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Reporters Without Borders
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factoids
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), also known under its original name Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization based in Paris that conducts political advocacy on issues relating to freedom of information and freedom of the press.Reporters Without Borders has two primary spheres of activity: one is focused on Internet censorship and the new media, and the other on providing material, financial and psychological assistance to journalists assigned to dangerous areas. Its missions are to continuously monitor attacks on freedom of information worldwide, denounce any such attacks in the media, act in cooperation with governments to fight censorship and laws aimed at restricting freedom of information, morally and financially assist persecuted journalists, as well as their families and offer material assistance to war correspondents in order to enhance their safety.

Background

File:Siège de RSF.jpeg|thumb|Head office in ParisParisReporters Without Borders was founded in 1985 by Robert Ménard, Rémy Loury, Jacques Molénat and Émilien Jubineau, in Montpellier, France."Who We Are?" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121026154340weblink |date=2012-10-26 }}, Reporters Without Borders, 12 September 2012, retrieved 8 March 2013 Its head office is in the 2nd arrondissement of Paris.WEB,weblink Contact us, Reports Without Borders, 31 July 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120804155431weblink">weblink 4 August 2012, RWB also maintains offices in Berlin, Brussels, Geneva, Madrid, Rome, Stockholm, Tunis, Vienna, and Washington, D.C. Their first office in Asia, located in Taipei, Taiwan, officially opened in July 2017.WEB,weblink Reporters without Borders opens office in Taipei, Pei-ling, Chiang, 18 July 2017, 26 January 2018, WEB,weblink Reporters Without Borders Picks Taiwan for Asian Bureau, New York Times, 7 April 2017, WEB,weblink Reporters Without Borders opens first Asia office in Taiwan, Agence France-Presse, AFP, 7 April 2017, Taiwan has been rated the top Asian nation in RSF’s Press Freedom Index for five consecutive years, since 2013, and ranked 45th in 2017.Reporters Without Borders selects Taipei for first Asian bureau, Taiwan Today, April 7, 2017Taiwan, Reporters Without Borders, April 2017At first, the association worked to promote alternative journalism, but there were disagreements between the founders. Finally, only Ménard remained and he changed the organization's direction towards promoting freedom of the press. Reporters Without Borders states that it draws its inspiration from Article 19 of the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights, according to which everyone has "the right to freedom of opinion and expression" and also the right to "seek, receive and impart" information and ideas "regardless of frontiers".Ménard was RWB's first Secretary General. Jean-François Julliard succeeded Ménard in 2008.NEWS, Robert Ménard 'se passera très bien des médias', Charlotte Menegaux, French, AFP, 26 September 2008, Le Figaro,weblink 24 December 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081211104316weblink">weblink 11 December 2008, yes, English translation: "Robert Ménard 'will be fine media' " Christophe Deloire succeeded Julliard in July 2012 when he became Director General."Christophe Deloire appointed Reporters Without Borders director-general", Reporters Without Borders, 21 May 2012Reporters Without Borders' primary means of direct action are appeals to government authorities through letters or petitions, as well as frequent press releases. Through its world-wide network of roughly 150 correspondents, RWB gathers information and conducts investigations of press freedom violations by region (Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and North Africa, and the Americas) or topic. If necessary, it will send a team of its own to assess working conditions for journalists in a specific country. It releases annual reports on countries as well as the Press Freedom Index. It has launched advertising campaigns with the pro bono assistance of advertising firms to raise public awareness of threats to freedom of information and freedom of the press, to undermine the image of countries that it considers enemies of freedom of expression, and to discourage political support by the international community for governments that attack rather than protect freedom of information.RWB also provides assistance for journalists and media who are either in danger or are having difficulty subsisting. They provide money to assist exiled or imprisoned journalists and their families and the unsupported families of journalists who have been killed; to enable journalists to leave their home countries if they are in danger there; to repair the effects of vandalism on media outlets; to cover the legal fees of journalists who have been prosecuted for their writings or the medical bills of those who have been physically attacked; and upon occasion, to provide bullet-proof vests for use by journalists.WEB,weblink Reporters Without Borders provides funding for journalists and media in danger, Reports Without Borders, 13 July 2009, 3 March 2012,

Partners

Reporters Without Borders is a founding member of the International Freedom of Expression Exchange, a virtual network of non-governmental organizations that monitors free expression violations worldwide and defends journalists, writers and others who are persecuted for exercising their right to freedom of expression.RWB has a presence in 150 countries through local correspondents who act as information relays and through close collaborations with local and regional press freedom groups, including:"Worldwide Presence" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130423042205weblink |date=2013-04-23 }}, Reporters Without Borders, 13 November 2012{| class="wikitable" style="margin-left:1em"! Country !! Organization Bangladesh Bangladesh Centre for Development, Journalism and Communication (BCDJC) Belarus Belarusian Association of Journalists (BAJ) Burma Burma Media Association (BMA) Colombia Ceso-FIP (Solidarity Centre-International Federation of Journalists) Colombia Colombian Federation of Journalists (FECOLPER) Democratic Republic of Congo Journalist In Danger (JED) Eritrea Association of Eritrean Journalists in Exile Honduras Committee for Free Expression (C-Libre) Iraq Journalistic Freedom Observatory (JFO) Kazakhstan Journalists in Danger Mexico Centre for Journalism and Public Ethics (CEPET) Pakistan Tribal Union of Journalists (TUJ) Romania Media Monitoring Agency Russia Glasnost Defence Foundation (GDF) Somalia National Union of Somali Journalists (NUSOJ) Sri Lanka Journalists for Democracy in Sri Lanka (JDS) Thailand Thai Netizen Network (TNN) Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Journalists for Human Rights (ZJHR)

Awards received

Through the years RWB has received a number of awards, including:

Publications

Reporters Without Borders issues press releases, fact finding reports, and periodical publications. It publishes periodic mission reports on developments in individual countries or regions or on a specific topic."Mission Reports" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131014174711weblink |date=2013-10-14 }}, Reporters Without Borders, retrieved 21 March 2013 Each December it publishes an annual overview of events related to freedom of information and the safety of journalists."Overview" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130423042304weblink |date=2013-04-23 }}, Reporters Without Borders, retrieved 21 March 2013 It maintains a web site (www.rsf.org) accessible in six languages (French, English, Spanish, Arabic, Chinese, and Persian).

World Press Freedom Index

(File:Press freedom 2019.svg|upright=2.25|thumb|right|2019 Press Freedom IndexWEB,weblink 2019 World Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders, 2019, {{col-begin}}{{col-break}}{{legend|#820000|Very serious situation}}{{legend|#ff4100|Difficult situation}}{{col-break}}{{legend|#ffb400|Noticeable problems}}{{legend|#96afd8|Satisfactory situation}}{{col-break}}{{legend|#265c9d|Good situation}}{{legend|#e0e0e0|Not classified / No data}}{{col-end}})RWB compiles and publishes an annual ranking of countries based upon the organization's assessment of their press freedom records. Small countries, such as Andorra, are excluded from this report.The report is based on a questionnaire sent to partner organizations of Reporters Without Borders (14 freedom of expression groups in five continents) and its 130 correspondents around the world, as well as to journalists, researchers, jurists and human rights activists.2013 "World Press Freedom Index - Methodology" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130819031406weblink |date=2013-08-19 }}, Reporters Without Borders, 31 January 2013The survey asks questions about direct attacks on journalists and the media as well as other indirect sources of pressure against the free press. RWB is careful to note that the index only deals with press freedom, and does not measure the quality of journalism. Due to the nature of the survey's methodology based on individual perceptions, there are often wide contrasts in a country's ranking from year to year.

Predators of Press Freedom

Starting in 2001 Reporters Without Borders has published its annual Predators of Press Freedom list which highlights what it feels are the worst violators of press freedom.Artists Stephen Shanabrook and Veronika Georgieva with Saatchi and Saatchi for 25th anniversary campaign, 2010, for Reporters Without Borders en.rsf.org {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121107011221weblink |date=2012-11-07 }}, including tv commercial youtube.com. The campaign was nominated for an award at 57th Cannes Lions International Advertising Festival canneslions.com {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100701192049weblink |date=2010-07-01 }}In March 2018, RWB included 33 leaders or groups on its list of Predators of Freedom of Information:WEB, Predators gallery,weblink Reporters Without Borders, 24 March 2018, {{div col}} {{colend}}Nine leaders and ten groups were dropped from the list of predators in 2016 and 2017:"Predators of Freedom of Information in 2013" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150403110347weblink |date=2015-04-03 }}, Reporters Without Borders", 3 May 2013{{col-begin}}{{col-break}} {{col-break}} {{col-end}}

Press Freedom Barometer

File:Can Dündar prix RSF Strasbourg 17 novembre 2015.jpg|thumb|Cumhuriyet's former editor-in-chief Can DündarCan DündarRWB maintains a "Press Freedom Barometer" on its web site showing the number of journalists, media assistants, netizens, and citizen journalists killed or imprisoned during a year."Journalists Killed 2017", Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 24 March 2018.{| class="wikitable" style="margin-left:1em; text-align:center; border:none; font-size:100%;"  ! colspan=3 |Killed ||colspan=2 |Imprisoned style="vertical-align:bottom"! Year || Journalists || Mediaassist. || Netizens || Journalists +Media assist. ||Netizens2017"Worldwide Round-Up of Journalists Killed, Detained, Help Hostage, or Missing in 2017", Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
||54||8||7|| 219 || 107
2016"Journalists Killed 2016", Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
|| 62 || 8 || 9 || 182 || 149
2015"Journalists Killed 2015", Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
|| 81 || 6 || 20 || 169 || 163
2014"Journalists Killed 2014", Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 24 March 2018."2014 round-up of violence against journalists", Reporters Without Borders, 15 December 2014
|| 73 || 11 || 21 || 178 || 178
2013"Journalists Killed 2013", Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 24 March 2018."71 journalists were killed in 2013", Reporters Without Borders, 18 December 2013.
|| 79 || 4 || 55 || 826 || 127
2012"Journalists Killed 2012", Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 8 November 2016, Reporters Without Borders, 30 December 2012
|| 87 || 7 || 49 || 879 || 144
2011"Journalists Killed 2011", Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 24 March 2018."The 10 most dangerous places for journalists", Reporters Without Borders, 21 December 2011.
|| 67 || 2 || 10 || 1044 || 199
2010"Journalists Killed 2010", Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
|| 58 || 1 || 0 || 535 || 152
2009"Journalists Killed 2009", Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 24 March 2018.
|| 75 || 2 || 0 || 573 || 151
2008"Journalists Killed 2008", Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
|| 60 || 1 || 0 || 673 || 59
2007"Journalists Killed 2007", Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
|| 88 || 22 || 0
2006"Journalists Killed 2006", Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
|| 85 || 32 || 0
2005"Journalists Killed 2005", Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
|| 64 || 5 || 0
2004"Journalists Killed 2004", Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
|| 63 || 16 || 0
2003"Journalists Killed 2003", Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
|| 43 || 3 || 0
2002"Journalists Killed 2002", Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 8 November 2016.
|| 25 || 4 || 0

Handbooks for journalists and bloggers

Over the years, RWB has published several handbooks to provide assistance to journalists and bloggers, and to raise public awareness, including:"Handbooks" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131014101227weblink |date=2013-10-14 }}, Reporters Without Borders. Retrieved 26 December 2015.
  • Guide for journalists who are forced to flee into exile, June 2012WEB, Guidelines for exiled journalists,weblink Reporters Without Borders, 10 November 2012, June 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120410201229weblink">weblink 10 April 2012,
  • Handbook for Bloggers and Cyber-Dissidents, September 2005, updated in March 2008WEB,weblink Handbook for bloggers and cyber-dissidents, Reporters Without Borders, March 2008, 3 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120227192213weblink">weblink 27 February 2012,
  • Handbook for Journalists, April 2007, updated February 2013WEB,weblink Handbook for Journalists - January 2010 update, Reporters Without Borders, 19 February 2013, 8 March 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130524142136weblink">weblink 24 May 2013,
  • Handbook for journalists during elections, 2015 EditionWEB, Handbook for journalists during elections,weblink Reporters Without Borders, 24 March 2018, December 2015, yes,weblink 20 March 2016,
  • Safety Guide for Journalists, December 2015WEB, Safety Guide for Journalists,weblink Reporters Without Borders, 26 December 2015, December 2015,

Enemies of the Internet and Countries under surveillance lists

In conjunction with its World Day Against Cyber Censorship, RWB updates its Enemies of the Internet and Countries under surveillance lists.{{RWB Internet lists}}

Special report on Internet Surveillance

On 12 March 2013 Reporters Without Borders published a "Special report on Internet Surveillance"."The Enemies of the Internet Special Edition : Surveillance {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130831072750weblink |date=2013-08-31 }}, Reporters Without Borders, 12 March 2013 The report includes two new lists:
  • a list of "State Enemies of the Internet", countries whose governments are involved in active, intrusive surveillance of news providers, resulting in grave violations of freedom of information and human rights; and
  • a list of "Corporate Enemies of the Internet", companies that sell products that are liable to be used by governments to violate human rights and freedom of information.
The five "State Enemies of the Internet" named in March 2013 are: Bahrain, China, Iran, Syria, and Vietnam.The five "Corporate Enemies of the Internet" named in March 2013 are: Amesys (France), Blue Coat Systems (U.S.), Gamma International (UK and Germany), Hacking Team (Italy), and Trovicor (Germany).

Media concentration report

In 2016, Reporters Without Borders published the Media: when oligarchs go shopping report which raises concern about media concentration around the world. The document identifies a "global phenomenon" – "the takeover of entire media groups...or landscapes...by extremely wealthy individuals whose interest in journalism is secondary to the defense of their personal interests."NEWS,weblink Media: when oligarchs go shopping latest report, Reporters Without Borders, 1 December 2017, 1 December 2017, According to the report, oligarchs "kill freedom of information" by censoring anything that threatens their interest, use their media outlets to "beat up opponents", and corrupt state authorities.NEWS,weblink Media: when oligarchs go shopping latest report, Reporters Without Borders, 1 December 2017, 1 December 2017, Reporters Without Borders raise concern about media concentration in Italy, Greece, Bulgaria, Russia, etc.NEWS,weblink Media: when oligarchs go shopping latest report, Reporters Without Borders, 1 December 2017, 1 December 2017, The report features a section on Bulgarian media tycoon Delyan Peevski who allegedly uses his media as "baseball bats" and publishes "insulting and denigrating articles against detractors".NEWS,weblink Media: when oligarchs go shopping latest report, Reporters Without Borders, 1 December 2017, 1 December 2017,

Photography books

Three times a year starting in 1992 RWB publishes a photography book in its series "100 Photos for Press Freedom" to both raise awareness and raise funds to support RWB's operations."Buy the Photography Books" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130227013810weblink |date=2013-02-27 }}, Reporters Without Borders, 14 December 2012, retrieved 21 March 2013 In 2010 roughly 45% of RWB's income came from sales of these and other related items (t-shirts, cards, ...)."Reporters Without Borders : For Freedom of Information" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130122162516weblink |date=2013-01-22 }}, Reporters Without Borders, 16 April 2012, retrieved 21 March 2013 The books are distributed free by the Nouvelles Messageries de la Presse Parisienne (NMPP). The books are sold by the French leisure chains and supermarkets Fnac, Carrefour, Casino, Monoprix and Cora, the websites alapage.com, fnac.com, and amazon.fr, as well as A2Presse and over 300 bookshops throughout France.WEB,weblink Income and expenditure 2007, Reports Without Borders, 30 June 2008, 3 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120417103941weblink">weblink 17 April 2012, In 2013 100 Photos for Press Freedom was, for the first time, published as a digital addition available through the Apple iTunes Store."100 Photos for Press Freedom", Reporters sans frontières, 27 December 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2014.

Annual events

Reporters Without Borders holds several events through the year to promote press and Internet freedom. They are recognized as pillar events to support fights against censorship around the world.

World Press Freedom Index (January)

Released each January the annually published World Press Freedom Index measures the degree of freedom enjoyed by the media in over 170 countries.

World Day Against Cyber Censorship (12 March)

Reporters Without Borders launched the first International Online Free Expression Day on 12 March 2008.WEB,weblink First Online Free Expression Day launched on Reporters Without Borders website, Reports Without Borders, 12 March 2008, 11 March 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120616151341weblink">weblink 16 June 2012, Now named World Day Against Cyber Censorship, this annual event rallies support for an unrestricted Internet, accessible to all.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110310044811weblink">"World Day Against Cyber Censorship", Reporters Without Borders, retrieved 31 July 2012 On 12 March RWB awards its Netizen Prize and issues its report on freedom of information in cyberspace and an "Enemies of the Internet" list which identifies those countries that are censoring the Web and harassing Internet users.

Netizen Prize

(File:Tunisia24.jpg|thumb|RWB 2011 Netizen Prize)On World Day Against Cyber Censorship Reporters Without Borders awards an annual Netizen Prize that recognizes an Internet user, blogger, cyber-dissident, or group who has made a notable contribution to the defense of online freedom of expression. Starting in 2010 the prize has been awarded to:
  • 2010: awarded to the Iranian women's rights activists of the Change for Equality website, www.we-change.org.WEB,weblink Iranian women's rights activists win first Reporters Without Borders netizen prize with support from Google, Reports Without Borders, 13 March 2010, 31 July 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120821202304weblink">weblink 21 August 2012,
  • 2011: awarded to the founders of a Tunisian blogging group named Nawaat.org.WEB, Reporters Without Borders,weblink Netizen Prize 2011, Reports Without Borders, 25 March 2011, 11 March 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130509014655weblink">weblink 9 May 2013,
  • 2012: awarded to Syrian citizen journalists and activists of the Media center of the Local Coordination Committees."Syrian citizen journalists and activists capture 2012 Netizen Prize", Reporters Without Borders, 13 March 2012
  • 2013: awarded to Vietnamese blogger Huynh Ngoc Chenh."Reporters Without Borders Awards Vietnamese blogger Huynh Ngoc Chenh", Reporters Without Borders, 7 March 2013
  • 2014: awarded to Saudi Arabian blogger Raif Badawi.
  • 2015: awarded to Zone9, an Ethiopian blogger collective created in 2012 that often draws attention to the government’s oppressive practices. One of its bloggers, Zelalem Kibret, had planned to attend the ceremony but his passport was confiscated as he was about to board his flight.
  • 2016: awarded to Lu Yuyu and his partner, Li Tingyu, two Chinese citizen journalists who were arrested on 15 June and were held incommunicado for more than three weeks before being able speak to lawyers.

World Press Freedom Day (3 May)

Starting in 1992, Reporters Without Borders publishes its "Predators of Press Freedom" list of politicians, government officials, religious leaders, militias and criminal organisations who openly target journalists.

Reporters Without Borders–TV5 Monde Prize (December)

The Reporters Without Borders Prize, in which Le Monde became a partner in 2011, was created in 1992 and is given annually to a journalist (and since 2003 a news media and a cyber-dissident as well) that made, in RWB's words, "a significant contribution to the defence and promotion of press freedom."Prize recipients:{{div col}} {{colend}}

Cyber-dissident prize

Reporters Without Borders awards a cyber-dissident prize under various names including: Cyber-Freedom Prize and Cyber-dissident. Winners include:
  • 2003: Zouhair Yahyaoui (Tunisia),WEB,weblink Tunisian cyber-dissident Zouhair Yahyaoui, winner of the first Cyber-Freedom Prize, Reports Without Borders, 19 June 2003, 31 July 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120823032919weblink">weblink 23 August 2012,
  • 2004: Huang Qi (China),WEB,weblink Huang Qi awarded 2004 Cyberfreedom Prize, Reports Without Borders, 23 June 2004, 31 July 2012,
  • 2005: Massoud Hamid (Syria),WEB,weblink Massoud Hamid is awarded the 2005 cyberfreedom prize, Reports Without Borders, 8 December 2005, 31 July 2012,
  • 2006: Guillermo Fariñas (Cuba),WEB,weblink Cyber-freedom prize for 2006 awarded to Guillermo Fariñas of Cuba, Reporters Without Borders, 13 December 2006, 11 March 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080620183051weblink">weblink 20 June 2008,
  • 2007: Kareem Amer, Egyptian blogger,WEB,weblink The 16th Reporters Without Borders - Fondation de France prize awarded today in Paris, Reports Without Borders, 5 December 2007, 31 July 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120616151506weblink">weblink 16 June 2012, and
  • 2008: Zarganar and Nay Phone Latt, two Burmese bloggers.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130509050210weblink">"Cuban journalist, North Korean radio station and two Burmese bloggers win 17th annual Reporters Without Borders Prize", Reporters Without Borders, 4 December 2008

Campaigns

RWB conducts advertising campaigns, jointly with communications professionals, to inform the public and to create bad publicity for governments that violate freedom of information. The campaigns are circulated to the media, international organisations, government agencies, and educational institutions using the Internet as well as traditional media channels.Examples include:
  • Sochi 2014 campaign. A program supporting journalists, bloggers, and human rights defenders in Russia, that ran from 1 March 2013 until the start of the Sochi Winter Olympic Games on 7 February 2014."RWB launches Sochi 2014 campaign", Reporters Without Borders, 1 March 2013
  • Voiceless Eyes campaign. Using the catchphrase "How can you see the truth when it cannot be told?", an interactive site demonstrates the need for a free press as one element of a larger campaign launched in December 2012.voiceless-eyes.com {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130320084315weblink |date=2013-03-20 }}, Reporters Without Borders, accessed 21 March 2013 The web site uses webcam-activated technology to encourage users to cover and uncover their mouths to become aware of the harsh realities that can go unseen when restrictions are placed on free speech. An alternative version of the site uses the space bar. The site was selected as Site of the Day on 18 January 2013 by the Favourite Website Awards (FWA) of Cambridge, England."Voiceless Eyes–Site of the Day", Favourite Website Awards, 18 January 2013 Voiceless Eyes was developed for RWB at Les 84 Paris by creative directors Olivier Bienaime and Herve Bienaime, head of creative technology Jean-Vincent Roger, strategic planner Nicolas Camillini and art director Antoine Arnoux using images from AFP photographers Tony Karumba, Aris Messinis, Jay Directo, Mauricio Lima, Bulent Kilic, Christophe Simon, Dario Leon, Olivier Laban-Mattei, and Philippe Desmazes."Voiceless Eyes", The Inspiration Room, 5 December 2012, retrieved 21 March 2013
  • We Fight Censorship project. An RWB project launched on 27 November 2012 with support from the European Union's European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights (EIDHR) and the Paris City Hall. The project's goal is to combat censorship and promote the flow of news and information by creating an easily duplicated web site that will be used to publish content (articles, photos, videos and sound files) that has been censored, banned, or has led to reprisals against its creator (murder, arrest, harassment, pressure and so on). The site will host content in its original language (including French, English, Chinese, Arabic, Russian and Spanish) and in translation (above all in French and English)."New website fights censorship", Julia Mahncke, Deutsche Welle, 2 December 2012"About Us" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130806231031weblink |date=2013-08-06 }}, We Fight Censorship, Reporters Without Borders, retrieved 21 March 2013
  • Independent North Korean media campaign. An international advertising campaign launched on 17 January 2011 to support independent media in North Korea."International campaign in support of independent North Korean media", Reporters Without Borders, 17 January 2011
(File:Torch relay press freedom.jpg|thumb|RWB handcuffs as Olympic rings protesting 2008 Olympics in China)
  • Beijing 2008 campaign. Reporters Without Borders protested the possibility of China hosting the 2008 Summer Olympics since 2001. On 30 March 2008, the day the Olympic torch departed from Olympia, Greece, RWB president Robert Ménard unfurled behind Chinese representative Qi Liu a banner bearing a design resembling the logo of the Olympics, in which the Olympic rings were replaced with handcuffs. On 7 April 2008, the day the torch came to Paris, Ménard, with the help of two other activists, climbed to the top of Notre Dame Cathedral to hoist a banner with the same Olympic symbol.WEB,weblink Reporters sans frontières (Reporters Without Borders) : List of NGOs Studied in France : NGO Directory, Observatory of humanitarian action, 26 September 2008, 3 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120114151938weblink">weblink January 14, 2012, In one of RWB's most popular campaigns to date, T-shirts bearing the symbol became so popular that sales for them surpassed 1 million euros.
{{See also|Concerns and controversies over the 2008 Summer Olympics}}
  • Philippines. On 23 August 2007, RWB condemned the continuing threats and violence against Philippine radio commentators who report on organized crime and corruption, following a death threat on RGMA Palawan station manager Lily Uy.WEB,weblink Int'l groups slam attacks against broadcasters, GMA News, Philippines, 23 August 2007, 3 March 2012, On 27 December 2007, RWB appealed to Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo administration to forthwith arrest the killers of radio broadcaster Ferdinand Lintuan, 51, the fifth journalist killed in 2007 in the Philippines. As first president of the Davao Association of Sports Journalists he was murdered in Davao City on 24 December."Philippines" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131105090527weblink |date=2013-11-05 }}, Reporters Without Borders, 12 February 2008

Protests

RWB organises symbolic actions in front of the embassies of countries that restrict freedom of information and at various summits and key international events. Photos and videos from these "blitz" interventions are distributed by the international media which helps raise public awareness and identify the enemies of press freedom.Examples include:
  • September 2011: During Rwandan President Paul Kagamé's official visit, as he greets a Medef delegation in the Hotel Ritz, activists are gagged with a red scarf to protest against the silence surrounding press freedom violations in Rwanda.
  • May 2011: On World Press Freedom Day, some activists threw buckets of blue paint on the outer walls of the Syrian Embassy in Paris, on which they have written the slogan "It is ink that should flow, not blood."
(File:Reporters Without Borders Reporters Sans Frontières.jpg|thumb |The sign reads: Depuis 500 Jours, Hervé [Ghesquière] et Stéphane [Taponier] sont otages en Afghanistan (For 500 days, Hervé [Ghesquière] and Stéphane [Taponier] are hostages in Afghanistan))
  • December 2010: Images of Hervé Ghesquière and Stéphane Taponier, France 3 journalists held hostage in Afghanistan, are projected onto the Arc de Triomphe on the first anniversary of their abduction.
  • November 2010: While Chinese President Hu Jintao's official procession moves down the Champs-Élysées, several activists open umbrellas bearing the slogan "Free Liu Xiaobo."
  • May 2010: Famous French reporters pose for a photo during a rally in support of Hervé Ghesquière and Stéphane Taponier, France 3 journalists held hostage in Afghanistan.
  • October 2007: "Press Freedom Predators" exhibit on the Esplanade of Human Rights in Paris.
  • October 2007: Rally marking the first anniversary of the murder of Russian journalist Anna Politkovskaya.
  • 2006: In a show of support for journalists jailed in Cuba, some activities simulate their incarceration on the Esplanade of Human Rights in Paris.
  • April 2005: To mark the first anniversary of Guy-André Kieffer's abduction in Abidjan, buckets of liquid cocoa and counterfeit dollars are thrown in front of the Ivory Coast Embassy in Paris.
  • March 2005: Rally in support of Florence Aubenas, reporter for Libération and Hussein Hanoun, her fixer, held hostage in Iraq.
  • September 2003: Catherine Deneuve joins forces with RWB to show support for Cuban journalists.

Funding

{{col-begin}}{{col-break}}{| class="wikitable"!colspan=2 |2010: 4.3 million eurosIncome: 45.4% Publications and related products 17.8% Corporate donors and foundations 16.9% Government and other public funds   4.7% Private donations and bequests   3.4% Other income   3.9% membership dues, foreign exchange,interest, ...   0.8% Auction sales   7.0% Roland Berger Award fromHuman DignitySpending: 82.9% Programs in France and abroad 10.3% Operating costs   5.1% Fundraising   1.7% Depreciation and amortization  {{col-break}}{| class="wikitable"!colspan=2 |2013Annual Accounts {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150402052921weblink |date=2015-04-02 }}, Reporters Without Borders, 24 August 2015. Accessed 26 December 2015.Income: 4.9 million euros 33% Publications and related products 14% Corporate donors and foundations 45% Government and other public funds  5% Private donations and bequests   2.5% Other income        Spending: 4.2 million euros 69% Social missions   6% Operating costs 10% Fundraising   1.2% Additions to provisions 13% Surplus for the year{{col-end}}Over the years RWB's private funding has come from groups and organizations such as Sanofi-Aventis, François Pinault, the Fondation de France, the Open Society Institute of George Soros, the Sigrid Rausing Trust, Benetton, and the Center for a Free Cuba.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150403092556weblink">weblink yes, 3 April 2015, reporters sans frontières: liberté de la presse, contre la censure, information libre, défense des libertés, French, Structure of income and expenses, Reports Without Borders, 2002, 3 March 2012, In addition, various private groups and organizations have supported RWB through in-kind donations of their services. The photography books are one example, as is the work of Saatchi & Saatchi which created various communication campaigns free (for instance, concerning censorship in Algeria).WEB,weblink Atteintes à la liberté de la presse en Algérie, French, Violations of freedom of the press in Algeria, El watan, Dzair Infos, 11 June 2005, 31 July 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130615081423weblink">weblink 15 June 2013, Public funding has come from organisations such as the Swedish International Development Agency, European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights of the European Commission, the French Development Agency, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, UNESCO, the Organisation internationale de la francophonie, the Taiwan Foundation for Democracy,WEB,weblink zh:无国界记者, Chinese, Reporters Without Borders Introduction, Rsf-chinese.org, 31 July 2012, yes,weblink" title="archive.today/20121228042518weblink">weblink 28 December 2012, a quasi-government organization funded by the ROC Ministry of Foreign Affairs,WEB,weblink About TFD, Taiwan Foundation for Democracy, 17 June 2003, 31 July 2012, and the National Endowment for Democracy, a branch of the U.S. State Department.WEB,weblink Révélations sur le financement de Reporters sans frontières, French, Revelations about the funding of Reporters Without Borders, Marie-Christine Tabet, Le Figaro, 21 April 2008, 31 July 2012, WEB,weblink Income and expenditure 2007, Reports Without Borders, 30 June 2008, 3 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120417103941weblink">weblink 17 April 2012, Daniel Junqua, the vice-president of the French section of RWB (and also vice-president of the NGO Les Amis du Monde diplomatique), stated that funding from the National Endowment for Democracy does not compromise RWB's impartiality.WEB,weblink Reporters sans frontières, French, Daniel Junqua, Le Monde diplomatique, August 2007, 31 July 2012,

Criticisms of RWB

Otto Reich

Lucie Morillon, RWB's then-Washington representative, confirmed in an interview on 29 April 2005 that the organization had a contract with US State Department's Special Envoy to the Western Hemisphere, Otto Reich, who signed it in his capacity as a trustee for the Center for a Free Cuba, to inform Europeans about the repression of journalists in Cuba.Reporters Without Borders Unmasked {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061130142917weblink |date=2006-11-30 }}, Diana Barahona, CounterPunch, 17 May 2005 CounterPunch, a critic of RWB, cited Reich's involvement with the group as a source of controversy: when Reich headed the Reagan administration's Office of Public Diplomacy in the 1980s, the body partook in what its officials termed "White Propaganda" â€“ covert dissemination of information to influence domestic opinion regarding US backing for military campaigns against left-wing governments in Latin America.

Cuba

RWB has been highly critical of press freedom in Cuba, describing the Cuban government as "totalitarian", and engages in direct campaigning against it.Reporters Without Borders ordered to pay 6,000 euros to Korda's heir over use of Che photo {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120120133054weblink |date=2012-01-20 }}, Cubanet.org, 12 March 2004 RWB's campaign includes declarations on radio and television, full-page ads in Parisian dailies, posters, leafletting at airports, and an April 2003 occupation of the Cuban tourism office in Paris.Reporters Without Borders Unmasked {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20061130142917weblink |date=2006-11-30 }}, Diana Barahona, CounterPunch, 17 May 2005 A Paris court (tribunal de grande instance) ordered RWB to pay 6,000 Euros to the daughter and heir of Alberto Korda for non-compliance with a court order of 9 July 2003 banning it from using Korda's famous (and copyrighted) photograph of Ernesto "Che" Guevara in a beret, taken at the funeral of La Coubre victims. RWB said it was "relieved" it was not given a harsher sentence.NEWS,weblink RSF y la foto del 'Che', BBC, Spanish, 11 March 2004, English translation: "RSF and the photo of 'Che' " The face had been superimposed by RWB with that of a May 1968 CRS anti-riot police agent, and the postcard handed out at Orly Airport in Paris to tourists boarding on flights for Cuba. On 24 April 2003, RWB organized a demonstration outside the Cuban embassy in Paris"Reporters Without Borders protesters beaten up by Cuban embassy officials" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050504121225weblink |date=2005-05-04 }}, CubaNet, 24 April 2003Council on Hemispheric Affairs and the US Newspaper Guild have criticized RWB for receiving fund from the US government and Cuba opposition groups, and being part of a "Neocons crusade against Castro regime." Jeff Julliard of RWB denied the allegations stating it received funding from National Endowment for Democracy. NED is a US state government-funded organization.WEB,weblink Bias claim against reporters' group, Campbell, Duncan, 2005-05-19, the Guardian, en, 2018-08-01, RWB, as well as Ménard himself, in turn has been described as an "ultra-reactionary" organization by the official newspaper of the Central Committee of the Cuban Communist Party, Granma. Tensions between Cuban authorities and RWB are high, particularly after the imprisonment in 2003 of 75 dissidents (27 journalists) by the Cuban Government, including Raúl Rivero and Óscar Elías Biscet. An article by John Cherian in the Indian magazine Frontline alleged that RWB "is reputed to have strong links with Western intelligence agencies" and "Cuba has accused Robert Meynard [sic] the head of the group, of having CIA links".Cherian, John (29 March â€“ 11 April 2008). "Trouble in Tibet" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080513135825weblink |date=2008-05-13 }}. Frontline. 25(7).RWB has denied that its campaigning on Cuba are related to payments it has received from anti-Castro organisations."Why we take so much interest in Cuba" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150403103345weblink |date=2015-04-03 }}. Reporters Without Borders. 8 July 2005. In 2004, it received $50,000 from the Miami-based exile group, the Center for a Free Cuba, which was personally signed by the US State Department's Special Envoy to the Western Hemisphere, Otto Reich. RWB has also received extensive funding from other institutions long critical of Fidel Castro's government, including the International Republican Institute.Coups d'Etat sans frontières {{fr icon}}, English translation: "Coups Without Borders", Maurice Lemoine, Le Monde diplomatique, August 2002Journalist Salim Lamrani has accused Reporters Without Borders with making unsupported and contradictory statements regarding Internet connectivity in Cuba."Reporters Without Borders' Lies about Cuba", Salim Lamrani, Centre for Research on Globalisation, 2 July 2009.

Haiti

In 2004, Reporters Without Borders released an annual report on Haiti, saying that a "climate of terror" existed in which attacks and threats persisted against journalists who were critical of Jean-Bertrand Aristide.WEB,weblink Reporters Without Borders Annual Report 2004 – Haiti, 2004, Reporters Without Borders, 25 January 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120111190150weblink">weblink 11 January 2012, An August 2006 article in CounterPunch accused RWB of ignoring similar attacks on journalists under the Latortue government in 2005 and 2006, including that of Pacifica Radio reporter Kevin Pina.JOURNAL,weblink Reporters Without Borders and Washington's Coups, CounterPunch, 1 August 2006, Diana, Barahona, Jeb, Sprague, 4 June 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110604214211weblink">weblink Pina himself said:

Venezuela

Le Monde diplomatique has criticized RWB's attitude towards Hugo Chávez's government in Venezuela, in particular during the 2002 coup attempt. RWB is said to have lent its support for Venezuelan pro-coup media outlets, and have had as a Caracas correspondent María Sol Pérez-Schael, an opposition adviser. In a right of reply, Robert Ménard declared that RWB had also condemned the Venezuela media's support of the coup attempt. RWB has also been criticized for supporting Globovision's version of events about its false reporting in relation to a 2009 earthquake, claiming Globovision was "being hounded by the government and the administration"."Reporters Without Borders' Lies about Venezuela", Salim Lamrani, English translation by Scott Campbell Les Blough, Axis of Logic, 27 June 2009.

Overemphasis on "third-world dictatorships"; alleged bias in favor of Europe and the U.S.

In 2007 John Rosenthal argued that RWB showed a bias in favor of European countries."The Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index: Independent Assessment or EU Propaganda?", John Rosenthal, World Politics Review: Part I, 6 November 2007 and Part II, 14 November 2007 In the 2009 article about RWB and Venezuela cited above, Salim Lamrani stated that "RSF is not an organization that defends freedom of the press, but is an obscure entity with a political agenda precisely commissioned to discredit through all possible means the progressive governments in the world that find themselves on the United States' blacklist." The Observatoire de l'Action Humanitaire (Centre for Humanitarian Action) criticized RWB's lukewarm criticism of US forces for their shelling, in 2003, of Palestine Hotel, in Baghdad, Iraq, which killed two Reuters journalists. The family of one of the deceased journalists, Spanish citizen José Couso, refused to allow the Spain chapter of RWB to attach its name to a legal action led by the family against the US Army, voicing disgust at the fact that RWB interviewed US forces responsible for the shelling, but not the surviving journalists, and that RWB showed acquiescence to the US Army by thanking them for their "precious help".According to the Observatoire, ever since Robert Ménard was replaced by Jean-François Julliard in September 2008, RWB has been concerned with violations of press freedom not only in "third-world dictatorships" but also in developed countries like France. Through widening its geographical scope, RWB aims at countering accusations of overly focusing on left-wing regimes unfriendly to the US.Reporters sans frontières (Reporters Without Borders) : List of NGOs Studied in France : NGO Directory {{fr icon}}, Observatory of humanitarian action, 29 September 2010: "Depuis que (:fr:Jean-François Julliard (ONG)|Jean-François Julliard) a remplacé Robert Ménard en septembre 2008, l'association [...] ne s'occupe plus seulement des violations des droits de la presse dans les dictatures du tiers-monde et couvre aussi des pays développés comme la France. Un pareil élargissement géographique permet notamment à l'association de réagir aux critiques qui l'accusaient de trop se focaliser sur les régimes de gauche hostiles aux Etats-Unis." ("Since Jean-François Julliard replaced Robert Ménard in September 2008, the association [...] is no longer concerned just with violations of media rights in third world dictatorships and now also covers developed countries like France. Such a geographic expansion notably allows the association to respond to critics who accused it of too much focus on leftist regimes hostile to the United States.") For example, RWB condemned the 35-year sentence received by American soldier Chelsea Manning, calling it "disproportionate" and arguing that it reveals how "vulnerable" whistleblowers are.WEB, Lengthy prison term for Bradley Manning,weblink 21 August 2013, Reporters Without Borders, 22 August 2013, In April 2019, the RWB stated the arrest of WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange could "set a dangerous precedent for journalists, whistleblowers, and other journalistic sources that the US may wish to pursue in the future."NEWS, Julian Assange: Wikileaks co-founder arrested in London,weblink BBC News, 11 April 2019,

UNESCO support for International Online Free Expression Day

UNESCO, who initially had granted patronage to the first International Online Free Expression Day to be held on 12 March 2008, withdrew its patronage on the day of the event giving as reasons that RWB "published material concerning a number of UNESCO's Member States, which UNESCO had not been informed of and could not endorse" and that "UNESCO's logo was placed in such a way as to indicate the Organization's support of the information presented." RWB responded in a press release that "UNESCO has withdrawn its support to the promotion of this campaign because several of the nations which are part of the list of Internet Enemies published by the nongovernmental organization have directly put pressure to achieve it."WEB,weblink UNESCO withdraw patronage to Reporters Without Border, Mathaba.net, 13 March 2008, 3 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150403162226weblink">weblink 3 April 2015,

See also

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References

{{Reflist |30em}}

External links

{{Commons category|Reporters Without Borders}} {{Censorship}}{{Sakharov Prize 2001-2025}}{{Internet censorship}}{{Sansfrontieres}}

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