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Virginia
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{{redirect|The Old Dominion|similar terms, as well as other uses|Old Dominion (disambiguation)|and|Virginia (disambiguation)}}{{pp|small=yes}}{{Use mdy dates|date=February 2019}}{{short description|State of the United States of America}}







factoids
{{nowrap|(English: Thus Always to Tyrants)}}|Map = Virginia in United States.svg|MapAlt = Virginia is located on the Atlantic coast along the line that divides the northern and southern halves of the United States. It runs mostly east to west. It includes a small peninsula across a bay which is discontinuous with the rest of the state.|OfficialLang = English|Languages = English 86%,Spanish 6%Other 8%|Demonym = VirginianVirginia Beach, Virginia>Virginia BeachRichmond, Virginia>RichmondBaltimore-Washington metropolitan area>Baltimore-Washington Metro Area|AreaRank = 35th|TotalAreaUS = 42,774.2|TotalArea = 110,785.67|WidthUS = 200|Width = 320|LengthUS = 430|Length = 690|PCWater = 7.4|Latitude = 36° 32′ N to 39° 28′ N|Longitude = 75° 15′ W to 83° 41′ W|PopRank = 12th|2010Pop = 8,517,685 (2018)TITLE=MEDIAN ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD INCOMEACCESSDATE=MARCH 16, 2019, |2000DensityUS = 206.7|2000Density = 79.8|DensityRank = 14th|IncomeRank = 10thMount Rogers (Virginia)>Mount RogersHTTP://EGSC.USGS.GOV/ISB/PUBS/BOOKLETS/ELVADIST/ELVADIST.HTML >TITLE=ELEVATIONS AND DISTANCES IN THE UNITED STATES UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY >YEAR=2001 DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=NOVEMBER 2, 2011, Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.|HighestElevUS = 5,729|HighestElev = 1746|MeanElevUS = 950|MeanElev = 290|LowestPoint = Atlantic Ocean|LowestElev = 0|LowestElevUS = 0|Former = Colony of Virginia|AdmittanceDate = June 25, 1788|AdmittanceOrder = 10thRalph Northam (Democratic Party (United States)>D)|Lieutenant Governor = Justin Fairfax (D)Virginia General Assembly>General AssemblySenate of Virginia>SenateVirginia House of Delegates>House of Delegates|Senators = Mark Warner (D)Tim Kaine (D)|Representative = 7 Democrats4 RepublicansEastern Time Zone (North America)>Eastern: Coordinated Universal Time Eastern Time Zone>−5/−4|ISOCode = US-VA|PostalAbbreviation = VA|TradAbbreviation = Va.|Website = www.virginia.govFairfax County, Virginia>Fairfax County|ElectoralVotes = 13|SecededDate = April 17, 1861|ReadmittanceDate = January 26, 1870}}







factoids
Virginia ({{IPAc-en|audio=en-us-Virginia.ogg|v|ər|ˈ|dʒ|ɪ|n|i|ə}}), officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the SoutheasternWEB,weblink United States Regions, National Geographic, Society, January 3, 2012, April 21, 2019,weblink March 27, 2019, no, mdy-all, and Mid-AtlanticWEB,weblink Mid-Atlantic Home : Mid–Atlantic Information Office : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, www.bls.gov, April 21, 2019,weblink April 8, 2019, no, mdy-all, regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North AmericaWEB,weblink Old Dominion, Encyclopedia Virginia, March 27, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140327234453weblink">weblink March 27, 2014, no, mdy-all, and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U.S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealth's estimated population {{as of|2018|lc=on}} is over 8.5 million.The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy. Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, and Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union; that led to the creation of West Virginia. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia.The Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World.WEB, About the General Assembly,weblink Website: Virginia General Assembly, State of Virginia, June 5, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130527023704weblink">weblink May 27, 2013, no, mdy-all, The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008. It is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley; federal agencies in Northern Virginia, including the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA); and military facilities in Hampton Roads, the site of the region's main seaport.

Geography

File:Virginia painted relief.png|thumb|upright=1.2|Geographically and geologically, Virginia is divided into five regions from east to west: Tidewater, Piedmont, Blue Ridge Mountains, Ridge and Valley, and The Encyclopedia of Virginia|1999|pp=2–15}}|alt=Terrain map of Virginia divided with lines into five regions. The first region on the far left is small and only in the state's panhandle. The next is larger and covers most of the western part of the state. The next is a thin strip that covers only the mountains. The next is a wide area in the middle of the state. The left most is based on the rivers which diffuse the previous region.Virginia has a total area of {{convert|42774.2|sqmi|km2|1}}, including {{convert|3180.13|sqmi|km2|1}} of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area.WEB,weblink 71, United States Census Bureau, April 2004, 2000 Census of Population and Housing, November 3, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090921063920weblink">weblink September 21, 2009, no, mdy-all, Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.C. to the north and east; by the Atlantic Ocean to the east; by North Carolina to the south; by Tennessee to the southwest; by Kentucky to the west; and by West Virginia to the north and west. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D.C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River.WEB,weblink Supreme Court Rules for Virginia in Potomac Conflict, The Sea Grant Law Center, University of Mississippi, 2003, November 24, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100610050345weblink">weblink June 10, 2010, no, mdy-all, The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes.{{sfn|Hubbard, Jr.|2009|p=140}} The border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U.S. Supreme Court.{{sfn|Van Zandt|1976|pp=92–95}}

Geology and terrain

The Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the Susquehanna River and the James River.WEB,weblink Fact Sheet 102–98 – The Chesapeake Bay: Geologic Product of Rising Sea Level, United States Geological Survey, November 18, 1998, August 24, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090901073112weblink">weblink September 1, 2009, no, mdy-all, Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock, York, and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay.{{sfn|Burnham|Burnham|2004|pp=7, 56–57}}WEB,weblink Rivers and Watersheds, The Geology of Virginia, College of William and Mary, February 23, 2007, April 11, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081202182541weblink">weblink December 2, 2008, File:Golden Sunset --Timber Hollow Overlook (22014263936).jpg|thumb|upright|left|Deciduous and evergreen trees give the Heinemann|Kolp|Parent, Jr.|Shade|2007|p=3}}|alt=The rays of a sunset spread over mountain ridges that turn from green to purple and blue as they progress toward the horizon.The Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line. It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay. The Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era.{{sfn|Pazzaglia|2006|pp=135–138}} The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.WEB,weblink Virginia's Agricultural Resources, Natural Resource Education Guide, Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, January 21, 2008, February 8, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081020193915weblink">weblink October 20, 2008, no, mdy-all, The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at {{convert|5729|ft|m}}.{{sfn|Burnham|Burnham|2004|p=277}} The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains and includes the Great Appalachian Valley. The region is carbonate rock based and includes Massanutten Mountain.WEB,weblink Physiographic Regions of Virginia, The Geology of Virginia, College of William and Mary, February 16, 2007, April 7, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080915054734weblink">weblink September 15, 2008, The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin.{{sfn|Palmer|1998|pp=49–51}}The Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are rarely above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg.WEB,weblink Largest Earthquake in Virginia, January 25, 2008, United States Geological Survey, April 12, 2008, yes,weblink April 16, 2008, A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 23, 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was reportedly felt as far away as Toronto, Atlanta and Florida.WEB,weblink Magnitude 5.8 – Virginia, United States Geological Survey, August 23, 2011, November 13, 2011, yes,weblink August 26, 2012, mdy-all, 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted what is now eastern Virginia. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.WEB,weblink Chesapeake Bay Crater Offers Clues to Ancient Cataclysm, Hillary, Mayell, National Geographic Society, November 13, 2001, March 11, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160303190052weblink">weblink March 3, 2016, no, mdy-all, Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins.WEB,weblink Coal, Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy, July 31, 2008, February 26, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150103143221weblink">weblink January 3, 2015, no, mdy-all, Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, kyanite, sand, or gravel, were also mined in Virginia {{As of|2018|alt=in 2018}}.WEB,weblink Comparison of Annually Reported Tonnage Data, Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, 2018, April 9, 2019, XLS,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140705140805weblink">weblink July 5, 2014, no, mdy-all, The state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns.WEB,weblink Caves, Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals and Energy, July 2008, August 24, 2009, yes,weblink August 17, 2009,

Climate

{{climate chart|Virginia state-wide averages 1895–201944.6|3.347.3|3.056.3|3.866.5|3.475.5|4.082.4|4.185.7|4.684.1|4.378.5|3.768.3|3.257.1|2.948.0|3.3|float=right|units=imperial#CITEREFNOAA>U.S. Climate Divisional Dataset}}The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes increasingly warmer and more humid farther south and east.{{harvnb|Burnham|Burnham|2004|pp=1–3}} Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of {{convert|26|°F|°C|0}} in January to average highs of {{convert|86|°F|°C|0}} in July. The Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on eastern and southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay.WEB,weblink Virginia's Climate, Bruce P., Hayden, Patrick J., Michaels, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, January 20, 2000, October 20, 2008, CITEREFHaydenMichaels2000,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110720110343weblink">weblink July 20, 2011, no, mdy-all, In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean, even the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summer and winter, particularly given the state climate's subtropical classification, which is typical of states in the Upper South.Virginia has an annual average of 35–45 days of thunderstorm activity, particularly in the western part of the state,WEB,weblink Thunderstorms and Lightening, Virginia Department of Emergency Management, April 2, 2001, November 26, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111207211835weblink">weblink December 7, 2011, and an average annual precipitation of {{convert|43.32|in|cm|0}}.WEB,weblink Climate at a Glance, 2018, NOAA, U.S. Climate Divisional Dataset, March 11, 2019, CITEREFNOAA, Cold air masses arriving over the mountains in winter can lead to significant snowfalls, such as the Blizzard of 1996 and winter storms of 2009–2010. The interaction of these elements with the state's topography creates distinct microclimates in the Shenandoah Valley, the mountainous southwest, and the coastal plains.WEB, The Natural Communities of Virginia, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation,weblink 2006, April 12, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080511163626weblink">weblink May 11, 2008, Virginia averages seven tornadoes annually, most F2 or lower on the Fujita scale.NEWS,weblink Tornadoes DO happen in Virginia!, TV3 Winchester, Lauryn, Ricketts, February 7, 2008, February 13, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100314161337weblink">weblink March 14, 2010, In recent years, the expansion of the southern suburbs of Washington, D.C. into Northern Virginia has introduced an urban heat island primarily caused by increased absorption of solar radiation in more densely populated areas.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20020922182906weblink">weblink September 22, 2002, Advisory 01/07: The Hot Get Hotter? Urban Warming and Air Quality, University of Virginia Climatology Office, July 30, 2007, In the American Lung Association's 2018 report, Arlington and Fairfax counties received failing grades for high ozone pollution.WEB,weblink Report Card: Virginia, State of the Air: 2018, American Lung Association, April 17, 2018, April 9, 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180929134417weblink">weblink September 29, 2018, no, mdy-all, Haze in the mountains is caused in part by coal power plants.NEWS,weblink Debating Coal's Cost in Rural Va., The Washington Post, David A., Fahrenthold, June 25, 2008, November 15, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110821085858weblink">weblink August 21, 2011, no, mdy-all,

Ecosystem

{{see also|List of endangered species in Virginia}}Forests cover 65% of the state, primarily with deciduous, broad leaf trees in the western part of the state and evergreens and conifers in the central and eastern parts of Virginia.WEB,weblink Virginia's Forest Resources, Natural Resource Education Guide, Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, January 21, 2008, February 8, 2008,weblink February 11, 2008, no, mdy-all, Lower altitudes are more likely to have small but dense stands of moisture-loving hemlocks and mosses in abundance, with hickory and oak in the Blue Ridge. However, since the early 1990s, Gypsy moth infestations have eroded the dominance of oak forests.WEB,weblink Shenandoah National Park â€” Forests, National Park Service, July 25, 2006, September 10, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071209154941weblink">weblink December 9, 2007, no, mdy-all, In the lowland tidewater and piedmont, yellow pines tend to dominate, with bald cypress wetland forests in the Great Dismal and Nottoway swamps. Other common trees and plants include red bay, wax myrtle, dwarf palmetto, tulip poplar, mountain laurel, milkweed, daisies, and many species of ferns. The largest areas of wilderness are along the Atlantic coast and in the western mountains, where the largest populations of trillium wildflowers in North America are found.{{sfn|Carroll|Miller|2002|pp=xi−xii}} The Atlantic coast regions are host to flora commonly associated with the South Atlantic pine forests and lower Southeast Coastal Plain maritime flora, the latter found primarily in eastern and central Virginia.File:Deer Big Meadow (13082497565).jpg|thumb|left|White-tailed deer, also known as Virginia deer, graze at Big Meadows in alt=Two red-brown colored deer graze among tall grass and purple flowers in a meadow.Mammals include white-tailed deer, black bear, beaver, bobcat, coyote, raccoon, skunk, groundhog, Virginia opossum, gray fox, red fox, and eastern cottontail rabbit.WEB,weblink Species Information: Mammals, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, 2008, November 15, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090115151059weblink">weblink January 15, 2009, no, mdy-all, Other mammals include: nutria, fox squirrel, gray squirrel, flying squirrel, chipmunk, brown bat, and weasel. Birds include cardinals (the state bird), barred owls, Carolina chickadees, red-tailed hawks, ospreys, brown pelicans, quail, seagulls, bald eagles, and wild turkeys. Virginia is also home to the pileated woodpecker as well as the red-bellied woodpecker. The peregrine falcon was reintroduced into Shenandoah National Park in the mid-1990s.WEB,weblink Shenandoah National Park â€” Birds, National Park Service, July 25, 2006, September 1, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071106015856weblink">weblink November 6, 2007, no, mdy-all, Walleye, brook trout, Roanoke bass, and blue catfish are among the 210 known species of freshwater fish.WEB,weblink Virginia Fishes, Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries, 2008, November 15, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081110161030weblink">weblink November 10, 2008, no, mdy-all, Running brooks with rocky bottoms are often inhabited by plentiful amounts of crayfish and salamanders. The Chesapeake Bay is host to many species, including blue crabs, clams, oysters, and rockfish (also known as striped bass).WEB,weblink Bay Biology, Chesapeake Bay Program, January 5, 2006, February 4, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080211140801weblink">weblink February 11, 2008, Virginia has 30 National Park Service units, such as Great Falls Park and the Appalachian Trail, and one national park, Shenandoah National Park.WEB,weblink Virginia, National Park Service, 2008, November 29, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090821191842weblink">weblink August 21, 2009, no, mdy-all, Shenandoah was established in 1935 and encompasses the scenic Skyline Drive. Almost 40% of the park's area ({{convert|79579|acre|km2|disp=or|abbr=on}}) has been designated as wilderness under the National Wilderness Preservation System.{{sfn|Carroll|Miller|2002|p=158}} Additionally, there are 34 Virginia state parks and 17 state forests, run by the Department of Conservation and Recreation and the Department of Forestry.WEB,weblink Park Locations, Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation, November 9, 2007, January 26, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091008231815weblink">weblink October 8, 2009, no, mdy-all, The Chesapeake Bay, while not a national park, is protected by both state and federal legislation, and the jointly run Chesapeake Bay Program which conducts restoration on the bay and its watershed. The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge extends into North Carolina, as does the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, which marks the beginning of the Outer Banks.{{sfn|Smith|2008|pp=152–153, 356}}

History

File:John Smith Saved by Pocahontas.jpg|thumb|upright|The story of Pocahontas, an ancestress of many of the (First Families of Virginia]], was romanticized by later artists.NEWS,weblink Pocahontas: Fantasy and Reality, Slate Magazine, Laurie Gwen, Shapiro, June 22, 2014, June 23, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140623013337weblink">weblink June 23, 2014, no, mdy-all, |alt=A painting of a young dark-haired Native American woman shielding an Elizabethan era man from execution by a Native American chief. She is bare-chested, and her face is bathed in light from an unknown source. Several Native Americans look on at the scene.)"Jamestown 2007" marked Virginia's quadricentennial year, celebrating 400 years since the establishment of the Jamestown Colony. The celebrations highlighted contributions from Native Americans, Africans, and Europeans, each of which had a significant part in shaping Virginia's history.{{sfn|Wallenstein|2007|pp=406–407}}NEWS,weblink Fredrick, Kunkle, Steve, Vogel, President Bush Caps Celebration Of Success in Face of Adversity, November 11, 2009, The Washington Post, May 14, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101122181742weblink">weblink November 22, 2010, no, mdy-all, Warfare, including among these groups, has also had an important role. Virginia was a focal point in conflicts from the French and Indian War, the American Revolution and the Civil War, to the Cold War and the War on Terrorism.WEB,weblink Virginia Military Dead Database Introduction, Library of Virginia, Government of Virginia, 2009, April 26, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090903100536weblink">weblink September 3, 2009, no, mdy-all, Stories about historic figures, such as those surrounding Pocahontas and John Smith, George Washington's childhood, or the plantation elite in the slave society of the antebellum period, have also created potent myths of state history, and have served as rationales for Virginia's ideology.{{sfn|Abrams|1999|p=xv}}

Colony

The first people are estimated to have arrived in Virginia over 12,000 years ago.BOOK, Wood, Karenne, Karenne Wood, The Virginia Indian Heritage Trail, 2007, Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, Charlottesville, Virginia, 978-0-9786604-3-7, second,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090704031303weblink">weblink July 4, 2009, By 5,000 years ago more permanent settlements emerged, and farming began by 900 AD. By 1500, the Algonquian peoples had founded towns such as Werowocomoco in the Tidewater region, which they referred to as Tsenacommacah. The other major language groups in the area were the Siouan to the west, and the Iroquoians, who included the Nottoway and Meherrin, to the north and south. After 1570, the Algonquians consolidated under Chief Powhatan in response to threats from these other groups on their trade network.{{sfn|Heinemann|Kolp|Parent, Jr.|Shade|2007|pp=4–11}} Powhatan controlled more than 30 smaller tribes and over 150 settlements, who shared a common Virginia Algonquian language. In 1607, the native Tidewater population was between 13,000 and 14,000.WEB,weblink Powhatan Indian Lifeways, National Park Service, Lee, Cotton, July 1999, June 26, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080924132642weblink">weblink September 24, 2008, Several European expeditions, including a group of Spanish Jesuits, explored the Chesapeake Bay during the 16th century.WEB, Glanville, Jim,weblink 16th Century Spanish Invasions of Southwest Virginia, Reprinted from the Historical Society of Western Virginia Journal, XVII(l): 34–42,2009 [2010], January 27, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131212092301weblink">weblink December 12, 2013, no, mdy-all, In 1583, Queen Elizabeth I of England granted Walter Raleigh a charter to plant a colony north of Spanish Florida.{{sfn|Wallenstein|2007|pp=8–9}} In 1584, Raleigh sent an expedition to the Atlantic coast of North America.{{sfn|Moran|2007|p=8}} The name "Virginia" may have been suggested then by Raleigh or Elizabeth, perhaps noting her status as the "Virgin Queen," and may also be related to a native phrase, "Wingandacoa," or name, "Wingina."{{sfn|Stewart|2008|p=22}} Initially the name applied to the entire coastal region from South Carolina to Maine, plus the island of Bermuda.{{sfn|Vollmann|2002|pp=695–696}} Later, subsequent royal charters modified the Colony's boundaries. The London Company was incorporated as a joint stock company by the proprietary Charter of 1606, which granted land rights to this area. The company financed the first permanent English settlement in the "New World", Jamestown. Named for King James I, it was founded in May 1607 by Christopher Newport.{{sfn|Conlin|2009|pp=30–31}} In 1619, colonists took greater control with an elected legislature called the House of Burgesses. With the bankruptcy of the London Company in 1624, the settlement was taken into royal authority as an English crown colony.{{sfn|Gordon|2004|p=17}}File:The Governor's Palace -- Williamsburg (VA) September 2012.jpg|thumb|left|WilliamsburgWilliamsburgLife in the colony was perilous, and many died during the Starving Time in 1609 and the Anglo-Powhatan Wars, including the Indian massacre of 1622, which fostered the colonists' negative view of all tribes.{{harvnb|Hoffer|2006|p=132}}; {{harvnb|Grizzard|Smith|2007|pp=128–133}} By 1624, only 3,400 of the 6,000 early settlers had survived."The lost colony and Jamestown droughts." {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090913074343weblink |date=September 13, 2009 }}, Stahle, D. W., M. K. Cleaveland, D. B. Blanton, M. D. Therrell, and D. A. Gay. 1998. Science 280:564–567. However, European demand for tobacco fueled the arrival of more settlers and servants.{{sfn|Wallenstein|2007|p=22}} The headright system tried to solve the labor shortage by providing colonists with land for each indentured servant they transported to Virginia.{{sfn|Hashaw|2007|pp=76–77, 239–240}} African workers were first imported to Jamestown in 1619 initially under the rules of indentured servitude. The shift to a system of African slavery in Virginia was propelled by the legal cases of John Punch, who was sentenced to lifetime slavery in 1640 for attempting to run away,BOOK, In the Matter of Color: Race and the American Legal Process: The Colonial Period, A. Leon, Higginbotham, Greenwood Press, 1975,weblink 9780195027457, and of John Casor, who was claimed by Anthony Johnson as his servant for life in 1655.JOURNAL, History of Black Americans: From Africa to the emergence of the cotton kingdom, Philip S., Foner, Oxford University Press, 1980,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131014135617weblink">weblink October 14, 2013, Slavery first appears in Virginia statutes in 1661 and 1662, when a law made it hereditary based on the mother's status.{{sfn|Hashaw|2007|pp=211–215}}Tensions and the geographic differences between the working and ruling classes led to Bacon's Rebellion in 1676, by which time current and former indentured servants made up as much as 80% of the population.{{sfn|Heinemann|Kolp|Parent, Jr.|Shade|2007|pp=51–59}} Rebels, largely from the colony's frontier, were also opposed to the conciliatory policy towards native tribes, and one result of the rebellion was the signing at Middle Plantation of the Treaty of 1677, which made the signatory tribes tributary states and was part of a pattern of appropriating tribal land by force and treaty. Middle Plantation saw the founding of The College of William & Mary in 1693 and was renamed Williamsburg as it became the colonial capital in 1699.{{sfn|Heinemann|Kolp|Parent, Jr.|Shade|2007|pp=76–77}} In 1747, a group of Virginian speculators formed the Ohio Company, with the backing of the British crown, to start English settlement and trade in the Ohio Country west of the Appalachian Mountains.{{sfn|Anderson|2000|p=23}} France, which claimed this area as part of their colony of New France, viewed this as a threat, and the ensuing French and Indian War became part of the Seven Years' War (1756–1763). A militia from several British colonies, called the Virginia Regiment, was led by then-Lieutenant Colonel George Washington.{{sfn|Anderson|2000|pp=42–43}}

Statehood

File:Patrick Henry Rothermel.jpg|thumb|upright|1851 painting of Patrick Henry's speech before the House of Burgesses on the Virginia Resolves against the alt=Upper-class middle-aged man dressed in a bright red cloak speaks before an assembly of other angry men. The subject's right hand is raise high in gesture toward the balcony.The British Parliament's efforts to levy new taxes following the French and Indian War were deeply unpopular in the colonies. In the House of Burgesses, opposition to taxation without representation was led by Patrick Henry and Richard Henry Lee, among others.WEB,weblink Signers of the Declaration (Richard Henry Lee), National Park Service, April 13, 2006, February 2, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080611071114weblink">weblink June 11, 2008, no, mdy-all, Virginians began to coordinate their actions with other colonies in 1773, and sent delegates to the Continental Congress the following year.{{sfn|Gutzman|2007|pp=24–29}} After the House of Burgesses was dissolved by the royal governor in 1774, Virginia's revolutionary leaders continued to govern via the Virginia Conventions. On May 15, 1776, the Convention declared Virginia's independence from the British Empire and adopted George Mason's Virginia Declaration of Rights, which was then included in a new constitution.{{sfn|Heinemann|Kolp|Parent, Jr.|Shade|2007|pp=125–133}} Another Virginian, Thomas Jefferson, drew upon Mason's work in drafting the national Declaration of Independence.JOURNAL, Schwartz, Stephan A., George Mason: Forgotten Founder, He Conceived the Bill of Rights, Smithsonian (magazine), Smithsonian, 31.2, 142, May 2000, When the American Revolutionary War began, George Washington was selected to head the colonial army. During the war, the capital was moved to Richmond at the urging of Governor Thomas Jefferson, who feared that Williamsburg's coastal location would make it vulnerable to British attack.{{sfn|Cooper|2007|p=58}} In 1781, the combined action of Continental and French land and naval forces trapped the British army on the Virginia Peninsula, where troops under George Washington and Comte de Rochambeau defeated British General Cornwallis in the Siege of Yorktown. His surrender on October 19, 1781 led to peace negotiations in Paris and secured the independence of the colonies.{{sfn|Heinemann|Kolp|Parent, Jr.|Shade|2007|pp=131–133}}Virginians were instrumental in writing the United States Constitution. James Madison drafted the Virginia Plan in 1787 and the Bill of Rights in 1789. Virginia ratified the Constitution on June 25, 1788. The three-fifths compromise ensured that Virginia, with its large number of slaves, initially had the largest bloc in the House of Representatives. Together with the Virginia dynasty of presidents, this gave the Commonwealth national importance. In 1790, both Virginia and Maryland ceded territory to form the new District of Columbia, though the Virginian area was retroceded in 1846.{{sfn|Wallenstein|2007|p=104}} Virginia is called "Mother of States" because of its role in being carved into states such as Kentucky, which became the 15th state in 1792, and for the numbers of American pioneers born in Virginia.

Civil War and aftermath

File:Union soldiers entrenched along the west bank of the Rappahannock River at Fredericksburg, Virginia (111-B-157).jpg|thumb|left|Union soldiers before Marye's Heights, FredericksburgFredericksburgIn addition to agriculture, slave labor was increasingly used in mining, shipbuilding and other industries.{{sfn|Davis|2006|pp=125, 208–210}} The execution of Gabriel Prosser in 1800, Nat Turner's slave rebellion in 1831 and John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859 marked the growing social discontent over slavery and its role in the plantation economy. By 1860, almost half a million people, roughly 31% of the total population of Virginia, were enslaved.WEB,weblink Census Data for Year 1860, University of Virginia, 2007, April 6, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100609110306weblink">weblink June 9, 2010, {{sfn|Morgan|1998|p=490}} This division contributed to the start of the American Civil War.Virginia voted to secede from the United States on April 17, 1861, after the Battle of Fort Sumter and Abraham Lincoln's call for volunteers. On April 24, Virginia joined the Confederate States of America, which chose Richmond as its capital.{{harvnb|Robertson|1993|pp=8–12}} After the 1861 Wheeling Convention, 48 counties in the northwest separated to form a new state of West Virginia, which chose to remain loyal to the Union. Virginian general Robert E. Lee took command of the Army of Northern Virginia in 1862, and led invasions into Union territory, ultimately becoming commander of all Confederate forces. During the war, more battles were fought in Virginia than anywhere else, including Bull Run, the Seven Days Battles, Chancellorsville, and the concluding Battle of Appomattox Court House.{{sfn|Goodwin|2012|pp=4}} After the capture of Richmond in April 1865, the state capital was briefly moved to Lynchburg,WEB, Tripp, Steve, Lynchburg During the Civil War,weblink Encyclopedia of Virginia, Library of Virginia, May 28, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130517025843weblink">weblink May 17, 2013, no, mdy-all, while the Confederate leadership fled to Danville.{{sfn|Robertson|1993|p=170}} Virginia was formally restored to the United States in 1870, due to the work of the Committee of Nine.{{sfn|Heinemann|Kolp|Parent, Jr.|Shade|2007|pp=249–250}}During the post-war Reconstruction era, Virginia adopted a constitution which provided for free public schools, and guaranteed political, civil, and voting rights.{{sfn|Morgan|1992|pp=160–166}} The populist Readjuster Party ran an inclusive coalition until the conservative white Democratic Party gained power after 1883.{{sfn|Dailey|Gilmore|Simon|2000|pp=90–96}} It passed segregationist Jim Crow laws and in 1902 rewrote the Constitution of Virginia to include a poll tax and other voter registration measures that effectively disfranchised most African Americans and many poor European Americans.{{sfn|Wallenstein|2007|pp=253–254}} Though their schools and public services were segregated and underfunded due to a lack of political representation, African Americans were able to unite in communities and take a greater role in Virginia society.{{sfn|Davis|2006|pp=328–329}}

Post-Reconstruction

File:USS Virginia in port.jpg|thumb|Many Pre-Dreadnought and World War I-era warships were built in Newport News, including the USS VirginiaUSS VirginiaNew economic forces also changed the Commonwealth. Virginian James Albert Bonsack invented the tobacco cigarette rolling machine in 1880 leading to new industrial scale production centered on Richmond. In 1886, railroad magnate Collis Potter Huntington founded Newport News Shipbuilding, which was responsible for building six major World War I-era battleships for the U.S. Navy from 1907 to 1923.WEB,weblink Our Heritage, Northrop Grumman, December 20, 2011, March 28, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100316174653weblink">weblink March 16, 2010, mdy-all, During the war, German submarines like U-151 attacked ships outside the port.{{sfn|Feuer|1999|pp=50–52}} In 1926, Dr. W.A.R. Goodwin, rector of Williamsburg's Bruton Parish Church, began restoration of colonial-era buildings in the historic district with financial backing of John D. Rockefeller, Jr.{{sfn|Goodwin|2012|p=238}} Though their project, like others in the state, had to contend with the Great Depression and World War II, work continued as Colonial Williamsburg became a major tourist attraction.{{sfn|Greenspan|2009|pp=37–43}}File:Virginia Civil Rights Memorial wide.jpg|thumb|left|The alt=Bronze sculptures of seven figures marching stand around a large rectangular block of white engraved granite.Protests started by Barbara Rose Johns in 1951 in Farmville against segregated schools led to the lawsuit Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County. This case, filed by Richmond natives Spottswood Robinson and Oliver Hill, was decided in 1954 with Brown v. Board of Education, which rejected the segregationist doctrine of "separate but equal". But, in 1958, under the policy of "massive resistance" led by the influential segregationist Senator Harry F. Byrd and his Byrd Organization, the Commonwealth prohibited desegregated local schools from receiving state funding.{{sfn|Wallenstein|2007|pp=340–341}}The civil rights movement gained many participants in the 1960s. It achieved the moral force and support to gain passage of national legislation with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In 1964 the United States Supreme Court ordered Prince Edward County and others to integrate schools.{{sfn|Wallenstein|2007|pp=357}} In 1967, the Court also struck down the state's ban on interracial marriage with Loving v. Virginia. From 1969 to 1971, state legislators under Governor Mills Godwin rewrote the constitution, after goals such as the repeal of Jim Crow laws had been achieved. In 1989, Douglas Wilder became the first African American elected as governor in the United States.{{sfn|Heinemann|Kolp|Parent, Jr.|Shade|2007|pp=359–366}}The Cold War led to the expansion of national defense government programs housed in offices in Northern Virginia near Washington, D.C., and correlative population growth.{{sfn|Accordino|2000|pp=76–78}} The Central Intelligence Agency in Langley was involved in various Cold War events, including as the target of Soviet espionage activities. Also among the federal developments was the Pentagon, built during World War II as the headquarters for the Department of Defense. It was one of the targets of the September 11 attacks; 189 people died at the site when a jet passenger plane was flown into the building.NEWS, Kelly, Christopher,weblink Forensic feat IDs nearly all Pentagon victims, Stripe, November 29, 2001, September 11, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110513132259weblink">weblink May 13, 2011,

Cities and towns

{{Largest cities| name = Largest cities| country = VirginiaDATE=JULY 1, 2017PUBLISHER=CITY POPULATIONDATE=JULY 1, 2017PUBLISHER=CITY POPULATION, February 1, 2019, | list_by_pop =| class = nav| div_name =| div_link = Counties of Virginia{{!}}County| city_1 = Virginia Beach, Virginia{{!}}Virginia Beach| div_1 = Independent city (United States){{!}}Independent city| pop_1 = 450,435| img_1 = Virginia_Beach_from_Fishing_Pier.jpg| city_2 = Norfolk, Virginia{{!}}Norfolk| div_2 = Independent city (United States){{!}}Independent city| pop_2 = 244,703| img_2 = Norfolk,_VA.jpg| city_3 = Chesapeake, Virginia{{!}}Chesapeake| div_3 = Independent city (United States){{!}}Independent city| pop_3 = 240,397| img_3 = Great_Dismal_Swamp_Canal.jpg| city_4 = Arlington County, Virginia{{!}}Arlington| div_4 = Arlington County, Virginia{{!}}Arlington| pop_4 = 234,965| img_4 = Arlington_County_-_Virginia_-_2.jpg| city_5 = Richmond, Virginia{{!}}Richmond| div_5 = Independent city (United States){{!}}Independent city| pop_5 = 227,032| img_5 =| city_6 = Newport News, Virginia{{!}}Newport News| div_6 = Independent city (United States){{!}}Independent city| pop_6 = 179,388| img_6 =| city_7 = Alexandria, Virginia{{!}}Alexandria| div_7 = Independent city (United States){{!}}Independent city| pop_7 = 160,035| img_7 =| city_8 = Hampton, Virginia{{!}}Hampton| div_8 = Independent city (United States){{!}}Independent city| pop_8 = 134,669| img_8 =| city_9 = Roanoke, Virginia{{!}}Roanoke| div_9 = Independent city (United States){{!}}Independent city| pop_9 = 99,837| img_9 =| city_10 = Portsmouth, Virginia{{!}}Portsmouth| div_10 = Independent city (United States){{!}}Independent city| pop_10 = 94,572| img_10 =}}(File:Virginia-Population.svg|thumb|upright=1.35|Virginia counties and cities by population in 2010)Virginia is divided into 95 counties and 38 independent cities, the latter acting in many ways as county-equivalents.WEB,weblink County & County Equivalent Areas, United States Census Bureau, April 19, 2005, December 8, 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071128044354weblink">weblink November 28, 2007, This general method of treating cities and counties on par with each other is unique to Virginia; only three other independent cities exist elsewhere in the United States, each in a different state.NEWS,weblink Unique structural issues make progress in Virginia difficult, September 28, 2009, Bernie, Niemeier, Virginia Business, October 3, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511132428weblink">weblink May 11, 2011, no, mdy-all, Virginia limits the authority of cities and counties to countermand laws expressly allowed by the Virginia General Assembly under what is known as Dillon's Rule.WEB,weblink Dillon's Rule: Legal Framework for Decision Making, University of Virginia, November 22, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511182009weblink">weblink May 11, 2011, In addition to independent cities, there are also incorporated towns which operate under their own governments, but are part of a county. Finally there are hundreds of unincorporated communities within the counties. Virginia does not have any further political subdivisions, such as villages or townships.Virginia has 11 Metropolitan Statistical Areas; Northern Virginia, Hampton Roads, and Richmond-Petersburg are the three most populous. Richmond is the capital of Virginia, and its metropolitan area has a population of over 1.2 million. {{As of|2010}}, Virginia Beach is the most populous city in the Commonwealth, with Norfolk and Chesapeake second and third, respectively.WEB,weblink Virginia 2010 Census Redistricting Data (Public Law 94-171) Summary File, United States Census Bureau, April 1, 2010, May 1, 2011, Norfolk forms the urban core of the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, which has a population over 1.6 million people and is the site of the world's largest naval base, Naval Station Norfolk.NEWS,weblink Chesapeake, Suffolk on track to pass neighbors in terms of population, Marc, Davis, The Virginian-Pilot, January 31, 2008, October 20, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090108092853weblink">weblink January 8, 2009, no, mdy-all, Suffolk, which includes a portion of the Great Dismal Swamp, is the largest city by area at {{convert|429.1|sqmi|km2}}.WEB,weblink All About Suffolk, Suffolk, Virginia, Suffolk, February 12, 2007, February 19, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080422015335weblink">weblink April 22, 2008, Fairfax County is the most populous locality in Virginia, with over one million residents, although that does not include its county seat Fairfax, which is one of the independent cities.NEWS,weblink To Be or Not to Be Fairfax County?, The Washington Post, July 5, 2009, August 18, 2009, Sandhya, Somashekhar, Amy, Gardner,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121113052104weblink">weblink November 13, 2012, no, mdy-all, Fairfax County has a major urban business and shopping center in Tysons Corner, Virginia's largest office market.WEB,weblink Doing Business in Fairfax County, Fairfax County Economic Development Authority, June 26, 2007, December 8, 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080209152957weblink">weblink February 9, 2008, Neighboring Prince William County is Virginia's second most populous county, with a population exceeding 450,000, and is home to Marine Corps Base Quantico, the FBI Academy and Manassas National Battlefield Park. Loudoun County, with the county seat at Leesburg, is both the fastest-growing county in Virginia and has the highest median household income ($114,204) in the country {{as of|2010|lc=on}}.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20170525210626weblink">weblink yes, May 25, 2017, Loudoun named richest county in the nation, again, Hannah, Hager, Loudoun Times-Mirror, November 12, 2010, May 1, 2011, Arlington County, the smallest self-governing county in the United States by land area, is an urban community organized as a county.NEWS,weblink Silent Streams, The Washington Post, Mary, Battiata, November 27, 2005, April 12, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081012131623weblink">weblink October 12, 2008, no, mdy-all, The Roanoke area, with an estimated population of 314,128, is the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in western Virginia.WEB,weblink Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017, 2017 Population Estimate, United States Census Bureau, February 1, 2019, February 1, 2019,weblink March 29, 2019, no, mdy-all,

Demographics

{{US Census population|1790= 691737|1800= 807557|1810= 877683|1820= 938261|1830= 1044054|1840= 1025227|1850= 1119348|1860= 1219630|1870= 1225163|1880= 1512565|1890= 1655980|1900= 1854184|1910= 2061612|1920= 2309187|1930= 2421851|1940= 2677773|1950= 3318680|1960= 3966949|1970= 4648494|1980= 5346818|1990= 6187358|2000= 7078515|2010= 8001024|estimate= 8517685|estyear= 2018|align-fn=centerPUBLISHER=THE CIVIL WAR HOME PAGE ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20040604075834/HTTP://WWW.CIVIL-WAR.NET/PAGES/1860_CENSUS.HTML DF=, 1910–2010RESIDENT POPULATION DATA >URL=HTTP://2010.CENSUS.GOV/2010CENSUS/DATA/APPORTIONMENT-POP-TEXT.PHP PUBLISHER=2010.CENSUS.GOV DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 23, 2012, 2018 estimate}}{{stack|float=right|File:Elizabeth River at NNSY.jpg|thumb|upright|The Hampton Roads metropolitan area is home to the first British colony in the AmericasBritish colony in the Americas}}The United States Census Bureau estimates that the state population was 8,517,685 on July 1, 2018, a 6.46% increase since the 2010 United States Census.WEB,weblink QuickFacts Virginia; UNITED STATES, 2018 Population Estimates, United States Census Bureau, Population Division, February 1, 2019, February 1, 2019,weblink February 2, 2019, no, mdy-all, This includes an increase from net migration of 516,661 people into the Commonwealth since the 2010 census. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 159,627 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 155,205 people.WEB,weblink State Resident Population—Components of Change: 2010 to 2018, United States Census Bureau, December 27, 2007, April 6, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511102927weblink">weblink May 11, 2011, As of 2000, the center of population is located in Goochland County, near Richmond.WEB,weblink Center Of Population Project, 2000, September 27, 2016, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,weblink October 9, 2016, no, mdy-all, Aside from Virginia, the top birth state for Virginians is New York, having overtaken North Carolina in the 1990s, with the Northeast accounting for the largest number of migrants into the state by region.NEWS,weblink Where We Came From and Where We Went, State by State, Gregor, Aisch, Robert, Gebeloff, Kevin, Quealy, The New York Times, August 14, 2014, April 21, 2019,weblink March 1, 2019, no, mdy-all,

Ethnicity

The state's most populous ethnic group, Non-Hispanic White, has declined as a proportion of population from 76% in 1990 to 62% in 2018, as other ethnicities have increased.WEB, Virginia – Race and Hispanic Origin: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau,weblink April 17, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080725044857weblink">weblink July 25, 2008, WEB,weblink U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Virginia, U.S. Census Bureau, 2018, March 4, 2019, CITEREFethnicity,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160913210540weblink">weblink September 13, 2016, no, mdy-all, In 2011, non-Hispanic Whites were involved in 51% of all the births, while 49.1% of Virginia's population younger than age 1 had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white.NEWS,weblink Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot, Exner, Rich, June 3, 2012, The Plain Dealer, August 16, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160714084214weblink">weblink July 14, 2016, no, mdy-all, People of English heritage settled throughout the Commonwealth during the colonial period, and others of British and Irish heritage have since immigrated.{{sfn|Miller|Schrier|Boling|Doyle|2003|pp=6, 147}} Those who identify on the census as having "American ethnicity" are predominantly of English descent, but have ancestors who have been in North America for so long that they choose to identify simply as American.JOURNAL, Stanley, Lieberson, yes, Mary C., Waters, Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 487, 79, 1986, 82–86, 10.1177/0002716286487001004, BOOK, David Hackett, Fischer, David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, New York, Oxford University Press, 1989, 633–639, 978-0-19-503794-4, Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America, Of the English immigrants to Virginia in the 17th century, 75% came as indentured servants.W. J. Rorabaugh, Donald T. Critchlow, Paula C. Baker (2004). America's promise: a concise history of the United States {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150407020732weblink |date=April 7, 2015 }}. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 29. {{ISBN|0-7425-1189-8}}. The western mountains have many settlements that were founded by Scots-Irish immigrants before the American Revolution.WEB,weblink Scots-Irish Sites in Virginia, Virginia Is For Lovers, January 3, 2008, February 2, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120308102528weblink">weblink March 8, 2012, WEB,weblink Scots-Irish Heritage – Virginia Is For Lovers, Virginia.org, 2011, November 13, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111117092649weblink">weblink November 17, 2011, no, mdy-all, There are also sizable numbers of people of German descent in the northwestern mountains and Shenandoah Valley. On the 2017 American Community Survey, 11.3% said they were of German ancestry.WEB,weblink Total Ancestry Reported, 2013–2017 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, U.S. Census Bureau, 2017, March 3, 2019, CITEREFancestry, 2.9% of Virginians also describe themselves as biracial.The largest minority group in Virginia is African American, at 19.8% {{As of|2018|lc=on}}. Most African-American Virginians have been descendants of enslaved Africans who worked on tobacco, cotton, and hemp plantations. The first generations of enslaved men, women and children were brought from West and West-Central Africa, primarily from Angola and the Bight of Biafra. The Igbo ethnic group of what is now southern Nigeria were the single largest African group among slaves in Virginia.{{harvnb|Pinn|2009|p=175}}; {{harvnb|Chambers|2005|pp=10–14}} Many African Americans also have European and Native American ancestry. Though the black population was reduced by the Great Migration to northern industrial cities in the first half of the 20th century, since 1965 there has been a reverse migration of blacks returning south.JOURNAL,weblink William H., Frey, The New Great Migration: Black Americans' Return to the South, 1965–2000, The Living Cities Census Series, May 2004, 1–3, September 10, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071103165633weblink">weblink November 3, 2007, According to the Pew Research Center, the state has the highest number of black-white interracial marriages in the US.WEB,weblink Virginia ranks highest in U.S. for black-white marriages, The Virginian-Pilot, April 20, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140421082321weblink">weblink April 21, 2014, no, mdy-all, More recent immigration in the late 20th century and early 21st century has resulted in new communities of Hispanics and Asians. {{As of|2018}}, 9.4% of Virginians are Hispanic or Latino (of any race), and 6.8% are Asian. The state's Hispanic population rose by 92% from 2000 to 2010, with two-thirds of Hispanics in the state living in Northern Virginia.NEWS,weblink Virginians in the census: 8 million total, 1M in Fairfax County, The Virginian-Pilot, Associated Press, February 3, 2011, February 4, 2011, John, Raby, CITEREFdemographics, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110204203509weblink">weblink February 4, 2011, Hispanic citizens in Virginia have higher median household incomes and educational attainment than the general state population.WEB,weblink Hispanic Immigrants And Citizens In Virginia, Qian, Cai, Numbers Count, February 2008, February 7, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130117095117weblink">weblink January 17, 2013, There is a large Salvadoran population in the DC suburbs of Northern Virginia,NEWS,weblink Centreville: The Gazette, Gazette, Layla, Wilder, March 28, 2008, February 15, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160223153915weblink">weblink February 23, 2016, no, mdy-all, and a large Puerto Rican population in the Hampton Roads region of Southeast Virginia.NEWS,weblink Centreville: The census, census, Layla, Wilder, August 1, 2015, February 15, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160223055721weblink">weblink February 23, 2016, no, mdy-all, Northern Virginia also has a significant population of Vietnamese Americans, whose major wave of immigration followed the Vietnam War.JOURNAL, Vietnamese American Place Making in Northern Virginia, Joseph, Wood, Geographical Review, 87, 1, January 1997, 58–72, 10.2307/215658, 215658, Korean Americans have migrated more recently, attracted by the quality school system.NEWS,weblink Centreville: The New Koreatown?, Fairfax County Times, Layla, Wilder, March 28, 2008, November 30, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110611210442weblink">weblink June 11, 2011, no, mdy-all, The Filipino American community has about 45,000 in the Hampton Roads area, many of whom have ties to the U.S. Navy and armed forces.NEWS,weblink Locals celebrate Philippine Independence Day, The Virginian-Pilot, June 12, 2008, Nora, Firestone, September 30, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080617220659weblink">weblink June 17, 2008, no, mdy-all, Additionally, 0.5% of Virginians are American Indian or Alaska Native, and 0.1% are Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander. Virginia has extended state recognition to eight Native American tribes resident in the state; six of these gained federal recognition as tribes in 2018, and two were already recognized. Most Native American groups are located in the Tidewater region.NEWS,weblink As Year's End Nears, Disappointment, Brigid, Schulte, The Washington Post, November 23, 2007, June 25, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110820071038weblink">weblink August 20, 2011, no, mdy-all, {|class="wikitable" style="margin:1em auto 1em auto"|{| class="wikitable" style="margin:0.5em; border:none;"! colspan="2" style="background:#ccf;"|Ethnicity (2018 est.) ! style="background:#ccf;"|Largest ancestries by county! colspan="3" style="background:#ccf;"|Ancestry (2017 est.)|Non-Hispanic White61.9%(File:Virginia Ancestries by County 2017.svgalt=Virginia counties colored either red, blue, yellow, green, or purple based on the populations most common ancestry. The south-east is predominately purple for African American, while the west is mostly red for American. The north has yellow for German, with two small areas green for Irish. Yellow is also found in spots in the west. A strip in the middle is blue for English.)American Community Survey 5-year estimate German11.3%|Black or African American19.8% American10.0%|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)9.4% English9.8%|Asian6.8% Irish9.5%|American Indian and Alaska Native 0.5% Subsaharan African 2.1%

Languages

{{As of|2010}}, 85.9% (6,299,127) of Virginia residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 6.4% (470,058) spoke Spanish, 0.8% (56,518) Korean, 0.6% (45,881) Vietnamese, 0.6% (42,418) Chinese (which includes Mandarin), and Tagalog was spoken as a main language by 0.6% (40,724) of the population over the age of five. In total, 14.1% (1,036,442) of Virginia's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.WEB,weblink Virginia, Modern Language Association, August 20, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071201170638weblink">weblink December 1, 2007, no, mdy-all, English was passed as the Commonwealth's official language by statutes in 1981 and again in 1996, though the status is not mandated by the Constitution of Virginia.{{sfn|Joseph|2006|p=63}}The Piedmont region is known for its dialect's strong influence on Southern American English. While a more homogenized American English is found in urban areas, various accents are also used, including the Tidewater accent, the Old Virginia accent, and the anachronistic Elizabethan of Tangier Island.WEB,weblink Virginia's Many Voices, Edwin S., Clay III, Patricia, Bangs, Fairfax County, Virginia, May 9, 2005, November 28, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071221203242weblink">weblink December 21, 2007, yes, NEWS,weblink Exotic Tangier, National Review, John J., Miller, August 2, 2005, October 9, 2008,

Religion

{{See also|Religion in early Virginia}}{{bar boxFIRST1=1615 L. STFIRST2=SUITE 800FIRST3=DC 20036 USA202-419-4300 | MAIN202-419-4349 | FAX202-419-4372 | MEDIAACCESS-DATE=APRIL 21, 2019ARCHIVE-DATE=MARCH 12, 2019DF=MDY-ALL, left1=Religion float=right|bars ={{bar percent|Protestant|purple|58}}{{bar percent|None|black|20}}{{bar percent|Catholic|dodgerblue|12}}{{bar percent|Mormon|green|2}}{{bar percent|Eastern Orthodox|green|1}}{{bar percent|Other faith|grey|6}}}}Virginia is predominantly Christian and Protestant; Baptist denominations combined to form largest group with about 26% of the population {{as of|2014|lc=on}}, and around 763,655 total members {{as of|2010|lc=on}}.WEB,weblink The Association of Religion Data Archives | State Membership Report, www.thearda.com, December 12, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131223085915weblink">weblink December 23, 2013, no, mdy-all, Baptist denominational groups in Virginia include the Baptist General Association of Virginia, with about 1,400 member churches, which supports both the Southern Baptist Convention and the moderate Cooperative Baptist Fellowship; and the Southern Baptist Conservatives of Virginia with more than 500 affiliated churches, which supports the Southern Baptist Convention.NEWS,weblink 2nd Georgia church joins moderate Va. Baptist association, November 10, 2006, Steven G., Vegh, The Virginian-Pilot, December 18, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090126235051weblink">weblink January 26, 2009, no, mdy-all, NEWS,weblink SBCV passes 500 mark, November 20, 2007, December 18, 2007, Baptist Press, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110219073703weblink">weblink February 19, 2011, Roman Catholics are the second-largest religious group with 673,853 members. The Roman Catholic Diocese of Arlington includes most of Northern Virginia's Catholic churches, while the Diocese of Richmond covers the rest.File:Christ Church (Alexandria, Virginia).JPG|thumb|left|Christ Church in Alexandria was frequented by alt=An 18th-century red brick church with white steeple behind a modern road in autumn.The Virginia Conference is the regional body of the United Methodist Church in most of the Commonwealth, while the Holston Conference represents much of extreme Southwest Virginia. The Virginia Synod is responsible for the congregations of the Lutheran Church. Presbyterian, Pentecostal, Congregationalist, and Episcopalian adherents each composed less than 2% of the population {{as of|2010|lc=on}}. The Episcopal Diocese of Virginia, Southern Virginia, and Southwestern Virginia support the various Episcopal churches.In November 2006, 15 conservative Episcopal churches voted to split from the Diocese of Virginia over the ordination of openly gay bishops and clergy in other dioceses of the Episcopal Church; these churches continue to claim affiliation with the larger Anglican Communion through other bodies outside the United States. Though Virginia law allows parishioners to determine their church's affiliation, the diocese claimed the secessionist churches' buildings and properties. The resulting property law case, ultimately decided in favor of the mainline diocese, was a test for Episcopal churches nationwide.NEWS,weblink Supreme Court won't hear appeal of dispute over Episcopal Church's property in Va., Michelle, Boorstein, The Washington Post, March 10, 2014, May 1, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140502171757weblink">weblink May 2, 2014, no, mdy-all, Among other religions, adherents of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints constitute 1% of the population, with 200 congregations in Virginia {{as of|2017|lc=on}}.WEB,weblink USA-Virginia, Mormon Newsroom, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, August 19, 2017, Lance, Walker,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170827084130weblink">weblink August 27, 2017, no, mdy-all, Fairfax Station is the site of the Ekoji Buddhist Temple, of the Jodo Shinshu school, and the Hindu Durga Temple. While the state's Jewish population is small, organized Jewish sites date to 1789 with Congregation Beth Ahabah.{{sfn|Olitzky|1996|p=359}} Muslims are a growing religious group throughout the Commonwealth through immigration.NEWS,weblink Muslims' visibility in region growing, Richmond Times-Dispatch, Charlottesville Daily Progress, Sarah, Alfaham, September 11, 2008, May 2, 2009, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20120724062811weblink">weblink July 24, 2012, Megachurches in the Commonwealth include Thomas Road Baptist Church, Immanuel Bible Church, and McLean Bible Church.WEB,weblink Megachurch Search Results, Hartford Institute for Religion Research, 2008, November 7, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090124023003weblink">weblink January 24, 2009, Several Christian universities are also based in the state, including Regent University, Liberty University, and Lynchburg College.

Economy

{{See also|Virginia locations by per capita income}}(File:Virginia-Median household income.svg|thumb|upright=1.35|Virginia counties and cities by median household income (2010).)Virginia is an employment-at-will state;WEB, The Virginia Department of Labor and Industry: Frequently Asked Questions: Labor & Employment Law,weblink November 13, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111207205539weblink">weblink December 7, 2011, its economy has diverse sources of income, including local and federal government, military, farming and business. Virginia has 4.1 million civilian workers, and one-third of the jobs are in the service sector.WEB,weblink Energy Information Administration, Virginia State Energy Profiles, United States Department of Energy, June 26, 2008, June 27, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080521074553weblink">weblink May 21, 2008, yes, WEB, Virginia facts, National Geographic Society, National Geographic, April 2, 2008,weblink April 12, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080803040328weblink">weblink August 3, 2008, no, mdy-all, The unemployment rate in Virginia {{as of|2018|lc=on}} is 2.9%, which is below the national average.WEB,weblink Virginia State Unemployment Rate and Total Unemployed, Department of Numbers, July 2017, December 22, 2018,weblink November 6, 2018, no, mdy-all, The second fastest job growth town in the nation is Leesburg, {{as of|2011|lc=on}}.NEWS,weblink Best Places to Live 2011 – Top 25: Fastest job growth – from MONEY Magazine, CNN, July 14, 2010, February 18, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120109184933weblink">weblink January 9, 2012, no, mdy-all, The Gross Domestic Product of Virginia was over $510 billion in 2017.WEB,weblink Bureau of Economic Analysis, November 14, 2018, Gross domestic product (GDP) by state, April 19, 2019,weblink April 6, 2019, no, mdy-all, According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, Virginia had the most counties in the top 100 wealthiest in the United States at sixteen counties based upon median income in 2007.WEB,weblink Per capita personal income, Regional Economic Information System, Bureau of Economic Analysis, April 2007, November 24, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070929124701weblink">weblink September 29, 2007, yes, Northern Virginia is the highest-income region in Virginia, having six of the twenty highest-income counties in the United States, including the two highest {{As of|2008|lc=on}}.Matt Woolsey, America's Richest Counties, Forbes.com, 01.22.08, 6:00 p.m. ET {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090513081046weblink |date=May 13, 2009 }} Forbes.com Web site. Retrieved on February 8, 2008. According to CNN Money Magazine the highest-income town in the nation is Great Falls, {{as of|2011|lc=on}}.NEWS,weblink Best Places to Live 2011 – Top 25: Biggest earners – from MONEY Magazine, CNN, July 14, 2010, February 18, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120109184932weblink">weblink January 9, 2012, no, mdy-all, According to a 2013 study by Phoenix Marketing International, Virginia had the seventh-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, with a ratio of 6.64%.WEB, Frank, Robert, Top states for millionaires per capita,weblink CNBC, January 25, 2014, January 15, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140122061516weblink">weblink January 22, 2014, no, mdy-all,

Government

File:The Pentagon January 2008.jpg|thumb|The Department of Defense is headquartered in Arlington at The Pentagon, the world's largest office building.NEWS,weblink How the Pentagon Got Its Shape, Steve, Vogel, May 27, 2007, April 21, 2009, weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080516090154weblink">weblink May 16, 2008, no, mdy-all, ">alt=Aerial view of the huge five-sided building and its multiple rings. Parking lots and highways stretch away from it.Virginia has the highest defense spending of any state per capita, providing the Commonwealth with around 900,000 jobs.NEWS,weblink Virginia's love-hate relationship with federal spending, Rosalind S., Helderman, The Washington Post, May 6, 2010, May 26, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100722160829weblink">weblink July 22, 2010, no, mdy-all, Approximately 12% of all U.S. federal procurement money is spent in Virginia, the second-highest amount after California.WEB,weblink States That Get The Most Federal Money, Fox Business Network, Michael B., Sauter, Lisa, Uible, Lisa, Nelson, Alexander E. M., Hess, August 3, 2012, May 1, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140201194124weblink">weblink February 1, 2014, NEWS, Virginia weighs its dependence on defense spending, Nicole Anderson, Ellis, September 1, 2008, Virginia Business,weblink May 26, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100206032219weblink">weblink February 6, 2010, no, mdy-all, Many Virginians work for federal agencies in Northern Virginia, which include the Central Intelligence Agency and the Department of Defense, as well as the National Science Foundation, the United States Geological Survey and the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Many others work for government contractors, including defense and security firms, which hold more than 15,000 federal contracts.NEWS,weblink The Federal Job Machine, February 8, 2007, Time (magazine), Time, Justin, Fox, November 7, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071203121316weblink">weblink December 3, 2007, no, mdy-all, Virginia has one of the highest concentrations of veterans of any state,WEB,weblink Bob McDonnell says Virginia is No. 1 state in veterans per capita, Richmond Times-Dispatch, October 23, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131007145003weblink">weblink October 7, 2013, no, mdy-all, and is second to California in total Department of Defense employees.NEWS,weblink Virginia Finally Comes Into Play, October 17, 2008, October 20, 2008, CBS News,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081021033725weblink">weblink October 21, 2008, no, mdy-all, The Hampton Roads area has the largest concentration of military personnel and assets of any metropolitan area in the world,WEB,weblink Virginia Transportation Modeling Program, Virginia Department of Transportation, October 23, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130824175717weblink">weblink August 24, 2013, no, mdy-all, including the largest naval base in the world, Naval Station Norfolk.WEB,weblink NNSY History, United States Navy, August 27, 2007, April 6, 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120918030150weblink">weblink September 18, 2012, In its state government, Virginia employs 106,143 public employees, who combined have a median income of $44,656 {{as of|2013|lc=on}}.WEB,weblink Salaries of Virginia state employees 2012–13, Richmond Times-Dispatch, June 30, 2013, May 1, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140502003928weblink">weblink May 2, 2014, no, mdy-all,

Business

File:Virginia Beach waterfront.jpg|thumb|right|Ocean tourism is an important sector of Virginia Beach'sVirginia Beach'sVirginia has the highest concentration of technology workers of any state,NEWS, Gregory, Poersch, 1 of Out of 11 Workers in Virginia in Tech Industry, Highest Concentration in the Nation, AeA Says, April 2, 2008, Reuters, American Electronics Association,weblinkweblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20100122065014weblink">weblink yes, January 22, 2010, October 7, 2007, and the fourth-highest number of technology workers after California, Texas, and New York.NEWS, Marjorie, Censer, Virginia loses tech jobs but maintains highest concentration in U.S., October 4, 2011, Washington Post, TechAmerica,weblink December 14, 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130117085622weblink">weblink January 17, 2013, Computer chips became the state's highest-grossing export in 2006, surpassing its traditional top exports of coal and tobacco combined,NEWS,weblink Computer chips now lead Virginia exports, Gregory, Richards, The Virginian-Pilot, February 24, 2007, September 29, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070310155937weblink">weblink March 10, 2007, reaching a total export value of $717 million in 2015.WEB,weblink State Exports from Virginia, July 23, 2016, census.gov, United States Census,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150919111049weblink">weblink September 19, 2015, no, mdy-all, Northern Virginia, once considered the state's dairy capital, now hosts software, communication technology, defense contracting companies, particularly in the Dulles Technology Corridor.The state has the highest average and peak Internet speeds in the United States, with the third-highest worldwide.NEWS,weblink Virginia has the Fastest Internet Speed within the US, Report Shows, The Week, Allan, Soldner, August 8, 2014, August 8, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140808183048weblink">weblink August 8, 2014, no, mdy-all, Northern Virginia's data centers can carry up to 70% of the nation's Internet traffic,NEWS,weblink Va. Power certifies West Creek as potential data center site, Peter, Bacqué, Richmond Times-Dispatch, December 13, 2013, February 25, 2014,weblink" title="archive.is/20140225161004weblink">weblink February 25, 2014, no, mdy-all, and in 2015 the region was the largest and fastest growing data center market in the nation.WEB,weblink Top 10 Largest Data Center Markets in the United States, Michael, Rareshide, April 21, 2019,weblink October 17, 2017, no, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Largest U.S. Data Center Markets Continue To Boom, Bisnow Media, Erik, Dolan-Del Vecchio, April 21, 2019,weblink October 17, 2017, no, mdy-all, Forbes magazine has named Virginia the best state in the nation for business five times, and included it in their top five in 2018,NEWS,weblink Kurt, Badenhausen, The Best States for Business 2018, November 28, 2018, April 9, 2019, Forbes,weblink April 1, 2019, no, mdy-all, as did CNBC in their America's Top States For Business 2018 rankings, with its deductions being mainly for the high cost of living.NEWS,weblink Top States 2018: Virginia, July 10, 2018, April 9, 2019, CNBC,weblink August 29, 2018, no, mdy-all, Additionally, in 2014 a survey of 12,000 small business owners found Virginia to be one of the most friendly states for small businesses.WEB,weblink Best and Worst States for Business Owners, Fundivo, August 27, 2014, August 27, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140903111314weblink">weblink September 3, 2014, no, mdy-all, Virginia has 23 Fortune 500 companies, ranking the state sixth nationwide.NEWS,weblink Virginia’s Fortune 500 list grows, Virginia Business, June 8, 2017, April 7, 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180726032129weblink">weblink July 26, 2018, no, mdy-all, Tysons Corner is one of the largest business districts in the nation.Tourism in Virginia supported an estimated 210,000 jobs and generated $21.2 billion in 2012.NEWS,weblink Virginia tourism sets record, Washington Business Journal, September 4, 2013, September 5, 2013, Jeff, Clabaugh,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131007025855weblink">weblink October 7, 2013, no, mdy-all, Arlington County is the top tourist destination in the state by domestic spending, followed by Fairfax County, Loudoun County, and Virginia Beach.WEB,weblink Fairfax Narrowly Misses Out on No. 1 Ranking in Va. Tourism Spending, September 9, 2013, Sun Gazette, Scott McCaffrey,weblink" title="archive.today/20131003222221weblink">weblink October 3, 2013, October 3, 2013, yes,

Agriculture

File:Farmers in Rockingham County, Virginia.jpg|thumb|Rockingham CountyRockingham County{{As of|2007}}, agriculture occupied 32% of the land in Virginia and about 357,000 Virginian jobs were in agriculture, with over 47,000 farms, averaging {{convert|171|acre|sqmi km2|2|abbr=on}}, in a total farmland area of 8.1 million acres (12,656 sq mi; 32,780 km2). Though agriculture has declined significantly since 1960 when there were twice as many farms, it remains the largest single industry in Virginia.WEB,weblink Virginia Agriculture â€” Facts and Figures, 2012, December 9, 2012, Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130117095118weblink">weblink January 17, 2013, Tomatoes surpassed soy as the most profitable crop in Virginia in 2006, with peanuts and hay as other agricultural products.NEWS,weblink Tomato moves into the top money-making spot in Virginia, October 17, 2007, Linda, McNatt, The Virginian-Pilot, October 18, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080523202047weblink">weblink May 23, 2008, no, mdy-all, Although it is no longer the primary crop, Virginia is still the fifth-largest producer of tobacco nationwide.WEB,weblink Virginia, 2007 Census of Agriculture, United States Census Bureau, July 17, 2009, October 6, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091020034022weblink">weblink October 20, 2009, no, mdy-all, Virginia is the largest producer of seafood on the East Coast, with scallops, oysters, blue crabs, and clams as the largest seafood harvests by value, and France, Canada, and Hong Kong as the top export destinations.WEB,weblink Virginia's Bountiful Seafood Harvest, John, McBryde, January 21, 2015, November 18, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151119015656weblink">weblink November 19, 2015, no, mdy-all, Eastern oyster harvests have increased from 23,000 bushels in 2001 to over 500,000 in 2013.PRESS RELEASE,weblink PDF, Governor McAuliffe Launches New Virginia Oyster Trail, Governor of Virginia, August 19, 2014, April 19, 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151010052846weblink">weblink October 10, 2015, no, mdy-all, Wineries and vineyards in the Northern Neck and along the Blue Ridge Mountains also have begun to generate income and attracted 2.3 million tourists {{as of|2015|alt=in 2015}}.NEWS,weblink As wine sales hit record highs, Virginia wineries are in a race for grapes, The Washington Post, Abha, Bhattarai, September 23, 2016, April 19, 2019,weblink April 19, 2019, no, mdy-all, Virginia has the fifth-highest number of wineries in the nation, with 248 {{as of|2014|lc=on}}.WEB,weblink About the United States Wine and Grape Industry, National Association of American Wineries, November 18, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151118225126weblink">weblink November 18, 2015, no, mdy-all,

Taxes

Virginia collects personal income tax in five income brackets, ranging from 3.0% to 5.75%. The state sales and use tax rate is 4.3%, while the tax rate on food is 1.5%. There is an additional 1% local tax, for a total of a 5.3% combined sales tax on most Virginia purchases and 2.5% on most food. The sales tax rate is .7% higher in Northern Virginia and Newport News, where it is 6.0%.WEB,weblink Sales and Use Tax, Virginia Department of Taxation, April 25, 2014, September 23, 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140920230139weblink">weblink September 20, 2014, Virginia's property tax is set and collected at the local government level and varies throughout the Commonwealth. Real estate is also taxed at the local level based on 100% of fair market value. Tangible personal property also is taxed at the local level and is based on a percentage or percentages of original cost.WEB,weblink Virginia Tax Facts, Virginia Department of Taxation, July 1, 2011, November 26, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111207204613weblink">weblink December 7, 2011,

Culture

File:Colonial Williamsburg ladies.jpg|thumb|Colonial Virginian culture, language, and style are reenacted in WilliamsburgWilliamsburgVirginia's culture was popularized and spread across America and the South by figures such as George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Robert E. Lee. Their homes in Virginia represent the birthplace of America and the South.{{sfn|McGraw|2005|p=14}} Modern Virginia culture has many sources, and is part of the culture of the Southern United States.{{sfn|Fischer|Kelly|2000|pp=102–103}} The Smithsonian Institution divides Virginia into nine cultural regions.WEB,weblink Roots of Virginia Culture, Smithsonian Folklife Festival 2007, Smithsonian Institution, July 5, 2007, September 29, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081001175150weblink">weblink October 1, 2008, Besides the general cuisine of the Southern United States, Virginia maintains its own particular traditions. Virginia wine is made in many parts of the state. Smithfield ham, sometimes called "Virginia ham", is a type of country ham which is protected by state law, and can only be produced in the town of Smithfield.{{sfn|Williamson|2008|p=41}} Virginia furniture and architecture are typical of American colonial architecture. Thomas Jefferson and many of the state's early leaders favored the Neoclassical architecture style, leading to its use for important state buildings. The Pennsylvania Dutch and their style can also be found in parts of the state.JOURNAL,weblink Pennsylvania and Virginia Germans during the Civil War, Christian B., Keller, Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 109, 2001, 37–86, April 12, 2008, yes,weblink May 22, 2008, Literature in Virginia often deals with the state's extensive and sometimes troubled past. The works of Pulitzer Prize winner Ellen Glasgow often dealt with social inequalities and the role of women in her culture.{{sfn|Gray|Robinson|2004|pp=81, 103}} Glasgow's peer and close friend James Branch Cabell wrote extensively about the changing position of gentry in the Reconstruction era, and challenged its moral code with Jurgen, A Comedy of Justice.WEB,weblink Summary of Jurgen: A Comedy of Justice, Mary Alice, Kirkpatrick, August 18, 2009, Library of Southern Literature, University of North Carolina,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090601091309weblink">weblink June 1, 2009, no, mdy-all, William Styron approached history in works such as The Confessions of Nat Turner and Sophie's Choice.NEWS,weblink William Styron, Novelist, Dies at 81, Christopher, Lehmann-Haupt, November 2, 2006, August 18, 2009, The New York Times,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090425124916weblink">weblink April 25, 2009, no, mdy-all, Tom Wolfe has occasionally dealt with his southern heritage in bestsellers like I Am Charlotte Simmons.NEWS,weblink A Coed in Full, Michael, Dirda, November 7, 2004, October 3, 2009, The Washington Post,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080726125311weblink">weblink July 26, 2008, no, mdy-all, Mount Vernon native Matt Bondurant received critical acclaim for his historic novel The Wettest County in the World about moonshiners in Franklin County during prohibition.NEWS,weblink Fairfax native Matt Bondurant's book is now the movie 'Lawless', Tom, Jackman, The Washington Post, May 27, 2012, May 28, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120528120647weblink">weblink May 28, 2012, no, mdy-all, Virginia also names a state Poet Laureate.NEWS,weblink Gov. taps new OIG, elections chief, hires House member, Travis, Fain, June 27, 2014, July 9, 2014, Daily Press (Virginia), Daily Press,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140714222425weblink">weblink July 14, 2014, no, mdy-all,

Fine and performing arts

{{See also|Music of Virginia}}File:Wolf Trap (national park) meadow pavilion.jpg|thumb|The Meadow Pavilion is one of the theaters at alt=A small, boxy, wooden stage with a trapezoidal overhang stands in the center of meadow. In the foreground is a running stream with a stone embankment.Rich in cultural heritage, Virginia however ranks near the bottom of U.S. states in terms of public spending on the arts, at nearly half of the national average.PRESS RELEASE,weblink State Arts Agency Funding and Grant Making, National Assembly of State Arts Agencies, March 2010, May 3, 2010, PDF, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101127073820weblink">weblink November 27, 2010, The state government does fund some institutions, including the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts and the Science Museum of Virginia. Other museums include the popular Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum and the Chrysler Museum of Art.{{sfn|Smith|2008|pp=22–25}} Besides these sites, many open-air museums are located in the Commonwealth, such as Colonial Williamsburg, the Frontier Culture Museum, and various historic battlefields.{{sfn|Howard|Burnham|Burnham|2006|pp=88, 206, 292}} The Virginia Foundation for the Humanities works to improve the Commonwealth's civic, cultural, and intellectual life.WEB,weblink Mission & History, Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, 2007, December 9, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070827202050weblink">weblink August 27, 2007, Theaters and venues in the Commonwealth are found both in the cities and suburbs. The Harrison Opera House, in Norfolk, is home of the Virginia Opera. The Virginia Symphony Orchestra operates in and around Hampton Roads.{{sfn|Howard|Burnham|Burnham|2006|pp=165–166}} Resident and touring theater troupes operate from the American Shakespeare Center in Staunton.{{sfn|Goodwin|2012|p=154}} The Barter Theatre, designated the State Theatre of Virginia, in Abingdon won the first Regional Theatre Tony Award in 1948, while the Signature Theatre in Arlington won it in 2009. There is also a Children's Theater of Virginia, Theatre IV, which is the second largest touring troupe nationwide.NEWS,weblink Holiday magic: Arcadia play tells tale of Christmas poem, Ruth, Rice, The Tribune-Democrat, November 27, 2006, July 7, 2010,weblink" title="archive.is/20120716085757weblink">weblink July 16, 2012, no, mdy-all, Virginia has launched many award-winning traditional musical artists and internationally successful popular music acts, as well as Hollywood actors. Virginia is known for its tradition in the music genres of old-time string and bluegrass, with groups such as the Carter Family and Stanley Brothers, as well as gospel, blues, and shout bands.WEB,weblink The Roots and Branches of Virginia Music, Folkways, Smithsonian Institution, 2007, January 29, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140107074814weblink">weblink January 7, 2014, no, mdy-all, Contemporary Virginia is also known for folk rock artists like Dave Matthews and Jason Mraz, hip hop stars like Pharrell Williams and Missy Elliott, as well as thrash metal groups like GWAR and Lamb of God.WEB,weblink 12 Virginia Bands You Should Listen to Now, Reggie, Pace, Paste (magazine), Paste, August 14, 2013, January 29, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140202211016weblink">weblink February 2, 2014, no, mdy-all, Several members of country music band Old Dominion grew up in the Roanoke area, and took their band name from Virginia's state nickname.NEWS,weblink Old Dominion country band has Roanoke Valley roots, Tad, Dickens, June 3, 2014, The Roanoke Times, April 8, 2019,weblink April 8, 2019, no, mdy-all, Notable performance venues include The Birchmere, the Landmark Theater, and Jiffy Lube Live.{{sfn|Howard|Burnham|Burnham|2006|pp=29, 121, 363, 432}} Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts is located in Vienna and is the only national park intended for use as a performing arts center.{{harvnb|Scott|Scott|2004|pp=307–308}}

Festivals

File:Chincoteague pony swim 2007.jpg|thumb|The annual Chincoteague Pony Swim features over 200 wild ponies swimming across the Assateague Channel into ChincoteagueChincoteagueMany counties and localities host county fairs and festivals. The Virginia State Fair is held at the Meadow Event Park every September. Also in September is the Neptune Festival in Virginia Beach, which celebrates the city, the waterfront, and regional artists. Norfolk's Harborfest, in June, features boat racing and air shows.{{sfn|Goodwin|2012|pp=25, 287}} Fairfax County also sponsors Celebrate Fairfax! with popular and traditional music performances.NEWS,weblink Live!, June 7, 2007, Marianne, Meyer, The Washington Post, November 7, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121107095201weblink">weblink November 7, 2012, no, mdy-all, The Virginia Lake Festival is held during the third weekend in July in Clarksville.WEB,weblink Virginia Lake Festival, 2008, Virginia Tourism Corporation, September 8, 2008, yes,weblink January 16, 2009, Wolf Trap hosts the Wolf Trap Opera Company, which produces an opera festival every summer. Each September, Bay Days celebrates the Chesapeake Bay as well as Hampton's 400-year history since 1610, and Isle of Wight County holds a County Fair on the second week of September as well. Both feature live music performances, and other unique events.On the Eastern Shore island of Chincoteague the annual Pony Swim & Auction of feral Chincoteague ponies at the end of July is a unique local tradition expanded into a week-long carnival. The Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival is a six-day festival held annually in Winchester that includes parades and bluegrass concerts. The Old Time Fiddlers' Convention in Galax, begun in 1935, is one of the oldest and largest such events worldwide. Two important film festivals, the Virginia Film Festival and the VCU French Film Festival, are held annually in Charlottesville and Richmond, respectively.{{sfn|Goodwin|2012|pp=25–26}}

Media

File:USA Today building.jpg|thumb|alt=Two geometric all glass towers connected by a central atrium stand in front of a grassy walkway and under a dark and cloudy skyThe Hampton Roads area is the 45th-largest media market in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research, while the Richmond-Petersburg area is 57th and Roanoke-Lynchburg is 66th {{as of|2013|lc=on}}.WEB,weblink Local Television Market Universe Estimates, September 12, 2013, February 26, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140611163026weblink">weblink June 11, 2014, no, mdy-all, Northern Virginia is part of the much larger Washington, D.C. media market.There are 36 television stations in Virginia, representing each major U.S. network, part of 42 stations which serve Virginia viewers.WEB,weblink Virginia TV Stations, MondoTimes, 2011, May 6, 2011, More than 720 FCC-licensed FM radio stations broadcast in Virginia, with about 300 such AM stations.WEB,weblink FM Query, Federal Communications Commission, May 6, 2011, May 6, 2011, WEB,weblink AM Query, Federal Communications Commission, May 6, 2011, May 6, 2011, The nationally available Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is headquartered in Arlington. Independent PBS affiliates exist throughout Virginia, and the Arlington PBS member station WETA-TV produces programs such as the PBS NewsHour and Washington Week.The most circulated native newspapers in the Commonwealth are Norfolk's The Virginian-Pilot (142,476 daily subscribers), the Richmond Times-Dispatch (108,559), and The Roanoke Times (78,663), {{As of|2014|lc=on}}.WEB, Highest Circulation Virginia Newspapers, Mondo Newspapers,weblink February 26, 2014, 2014, Several Washington, D.C. papers are based in Northern Virginia, such as The Washington Examiner and Politico. The paper with the nation's widest circulation, USA Today, with 1.83 million daily subscriptions, is headquartered in McLean.NEWS,weblink April 20, 2011, Reading Eagle, Associated Press, USA Today posts small circulation gain as it undergoes a revamp to counter Internet threat, April 20, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121114024623weblink">weblink November 14, 2012, no, mdy-all, Besides traditional forms of media, Virginia is the home base for telecommunication companies such as GTT Communications and XO Communications. In Northern Virginia, The Washington Post is the dominant newspaper, since Northern VA is located in the Washington, DC metropolitan area.

Education

File:Rotunda at University of Virginia.jpg|thumb|The University of Virginia, a World Heritage Site, was founded by President Thomas Jefferson.WEB,weblink Monticello and the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081014032857weblink">weblink October 14, 2008, no, mdy-all, ">alt=A green statue on a brown pedestal in front of a red brick, Neoclassical dome with a large portico on the front and covered walkway on the sides.Virginia's educational system consistently ranks in the top five states on the U.S. Department of Education's National Assessment of Educational Progress, with Virginia students outperforming the average in all subject areas and grade levels tested.WEB,weblink Virginia State Comparisons Data, National Assessment of Educational Progress, 2017, March 16, 2019, The 2018 Quality Counts report ranked Virginia's K–12 education tenth best in the country.WEB,weblink Virginia Earns a B-Minus on State Report Card, Ranks Tenth in Nation, Education Week, September 5, 2018, March 16, 2019,weblink January 17, 2018, no, mdy-all, All school divisions must adhere to educational standards set forth by the Virginia Department of Education, which maintains an assessment and accreditation regime known as the Standards of Learning to ensure accountability.WEB,weblink Virginia School Report Card, Virginia Department of Education, 2007, February 2, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080211134749weblink">weblink February 11, 2008, no, mdy-all, In 2018, 91.6% of high school students graduated on-time after four years, and increase of two percent from 2013.NEWS,weblink Graduation rates inch up around Virginia; some Hampton Roads divisions see improvement, Mike, Connors, Sara, Gregory, The Virginian-Pilot, October 1, 2018, March 16, 2019,weblink March 5, 2019, no, mdy-all, Public K–12 schools in Virginia are generally operated by the counties and cities, and not by the state. {{As of|alt=As off the 2018–19 academic year|2018|09|post=,}} a total of 1,290,576 students were enrolled in 2,293 local and regional schools in the Commonwealth, including eight charter schools, and an additional 98 alternative and special education centers across 133 school divisions.WEB,weblink State Report Cards, Virginia Department of Education, 2018, May 1, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161129135210weblink">weblink November 29, 2016, no, mdy-all, WEB,weblink CSV, Public School report, Virginia Department of Education, 2018, March 16, 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171112225046weblink">weblink November 12, 2017, no, mdy-all, 2018 marked the first decline in overall enrollment in public schools, by just over 2,000 students, since 1984.WEB,weblink Virginia’s school enrollment declined in 2018 for the first time in decades, Hamilton, Lombard, December 17, 2018, Weldon Cooper Center for Public Service, March 16, 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190403000746weblink">weblink April 3, 2019, no, mdy-all, Besides the general public schools in Virginia, there are Governor's Schools and selective magnet schools. The Governor's Schools are a collection of more than 40 regional high schools and summer programs intended for gifted students.WEB,weblink Governor's School Program, Virginia Department of Education, 2019, March 16, 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190306044207weblink">weblink March 6, 2019, no, mdy-all, The Virginia Council for Private Education oversees the regulation of 483 state accredited private schools.WEB,weblink School Locater, Virginia Council for Private Education, 2018, March 16, 2019, An additional 17,283 students receive homeschooling.WEB,weblink XLS, Home-Schooled Students and Religious Exemptions, 2018, March 16, 2019, Virginia Department of Education, {{As of|2019}}, there are 169 colleges and universities in Virginia.WEB,weblink College Navigator â€” Search Results, National Center for Education Statistics, United States Department of Education, 2019, March 16, 2019,weblink March 27, 2019, no, mdy-all, In the 2019 U.S. News & World Report ranking of national public universities, the University of Virginia is ranked No. 3, the College of William and Mary is No. 10, Virginia Tech is No. 30, George Mason University is No. 67, and Virginia Commonwealth University is No. 80.WEB,weblink Top Public National Universities 2019, U.S. News and World Report, September 9, 2018, March 16, 2018,weblink November 2, 2017, no, mdy-all, Virginia Commonwealth is also ranked the No. 2 public graduate school in fine arts, while James Madison University is ranked the No. 6 regional university in The South.NEWS,weblink Best Art Schools, U.S. News and World Report, 2016, March 16, 2019,weblink March 14, 2017, no, mdy-all, NEWS,weblink Regional Universities South Rankings, U.S. News and World Report, September 9, 2018, March 16, 2019,weblink March 15, 2019, no, mdy-all, The Virginia Military Institute is the oldest state military college.NEWS,weblink 'We were no different': Virginia Military Institute integrated 50 years ago, Justin, Mattingly, Richmond Times-Dispatch, December 20, 2018, March 16, 2019,weblink December 24, 2018, no, mdy-all, Virginia State University and Virginia Tech are the state's land-grant universities. Virginia also operates 23 community colleges on 40 campuses serving over 225,000 credit students and around 175,000 non-credit students {{As of|2017|lc=on}}.WEB,weblink SWCC Presidential Profile, Virginia's Community Colleges, September 17, 2017, March 16, 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190327090145weblink">weblink March 27, 2019, no, mdy-all, There are 124 private institutions in the state, including nationally ranked liberal arts colleges Washington and Lee University at No. 11, the University of Richmond at No. 25, and the Virginia Military Institute at No. 81.National Liberal Arts Colleges Ranking (U.S. News) {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190327091506weblink |date=March 27, 2019 }}, accessed May 21, 2017 {{As of|2018}}, Liberty University had the largest enrollment, with 88,283 online students and 15,105 on-campus students in Lynchburg.NEWS,weblink Teaching outside the box, Virginia Business, Heather B., Hayes, December 31, 2018, March 26, 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20190327101216weblink">weblink March 27, 2019, no, mdy-all,

Health

File:Sentara Norfolk General.jpg|thumb|right|Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, part of the Hampton Roads based Sentara Health System and a teaching institution of Eastern Virginia Medical School, was the site of the first successful in-vitro fertilization birth.WEB,weblink Sentara Norfolk General Hospital-Sentara Heart Hospital, Norfolk, Va, Best Hospitals, U.S. News & World Report, 2007, February 6, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080717130945weblink">weblink July 17, 2008, NEWS,weblink America's first 'test-tube baby', Liz, Szabo, USA TodayUSA TodayVirginia has a mixed health record, and is ranked as the 26th overall healthiest state according to the 2013 United Health Foundation's Health Rankings.WEB, Virginia, America's Health Rankings 2013, United Health Foundation,weblink August 28, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140903103433weblink">weblink September 3, 2014, no, mdy-all, Virginia also ranks 21st among the states in the rate of premature deaths, 6,816 per 100,000. In 2008, Virginia reached its lowest ever rate of infant mortality, at 6.7 deaths per 1,000.NEWS,weblink Infant Mortality in Virginia Falls to All-Time Low, Anita, Kumar, The Washington Post, August 4, 2009, August 4, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121113052234weblink">weblink November 13, 2012, no, mdy-all, There are however racial and social health disparities, in 2010 African Americans experienced 28% more premature deaths than whites, while 13% of Virginians lack any health insurance. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2009 survey, 26% of Virginians are obese and another 35% are overweight. 78% of residents claim to have exercised at least once in the past three months.WEB, Virginia – 2009 Overweight and Obesity (BMI), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010,weblink May 6, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131206214925weblink">weblink December 6, 2013, WEB, Virginia – 2007 Exercise, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010,weblink May 6, 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131206212223weblink">weblink December 6, 2013, About 30% of Virginia's 10- to 17-year-olds are overweight or obese.WEB,weblink Measuring Virginia's Obesity Rates, Virginia Performs, 2009, March 25, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090429192938weblink">weblink April 29, 2009, Virginia banned smoking in bars and restaurants in January 2010.NEWS,weblink Va. restaurant owners bracing for smoke ban, The Washington Times, November 30, 2009, May 6, 2011, Associated Press,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111201044553weblink">weblink December 1, 2011, no, mdy-all, 19% of Virginians smoke tobacco. Residents of Virginia's 8th congressional district share the longest average life expectancy rate in the nation, over 83 years.WEB,weblink Quick Facts, 2012, American Human Development Project, Social Science Research Council, January 19, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120124112537weblink">weblink January 24, 2012, no, mdy-all, There are 89 hospitals in Virginia listed with the United States Department of Health and Human Services.WEB,weblink Hospital Compare, United States Department of Health and Human Services, December 11, 2010, April 12, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110108002139weblink">weblink January 8, 2011, no, mdy-all, Notable examples include Inova Fairfax Hospital, the largest hospital in the Washington Metropolitan Area, and the VCU Medical Center, located on the medical campus of Virginia Commonwealth University. The University of Virginia Medical Center, part of the University of Virginia Health System, is highly ranked in endocrinology according to U.S. News & World Report.WEB,weblink University of Virginia Medical Center, Charlottesville, Best Hospitals, U.S. News & World Report, 2007, February 6, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080615012919weblink">weblink June 15, 2008, Virginia has a ratio of 127 primary care physicians per 10,000 residents, which is the 16th highest nationally. Virginia was one of five states to receive a perfect score in disaster preparedness according to a 2008 report by the Trust for America's Health, based on criteria such as detecting pathogens and distributing vaccines and medical supplies.NEWS,weblink Va. gets high disaster preparedness marks, December 9, 2008, December 10, 2008, Keith, Walker, Inside NoVA, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20120906095852weblink">weblink September 6, 2012,

Transportation

File:WMATA 5000-Series train at Rosslyn station lower level.jpg|thumb|Rosslyn station in Arlington is the biggest choke point of the (Washington Metro]] subway system.NEWS,weblink Metro considers building 'inner loop' of new stations to ease congestion in system's core, The Washington Post, Jonathan, O'Connell, December 18, 2013, April 19, 2019,weblink August 15, 2018, no, mdy-all, )Because of the 1932 Byrd Road Act, the state government controls most of Virginia's roads, instead of a local county authority as is usual in other states.WEB,weblink Beyond the Byrd Road Act: VDOT's Relationship with Virginia's Urban Counties, Amy A., O'Leary, April 1998, October 3, 2009, Virginia Department of Transportation,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111208071140weblink">weblink December 8, 2011, no, mdy-all, {{As of|2018}}, the Virginia Department of Transportation owns and operates {{convert|57867|mi|km}} of the total {{convert|70105|mi|km}} of roads in the state, making it the third largest state highway system in the United States.WEB,weblink Virginia's Highway System, Virginia Department of Transportation, February 13, 2018, March 16, 2019,weblink May 11, 2011, no, mdy-all, Although the Washington Metropolitan Area, which includes Northern Virginia, has the second highest rate of traffic congestion in the nation, Virginia as a whole has the 21st-lowest rate of congestion and the average commute time is 26.9 minutes.NEWS,weblink A Ranking Writ In Brake Lights: D.C. 2nd in Traffic, Jonathan, Mummolo, The Washington Post, September 19, 2007, March 29, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110429115804weblink">weblink April 29, 2011, no, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Measuring Traffic Congestion in Virginia, Virginia Performs, April 9, 2009, April 30, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090429192717weblink">weblink April 29, 2009, Virginia hit peak car usage before the year 2000, making it one of the first such states.WEB,weblink Emily, Badger, The American decline in driving actually began way earlier than you think, The Washington Post, April 21, 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402203047weblink">weblink April 2, 2015, no, mdy-all, File:Washington Dulles International Airport at Dusk.jpg|thumb|left|The main terminal of Washington Dulles International Airport is one of the few surviving examples of Space Age architecture.]]Virginia has Amtrak passenger rail service along several corridors, and Virginia Railway Express (VRE) maintains two commuter lines into Washington, D.C. from Fredericksburg and Manassas. VRE is one of the nation's fastest growing commuter rail services, handling nearly 20,000 passengers a day.NEWS,weblink VRE sets ridership record, The Washington Post, Jennifer, Buske, October 14, 2010, April 12, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110927181830weblink">weblink September 27, 2011, no, mdy-all, Arlington accounted for 40% of Virginia's public transit trips {{As of|2013|lc=on}}, with most of that being from the Washington Metro transit system, which also serves Alexandria and communities in Fairfax County along I-66.WEB,weblink FY 2015-FY 2024 Proposed Capital Improvement Plan, October 3, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924145116weblink">weblink September 24, 2015, no, mdy-all, The system is currently expanding west into additional areas of Loudoun County.NEWS,weblink Federal, Va. officials object to underground Metro station at Dulles airport, Kafia A., Hosh, The Washington Post, April 15, 2011, May 6, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121113052237weblink">weblink November 13, 2012, no, mdy-all, Major freight railroads in Virginia include Norfolk Southern and CSX Transportation, the former of which is headquartered in Norfolk. Commuter buses include the Fairfax Connector and the Shenandoah Valley Commuter Bus. The Virginia Department of Transportation operates several free ferries throughout Virginia, the most notable being the Jamestown-Scotland ferry which crosses the James River in Surry County.WEB,weblink Ferry Information, Virginia Department of Transportation, December 4, 2007, February 14, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080211140857weblink">weblink February 11, 2008, no, mdy-all, Virginia has five major airports: Washington Dulles International and Reagan Washington National in Northern Virginia, both of which handle over 20 million passengers a year; Richmond International; and Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport and Norfolk International serving the Hampton Roads area. Several other airports offer limited commercial passenger service, and sixty-six public airports serve the state's aviation needs.WEB,weblink Airports, Virginia Department of Aviation, 2006, April 12, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080429184947weblink">weblink April 29, 2008, no, mdy-all, The Virginia Port Authority's main seaports are those in Hampton Roads, which carried {{convert|17726251|ST|t|lk=on}} of bulk cargo in 2007, the sixth most of United States ports.WEB,weblink Port/Maritime, Virginia Performs, 2009, May 2, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090413064852weblink">weblink April 13, 2009, The Eastern Shore of Virginia is the site of Wallops Flight Facility, a rocket testing center owned by NASA, and the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport, a commercial spaceport.{{sfn|Goodwin|2012|p=305}}NEWS,weblink At Va. Spaceport, Rocket Launches 1,000 Dreams, Michael E., Ruane, The Washington Post, December 17, 2006, September 10, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110821071720weblink">weblink August 21, 2011, no, mdy-all, Space tourism is also offered through Vienna-based Space Adventures.NEWS,weblink Travel agency launches tourists on out-of-this-world adventures, Kim, Hart, April 21, 2007, The Seattle Times, May 26, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081204111039weblink">weblink December 4, 2008, no, mdy-all,

Law and government

File:Va State Capitol.JPG|thumb|The Virginia State Capitol, designed by Thomas Jefferson and Charles-Louis Clérisseau, is home to the alt=All white Neoclassical building with pediment and six columns rises on a grassy hill with a large American elm tree in the left foreground. Two boxier, but similarly styled wings are attached at the building's rear.In colonial Virginia, free men elected the lower house of the legislature, called the House of Burgesses, which together with the Governor's Council, made the "General Assembly". Founded in 1619, the Virginia General Assembly is still in existence as the oldest legislature in the Western Hemisphere.NEWS,weblink Latest Budget Standoff Met With Shrugs, Rosalind S., Helderman, Chris L., Jenkins, The Washington Post, May 7, 2006, November 24, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110820070950weblink">weblink August 20, 2011, no, mdy-all, In 2008, the government was ranked by the Pew Center on the States with an A− in terms of its efficiency, effectiveness, and infrastructure, tied with Utah and Washington. This was the second consecutive time that Virginia received the highest grade in the nation.NEWS,weblink Government Takes Top Honors in Efficiency, Sandhya, Somashekhar, The Washington Post, March 4, 2008, March 11, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110820071016weblink">weblink August 20, 2011, no, mdy-all, Since 1971, the government has functioned under the seventh Constitution of Virginia, which provides for a strong legislature and a unified judicial system. Similar to the federal structure, the government is divided in three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature is the General Assembly, a bicameral body whose 100-member House of Delegates and 40-member Senate write the laws for the Commonwealth. The Assembly is stronger than the executive, as it selects judges and justices. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor are elected every four years in separate elections. Incumbent governors cannot run for re-election, however the Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General can, and governors may serve non-consecutive terms.JOURNAL, Commentaries on the Constitution of Virginia by A. E. Dick Howard, Albert L., Strum, The American Political Science Review, 71, 2, June 1977, 714–715, 1978427, 10.2307/1978427, Howard, A. E. Dick, A.E. Dick Howard, The judicial system, the oldest in America, consists of a hierarchy from the Supreme Court of Virginia and the Court of Appeals of Virginia to the Circuit Courts, the trial courts of general jurisdiction, and the lower General District Courts and Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Courts.WEB,weblink Virginia Courts In Brief, Virginia Judicial System, May 5, 2009, August 17, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090704084122weblink">weblink July 4, 2009, no, mdy-all, The Code of Virginia is the statutory law, and consists of the codified legislation of the General Assembly. The Virginia State Police is the largest law enforcement agency in Virginia. The Virginia Capitol Police is the oldest police department in the United States.NEWS,weblink Message from the Chief, 2008, Kimberly, Lettner, The Division of Capitol Police, September 10, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090519054023weblink">weblink May 19, 2009, The Virginia National Guard consists of 7,500 soldiers in the Virginia Army National Guard and 1,200 airmen in the Virginia Air National Guard.WEB,weblink Serving Commonwealth and Country, John W., Listman, Jr., Lt. Col. Chester C., Carter, III, Virginia Army National Guard, August 20, 2007, February 11, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100811184233weblink">weblink August 11, 2010, Since the resumption of capital punishment in Virginia in 1982, 107 people have been executed, the second highest number in the nation.NEWS,weblink Virginia's execution of a woman may signal shift in national thinking, Carol J., Williams, Los Angeles Times, September 23, 2010, September 24, 2010, The "total crime risk" is 28% lower than the national average.NEWS,weblinkweblink yes, May 22, 2010, Quick Facts for Virginia, The Washington Post, 2009, September 11, 2009, Since Virginia ended prisoner parole in 1995, the rate of recidivism has fallen to 28.3%, among the lowest nationwide.NEWS, Va. returning prisoners to jail at lower-than-average rate, study shows, The Washington Post, April 13, 2011, Michael S., Rosenwald, Virginia is an open-carry state.

Politics

{{See also|Elections in Virginia|Political party strength in Virginia}}File:Shad_Planking.jpg|thumb|The annual Shad Planking event in (Sussex County, Virginia|Sussex County]] is a traditional stop for state election candidates.NEWS,weblink Shad Planking, a venerable Va. political confab, tries to reel in a new crowd, The Washington Post, Laura, Vozzella, April 23, 2016, February 21, 2019,weblink February 22, 2019, no, mdy-all, |alt=People stroll in a wooded area decorated with American flags.)Over the 20th century, Virginia shifted from a largely rural, politically Southern and conservative state to a more urbanized, pluralistic, and politically moderate environment. Up until the 1970s, Virginia was a racially divided one-party state dominated by the Byrd Organization.JOURNAL,weblink "Sheep without a Shepherd": The New Deal Faction in the Virginia Democratic Party, James R., Sweeney, Presidential Studies Quarterly, 29, 1999, March 31, 2008, 10.1111/1741-5705.00043, 438, 2,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110812002527weblink">weblink August 12, 2011, no, mdy-all, The legacy of slavery in the state effectively disfranchised African Americans until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s.JOURNAL, Promise and prejudice: Wise County, Virginia and the Great Migration, 1910–1920, Michael H., Burchett, The Journal of Negro History, 82, 3, Summer 1997, 10.2307/2717675, 2717675, 312–327, Enfranchisement and immigration of other groups, especially Hispanics, have placed growing importance on minority voting,NEWS,weblink Webb, Allen court Hispanic, white-collar voters in N. Va., October 25, 2006, Dale, Eisman, The Virginian-Pilot, March 29, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090126235047weblink">weblink January 26, 2009, no, mdy-all, while voters that identify as "white working-class" declined by three percent between 2008 and 2012. Regional differences play a large part in Virginia politics.NEWS,weblink In Virginia, Results Signal A State in Play for November, Bill, Turque, Ovetta, Wiggins, Nikita, Stewart, The Washington Post, February 13, 2008, September 29, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121109000534weblink">weblink November 9, 2012, no, mdy-all, Rural southern and western areas moved to support the Republican Party in response to its "southern strategy", while urban and growing suburban areas, including much of Northern Virginia, form the Democratic Party base.JOURNAL, Activists and Partisan Realignment in the United States, Gary, Miller, Norman, Schofield, The American Political Science Review, 97, 2, May 2003, 245–260, 3118207, 10.1017/s0003055403000650, NEWS,weblink Tensions Could Hurt Majority in Va. Senate, Tim, Craig, The Washington Post, December 11, 2007, December 23, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110820071010weblink">weblink August 20, 2011, no, mdy-all, Democratic support also persists in union-influenced Roanoke in Southwest Virginia, college towns such as Charlottesville and Blacksburg, and the southeastern Black Belt Region.JOURNAL, African American Legislative Politics in Virginia, Michael L., Clemons, Charles E., Jones, Journal of Black Studies, 30, 6, Special Issue: African American State Legislative Politics, July 2000, 744–767, 10.1177/002193470003000603, 2645922, Political party strength in Virginia has likewise been in flux. In the 2007 state elections, Democrats regained control of the State Senate, and narrowed the Republican majority in the House of Delegates to eight seats.NEWS,weblink Kaine Hails 'Balance' in New Political Landscape, Tim, Craig, Anita, Kumar, November 8, 2007, The Washington Post, November 7, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110820070954weblink">weblink August 20, 2011, no, mdy-all, Yet elections in 2009 resulted in the election of Republican Bob McDonnell as Governor by a seventeen-point margin, the election of a Republican Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General, as well as Republican gains of six seats in the House of Delegates.NEWS,weblink GOP reclaims Virginia, Rosalind S., Helderman, Anita, Kumar, The Washington Post, November 4, 2009, November 4, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091119192205weblink">weblink November 19, 2009, no, mdy-all, In 2011, the Republican caucus took over two-thirds (68–32) of the seats in the House of Delegates, and a majority of the Senate based on the Lieutenant Governor Bill Bolling as the tie-breaker.NEWS,weblink GOP claims Va. Senate majority after Dem concedes, The Boston Globe, Associated Press, Bob, Lewis, November 10, 2011, November 15, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111113213013weblink">weblink November 13, 2011, no, mdy-all, Following the 2013 elections, Democrat Terry McAuliffe was elected Governor by two percentage points,NEWS,weblink Decision 2013: Virginia general election results, The Washington Post, November 6, 2013, November 6, 2013, yes,weblink November 8, 2013, NEWS,weblink McAuliffe wins nailbiter Virginia governor's race, CBS News, November 6, 2013, November 6, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131106090713weblink">weblink November 6, 2013, no, mdy-all, and Democrat Ralph Northam was elected Lieutenant Governor by double digits.NEWS,weblink 2013 Elections: Governor, Mayor, Congress, Huffington Post, November 6, 2013, November 6, 2013, Aaron, Bycoffe,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131107082118weblink">weblink November 7, 2013, no, mdy-all, NEWS,weblink Virginia Election Results: Terry McAuliffe Beats Ken Cuccinelli In Governor's Race, Huffington Post, November 6, 2013, November 6, 2013, Paige, Lavender,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131107223605weblink">weblink November 7, 2013, no, mdy-all, Republicans, however, maintained their super-majority (68–32) in the House of Delegates.NEWS,weblink 2013: Virginia House of Delegates election results, Virginia Board of Elections, November 12, 2013, November 12, 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131109041620weblink">weblink November 9, 2013, State election seasons traditionally start with the annual Shad Planking event in Wakefield.The 2017 statewide elections resulted in a Democratic sweep of the three highest offices, with outgoing lieutenant governor Ralph Northam winning the governorship, Justin Fairfax becoming the first African-American elected lieutenant governor, and Mark Herring continuing as attorney general. Republicans continued a statewide electoral drought that dates to McDonnell's 2009 gubernatorial victory. In concurrent House of Delegates elections, Democrats flipped fifteen of the Republicans' previous sixteen-seat majority.NEWS, Barakat, Matthew, Virginia House up for grabs after Democrats’ historic gains,weblink The Seattle Times, AP, November 7, 2017, April 21, 2019,weblink August 15, 2018, no, mdy-all, Control of the House came down to the tied election in the 94th district, which was held by Republicans through drawing of lots and preserved a 51–49 majority.NEWS, Moomaw, Graham, Del. David E. Yancey wins tiebreaker for key Virginia House of Delegates seat,weblink Fredericksburg.com, January 4, 2018, en, April 21, 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180104175908weblink">weblink January 4, 2018, no, mdy-all, In federal elections since 2006, both parties have seen successes. Republican Senator George Allen lost close races in 2006, to Democratic newcomer Jim Webb, and again in 2012, to Webb's replacement, former Governor Tim Kaine.NEWS,weblinkweblink yes, December 12, 2018, In the aftermath of the 2012 election, battleground Virginia's political winners and losers, Bob, Lewis, Washington Post, Associated Press, November 11, 2012, November 24, 2012, In 2008, Democrats won both United States Senate seats; former Governor Mark Warner was elected to replace retiring Republican John Warner.NEWS,weblink Warner Rolls Past His Fellow Former Governor, Anita, Kumar, The Washington Post, November 5, 2008, November 5, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090305175419weblink">weblink March 5, 2009, no, mdy-all, The state went Republican in 13 out of 14 presidential elections from 1952 to 2004, including 10 in a row from 1968 to 2004. However, Democrat Barack Obama carried Virginia's 13 electoral votes in both the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections.NEWS,weblink Obama Repeats Win in Former Republican Stronghold Virginia, Bloomberg Businessweek, Heidi, Przybyla, November 7, 2012, November 24, 2012, In the 2010 elections, Republicans won three United States House of Representatives seats from the Democrats. Of the state's eleven seats in the House of Representatives, Republicans hold seven and Democrats hold four. Virginia is considered a "swing state" in future presidential elections.NEWS,weblink Painting America Purple, Dan, Balz, Dan Balz, October 12, 2007, The Washington Post, November 24, 2007, yes,weblink July 28, 2011, In the 2016 presidential election, Democrat Hillary Clinton carried Virginia, marking the third consecutive win for the Democratic Party at the presidential level and the first time the state gave its electoral votes to a Democrat who did not win the national Electoral Vote, since 1924. In contrast, the state gave Donald Trump the smallest percentage of Virginian votes for any Republican Party presidential nominee since Richard Nixon's narrow victory in 1968.

Sports

{{See also|Sports teams in Virginia}}File:Greg Stroman at the 2014 Military Bowl.jpg|thumb|alt=A receiver dressed in white with maroon and orange stripes is tackled by an opposing player in black and red.|The Virginia Tech Hokies football team has the second-longest bowl game streak in the nation.NEWS,weblink Bowl-bound Hokies rally to top UVa again, The Roanoke TimesThe Roanoke TimesVirginia is the most populous U.S. state without a major professional sports league franchise.NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20080216021604weblink">weblink yes, February 16, 2008, PDF, Region Works to Attract Franchise Area Makes "Short List" for Existing Team's Move, July 19, 2001, Harry, Minium, The Virginian-Pilot, December 9, 2007, The reasons for this include the lack of any dominant city or market within the state, the proximity of teams in Washington, D.C. and North Carolina, and a reluctance to publicly finance stadiums.WEB,weblink October 2, 1998, Cities in Denial: The False Promise of Subsidized Tourist and Entertainment Complexes, Ronald D., Utt, The Heritage Foundation, October 3, 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090313151637weblink">weblink March 13, 2009, NEWS,weblink Virginia contemplates making play for new Redskins stadium, Richmond Times-Dispatch, Michael, Phillips, August 17, 2013, September 5, 2013, However, in recent years, the city of Virginia Beach has proposed a new arena designed to lure a major league franchise. Norfolk is host to two minor league teams: The AAA Norfolk Tides and the ECHL's Norfolk Admirals. The San Francisco Giants' AA team, the Richmond Flying Squirrels, began play at The Diamond in 2010, replacing the AAA Richmond Braves, who relocated after 2008.NEWS,weblink Squirrels will nest at Diamond for several years, John, O'Connor, April 2, 2010, Richmond Times-Dispatch, April 27, 2010, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20120919152538weblink">weblink September 19, 2012, Additionally, the Washington Nationals, Boston Red Sox, Cleveland Indians, Atlanta Braves, Pittsburgh Pirates, New York Yankees, and Toronto Blue Jays also have Single-A and Rookie-level farm teams in Virginia.WEB,weblink Baseball in Virginia, Virginia is for Lovers, 2011, November 26, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111117092634weblink">weblink November 17, 2011, no, mdy-all, The state is also home to United Soccer League club, the Richmond Kickers.WEB, Richmond Kickers,weblink United Soccer League, January 28, 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180129140717weblink">weblink January 29, 2018, yes, The Washington Redskins have Redskins Park, their headquarters, in Ashburn and their training facility is in Richmond,NEWS,weblink Washington Redskins go home to spruced-up facility, The Roanoke Times, August 22, 2013, September 5, 2013, Michael, Phillips, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20130905142749weblink">weblink September 5, 2013, mdy-all, and the Washington Capitals train at Kettler Capitals Iceplex in Ballston. Virginia has many professional caliber golf courses including the Greg Norman course at Lansdowne Resort and Kingsmill Resort, home of the Kingsmill Championship, an LPGA Tour tournament. NASCAR currently schedules Monster Energy NASCAR Cup races on two tracks in Virginia: Martinsville Speedway and Richmond Raceway. Virginia natives currently competing in the series include Denny Hamlin and Elliott Sadler.WEB,weblink NASCAR in Virginia, Virginia is for Lovers, 2011, November 26, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111117092805weblink">weblink November 17, 2011, no, mdy-all, Virginia does not allow state appropriated funds to be used for either operational or capital expenses for intercollegiate athletics.NEWS,weblink Athletic spending grows as academic funds dry up, MaryJo, Sylwester, Tom, Witosky, February 18, 2004, USA Today, August 16, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091203174023weblink">weblink December 3, 2009, no, mdy-all, Despite this, both the Virginia Cavaliers and Virginia Tech Hokies have been able to field competitive teams in the Atlantic Coast Conference and maintain modern facilities. Their rivalry is followed statewide. Twelve other universities compete in NCAA Division I, particularly in the Atlantic 10 Conference, Big South Conference, and Colonial Athletic Association. Three historically black schools compete in the Division II Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association, and two others compete in the Division I Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference. Several smaller schools compete in the Old Dominion Athletic Conference and the USA South Athletic Conference of NCAA Division III. The NCAA currently holds its Division III championships in football, men's basketball, volleyball and softball in Salem.NEWS,weblink Virginia town is big game central, Erik, Brady, USA Today, December 14, 2006, February 6, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090206075557weblink">weblink February 6, 2009, no, mdy-all,

State symbols

File:Welcome_to_Virginia_Sign.jpg|thumb|The state slogan, "alt=A large rectangular metal sign, mostly black, with the words "Welcome To Virginia" and "Virginia is for lovers" with a red heart symbol on the left.The state nickname is its oldest symbol, though it has never been made official by law. Virginia was given the title "Dominion" by King Charles II of England at the time of The Restoration, because it had remained loyal to the crown during the English Civil War, and the present moniker, "Old Dominion" is a reference to that title. Charles' supporters were called Cavaliers, and "The Cavalier State" nickname was popularized after the American Civil War to romanticize the antebellum period. Sports teams from the University of Virginia are called the Cavaliers.{{sfn|Welch|2006|pp=1–3}} The other nickname, "Mother of Presidents", is also historic, as eight Virginians have served as President of the United States, including four of the first five.The state's motto, Sic Semper Tyrannis, translates from Latin as "Thus Always to Tyrants", and is used on the state seal, which is then used on the flag. While the seal was designed in 1776, and the flag was first used in the 1830s, both were made official in 1930.WEB,weblink Factpack, Virginia General Assembly, January 11, 2007, October 14, 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081028193205weblink">weblink October 28, 2008, The majority of the other symbols were made official in the late 20th century.WEB,weblink Capitol Classroom, Virginia General Assembly, December 13, 2007, April 12, 2008, yes,weblink May 11, 2008, The Virginia reel is among the square dances classified as the state dance. In March 2015, after 20 years without a state song, Virginia received two: "Our Great Virginia" (official traditional state song) and "Sweet Virginia Breeze" (official popular state song).NEWS,weblink Listen: Virginia Now Has 2 State Songs, Patch, March 27, 2015, July 29, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150711062929weblink">weblink July 11, 2015, no, mdy-all, In 1940, Virginia made "Carry Me Back to Old Virginny" the state song, but it was retired in 1997 and reclassified as the state song emeritus.NEWS,weblink Carry me back to the state song search, The Roanoke Times, January 11, 2008, September 10, 2009, Ralph, Berrier, yes,weblink" title="archive.is/20120910022435weblink">weblink September 10, 2012, {|border="0" style="margin:auto;" {{clear}}

See also

{{clear}}

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Bibliography

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External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Virginia}} Government Tourism and recreation Culture and history Maps and Demographics {{clear}}{{Geographic locationKentucky}}West Virginia}}Maryland}}Washington, D.C.|name=District of Columbia}}Virginia}}: Outline of Virginia • Index of Virginia-related articles>Index|East = Atlantic OceanNorth Carolina}}North Carolina}}Tennessee}}}}{{Navboxes|title = Topics related to VirginiaOld Dominion|list ={{Virginia|expanded}}{{Virginia cities and mayors of 100,000 population}}{{Protected areas of Virginia}}{{Southern United States}}{{Confederate States political divisions}}{{United States political divisions}}|state=expanded}}{{Featured article}}{{Coord|display=title|38|N|79|W|region:US-VA_type:adm1st_scale:3000000}}{{Authority control}}

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