | Kingdom of the Netherlands| Constituent kingdom {{nts|444}} {{UN_Population|Curaçao}} 317.1| Willemstad {{flagicon|Dominica}}| Dominica| Independent| Republic {{nts|751}} {{UN_Population|Dominica}} 89.2| Roseau {{flagicon|Dominican Republic}}|Dominican Republic| Independent| Republic {{nts|48671}} {{UN_Population|Dominican Republic}} 207.3| Santo Domingo {{flagicon|Federal Dependencies of Venezuela}}| Federal Dependencies of Venezuela | Venezuela| Territories {{nts|342}} 2,155 6.3| Gran Roque {{flagicon|Grenada}}| Grenada| IndependentCommonwealth Realm>Constitutional monarchy {{nts|344}} {{UN_Population|Grenada}} 302.3St. George's, Grenada>St. George's {{flagicon|Guadeloupe}}| Guadeloupe | France| Overseas department {{nts|1628}} {{UN_Population|Guadeloupe}} 246.7| Basse-Terre {{flagicon|Haiti}}| Haiti| Independent| Republic {{nts|27750}} {{UN_Population|Haiti}} 361.5| Port-au-Prince {{flagicon|Jamaica}}| Jamaica| IndependentCommonwealth Realm>Constitutional monarchy {{nts|10991}} {{UN_Population|Jamaica}} 247.4Kingston, Jamaica>Kingston {{flagicon|Martinique}}| Martinique | France| Overseas department {{nts|1128}} {{UN_Population|Martinique}} 352.6| Fort-de-France {{flagicon|Montserrat}}| Montserrat| United KingdomBritish Overseas Territories>British overseas territory {{nts|102}} {{UN_Population|Montserrat}} 58.8Plymouth, Montserrat>Plymouth (Brades)Because of ongoing activity of the Soufriere Hills volcano beginning in July 1995, much of Plymouth was destroyed and government offices were relocated to Brades. Plymouth remains the de jure capital. {{flagicon|United States}}| Navassa Island| United States| Territory (uninhabited) {{nts|5}} {{nts|0}} 0.0| {{flagicon|Nueva Esparta}}| Nueva Esparta| Venezuela| State {{nts|1151}} 491,610 | La Asunción {{flagicon|Puerto Rico}}| Puerto Rico| United States| Commonwealth {{nts|8870}} {{UN_Population|Puerto Rico}} 448.9San Juan, Puerto Rico>San Juan {{flagicon|Saba}}| Saba | Kingdom of the Netherlands| Special municipality {{nts|13}} {{nts|1537}} 118.2| The Bottom {{flagicon|San Andrés y Providencia}}Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina>San Andrés and Providencia| Colombia| Department {{nts|52.5}} {{nts|75,167}} 1431San Andrés, San Andrés y Providencia>San Andrés {{flagicon|Saint Barthélemy}}| Saint Barthélemy | France| Overseas collectivity {{nts|21}} {{nts|7448}} 354.7Gustavia, Saint Barthélemy>Gustavia {{flagicon|Saint Kitts and Nevis}}| Saint Kitts and Nevis| IndependentCommonwealth Realm>Constitutional monarchy {{nts|261}} {{UN_Population|Saint Kitts and Nevis}} 199.2| Basseterre {{flagicon|Saint Lucia}}| Saint Lucia| IndependentCommonwealth Realm>Constitutional monarchy {{nts|539}} {{UN_Population|Saint Lucia}} 319.1| Castries {{flagicon|Saint Martin}}Collectivity of Saint Martin>Saint Martin | France| Overseas collectivity {{nts|54}} {{nts|29820}} 552.2Marigot, St. Martin>Marigot {{flagicon|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines}}| Saint Vincent and the Grenadines| IndependentCommonwealth Realm>Constitutional monarchy {{nts|389}} {{UN_Population|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines}} 280.2| Kingstown {{flagicon|Sint Eustatius}}| Sint Eustatius | Kingdom of the Netherlands| Special municipality {{nts|21}} {{nts|2739}} 130.4Oranjestad, Sint Eustatius>Oranjestad {{flagicon|Sint Maarten}}| Sint Maarten | Kingdom of the Netherlands| Constituent kingdom {{nts|34}} {{UN_Population|Sint Maarten (Dutch part)}} 1176.7Philipsburg, Sint Maarten>Philipsburg {{flagicon|Trinidad and Tobago}}| Trinidad and Tobago| Independent| Republic {{nts|5130}} {{UN_Population|Trinidad and Tobago}} 261.0| Port of Spain {{flagicon|Turks and Caicos Islands}}| Turks and Caicos IslandsSince the Lucayan Archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean rather than Caribbean Sea, the Turks and Caicos Islands are part of the West Indies but are not technically part of the Caribbean, although the United Nations groups them with the Caribbean.| United KingdomBritish Overseas Territories>British overseas territory {{nts|948}} {{UN_Population|Turks and Caicos Islands}} 34.8| Cockburn Town {{flagicon|United States Virgin Islands}}| United States Virgin Islands| United States| Territory {{nts|347}} {{UN_Population|United States Virgin Islands}} 317.0Charlotte Amalie, United States Virgin Islands>Charlotte Amalie style=" font-weight:bold; " class="sortbottom"! colspan="4" | Total {{nts|235667}} {{nts|44199389}} 187.6|

Continental countries with Caribbean coastlines and islands

{{Col-begin}}{{Col-break}} {{Col-break}} {{col-end}}


The Caribbean islands have one of the most diverse eco systems in the world. The animals, fungi and plants, and have been classified as one of Conservation International's biodiversity hotspots because of their exceptionally diverse terrestrial and marine ecosystems, ranging from montane cloud forests, to tropical rainforest, to cactus scrublands. The region also contains about 8% (by surface area) of the world's coral reefsBOOK, Mark Spalding, Corinna Ravilious, Edmund Peter Green, World Atlas of Coral Reefs,weblink 25 June 2012, 10 September 2001, University of California Press, 978-0-520-23255-6, along with extensive seagrass meadows,Littler, D. and Littler, M. (2000) Caribbean Reef Plants. OffShore Graphics, Inc., {{ISBN|0967890101}}. both of which are frequently found in the shallow marine waters bordering the island and continental coasts of the region.For the fungi, there is a modern checklist based on nearly 90,000 records derived from specimens in reference collections, published accounts and field observations.Minter, D.W., Rodríguez Hernández, M. and Mena Portales, J. (2001) Fungi of the Caribbean. An annotated checklist. PDMS Publishing, {{ISBN|0-9540169-0-4}}. That checklist includes more than 11,250 species of fungi recorded from the region. As its authors note, the work is far from exhaustive, and it is likely that the true total number of fungal species already known from the Caribbean is higher. The true total number of fungal species occurring in the Caribbean, including species not yet recorded, is likely far higher given the generally accepted estimate that only about 7% of all fungi worldwide have been discovered.BOOK, Kirk, P. M., Ainsworth, Geoffrey Clough, Ainsworth & Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi,weblink 2008, CABI, 978-0-85199-826-8, Though the amount of available information is still small, a first effort has been made to estimate the number of fungal species endemic to some Caribbean islands. For Cuba, 2200 species of fungi have been tentatively identified as possible endemics of the island;WEB,weblink Fungi of Cuba – potential endemics,, 2011-07-09, for Puerto Rico, the number is 789 species;WEB,weblink Fungi of Puerto Rico – potential endemics,, 2011-07-09, for the Dominican Republic, the number is 699 species;WEB,weblink Fungi of the Dominican Republic – potential endemics,, 2011-07-09, for Trinidad and Tobago, the number is 407 species.WEB,weblink Fungi of Trinidad & Tobago – potential endemics,, 2011-07-09, Many of the ecosystems of the Caribbean islands have been devastated by deforestation, pollution, and human encroachment. The arrival of the first humans is correlated with extinction of giant owls and dwarf ground sloths.WEB,weblink North American Extinctions v. World,, 2010-08-23, The hotspot contains dozens of highly threatened animals (ranging from birds, to mammals and reptiles), fungi and plants. Examples of threatened animals include the Puerto Rican amazon, two species of solenodon (giant shrews) in Cuba and the Hispaniola island, and the Cuban crocodile.{{wide image|Isla Saona.jpg|750px| align-cap=center| Saona Island, Dominican Republic}}The region's coral reefs, which contain about 70 species of hard corals and between 500–700 species of reef-associated fishesWEB,weblink Caribbean Coral Reefs,, have undergone rapid decline in ecosystem integrity in recent years, and are considered particularly vulnerable to global warming and ocean acidification.JOURNAL, 10.1126/science.1152509, Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification, Science, 2007, Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Mumby, P. J., Hooten, A. J., Steneck, R. S., Greenfield, P., Gomez, E., Harvell, C. D., Sale, P. F., Edwards, A. J., Caldeira, K., Knowlton, N., Eakin, C. M., Iglesias-Prieto, R., Muthiga, N., Bradbury, R. H., Dubi, A., Hatziolos, M. E., 318, 5857, 1737–42, 18079392, 8,, According to a UNEP report, the Caribbean coral reefs might get extinct in next 20 years due to population explosion along the coast lines, overfishing, the pollution of coastal areas and global warming.WEB, Caribbean coral reefs may disappear within 20 years: Report,weblink IANS,, 3 July 2014, Some Caribbean islands have terrain that Europeans found suitable for cultivation for agriculture. Tobacco was an important early crop during the colonial era, but was eventually overtaken by sugarcane production as the region's staple crop. Sugar was produced from sugarcane for export to Europe. Cuba and Barbados were historically the largest producers of sugar. The tropical plantation system thus came to dominate Caribbean settlement. Other islands were found to have terrain unsuited for agriculture, for example Dominica, which remains heavily forested. The islands in the southern Lesser Antilles, Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, are extremely arid, making them unsuitable for agriculture. However, they have salt pans that were exploited by the Dutch. Sea water was pumped into shallow ponds, producing coarse salt when the water evaporated.BOOK, Rogoziński, Jan, A Brief History of the Caribbean, Penguin, 2000, 978-0-452-28193-6, 65, The natural environmental diversity of the Caribbean islands has led to recent growth in eco-tourism. This type of tourism is growing on islands lacking sandy beaches and dense human populations.BOOK, Rogoziński, Jan, A Brief History of the Caribbean, Penguin, 2000, 978-0-452-28193-6, 356,

Plants and animals

{{see also|List of invasive marine fish in Florida{{!}}List of invasive marine fish in the Caribbean}}File:Epiphytes (Dominica).jpg|Epiphytes (bromeliads, climbing palms) in the rainforest of Dominica.File:Jumping frog.jpg|A green and black poison frog, Dendrobates auratusFile:Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Guadeloupe.jpg|Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Guadeloupe.File:Costus speciosus Guadeloupe.JPG|Costus speciosus, a marsh plant, Guadeloupe.File:Ocypode quadrata (Martinique).jpg|An Atlantic ghost crab (Ocypode quadrata) in Martinique.File:Calebassier.jpg|Crescentia cujete, or calabash fruit, Martinique.File:Thalassoma bifasciatum (Bluehead Wrasse) juvenile yellow stage over Bispira brunnea (Social Feather Duster Worms).jpg|Thalassoma bifasciatum (bluehead wrasse fish), over Bispira brunnea (social feather duster worms).File:Stenopus hispidus (Banded cleaner shrimp).jpg|Two Stenopus hispidus (banded cleaner shrimp) on a Xestospongia muta (giant barrel sponge).File:Cyphoma signata (Fingerprint Cowry) pair.jpg|A pair of Cyphoma signatum (fingerprint cowry), off coastal Haiti.File:Extinctbirds1907 P18 Amazona martinicana0317.png|The Martinique amazon, Amazona martinicana, is an extinct species of parrot in the family Psittacidae.File:Anastrepha suspensa 5193019.jpg|Anastrepha suspensa, a Caribbean fruit fly.File:Hemidactylus mabouia (Dominica).jpg|Hemidactylus mabouia, a tropical gecko, in Dominica Edited by: Taniya Brooks.


Indigenous groups

File:Agostino Brunias - Linen Market, Dominica - Google Art Project.jpg|thumb|A linen market in DominicaDominicaFile:Agostino Brunias. Free Women of Color with Their Children and Servants in a Landscape, ca. 1770-1796.jpg|thumb|right|Agostino Brunias. Free Women of Color with Their Children and Servants in a Landscape Brooklyn MuseumBrooklyn MuseumFile:East Indian Coolies in Trinidad - Project Gutenberg eText 16035.jpg|thumb|Asian Indians in the late nineteenth century singing and dancing in Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and TobagoFile:Scenes of Cuba (K5 02567) (5981599576).jpg|thumb|Street scene, MatanzasMatanzasAt the time of European contact, the dominant ethnic groups in the Caribbean included the Taíno of the Greater Antilles and northern Lesser Antilles, the Island Caribs of the southern Lesser Antilles, and smaller distinct groups such as the Guanajatabey of western Cuba and the Ciguayo of eastern Hispaniola. The population of the Caribbean is estimated to have been around 750,000 immediately before European contact, although lower and higher figures are given. After contact, social disruption and epidemic diseases such as smallpox and measles (to which they had no natural immunity)BOOK
, Joseph Patrick
, Byrne
, Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics, and Plagues: A-M
, 2008
, 413
, 978-0-313-34102-1,
led to a decline in the Amerindian population.Engerman, p. 486 From 1500 to 1800 the population rose as slaves arrived from West AfricaThe Sugar Revolutions and Slavery, U.S. Library of Congress such as the Kongo, Igbo, Akan, Fon and Yoruba as well as military prisoners from Ireland, who were deported during the Cromwellian reign in England.{{citation needed|date=April 2016}} Immigrants from Britain, Italy, France, Spain, the Netherlands, Portugal and Denmark also arrived, although the mortality rate was high for both groups.Engerman, pp. 488–492
The population is estimated to have reached 2.2 million by 1800.Engerman, Figure 11.1 Immigrants from India, China, Indonesia, and other countries arrived in the mid-19th century as indentured servants.Engerman, pp. 501–502 After the ending of the Atlantic slave trade, the population increased naturally.Engerman, pp. 504, 511 The total regional population was estimated at 37.5 million by 2000.Table A.2, Database documentation, Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) Population Database, version 3, International Center for Tropical Agriculture, 2005. Accessed on line February 20, 2008.In Haiti and most of the French, Anglophone and Dutch Caribbean, the population is predominantly of African origin; on many islands there are also significant populations of mixed racial origin (including Mulatto-Creole, Dougla, Mestizo, Quadroon, Cholo, Castizo, Criollo, Zambo, Pardo, Asian Latin Americans, Chindian, Cocoa panyols, and Eurasian), as well as populations of European ancestry: Dutch, English, French, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish ancestry. Asians, especially those of Chinese, Indian descent, and Javanese Indonesians, form a significant minority in parts of the region. Indians form a plurality of the population in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, and Suriname. Most of their ancestors arrived in the 19th century as indentured laborers.The Spanish-speaking Caribbean populations are primarily of European, African, or racially mixed origins. Puerto Rico has a European majority with a mixture of European-African-Native American (tri-racial), and a large Mulatto (European-West African) and West African minority. Cuba also has a European majority, along with a significant population of African ancestry. The Dominican Republic has the largest mixed-race population, primarily descended from Europeans, West Africans, and Amerindians.(File:Revellers Wine at Trinidad Carnival.jpg|thumb|Carnival in Trinidad and Tobago)Jamaica has a large African majority, in addition to a significant population of mixed racial background, and has minorities of Chinese, Europeans, Indians, Latinos, Jews, and Arabs. This is a result of years of importation of slaves and indentured laborers, and migration. Most multi-racial Jamaicans refer to themselves as either mixed race or brown. Similar populations can be found in the Caricom states of Belize, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago. Trinidad and Tobago has a multi-racial cosmopolitan society due to the arrivals of Africans, Indians, Chinese, Arabs, Jews, Spanish, Portuguese, and Europeans along with the Native Amerindians population. This multi-racial mix has created sub-ethnicities that often straddle the boundaries of major ethnicities and include Dougla, Chindian, Mulatto-Creole, Afro-Asians, Eurasian, Cocoa panyols, and Asian Latin Americans


Spanish (64%), French (25%), English (14%), Dutch, Haitian Creole, and Papiamento are the predominant official languages of various countries in the region, although a handful of unique creole languages or dialects can also be found in virtually every Caribbean country. Other languages such as Caribbean Hindustani, Chinese, Indonesian, Amerindian languages, other African languages, other European languages, other Indian languages, and other Indonesian languages can also be found.


{{See also|:Category:Religion in the Caribbean{{!}}Religion in the Caribbean}}File:Kathedrale Havanna 001.jpg|thumb|Havana Cathedral (Catholic) in CubaCubaFile:TnT PoS Cathedral of the Holy Trinity (back view).jpg|thumb|Holy Trinity Cathedral, an Anglican Christian cathedral in Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and TobagoFile:TnT St. Joseph Mohammed Ali Jinnah Memorial Mosque.jpg|thumb|Muhammad Ali Jinnah Memorial Masjid, a Muslim masjid in Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and TobagoFile:KITLV - 12680 - Dutch Israelite synagogue in Paramaribo - circa 1890.tif|thumb|A Jewish synagogue in SurinameSurinameFile:Haitian vodou altar to Petwo, Rada, and Gede spirits; November 5, 2010..jpg|thumb|A Haitian VodouHaitian VodouChristianity is the predominant religion in the Caribbean (84.7%).Christianity in its Global Context {{webarchive|url= |date=2013-08-15 }} Other religious groups in the region are Hinduism, Islam, Judaism, Rastafarianism, Buddhism, Chinese folk religion (Taoism and Confucianism), Bahá'í, Jainism, Sikhism, Zorastrianism, Kebatinan, Traditional African religions, Afro-American religions, Yoruba (Santería, Trinidad Orisha, Palo, Umbanda, Brujería, Hoodoo, Candomblé, Quimbanda, Orisha, Xangô de Recife, Xangô do Nordeste, Comfa, Espiritismo, Santo Daime, Obeah, Candomblé, Abakuá, Kumina, Winti, Sanse, Cuban Vodú, Dominican Vudú, Louisiana Voodoo, Haitian Vodou, and Vodun).



(File:Flag of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM).svg|thumb|Flag of the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM))Caribbean societies are very different from other Western societies in terms of size, culture, and degree of mobility of their citizens.Gowricharn, Ruben. Caribbean Transnationalism: Migration, Pluralization, and Social Cohesion, Lanham: Lexington Books, 2006. p. 5 {{ISBN|0-7391-1167-1}} The current economic and political problems the states face individually are common to all Caribbean states. Regional development has contributed to attempts to subdue current problems and avoid projected problems. From a political and economic perspective, regionalism serves to make Caribbean states active participants in current international affairs through collective coalitions. In 1973, the first political regionalism in the Caribbean Basin was created by advances of the English-speaking Caribbean nations through the institution known as the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM)Hillman, p. 150 which is located in Guyana.Certain scholars have argued both for and against generalizing the political structures of the Caribbean. On the one hand the Caribbean states are politically diverse, ranging from communist systems such as Cuba toward more capitalist Westminster-style parliamentary systems as in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Other scholars argue that these differences are superficial, and that they tend to undermine commonalities in the various Caribbean states. Contemporary Caribbean systems seem to reflect a "blending of traditional and modern patterns, yielding hybrid systems that exhibit significant structural variations and divergent constitutional traditions yet ultimately appear to function in similar ways."Hillman, p. 165 The political systems of the Caribbean states share similar practices.The influence of regionalism in the Caribbean is often marginalized. Some scholars believe that regionalism cannot exist in the Caribbean because each small state is unique. On the other hand, scholars also suggest that there are commonalities amongst the Caribbean nations that suggest regionalism exists. "Proximity as well as historical ties among the Caribbean nations has led to cooperation as well as a desire for collective action."JOURNAL, Serbin, Andres, Towards an Association of Caribbean States: Raising Some Awkward Questions, Journal of Interamerican Studies and World Affairs, 1994, 61–90, 36, 4, 166319, 10.2307/166319, These attempts at regionalization reflect the nations' desires to compete in the international economic system.Furthermore, a lack of interest from other major states promoted regionalism in the region. In recent years the Caribbean has suffered from a lack of U.S. interest. "With the end of the Cold War, U.S. security and economic interests have been focused on other areas. As a result there has been a significant reduction in U.S. aid and investment to the Caribbean."Hillman, p. 123 The lack of international support for these small, relatively poor states, helped regionalism prosper.Following the Cold War another issue of importance in the Caribbean has been the reduced economic growth of some Caribbean States due to the United States and European Union's allegations of special treatment toward the region by each other. {{clarify|date=December 2011}}

United States-EU trade dispute

The United States under President Bill Clinton launched a challenge in the World Trade Organization against the EU over Europe's preferential program, known as the Lomé Convention, which allowed banana exports from the former colonies of the Group of African, Caribbean and Pacific states (ACP) to enter Europe cheaply.WEB,weblink The U.S.-EU Banana Agreement, 2008-11-23, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink 2009-05-06, See also: WEB,weblink Dominica: Poverty and Potential, BBC, 2008-05-16, 2008-12-06, The World Trade Organization sided in the United States' favour and the beneficial elements of the convention to African, Caribbean and Pacific states has been partially dismantled and replaced by the Cotonou Agreement.WEB,weblink WTO rules against EU banana import practices, 2008-11-23, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink 2009-04-16, . (2007-11-29)During the US/EU dispute, the United States imposed large tariffs on European Union goods (up to 100%) to pressure Europe to change the agreement with the Caribbean nations in favour of the Cotonou Agreement.WEB,weblink No truce in banana war, BBC News, 1999-03-08, 2010-08-23, Farmers in the Caribbean have complained of falling profits and rising costs as the Lomé Convention weakens. Some farmers have faced increased pressure to turn towards the cultivation of illegal drugs, which has a higher profit margin and fills the sizable demand for these illegal drugs in North America and Europe.WEB,weblink World: Americas St Vincent hit by banana war, BBC News, 1999-03-13, 2010-08-23, WEB,weblink Concern for Caribbean farmers,, 2005-01-07, 2010-08-23,

Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and Association of Caribbean States

Caribbean nations have also started to more closely cooperate in the Caribbean Financial Action Task Force and other instruments to add oversight of the offshore industry. One of the most important associations that deal with regionalism amongst the nations of the Caribbean Basin has been the Association of Caribbean States (ACS). Proposed by CARICOM in 1992, the ACS soon won the support of the other countries of the region. It was founded in July 1994. The ACS maintains regionalism within the Caribbean on issues unique to the Caribbean Basin. Through coalition building, like the ACS and CARICOM, regionalism has become an undeniable part of the politics and economics of the Caribbean. The successes of region-building initiatives are still debated by scholars, yet regionalism remains prevalent throughout the Caribbean.

Bolivarian Alliance

The President of Venezuela, Hugo Chavez launched an economic group called the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas (ALBA), which several eastern Caribbean islands joined. In 2012, the nation of Haiti, with 9 million people, became the largest CARICOM nation that sought to join the union.NEWS, ALBA Expands its Allies in the Caribbean, Kevin, Edmonds,weblink Venezuela Analysis, 2012-03-06, March 9, 2012,

Regional institutions

Here are some of the bodies that several islands share in collaboration:


Favorite or national dishes

{{unreferenced section|date=August 2018}}File:FOOD Doubles 2.jpg|thumb|Doubles, one of the national dishes of Trinidad and TobagoTrinidad and TobagoFile:Arroz con gandules.jpg|thumb|Arroz con gandules, one of the national dishes of Puerto RicoPuerto Rico

See also

{{div col|colwidth=26em}} Geography: {{div col end}}






  • Engerman, Stanley L. "A Population History of the Caribbean", pp. 483–528 in A Population History of North America Michael R. Haines and Richard Hall Steckel (Eds.), Cambridge University Press, 2000, {{ISBN|0-521-49666-7}}.
  • Hillman, Richard S., and Thomas J. D'agostino, eds. Understanding the Contemporary Caribbean, London: Lynne Rienner, 2003 {{ISBN|1-58826-663-X}}.

Further reading

  • Develtere, Patrick R. 1994. "Co-operation and development: With special reference to the experience of the Commonwealth Caribbean" ACCO, {{ISBN|90-334-3181-5}}
  • Gowricharn, Ruben. Caribbean Transnationalism: Migration, Pluralization, and Social Cohesion. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2006.
  • Henke, Holger, and Fred Reno, eds. Modern Political Culture in the Caribbean. Kingston: University of West Indies Press, 2003.
  • Heuman, Gad. The Caribbean: Brief Histories. London: A Hodder Arnold Publication, 2006.
  • de Kadt, Emanuel, (editor). Patterns of foreign influence in the Caribbean, Oxford University Press, 1972.
  • Knight, Franklin W. The Modern Caribbean (University of North Carolina Press, 1989).
  • Kurlansky, Mark. 1992. A Continent of Islands: Searching for the Caribbean Destiny. Addison-Wesley Publishing. {{ISBN|0-201-52396-5}}
  • Langley, Lester D. The United States and the Caribbean in the Twentieth Century. London: University of Georgia Press, 1989.
  • Maingot, Anthony P. The United States and the Caribbean: Challenges of an Asymmetrical Relationship. Westview Press, 1994.
  • Palmie, Stephan, and Francisco A. Scarano, eds. The Caribbean: A History of the Region and Its Peoples (University of Chicago Press; 2011); 660 pp.; writings on the region since the pre-Columbia era.
  • Ramnarine, Tina K. Beautiful Cosmos: Performance and Belonging in the Caribbean Diaspora. London, Pluto Press, 2007.
  • Rowntree, Lester/Martin Lewis/Marie Price/William Wyckoff. Diversity Amid Globalization: World Regions, Environment, Development, 4th edition, 2008.

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Caribbean}} {{Caribbean topics}}{{Regions of the world}}{{Coord|14|31|32|N|75|49|06|W|display=title|type:waterbody_source:dewiki_scale:15000000}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Caribbean" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 7:25am EDT - Mon, Sep 23 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott