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Jamaica
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{{other uses}}{{pp-vandalism|small=yes}}{{short description|Country in the Caribbean}}{{Use Jamaican English|date=March 2019}}{{Use dmy dates|date=March 2013}}







factoids
{{native name>jam|Jumieka}}| common_name = Jamaica| image_flag = Flag of Jamaica.svg| image_coat = Coat of Arms of Jamaica.svg| image_map = Jamaica (orthographic projection).svg| image_map2 = Jamaica - Location Map (2013) - JAM - UNOCHA.svg| national_motto = "Out of Many, One People"Jamaica, Land We Love"{{center>(File:Anthems - National Anthem Of Jamaica.ogg)}}God Save the Queen"{{center>(File:United States Navy Band - God Save the Queen.ogg)}}Jamaican English>English| languages_type = National languageJamaican Patois {{small|(de facto)}}}}item_style=white-space:nowrap; Afro-Jamaican>Black HTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/JM.HTML >TITLE= CIA WORLD FACTBOOK (JAMAICA)6.1% Mixed (non-Black) Indo-Jamaican>Indian 0.7% Unspecified}}| ethnic_groups_year = 2011 68.9% ChristiansHTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/JM.HTML PUBLISHER=CIA.GOV ACCESSDATE=2017-09-25, 6.5% Other (including Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, and Jewish)1.1% Rastafarian}}Jamaican people>JamaicanKingston, Jamaica>Kingston17177635type:city}}| largest_city = capitalUnitary state Parliamentary system>parliamentary}} constitutional monarchyMonarchy of Jamaica>Monarch| leader_name1 = Elizabeth IIGovernor-General}}Patrick Allen (Governor-General)>Patrick AllenPrime Minister of Jamaica>Prime Minister| leader_name3 = Andrew HolnessList of Chief Justices of Jamaica>Chief JusticeBryan Sykes (judge)>Bryan SykesParliament of Jamaica>ParliamentSenate of Jamaica>SenateHouse of Representatives}}Independence of Jamaica>Independence| sovereignty_note = from the United Kingdom| established_event1 = Granted| established_date1 = 6 August 1962| area_rank = 160th | area_km2 = 10,991| area_sq_mi = 4,244 | percent_water = 1.5PUBLISHER= UNITED NATIONS/DESA/POPULATION DIVISION, 18 April 2018, | population_estimate_year = 2017PUBLISHER= UNITED NATIONS/DESA/POPULATION DIVISION, 18 April 2018, | population_density_sq_mi = 688| population_density_rank = PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND ACCESS-DATE=12 MARCH 2019, | GDP_PPP_year = 2018| GDP_PPP_rank = 134th| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $9,434| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 109th| GDP_nominal = $15.424 billion| GDP_nominal_year = 2018| GDP_nominal_rank = 119th| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $5,393| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 95th| Gini_year = 2016| Gini_change = decrease | Gini = 35 PUBLISHER=CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCYACCESS-DATE=12 MARCH 2019, | Gini_rank = | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = steady| HDI = 0.732 YEAR=2018 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, | HDI_rank = 97th| currency = Jamaican dollar| currency_code = JMD| country_code = | time_zone = | utc_offset = -5| time_zone_DST = | utc_offset_DST = Right- and left-hand traffic>leftArea codes 876 and 658>+1-876Area codes 876 and 658 (Overlay plan>Overlay of 876; active in November 2018)| cctld = .jm}}Jamaica ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Jamaica.ogg|dʒ|ə|ˈ|m|eɪ|k|ə}}) is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea. Spanning {{convert|10,990|sqkm|sqmi}} in area, it is the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles and the Caribbean (after Cuba and Hispaniola).WEB,weblink CIA World Factbook - Jamaica, 29 July 2019, Jamaica lies about {{convert|145|km|mi}} south of Cuba, and {{convert|191|km|mi}} west of Hispaniola (the island containing the countries of Haiti and the Dominican Republic); the British Overseas Territory of the Cayman Islands lies some {{convert|215|km|mi}} to the north-west.Originally inhabited by the indigenous Arawak and Taíno peoples, the island came under Spanish rule following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1494. Many of the indigenous people were either killed or died of diseases to which they had no immunity, and the Spanish thus forcibly transplanted large numbers of African slaves to Jamaica as labourers. The island remained a possession of Spain until 1655, when England (later Great Britain) conquered it, renaming it Jamaica. Under British colonial rule Jamaica became a leading sugar exporter, with a plantation economy dependent on the African slaves and later their descendants. The British fully emancipated all slaves in 1838, and many freedmen chose to have subsistence farms rather than to work on plantations. Beginning in the 1840s, the British began utilising Chinese and Indian indentured labour to work on plantations. The island achieved independence from the United Kingdom on 6 August 1962.With {{#expr:{{replace|{{UN_Population|Jamaica}}|,|}}/1e6 round 1}} million people,{{UN_Population|ref}} Jamaica is the third-most populous Anglophone country in the Americas (after the United States and Canada), and the fourth-most populous country in the Caribbean. Kingston is the country's capital and largest city. The majority of Jamaicans are of African ancestry, with significant European, Chinese, Indian, Lebanese, and mixed-race minorities. Due to a high rate of emigration for work since the 1960s, there is a large Jamaican diaspora, particularly in Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The country has a global influence that belies its small size; it was the birthplace of the Rastafari religion, reggae music (and associated genres such as dub, ska and dancehall), and it is internationally prominent in sports, most notably cricket, sprinting and athletics.WEB, Athletics in Jamaica,weblink My island Jamaica, 11 October 2010, "Reggae." Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 4th ed. Ed. Colin Larkin. Oxford Music Online. Oxford University Press. Web. 16 Feb. 2016.Jamaica is an upper-middle income countryWEB,weblink Jamaica (country), World Bank, with an economy heavily dependent on tourism, with an average of 4.3 million tourists a year.WEB,weblink Record 4.3 Million Tourist Arrivals in 2017, Jamaica Information Service (Government of Jamaica), Politically it is a Commonwealth realm, with Elizabeth II as its queen. Her appointed representative in the country is the Governor-General of Jamaica, an office held by Sir Patrick Allen since 2009. Andrew Holness has served as Prime Minister of Jamaica since March 2016. Jamaica is a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with legislative power vested in the bicameral Parliament of Jamaica, consisting of an appointed Senate and a directly elected House of Representatives.

Etymology

The indigenous people, the Yamaye (also known as the Taíno), called the island Xaymaca in an Arawakan language,As represented in Old Spanish orthography, meaning it began with a "sh" sound. meaning the "Land of Wood and Water" or the "Land of Springs".WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071016055722weblink">weblink 16 October 2007, Taíno Dictionary, The United Confederation of Taíno People, 18 October 2007, Spanish, Colloquially Jamaicans refer to their home island as the "Rock." Slang names such as "Jamrock", "Jamdown" ("Jamdung" in Jamaican Patois), or briefly "Ja", have derived from this.as known from the songs "Roots, Rock, Reggae" by Bob Marley ("roots" referring to Africa, while "rock" means Jamaica), "Jahman inna Jamdown" by Peter Tosh, and "Welcome to Jamrock" by Damian Marley

History

Prehistory

Humans have inhabited Jamaica from as early as 4000 - 1000 BC, however little is known of these early peoples.WEB,weblink The Taino of Jamaica (Jamaica), Jamaicans.com, 1 April 2001, 4 July 2009, Another group, known as the 'Redware people' after their pottery, arrived circa 600 AD,"Jamaica", Encyclopædia Britannica. followed by the Arawak-Taíno circa 800 AD, who most likely came from South America.Atkinson, Lesley-Gail. "The Earliest Inhabitants: The Dynamics of the Jamaican Taíno." They practised an agrarian and fishing economy, and at their height are thought to have numbered some 60,000 people, grouped into around 200 village headed by 'caciques' (chiefs). The south coast of Jamaica was the most populated, especially around the area now known as Old Harbour.Though often thought to have become extinct following contact with Europeans, the Taíno in fact still inhabited Jamaica when the English took control of the island in 1655. Some fled into interior regions, merging with African Maroon communities.JOURNAL, Fuller, Harcourt, Torres, Jada Benn, 2018-01-02, Investigating the "Taíno" ancestry of the Jamaican Maroons: a new genetic (DNA), historical, and multidisciplinary analysis and case study of the Accompong Town Maroons, Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies, 43, 1, 47–78, 10.1080/08263663.2018.1426227, 0826-3663, JOURNAL, Madrilejo, Nicole, Lombard, Holden, Torres, Jada Benn, 2014-11-13, Origins of marronage: Mitochondrial lineages of Jamaica's Accompong Town Maroons, American Journal of Human Biology, 27, 3, 432–437, 10.1002/ajhb.22656, 25392952, 1042-0533, WEB,weblink 'I am not extinct' - Jamaican Taino proudly declares ancestry, 2014-07-05, jamaica-gleaner.com, en, 2019-02-15, Today, only a tiny number of Jamaican natives, known as Yamaye, remain. The Jamaican National Heritage Trust is attempting to locate and document any remaining evidence of the Taíno.WEB,weblink Jamaican National Heritage Trust, 28 September 2007, 26 June 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070928013715weblink">weblink 28 September 2007,

Spanish rule (1509–1655)

Christopher Columbus was the first European to see Jamaica, claiming the island for Spain after landing there in 1494 on his second voyage to the Americas. His probable landing point was Dry Harbour, called Discovery Bay,WEB,weblink A Christopher Columbus Timeline, Pickering, Keith A.,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060421053355weblink">weblink 21 April 2006, dead, 18 April 2018, and St. Ann's Bay was named "Saint Gloria" by Columbus, as the first sighting of the land. He later returned in 1503, however he was shipwrecked and he and his crew were forced to live on Jamaica for a year whilst waiting to be rescued.Samuel Eliot Morison, Admiral of the Ocean Sea: A Life of Christopher Columbus, 1942, pp. 653–54. Samuel Eliot Morison, Christopher Columbus, Mariner, 1955, pp. 184–92. One and a half kilometres west of St. Ann's Bay is the site of the first Spanish settlement on the island, Sevilla, which was established in 1509 by Juan de Esquivel but abandoned around 1524 because it was deemed unhealthy.WEB, History of Jamaica,weblink Jamaica National Heritage Trust, 30 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100926083214weblink">weblink 26 September 2010, dmy-all, The capital was moved to Spanish Town, then called St. Jago de la Vega, around 1534 (at present-day St. Catherine).WEB, Spanish Town,weblink Jamaica National Heritage Trust, 30 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100925160737weblink">weblink 25 September 2010, Meanwhile, the Taínos began dying in large numbers, either from introduced diseases to which they had no immunity, or from enslavement by the Spanish. As a result, the Spanish began importing slaves from Africa to the island.WEB, Jamaican History I,weblink Discover Jamaica, 23 August 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130805083846weblink">weblink 5 August 2013, Many slaves managed to escape, forming autonomous communities in remote and easily defended areas in the interior of Jamaica, mixing with the remaining Taino; these communities became known as Maroons. Small numbers of Jews also came to live on the island.Kritzler, Edward, The Jewish Pirates of the Caribbean, Anchor, 2009, p. 15, {{ISBN|0767919521}} By the early 17th century it is estimated that no more than 2,500-3,000 people lived on Jamaica.BOOK, Parker, Matthew, 2011, The Sugar Barons, {{page needed|date=July 2019}}

Early British period

File:Morgan,Henry.jpg|thumb|upright|Henry Morgan was a famous (Piracy in the Caribbean|Caribbean pirate]] and privateer; he had first come to the West Indies as an indentured servant, like most of the early English colonists."Henry Morgan: The Pirate Who Invaded Panama in 1671", Historynet.com.)The English began taking an interest in the island and, following a failed attempt to conquer Santo Domingo on Hispaniola, Sir William Penn and General Robert Venables led an invasion of Jamaica in 1655.*BOOK, Parker, Matthew, 2011, The Sugar Barons, Battles at Ocho Rios in 1657 and the Rio Neuvo in 1658 resulted in Spanish defeats; in 1660 the Maroons began supporting the English and the Spanish defeat was secured.WEB, Jamaica's English History,weblink Jamaica National Heritage Trust, 3 March 2016, When the English captured Jamaica the Spanish colonists fled after freeing their slaves. Many slaves dispersed into the mountains, joining the already established Maroon communities.WEB, Benitez, Suzette, The Maroons,weblink 30 September 2010, During the centuries of slavery, Maroons established free communities in the mountainous interior of Jamaica, where they maintained their freedom and independence for generations.Mavis Campbell, The Maroons of Jamaica 1655-1796: a History of Resistance, Collaboration & Betrayal (Massachusetts: Bergin & Garvey, 1988), pp. 14-25. Meanwhile, the Spanish made several attempts to re-capture the island, prompting the British to support pirates attacking Spanish ships in the Caribbean; as a result piracy became rampant on Jamaica, with the city of Port Royal becoming notorious for its lawlessness. Spain later recognised English possession of the island with the Treaty of Madrid (1670).C.V. Black, History of Jamaica (London: Collins, 1975), p. 54. As a result, the English authorities sought to reign in the worst excesses of the pirates.In 1660, the population of Jamaica was about 4,500 white and 1,500 black.Donovan, J. (1910). Jamaica. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company By the early 1670s, as the English developed sugar cane plantations worked by large numbers of slaves, black Africans formed a majority of the population.weblink" title="arquivo.pt/wayback/20090628132038weblink">Trevor Burnard, "A failed settler society: marriage and demographic failure in early Jamaica", Journal of Social History, Fall, 1994 The Irish in Jamaica also formed a large part of the island's early population, making up two-thirds of the white population on the island in the late 17th century, twice that of the English population. They were brought in as indentured labourers and soldiers after the conquest of 1655. The majority of Irish were transported by force as political prisoners of war from Ireland as a result of the ongoing Wars of the Three Kingdomsweblink Migration of large numbers of Irish to the island continued into the 18th century.WEB,weblink Rodgers, Nini, 'The Irish in the Caribbean 1641–1837: An Overview', Irlandeses.org, 2017-09-25, A limited form of local government was introduced with the creation of the House of Assembly of Jamaica in 1664, however it represented only a tiny number of rich plantation owners.Cundall, Frank. (1915) Historic Jamaica. London: Institute of Jamaica. p. 15. In 1692 the colony was rocked by an earthquake which resulted in several thousands deaths and the almost complete destruction of Port Royal.WEB,weblink Historic Earthquakes: Jamaica 1692 June 07 UTC, USGS, October 21, 2009, 6 December 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120408181146weblink">weblink 8 April 2012,

18th-19th centuries

(File:Duperly (1833) Destruction of the Roehampton Estate January 1832.png|thumb|right|A plantation set alight during the Baptist War of 1831-32)During the course of the 1700s the economy boomed, based largely on sugar, and also other crops such as coffee, cotton and indigo. All these crops were worked by black slaves, who lived short and often brutal lives with no rights, being the property of a small planter-class. A large slave rebellion, known as Tacky's War, broke out in 1760 but was defeated by the British.WEB,weblink Jamaican Culture, Jamaicans.com, 2014-06-20, 2015-04-16, During this period the British also attempted to consolidate their control over the island by defeating the Maroons, who continued to live in the interior under leaders such as Cudjoe and Queen Nanny. The First Maroon War (1728 - 1739/40) ended in stalemate, as did a second conflict in 1795-96, however as a result of these wars many Maroons were expelled to Nova Scotia and, later, Sierra Leone.By the beginning of the 19th century, Jamaica's dependence on slave labour and a plantation economy had resulted in black people outnumbering white people by a ratio of almost 20 to 1. Although the UK had outlawed the importation of slaves, some were still smuggled in from Spanish colonies and directly.{{citation needed|date=August 2019}} While planning the abolition of slavery, the British Parliament passed laws to improve conditions for slaves. They banned the use of whips in the field and flogging of women; informed planters that slaves were to be allowed religious instruction, and required a free day during each week when slaves could sell their produce,History of the Catholic Church in Jamaica {{ISBN|978-0-829-40544-6}} p. 68 prohibiting Sunday markets to enable slaves to attend church.{{citation needed|date=February 2016}} The House of Assembly in Jamaica resented and resisted the new laws. Members (then restricted to European-Jamaicans) claimed that the slaves were content and objected to Parliament's interference in island affairs. Slave owners feared possible revolts if conditions were lightened.(File:Hakewill, A Picturesque Tour of the Island of Jamaica, Plate 04.jpg|thumb|Harbour Street, Kingston, c. 1820)The British abolished the slave trade in 1807, but not the institution itself.The Sugar Revolutions and Slavery, U.S. Library of Congress In 1831 a huge slave rebellion broke out, led by the Baptist preacher Samuel Sharpe. The rebellion resulted in hundreds of deaths, the destruction of many plantations, and resulted in ferocious reprisals by the plantocracy class.BOOK, The Abolition of Slavery – The British Debate 1787–1840, Cécile, Révauger, Cécile Révauger, 107–108, Presse Universitaire de France, October 2008, 978-2-13-057110-0, As a result of rebellions such as these, as well as the efforts of abolitionists, the British outlawed slavery in its empire in 1834, with full emancipation from chattel slavery declared in 1838. The population in 1834 was 371,070, of whom 15,000 were white, 5,000 free black; 40,000 'coloured' or free people of color (mixed race); and 311,070 were slaves. The resulting labour shortage prompted the British to begin to "import" indentured servants to supplement the labour pool, as many freedmen resisted working on the plantations. Workers recruited from India began arriving in 1845, Chinese workers in 1854.WEB,weblink Embassy of Jamaica, Washington, DC, www.embassyofjamaica.org, 27 May 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080620044655weblink">weblink 20 June 2008, dead, Many South Asian and Chinese descendants continue to reside in Jamaica today.NEWS, The Arrival Of The Indians, Tortello, Rebecca,weblink The Jamaica Gleaner, 3 November 2003, 27 May 2017, {{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}NEWS, Out of Many, One People: Chinese-Jamaicans Treasure Their Roots and Their Communities, Hemlock, Doreen,weblink The Sun-Sentinel, 17 April 2005, 27 May 2017, Over the next 20 years, several epidemics of cholera, scarlet fever, and smallpox hit the island, killing almost 60,000 people (about 100 per day).{{citation needed|date=July 2019}} Nevertheless, in 1871 the census recorded a population of 506,154 people, 246,573 of which were males, and 259,581 females. Their races were recorded as 13,101 white, 100,346 coloured (mixed black and white), and 392,707 black.BOOK, 1908, Handbook of Jamaica,weblink Google Books, Jamaica Government, 37, This period was marked by an economic slump, with many Jamaicans living in poverty. Dissatisfaction with this, and continued racial discrimination and marginalisation of the black majority, led to the outbreak of the Morant Bay rebellion in 1865 led by Paul Bogle, which was put down by Governor John Eyre with such brutality that he was recalled from his position. His successor, John Peter Grant, enacted a series of social, financial and political reforms whilst aiming to uphold firm British rule over the island, which became a Crown Colony in 1866. In 1872 the capital was transferred from Spanish Town to Kingston.

Early 20th century

File:Marcus Garvey 1924-08-05.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Marcus GarveyMarcus GarveyIn 1907 Jamaica was struck by an earthquake - this, and the subsequent fire, caused immense destruction in Kingston and the deaths of 800-1,000 people.J. F. Wilson Earthquakes and Volcanoes: Hot Springs, pg. 70, BiblioLife (2008), {{ISBN|0-554-56496-3}}Unemployment and poverty remained a problem for many Jamaicans. Various movements seeking political change arose as a result, most notably the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League founded by Marcus Garvey in 1917. As well as seeking greater political rights and an improvement for the condition of workers, Garvey was also a prominent Pan-Africanist and proponent of the Back-to-Africa movement.WEB, Historian situates 'back-to-Africa' movements in broad context,weblink 1 March 2006, Standford.edu, 24 August 2013, He was also one of the chief inspirations behind Rastafari, a religion founded in Jamaica in the 1930s that combined Christianity with an Afrocentric theology focused on the figure of Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia. Despite occasional persecution, Rastafari grew to become an established faith on the island, later spreading abroad.The Great Depression of the 1930s hit Jamaica hard. As part of the British West Indian labour unrest of 1934–39, Jamaica saw numerous strikes, culminating in a strike in 1938 that turned into a full-blown riot.Hamilton, Janice. Jamaica in Pictures, p.30. Twenty-First Century Books (2005), {{ISBN|0-8225-2394-9}} As a result, the British government instituted a commission to look into the causes of the disturbances; their report recommended political and economic reforms in Britain's Caribbean colonies.JOURNAL, Fraser, Cary, The Twilight of Colonial Rule in the British West Indies: Nationalist Assertion vs. Imperial Hubris in the 1930s, Journal of Caribbean History, 1996, 30, 1/2, 2,weblink {{Dead link|date=August 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} A new House of Representatives was established in 1944, elected by universal adult suffrage. During this period Jamaica's two-party system emerged, with the creation of the Jamaican Labour Party (JLP) under Alexander Bustamante and the People's National Party (PNP) under Norman Manley.Jamaica slowly gained increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. In 1958 it became a province in the Federation of the West Indies, a federation of several of Britain's Caribbean colonies. Membership of the Federation proved to be divisive however, and a referendum on the issue saw a slight majority voting to leave. After leaving the Federation, Jamaica attained full independence on 6 August 1962. The new state retained, however, its membership in the Commonwealth of Nations (with the Queen as head of state) and adopted a Westminster-style parliamentary system. Bustamante, at the age of 78, became the country's first prime minister.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Jamaica: Self-government,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 24 August 2013, WEB, The West Indies Federation,weblink 2011, CARICOM, 24 August 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130929234257weblink">weblink 29 September 2013,

Post-independence era

Strong economic growth, averaging approximately 6% per annum, marked the first ten years of independence under conservative JLP governments; these were led by successive Prime Ministers Alexander Bustamante, Donald Sangster (who died of natural causes within two months of taking office) and Hugh Shearer. The growth was fuelled by high levels of private investment in bauxite/alumina, tourism, the manufacturing industry and, to a lesser extent, the agricultural sector. In terms of foreign policy Jamaica became a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, seeking to retain strong ties with Britain and the United States whilst also developing links with Communist states such as Cuba.(File:Michael Manley.jpg|thumb|right|Michael Manley, Prime Minister 1972-80 and 1989-92)The optimism of the first decade was accompanied by a growing sense of inequality among many Afro-Jamaicans, and a concern that the benefits of growth were not being shared by the urban poor, many of whom ended up living in crime-ridden shanty towns in Kingston. Combined with the effects of a slowdown in the global economy in 1970,{{citation needed|date=March 2016}} the voters elected the PNP under Michael Manley in 1972. Manley's government enacted various social reforms, such as a higher minimum wage, land reform, legislation for women's equality, greater housing construction and an increase in educational provision.WEB,weblink Trade Unionist, Peter Scott Chrysalis, Communications, 11 February 2019, Internationally he improved ties with the Communist bloc and vigorously opposed the apartheid regime in South Africa. However the economy faltered in this period due to a combination of internal and external factors (such as the oil shocks). The rivalry between the JLP and PNP became intense, and political and gang-related violence grew significantly in this period.By 1980, Jamaica's gross national product had declined to some 25% below its 1972 level.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}} Seeking change, Jamaicans voted the JLP back in in 1980 under Edward Seaga. Firmly anti-Communist, Seaga cut ties with Cuba and sent troops to support the US invasion of Grenada in 1983. The economic deterioration however continued into the mid-1980s, exacerbated by a number of factors. The largest and third-largest alumina producers, Alpart and Alcoa, closed; and there was a significant reduction in production by the second-largest producer, Alcan.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}} Reynolds Jamaica Mines, Ltd. left the Jamaican industry. There was also a decline in tourism, which was important to the economy.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}} Owing to rising foreign and local debt, accompanied by large fiscal deficits, the government sought International Monetary Fund (IMF) financing, which was dependent on implementing various austerity measures. These resulted in strikes in 1985 and a decline in support for the Seaga government, exacerbated by criticism of the government's response to the devastation caused by Hurricane Gilbert in 1988.NEWS,weblink Showdown in Jamaica, 27 November 1988, The New York Times, 19 September 2016, Having now de-emphasised socialism and adopting a more centrist position, Michael Manley and the PNP were re-elected in 1989.Nohlen, D (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p430 {{ISBN|978-0-19-928357-6}}The PNP went on to win a string of elections, under Prime Ministers Michael Manley (1989-1992), P. J. Patterson (1992-2005) and Portia Simpson-Miller (2005-2007). During this period various economic reforms were introduced, such as deregulating the finance sector and floating the Jamaican dollar, as well as greater investment in infrastructure, whilst also retaining a strong social safety net. Political violence, so prevalent in the previous two decades, declined significantly.Franklyn, Delano (ed.): 2002. The Challenges of Change: P. J. Patterson Budget Presentations 1992–2002. Kingston, Jamaica: Ian Randle Publishers. In 2007 the PNP were defeated by the JLP, ending 18 years of PNP rule; Bruce Golding became the new prime minister.Pollster's diary: virtual motion picture of campaign 2007 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080622031614weblink |date=2008-06-22 }}, Jamaica Gleaner, September 9, 2007 Golding's tenure (2007-2010) was dominated by the effects of the global recession, as well as the fallout from an attempt by Jamaican police and military to arrest drug lord Christopher Coke in 2010 which erupted in violence, resulting in over 70 deaths.NEWS,weblink OAS body raises concerns over Jamaica as death toll rises, 27 May 2010, CNN, Turner Broadcasting System, 27 May 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100530095457weblink">weblink 30 May 2010, live, As a result of this incident Golding resigned and was replaced by Andrew Holness in 2011; Holness was defeated in the 2011 Jamaican general election, which saw Portia Miller-Simpson return to power, but Holness began a second term after winning the 2016 Jamaican general election.Independence, however widely celebrated in Jamaica, has been questioned in the early 21st century. In 2011, a survey showed that approximately 60% of Jamaicans believe that the country would be better off had it remained a British colony, with only 17% believing it would be worse off, citing as problems years of social and fiscal mismanagement in the country.NEWS,weblink Give Us The Queen!, 28 June 2011, The Gleaner, 13 February 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120209064054weblink">weblink 9 February 2012, Gleaner Company, WEB,weblink Most Jamaicans Would Prefer To Remain British, Ghosh, Palash, 29 June 2011, 13 February 2017, International Business Times,

Government and politics

{{Further|Foreign relations of Jamaica|Republicanism in Jamaica}}File:Parliament.jm.jpg|thumb|Inside the Jamaican Parliament ]]Jamaica is a parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy.WEB,weblink Encyclopedia Britannica - Jamaica, 29 July 2019, The head of state is the Queen of Jamaica (currently Elizabeth II),Queen of Jamaicaweblink represented locally by the Governor-General of Jamaica.WEB,weblink The Monarchy Today: Queen and Commonwealth, 25 June 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070607011458weblink">weblink 7 June 2007, The governor-general is nominated by the Prime Minister of Jamaica and the entire Cabinet and then formally appointed by the monarch. All the members of the Cabinet are appointed by the governor-general on the advice of the prime minister. The monarch and the governor-general serve largely ceremonial roles, apart from their reserve powers for use in certain constitutional crisis situations. The position of the monarch has been a matter of continuing debate in Jamaica for many years; currently both major political parties are committed to transitioning to a Republic with a President.Rob Crilly, "Jamaica unveils plan to ditch Queen as head of state", The Telegraph, 16 April 2016. Retrieved 3 September 2016."Editorial: The Monarchy And Beyond", The Jamaica Gleaner, 12 September 2015. Retrieved 3 September 2016.Jamaica's current constitution was drafted in 1962 by a bipartisan joint committee of the Jamaican legislature. It came into force with the Jamaica Independence Act, 1962 of the United Kingdom parliament, which gave Jamaica independence.The Parliament of Jamaica is bicameral, consisting of the House of Representatives (Lower House) and the Senate (Upper House). Members of the House (known as Members of Parliament or MPs) are directly elected, and the member of the House of Representatives who, in the governor-general's best judgement, is best able to command the confidence of a majority of the members of that House, is appointed by the governor-general to be the prime minister. Senators are nominated jointly by the prime minister and the parliamentary Leader of the Opposition and are then appointed by the governor-general.The Judiciary of Jamaica operates on a common law system derived from English law and British Commonwealth precedents. The court of final appeal is the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, though during the 2000s parliament attempted to replace it with the Caribbean Court of Justice.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}}

Political parties and elections

File:Andrew Holness cropped.jpg|thumb|right|Andrew HolnessAndrew HolnessJamaica has traditionally had a two-party system, with power often alternating between the People's National Party (PNP) and Jamaica Labour Party (JLP). The party with current administrative and legislative power is the Jamaica Labour Party, with a one-seat parliamentary majority {{As of|2016|lc=y}}. There are also several minor parties who have yet to gain a seat in parliament; the largest of these is the National Democratic Movement (NDM).

Administrative divisions

Jamaica is divided into 14 parishes, which are grouped into three historic counties that have no administrative relevance.In the context of local government the parishes are designated "Local Authorities." These local authorities are further styled as "Municipal Corporations," which are either city municipalities or town municipalities.WEB, Local Government Act, 2015,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160913220934weblink">weblink dead, 13 September 2016, localauthorities.gov.jm, 17 January 2018, Any new city municipality must have a population of at least 50,000, and a town municipality a number set by the Minister of Local Government. There are currently no town municipalities.The local governments of the parishes of Kingston and St. Andrews are consolidated as the city municipality of Kingston & St. Andrew Municipal Corporation. The newest city municipality created is the Municipality of Portmore in 2003. While it is geographically located within the parish of St. Catherine, it is governed independently.{| class="wikitable"Cornwall CountyCapitalkm2Middlesex CountyCapitalkm2Surrey CountyCapitalkm2| 1Hanover Parish, Jamaica>HanoverLucea  450| 6Clarendon Parish, Jamaica>ClarendonMay Pen1,196| 11Kingston Parish, Jamaica>KingstonKingston25| 2Saint Elizabeth Parish, Jamaica>Saint ElizabethBlack River1,212| 7Manchester Parish, Jamaica>ManchesterMandeville   830| 12Portland Parish, Jamaica>PortlandPort Antonio814| 3Saint James Parish, Jamaica>Saint JamesMontego Bay  595| 8Saint Ann Parish, Jamaica>Saint AnnSt. Ann's Bay1,213| 13Saint Andrew Parish, Jamaica>Saint AndrewHalf Way Tree453| 4Trelawny Parish, Jamaica>TrelawnyFalmouth  875| 9Saint Catherine Parish, Jamaica>Saint CatherineSpanish Town1,192| 14Saint Thomas Parish, Jamaica>Saint ThomasMorant Bay743| 5Westmoreland Parish, Jamaica>WestmorelandSavanna-la-Mar  807| 10Saint Mary Parish, Jamaica>Saint MaryPort Maria   611||{{clear}}{{Jamaica parishes imagemap}}

Military

File:FN FAL DA-SD-04-01067.jpg|thumb|right|Jamaican soldiers training to fire the FN FALFN FALThe Jamaica Defence Force (JDF) is the small but professional military force of Jamaica. The JDF is based on the British military model with similar organisation, training, weapons and traditions. Once chosen, officer candidates are sent to one of several British or Canadian basic officer courses depending on the arm of service. Enlisted soldiers are given basic training at Up Park Camp or JDF Training Depot, Newcastle, both in St. Andrew. As with the British model, NCOs are given several levels of professional training as they rise up the ranks. Additional military schools are available for speciality training in Canada, the United States and the United Kingdom.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}}The JDF is directly descended from the British Army's West India Regiment formed during the colonial era.WEB, Jamaica Defense Force History,weblink Jamaica Defense Force, 10 October 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101025200223weblink">weblink 25 October 2010, dead, dmy-all, The West India Regiment was used extensively by the British Empire in policing the empire from 1795 to 1926. Other units in the JDF heritage include the early colonial Jamaica Militia, the Kingston Infantry Volunteers of WWI and reorganised into the Jamaican Infantry Volunteers in World War II. The West Indies Regiment was reformed in 1958 as part of the West Indies Federation, after dissolution of the Federation the JDF was established.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}}The Jamaica Defence Force (JDF) comprises an infantry Regiment and Reserve Corps, an Air Wing, a Coast Guard fleet and a supporting Engineering Unit.WEB, Jamaica Defense Force General Information,weblink Jamaica Defense Force, 10 October 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101025200228weblink">weblink 25 October 2010, dead, dmy-all, The infantry regiment contains the 1st, 2nd and 3rd (National Reserve) battalions. The JDF Air Wing is divided into three flight units, a training unit, a support unit and the JDF Air Wing (National Reserve). The Coast Guard is divided between seagoing crews and support crews who conduct maritime safety and maritime law enforcement as well as defence-related operations.WEB, JDF Coast Guard Roles,weblink Jamaica Defense Force, 10 October 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511104441weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, dead, dmy-all, The role of the support battalion is to provide support to boost numbers in combat and issue competency training in order to allow for the readiness of the force.WEB, The Combat Support Battalion (Cbt Sp Bn),weblink Jamaica Defense Force, 10 October 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101008022534weblink">weblink 8 October 2010, dead, dmy-all, The 1st Engineer Regiment was formed due to an increased demand for military engineers and their role is to provide engineering services whenever and wherever they are needed.WEB, 1st Engineering Regiment History,weblink Jamaica Defense Force, 11 October 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511104425weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, dead, dmy-all, The Headquarters JDF contains the JDF Commander, Command Staff as well as Intelligence, Judge Advocate office, Administrative and Procurement sections.WEB, Headquarters Jamaica Defence Force (HQ JDF),weblink Jamaica Defense Force, 11 October 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101125090433weblink">weblink 25 November 2010, dead, dmy-all, In recent years the JDF has been called on to assist the nation's police, the Jamaica Constabulary Force (JCF), in fighting drug smuggling and a rising crime rate which includes one of the highest murder rates in the world. JDF units actively conduct armed patrols with the JCF in high-crime areas and known gang neighbourhoods. There has been vocal controversy as well as support of this JDF role. In early 2005, an Opposition leader, Edward Seaga, called for the merger of the JDF and JCF. This has not garnered support in either organisation nor among the majority of citizens.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}} In 2017, Jamaica signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.WEB,weblink Chapter XXVI: Disarmament â€“ No. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, United Nations Treaty Collection, 7 July 2017,

Geography and environment

File:Doctors-Cave-Beach.jpg|thumb|Doctor's Cave Beach Club is a popular destination in Montego BayMontego BayFile:Start of the Blue Mountains just north of Kingston, Jamaica.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.95|Blue Mountains ]]File:Dunns River Falls Photo D Ramey Logan.jpg|thumb|The picturesque Dunn's River Falls in Ocho RíosOcho Ríos(File:Koppen-Geiger Map JAM present.svg|thumb|Köppen climate classification of Jamaica.)Jamaica is the third largest island in the Caribbean.WEB, County Background – Jamaica,weblink Pan American Health Organization, 11 October 2010, It lies between latitudes 17° and 19°N, and longitudes 76° and 79°W. Mountains dominate the interior: the Don Figuerero, Santa Cruz, and May Day mountains in the west, the Dry Harbour Mountains in the centre, and the John Crow Mountains and Blue Mountains in the east, the latter containing Blue Mountain Peak, Jamaica's tallest mountain at 2,256 m. They are surrounded by a narrow coastal plain.WEB, Geography of Jamaica,weblink Jamaica Gleaner, 11 October 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180518020038weblink">weblink 18 May 2018, dead, Jamaica only has two cities, the first being Kingston, the capital city and centre of business, located on the south coast and the second being Montego Bay, one of the best known cities in the Caribbean for tourism, located on the north coast. Kingston Harbour is the seventh-largest natural harbour in the world,WEB, Port Authority History,weblink Port Authority of Jamaica, 11 October 2010, which contributed to the city being designated as the capital in 1872. Other towns of note include Portmore, Spanish Town, Savanna la Mar, Mandeville and the resort towns of Ocho Ríos, Port Antonio and Negril.WEB, Jamaican Cities,weblink My Island Jamaica, 11 October 2010, Tourist attractions include Dunn's River Falls in St. Ann, YS Falls in St. Elizabeth, the Blue Lagoon in Portland, believed to be the crater of an extinct volcano, and Port Royal, site of a major earthquake in 1692 that helped form the island's Palisadoes tombolo.WEB, Kingston tourist destinations,weblink Planet Aware, 11 October 2010, WEB, Jamaican tourist attractions,weblink Planet Aware, 11 October 2010, WEB, Port Antonio tourist attractions,weblink Planet Aware, 11 October 2010, WEB, Ocho Rios tourist attractions,weblink Planet Aware, 11 October 2010, Among the variety of terrestrial, aquatic and marine ecosystems are dry and wet limestone forests, rainforest, riparian woodland, wetlands, caves, rivers, seagrass beds and coral reefs. The authorities have recognised the tremendous significance and potential of the environment and have designated some of the more 'fertile' areas as 'protected'. Among the island's protected areas are the Cockpit Country, Hellshire Hills, and Litchfield forest reserves. In 1992, Jamaica's first marine park, covering nearly {{convert|15|km2|sqmi}}, was established in Montego Bay. Portland Bight Protected Area was designated in 1999.WEB,weblink CSI Activities (Portland Bight, Jamaica), Unesco.org, 20 October 2012, The following year Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park was created, covering roughly {{convert|300|mi2|km2}} of a wilderness area which supports thousands of tree and fern species and rare animals.There are several small islands off Jamaica's coast, most notably those in Portland Bight such as Pigeon Island, Salt Island, Dolphin Island, Long Island, Great Goat Island and Little Goat Island, and also Lime Cay located further east. Much further out - some 50–80 km off the south coast - lie the very small Morant Cays and Pedro Cays.

Climate

The climate in Jamaica is tropical, with hot and humid weather, although higher inland regions are more temperate.WEB, Jamaica Climate and Weather,weblink Word Travels, 11 October 2010, Some regions on the south coast, such as the Liguanea Plain and the Pedro Plains, are relatively dry rain-shadow areas.WEB, Climate of Jamaica,weblink Jamaica Gleaner, 11 October 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180429091454weblink">weblink 29 April 2018, dead, Jamaica lies in the hurricane belt of the Atlantic Ocean and because of this, the island sometimes suffers significant storm damage.WEB, Construction and Building in Jamaica,weblink Projects Abroad, 11 October 2010, Hurricanes Charlie and Gilbert hit Jamaica directly in 1951 and 1988, respectively, causing major damage and many deaths. In the 2000s (decade), hurricanes Ivan, Dean, and Gustav also brought severe weather to the island.

Flora and fauna

File:Red-billed_streamertail(_Trochilus_polytmus)_adult_male_2.jpg|thumb|Jamaica's national bird, a red-billed streamertailred-billed streamertailFile:Epicrates subflavus.jpg|thumb|Jamaican boaJamaican boaFile:Stoplight-parrotfish.jpg|thumb|Jamaican parrotfish ]]File:Amazona_agilis_-Cockpit_Country,_Jamaica-8_(1).jpg|thumb|Jamaican black-billed parrot ]]File:Papilio_homerus_ulster.jpg|thumb|Jamaican swallowtail ]]File:Lasiurus_cinereus_Portrait.jpg|thumb|Jamaican hairy-tailed bat ]]Jamaica's climate is tropical, supporting diverse ecosystems with a wealth of plants and animals. Its plant life has changed considerably over the centuries; when the Spanish arrived in 1494, except for small agricultural clearings, the country was deeply forested. The European settlers cut down the great timber trees for building and ships' supplies, and cleared the plains, savannas, and mountain slopes for intense agricultural cultivation. Many new plants were introduced including sugarcane, bananas, and citrus trees.Today, however, Jamaica is now the home to about 3,000 species of native flowering plants (of which over 1,000 are endemic and 200 are species of orchid), thousands of species of non-flowering flora, and about 20 botanical gardens, some of which are several hundred years old.WEB,weblink Jamaica's Botantical Gardens Worth More Than Gold, Jamaica Gleaner, Jamaica Gleaner Newspaper, 23 January 2019, NEWS, Aiken, Wilson, Vogel, Garraway Ph.D, Karl, Byron, Peter, Eric, 21 January 2007, LETTER OF THE DAY: Biologists speak on Cockpit mining,weblink University of the West Indies, University of the West Indies, Mona, Jamaica, 23 January 2019, nAreas of heavy rainfall also contain stands of bamboo, ferns, ebony, mahogany, and rosewood. Cactus and similar dry-area plants are found along the south and southwest coastal area. Parts of the west and southwest consist of large grasslands, with scattered stands of trees.Jamaican's fauna, typical of the Caribbean, includes highly diversified wildlife with many endemic species. As with other oceanic islands, land mammals are mostly several species of bats of which at least three endemic species are found only in Cockpit Country, one of which is at-risk. Other species of bat include the fig-eating and hairy-tailed bats. The only non-bat native mammal extant in Jamaica is the Jamaican hutia, locally known as the coney. Introduced mammals such as wild boar and the small Asian mongoose are also common. Jamaica is also home to about 50 species of reptiles,WEB,weblink THE REPTILE DATABASE, reptile-database.org, the largest of which is the American crocodile; however, it is only present within the Black River and a few other areas. Lizards such as anoles, iguanas and snakes such as racers and the Jamaican boa (the largest snake on the island), are common in areas such as the Cockpit Country. None of Jamaica's eight species of native snakes is venomous.WEB,weblink Amphibians and reptiles found in Cockpit Country jamaica, Cockpitcountry.com, 31 October 2011, Jamaica is home to about 289 species of birds of which 27 are endemic including the endangered black-Billed parrots and the Jamaican blackbird, both of which are only found in Cockpit Country. It is also the indigenous home to four species of hummingbirds (three of which are found nowhere else in the world): the black-billed streamertail, the Jamaican mango, the Vervain hummingbird, and red-billed streamertails. The red-billed streamertail, known locally as the "doctor bird", is Jamaica's National Symbol.WEB,weblink The Doctor Bird - Jamaica Information Service, jis.gov.jm, Other notable species include the Jamaican tody and the Greater flamingo,WEB,weblink High Andean Flamingos (Jamaica), Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (Germany), One species of freshwater turtle is native to Jamaica, the Jamaican slider. It is found only on Jamaica and on a few islands in the Bahamas. In addition, many types of frogs are common on the island, especially treefrogs. Beautiful and exotic birds, such as the can be found among a large number of others.Jamaican waters contain considerable resources of fresh-and saltwater fish.WEB,weblink All fishes reported from Jamaica, fishbase.org, The chief varieties of saltwater fish are kingfish, jack, mackerel, whiting, bonito, and tuna. Fish that occasionally enter freshwater and estuarine environments include snook, jewfish, mangrove snapper, and mullets. Fish that spend the majority of their lives in Jamaica's fresh waters include many species of livebearers, killifish, freshwater gobies, the mountain mullet, and the American eel. Tilapia have been introduced from Africa for aquaculture, and are very common. Also visible in the waters surrounding Jamaica are dolphins, parrotfish, and the endangered manatee.WEB,weblink Sea Cows Used To Walk on Land in Africa And Jamaica, Insects and other invertebrates are abundant, including the world's largest centipede, the Amazonian giant centipede. Jamaica is the home to about 150 species of butterflies and moths, including 35 indigenous species and 22 subspecies. It is also the native home to the Jamaican swallowtail, the western hemisphere's largest butterfly.WEB,weblink Beautiful Butterflies - Jamaican Swallowtails Among Those On Display At IOJ, 29 June 2014, Jamaica Gleaner, Jamaica Gleaner Newspaper, 23 January 2019,

Aquatic life

Coral reef ecosystems are important because they provide people with a source of livelihood, food, recreation, and medicinal compounds and protect the land on which they live.JOURNAL, Edwards, Peter E.T., March 2009, Sustainable financing for ocean and coastal management in Jamaica: The potential for revenues from tourist user fees, Marine Policy, 33, 2, 376–385, 10.1016/j.marpol.2008.08.005,weblink 24 September 2019,weblink 22 September 2017, dead, Jamaica relies on the ocean and its ecosystem for its development. However the marine life in Jamaica is also being affected. There could be many factors that contribute to marine life not having the best health. Jamaica's geological origin, topographical features and seasonal high rainfall make it susceptible to a range of natural hazards that can affect the coastal and oceanic environments. These include storm surge, slope failures (landslides), earthquakes, floods and hurricanes.WEB,weblink Toward Developing a National Policy On Ocean and Coastal Zone Management, June 2000, nepa.gov.jm, 2018-12-16, Coral reefs in the Negril Marine Park (NMP), Jamaica, have been increasingly impacted by nutrient pollution and macroalgal blooms following decades of intensive development as a major tourist destination.JOURNAL,weblink Sewage pollution in Negril, Jamaica: Effects on nutrition and ecology of coral reef macroalgae, July 2011, Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology, 29, 4, 775, 2018-12-16, 2011ChJOL..29..775L, Lapointe, B. E., Thacker, K., Hanson, C., Getten, L., 10.1007/s00343-011-0506-8, Another one of those factors could include tourist, being that Jamaica is a very touristy place the island draws people to travel here from all over the world. The Jamaican tourism industry accounts for 32% of total employment and 36% of the country's GDP and is largely based on the sun, sea and sand, the last two of these attributes being dependent on healthy coral reef ecosystems. Because of Jamaica's tourism, they have developed a study to see if the tourist would be willing to help financially to manage their marine ecosystem because Jamaica alone is unable to. The ocean connects all the countries all over the world, however, everyone and everything is affecting the flow and life in the ocean. Jamaica is a very touristy place specifically because of their beaches. If their oceans are not functioning at their best then the well-being of Jamaica and the people who live there will start to deteriorate. According to the OECD, oceans contribute $1.5 trillion annually in value-added to the overall economy.WEB,weblink Oceans, Fisheries and Coastal Economies, World Bank, en, 2018-12-16, A developing country on an island will get the majority of their revenue from their ocean. Healthy oceans, coasts and freshwater ecosystems are crucial for economic growth and food production, but they are also fundamental to global efforts to mitigate climate change. Climate change also has an effect on the ocean and life within the ocean.

Pollution

Pollution comes from run-off, sewage systems, and garbage. However, this typically all ends up in the ocean after there is rain or floods. Everything that ends up in the water changes the quality and balance of the ocean. Poor coastal water quality has adversely affected fisheries, tourism and mariculture, as well as undermining biological sustainability of the living resources of ocean and coastal habitats. Jamaica imports and exports many goods through their waters. Some of the imports that go into Jamaica include petroleum and petroleum products. Issues include accidents at sea; risk of spills through local and international transport of petroleum and petroleum products. Oil spills can disrupt the marine life because the chemicals that are being spilled that should not be there. Oil and water do not mix. Unfortunately oil spills is not the only form of pollution that occurs in Jamaica. Solid waste disposal mechanisms in Jamaica are currently inadequate. The solid waste gets into the water through rainfall forces. Solid waste is also harmful to wildlife, particularly birds, fish and turtles that feed at the surface of the water and mistake floating debris for food. For example, plastic can be caught around birds and turtles necks making it difficult to eat and breath as they begin to grow causing the plastic to get tighter around their necks. Pieces of plastic, metal, and glass can be mistaken for the food fish eat. Each Jamaican generates 1 kg (2 lbs) of waste per day; only 70% of this is collected by National Solid Waste Management Authority (NSWMA) - the remaining 30% is either burnt or disposed of in gullies/waterways.WEB,weblink MARINE DEBRIS: JAMAICA'S RESPONSE, 6-10 June 2005, www.un.org, 2018-12-16,

Environmental policies

There are policies that are being put into place to help preserve the ocean and the life below water. The goal of integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) is to improve the quality of life of human communities who depend on coastal resources while maintaining the biological diversity and productivity of coastal ecosystems. Developing an underdeveloped country can impact the oceans ecosystem because of all the construction that would be done to develop the country. Over-building, driven by powerful market forces as well as poverty among some sectors of the population, and destructive exploitation contribute to the decline of ocean and coastal resources. Developing practices that will contribute to the lives of the people but also to the life of the ocean and its ecosystem. Some of these practices include: Develop sustainable fisheries practices, ensure sustainable mariculture techniques and practices, sustainable management of shipping, and promote sustainable tourism practices. As for tourism, tourism is the number one source of foreign exchange earnings in Jamaica and, as such is vital to the national economy. Tourist typically go to countries unaware of issues and how they impact those issues. Tourist are not going to be used to living in a different style compared to their own country. Practices such as: provide sewage treatment facilities for all tourist areas, determine carrying capacity of the environment prior to planning tourism activities, provide alternative types of tourist activities can help to get desired results such as the development of alternative tourism which will reduce the current pressure on resources that support traditional tourism activities. A study was conducted to see how tourist could help with sustainable financing for ocean and coastal management in Jamaica. Instead of using tourist fees they would call them environmental fees. This study aims to inform the relevant stakeholders of the feasibility of implementing environmental fees as well as the likely impact of such revenue generating instruments on the current tourist visitation rates to the island. The development of a user fee system would help fund environmental management and protection. The results show that tourists have a high consumer surplus associated with a vacation in Jamaica, and have a significantly lower willingness to pay for a tourism tax when compared to an environmental tax. The findings of the study show that the “label” of the tax and as well as the respondent's awareness of the institutional mechanisms for environmental protection and tourism are important to their decision framework. Tourist are more willing to pay for environmental fees rather than tourist tax fees. A tax high enough to fund for environmental management and protection but low enough to continue to bring tourist to Jamaica. It has been shows that if an environmental tax of $1 per person were introduced it would not cause a significant decline in visitation rates and would generate revenues of US$1.7M.

Demographics

{{Further|Demographics of Jamaica|Jamaican people}}

Ethnic origins

(File:Jamaica-demography.png|thumb|Jamaica's population, 1961–2003)File:Street in Montigo Bay Jamaica Photo D Ramey Logan.jpg|thumb|Montego BayMontego Bay{| class="wikitable sortable"! Ethnic Group !! %! PopulationAfro-Jamaican>Black or Black Mixed 92.1% 2,661,965Mixed non-Black >| 176,308Asian >| 23,122Other >| 11,561Unspecified >| 20,232Jamaica's diverse ethnic roots is reflected in the national motto 'Out of Many One People'. Most of the population of 2,812,000 (July 2018 est.) are of African or partially African descent, with many being able to trace their origins to the West African countries of Ghana and Nigeria.BOOK, Liverpool and Transatlantic Slavery, David, Richardson, Anthony, Tibbles, Suzanne, Schwarz, Liverpool University Press, 2007, 141, 978-1-84631-066-9, {{Google books, IeM1rrKiQosC, PA141, yes, }} Other major ancestral areas are EuropeWEB,weblink Pieces of the Past:The Arrival Of The Irish, Jamaica Gleaner, 1 December 2003, 20 December 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110101132644weblink">weblink 1 January 2011, dmy-all, and Asia.{{harvnb|Bouknight-Davis|2004|p=83}} It is uncommon for Jamaicans to identify themselves by race as is prominent in other countries such as the United States, with most Jamaicans seeing Jamaican nationality as an identity in and of itself, identifying as simply being 'Jamaican' regardless of ethnicity.title=Out of Many One People, We Are A Race Apartweblink title= 5 Reasons Many Jamaicans Don't Understand Racism A study found that the average admixture on the island was 78.3% Sub-Saharan African, 16.0% European, and 5.7% East Asian.JOURNAL, Simms, Tanya M., Rodríguez, Carol E., Rodríguez, Rosa, Herrera, René J., The genetic structure of populations from Haiti and Jamaica reflect divergent demographic histories, May 2010, 10.1002/ajpa.21194, 19918989,weblink 18 May 2015, Am J Phys Anthropol, 142, 1, 49–66, The Jamaican Maroons of Accompong and other settlements are the descendant of African slaves who fled the plantations for the interior where they set up their own autonomous communities.Michael Sivapragasam, After the Treaties: A Social, Economic and Demographic History of Maroon Society in Jamaica, 1739–1842, PhD Dissertation, African-Caribbean Institute of Jamaica library (Southampton: Southampton University, 2018), pp. 23–24.E. Kofi Agorsah, "Archaeology of Maroon Settlements in Jamaica", Maroon Heritage: Archaeological, Ethnographic and Historical Perspectives, ed. E. Kofi Agorsah (Kingston: University of the West Indies Canoe Press, 1994), pp. 180-81.Craton, Michael. Testing the Chains. Cornell University Press, 1982, p. 70. Many Maroons continue to have their own traditions and speak their own language, known locally as Kromanti.JOURNAL, Bilby, Kenneth, 1983, How the "Older Heads" Talk: A Jamaican Maroon Spirit Possession Language and Its Relationship to the Creoles of Suriname and Sierra Leone,weblink New West Indian Guide/Nieuwe West-Indische Gids, 57, 1/2, 37–88, Asians form the second-largest group and include Indo-Jamaicans and Chinese Jamaicansweblink CIA (The World Factbook): Jamaica Most are descended from indentured workers brought by the British colonial government to fill labour shortages following the abolition of slavery in 1838. Prominent Indian Jamaicans include jockey Shaun Bridgmohan, who was the first Jamaican in the Kentucky Derby, NBC Nightly News journalist Lester Holt, and Miss Jamaica World and Miss Universe winner Yendi Phillips. The southwestern parish of Westmoreland is famous for its large population of Indo-Jamaicans.title= Jamaica National Heritage Trust - The People Who Came Along with their Indian counterparts, Chinese Jamaicans have also played an integral part in Jamaica's community and history. Prominent descendants of this group include Canadian billionaire investor Michael Lee-Chin, supermodels Naomi Campbell and Tyson Beckford, and VP Records founder Vincent "Randy" Chin.There are about 20,000 Jamaicans who have Lebanese and Syrian ancestry.NEWS,weblink Out Of Many Cultures The People Who Came The Arrival Of The Lebanese, Most were Christian immigrants who fled the Ottoman occupation of Lebanon in the early 19th century. Eventually their descendants became very successful politicians and businessmen. Notable Jamaicans from this group include former Jamaican Prime Minister Edward Seaga, Jamaican politician and former Miss World Lisa Hanna, Jamaican politicians Edward Zacca and Shahine Robinson, and hotelier Abraham Elias Issa.In 1835, Lord Seaford gave 500 acres of his 10,000 acre estate in Westmoreland for the Seaford Town German settlement. Today most of the town's descendants are of full or partial German descent.Jamaica National Heritage Trust - The People Who CameThe first wave of English immigrants arrived to the island 1655 after conquering the Spanish, and they have historically being the dominant group. Prominent descendants from this group include former American Governor of New York David Paterson, Sandals Hotels owner Gordon Butch Stewart, United States Presidential Advisor and "mother" of the Pell Grant Lois Rice, and former United States National Security Advisor and Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice. The first Irish immigrants came to Jamaica in the 1600s as war prisoners and later, indentured labour. Their descendants include two of Jamaica's National Heroes: Prime Ministers Michael Manley and Alexander Bustamante. Along with the English and the Irish, the Scots are another group that has made a significant impact on the island. According to the Scotland Herald newspaper, Jamaica has more people using the Campbell surnames than the population of Scotland itself, and it also has the highest percentage of Scottish surnames outside of Scotland. Scottish surnames account to about 60% of the surnames in the Jamaican phone books.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}} The first Jamaican inhabitants from Scotland were exiled "rebels". Later, they would be followed by ambitious businessmen who spent time between their great country estates in Scotland and the island. As a result, many of the slave owning plantations on the island were owned by Scottish men, and thus a large number of mixed-race Jamaicans can claim Scottish ancestry. High immigration from Scotland continued until well after independence.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}} Today, notable Scottish-Jamaicans include the businessman John Pringle, former American Secretary of State Colin Powell, and American actress Kerry Washington.NEWS, Leask, David, 10 October 2005, Jamaica: the country with more Campbells per head of population than Scotland,weblink Herald Scotland, File:StreetsofKingston.jpg|thumb|The streets of Kingston, Jamaica's capital and largest city]]There is also a significant Portuguese Jamaican population that is predominantly of Sephardic Jewish heritage; they are primarily located in the Saint Elizabeth Parish in southwest Jamaica. The first Jews arrived as explorers from Spain in the 15th century after being forced to convert to Christianity or face death. A small number of them became slave owners and even famous pirates.NEWS, Urken, Ross Kenneth, The Forgotten Jewish Pirates of Jamaica,weblink Smithsonian Magazine, Judaism eventually became very influential in Jamaica and can be seen today with many Jewish cemeteries around the country. During the Holocaust Jamaica became a refuge for Jews fleeing persecution in Europe.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}} Famous Jewish descendants include the dancehall artist Sean Paul, former record producer and founder of Island Records Chris Blackwell, and Jacob De Cordova who was the founder of the Jamaica Gleaner newspaperNEWS, Masis, Julie, Remnants of Jamaica’s Jews hold a heritage full of firsts,weblink Times of Israel, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070120042650weblink">weblink dead, 2007-01-20, Out Of Many Cultures: The People Who Came The Jews In Jamaica, Jamaica Gleaner Newspaper, WEB,weblink Jamaica Virtual Jewish History Tour, Jamaica Virtual Jewish History Tour, In recent years immigration has increased, coming mainly from China, Haiti, Cuba, Colombia, and Latin America; 20,000 Latin Americans reside in Jamaica.WEB,weblink Jamaica *Rastafari * ToZion.org *, www.tozion.org, 2018-02-13,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180115110423weblink">weblink 15 January 2018, dead, In 2016, the Prime Minister Andrew Holness suggested making Spanish Jamaica's second official language.WEB,weblink Jamaica Observer Limited, Jamaica Observer, 2019-08-05, About 7,000 Americans also reside in Jamaica.{{citation needed|date=October 2014}} Notable American with connection to the island include fashion icon Ralph Lauren, philanthropist Daisy Soros, Blackstone's Schwarzman family, the family of the late Lieutenant Governor of Delaware John W. Rollins, fashion designer Vanessa Noel, investor Guy Stuart, Edward and Patricia Falkenberg, and iHeart Media CEO Bob Pittman, all of whom hold annual charity events to support the island.WEB,weblink 60th Anniversary "Diamond Jubilee" Sugar Cane Ball at Round Hill, Round Hill Villas,

Languages

Jamaica is regarded as a bilingual country, with two major languages in use by the population.Ronald C. Morren and Diane M. Morren (2007). Are the goals and objectives of Jamaica's Bilingual Education Project being met?" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170516230512weblink |date=16 May 2017 }} – SIL International (working paper). Retrieved 31 August 2015. The official language is English, which is "used in all domains of public life", including the government, the legal system, the media, and education. However, the primary spoken language is an English-based creole called Jamaican Patois (or Patwa). The two exist in a dialect continuum, with speakers using a different register of speech depending on context and who they are speaking to. 'Pure' Patois, though sometimes seen as merely a particularly aberrant dialect of English, is essentially mutually unintelligible to speakers of standard English and is best thought of a separate language. A 2007 survey by the Jamaican Language Unit found that 17.1 percent of the population were monolingual in Jamaican Standard English (JSE), 36.5 percent were monolingual in Patois, and 46.4 percent were bilingual, although earlier surveys had pointed to a greater degree of bilinguality (up to 90 percent).JOURNAL, Jettka, Daniel, 2010, English in Jamaica: The Coexistence of Standard Jamaican English and the English-based Jamaican Creole,weblink Hamburg Centre for Language Corpora, Hamburg University, 31 August 2015, The Jamaican education system has only recently begun to offer formal instruction in Patois, while retaining JSE as the "official language of instruction".Claude Robinson (30 March 2014). "English lessons for Jamaica" – Jamaica Observer. Retrieved 31 August 2015.Additionally, some Jamaicans use one or more of Jamaican Sign Language (JSL), American Sign Language (ASL) or the indigenous Jamaican Country Sign Language (Konchri Sain).WEB,weblink Konchri Sain, Ethnologue, February 1, 2018, Both JSL and ASL are rapidly replacing Konchri Sain for a variety of reasons.

Emigration

Many Jamaicans have emigrated to other countries, especially to the United Kingdom, the United States, and Canada. In the case of the United States, about 20,000 Jamaicans per year are granted permanent residence.WEB,weblink United States immigration statistics, Dhs.gov, 23 June 2009, 4 July 2009, There has also been emigration of Jamaicans to other Caribbeans countries such as Cuba,ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Jamaicans to Cuba, Encarta.msn.com, 4 July 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091029160356weblink">weblink 29 October 2009, dead, dmy, Puerto Rico, Guyana, and The Bahamas. It was estimated in 2004 that up to 2.5 million Jamaicans and Jamaican descendants live abroad.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050427212932weblink">Linking the Jamaican Diaspora. Jamaica Observer. 20 June 2004.Jamaicans in the United Kingdom number an estimated 800,000 making them by far the country's largest African-Caribbean group. Large-scale migration from Jamaica to the UK occurred primarily in the 1950s and 1960s when the country was still under British rule. Jamaican communities exist in most large UK cities.WEB,weblink Jamaica: Mapping exercise, International Organization for Migration, London, July 2007, 27 May 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511105031weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, Concentrations of expatriate Jamaicans are quite considerable in numerous cities in the United States, including New York City, Buffalo, the Miami metro area, Atlanta, Chicago, Orlando, Tampa, Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, Hartford, Providence and Los Angeles.Jones, Terry-Ann. Jamaican Immigrants in the United States and Canada: Race, Transnationalism, and Social Capital. New York, NY: LFB Scholarly Piblishing LLC, 2008. 2–3; 160–3. Print. In Canada, the Jamaican population is centred in Toronto,WEB, Census Profile, 2016 Census – Toronto (CMA), Statistics Canada,weblink 2018-08-13, with smaller communities in cities such as Hamilton, Montreal, Winnipeg, Vancouver and Ottawa. Jamaican Canadians comprise about 30% of the entire Black Canadian population.Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data, Statistics Canada (2006). Retrieved on August 11, 2008.Visible minority groups, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data, Statistics Canada (2006). Retrieved on March 19, 2011.A notable though much smaller group of emigrants are Jamaicans in Ethiopia. These are mostly Rastafarians, in whose theological worldview Africa is the promised land, or 'Zion', or more specifically Ethiopia, due to reverence in which former Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie is held.{{citation|url=http://jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20100618/news/news4.html|first=Patrina|last=Pink|title=Jamaican Rastas Bring Cultural Diversity To 'Promised Land'|work=Jamaica Gleaner|date=2010-06-18|accessdate=2013-03-11}} Most live in the small town of Shashamane about 150 miles (240 km) south of the capital Addis Ababa.{{citation|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1639646.stm|first=Nita|last=Bhalla|title=The town that Rastafarians built|work=BBC News|date=2001-11-05|accessdate=2013-03-11}}

Crime

{{see also|Prisons in Jamaica|LGBT rights in Jamaica}}When Jamaica gained independence in 1962, the murder rate was 3.9 per 100,000 inhabitants, one of the lowest in the world.WEB,weblink Crime and crisis in Jamaica, www.focal.ca, 2019-06-28, By 2009, the rate was 62 per 100,000 inhabitants, one of the highest in the world.WEB,weblink Crime and crisis in Jamaica, Focal.ca, 2017-09-25, Gang violence became a serious problems, with organised crime being centred around Jamaican posses or 'Yardies'. Jamaica has had one of the highest murder rates in the world for many years, according to UN estimates.WEB,weblink Nationmaster Crime Stats, Nationmaster.com, 4 July 2009, WEB,weblink Crime, violence and development: trends, costs, and policy options in the Caribbean, 26 December 2007, 37, United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Some areas of Jamaica, particularly poor areas in Kingston, Montego Bay and elsewhere experience high levels of crime and violence.WEB, Jamaica Travel Advice: Safety and Security, Foreign Travel Advice, Government of the United Kingdom,weblink 25 June 2014, However, there were 1,682 reported murders in 2009 and 1,428 in 2010.{{citation needed|date=December 2017}} After 2011 the murder rate continued to fall, following the downward trend in 2010, after a strategic programme was launched.WEB,weblink Prime Minister Golding Speaks on Crime Reduction, June 9, 2011, The Gleaner,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170104074825weblink">weblink 4 January 2017, live, 16 December 2017, In 2012, the Ministry of National Security reported a 30 percent decrease in murders.Pachico, Elyssa (2012-3-30). "Jamaica Murder Rate Dropped 30% in 2012". InSightCrime: Organized Crime in the Americas. Retrieved 2012-12-1. Nevertheless, in 2017 murders rose by 22% over the previous year.WEB,weblink Jamaica's Murder Tally Over 1,500 This Year, rjrnewsonline.com,

LGBT rights

Many Jamaicans are hostile towards LGBT and intersex people,NEWS, Padgett, Tim, The Most Homophobic Place on Earth?,weblink Time, 12 April 2006, 26 April 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060619081126weblink">weblink 19 June 2006, live, WEB,weblink 2012 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Jamaica, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, pages 20-22, 25 May 2019,weblink 26 March 2017, live, WEB, Jamaica Travel Advice: Local Laws and Customs, Foreign Travel Advice, Government of the United Kingdom,weblink 25 June 2014, and mob attacks against gay people have been reported.NEWS, Lacey, Marc, Attacks Show Easygoing Jamaica Is Dire Place for Gays, The New York Times, 24 February 2008,weblink 19 March 2009, WEB, Jamaica: Shield Gays from Mob Attacks, Human Rights Watch, 31 January 2008,weblink 19 March 2009, PRESS RELEASE, Document – Jamaica: Amnesty International condemns homophobic violence, Amnesty International, 15 April 2007,weblink 19 March 2009, dmy-all, Numerous high-profile dancehall and ragga artists have produced songs featuring explicitly homophobic lyrics.WEB,weblink Concluding Observations of the Human Rights Committee: Jamaica, United Nations Human Rights Committee, CCPR/C/JAM/CO/3, paragraph 8, pages 2-3, 17 November 2011, 11 November 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131111093406weblink">weblink 11 November 2013, live, Male homosexuality is illegal and punishable by prison time.WEB, State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition,weblink International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association, 17 May 2016, NEWS, 71 Countries Where Homosexuality is Illegal,weblink Newsweek, 4 April 2019,

Major cities

{{see also|List of cities and towns in Jamaica}}{{Largest cities of Jamaica}}

Religion

File:Mandeville Church by AAlexander.jpg|thumb|left|Mandeville Church (est. 1816), an Anglican church in Manchester ParishManchester ParishChristianity is the largest religion practised in Jamaica. About 70% are Protestants; Roman Catholics are just 2% of the population. According to the 2001 census, the country's largest Protestant denominations are the Church of God (24%), Seventh-day Adventist Church (11%), Pentecostal (10%), Baptist (7%), Anglican (4%), United Church (2%), Methodist (2%), Moravian (1%) and Plymouth Brethren (1%).WEB,weblink Jamaica, State.gov, 14 September 2007, 4 July 2009, Bedwardism is a form of Christianity native to the island, sometime view as a separate faith.BOOK, Stan Simpson and David Person, Home away from Home: Africans in Americas, Volume 1, Ch 19: Land of Maroons, Institute for Advanced Journalism Studies, 2003,weblink 2008-01-27,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090704193223weblink">weblink 2009-07-04, dead, WEB,weblink Bedward’s Tomb, The Christian faith gained acceptance as British Christian abolitionists and Baptist missionaries joined educated former slaves in the struggle against slavery.WEB, Jamaican Christian Missions:Their Influence in the Jamaican Slave Rebellion of 1831–32 and the End of Slavery, Rachael, Elam,weblink 2010-04-06, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090327080958weblink">weblink 27 March 2009, dmy-all, The Rastafari movement has 29,026 adherents, according to the 2011 census, with 25,325 Rastafarian males and 3,701 Rastafarian females. The faith originated in Jamaica in the 1930s and though rooted in Christianity it is heavily Afrocentric in its focus, revering figures such as the Jamaican black nationalist Marcus Garvey and Haile Selassie, the former Emperor of Ethiopia.Savishinsky, Neil J. "Transnational popular culture and the global spread of the Jamaican Rastafarian movement." NWIG: New West Indian Guide/Nieuwe West-Indische Gids 68.3/4 (1994): 259-281. Rastafari has since spread across the globe, especially to areas with large black or African diasporas.Stephen D. Glazier, Encyclopedia of African and African-American Religions, 2001, p. 263.BOOK,weblink Afro-Caribbean Religions: An Introduction to Their Historical, Cultural, and Sacred Traditions, Murrell, Nathaniel Samuel, 2010-01-25, Temple University Press, 9781439901755, en, Various faiths and traditional religious practices derived from Africa are practised on the island, notably Kumina, Convince, Myal and Obeah.BOOK,weblink Three Eyes for the Journey: African Dimensions of the Jamaican Religious Experience, Stewart, Dianne M., 2005-07-07, Oxford University Press, 9780198039082, en, BOOK, The Encyclopedia of Caribbean Religions: Volume 1: A - L; Volume 2: M - Z, Patrick, Taylor, Frederick, Case, 2013,weblink Paul Easterling, "The Ifa’ Diaspora: The Art of Syncretism, Part 5 – Obeah and Myal" in weblink (Afrometrics.org, 2017).Other religions in Jamaica include Jehovah's Witnesses (2% population), the Bahá'í faith, which counts perhaps 8,000 adherentsWEB, 2007, Map Source: www.worldmap.org,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160303170428weblink">weblink 3 March 2016, dmy-all, and 21 Local Spiritual Assemblies,NEWS, Bahá'í International Community, Bahá'í International Community, Jamaicans celebrate 4th National Baha'i Day, Bahá'í World News Service, 11 August 2006,weblink Mormonism,WEB,weblink Jamaica – LDS Statistics and Church Facts | Total Church Membership, Mormonnewsroom.org, 6 August 2012, Buddhism, and Hinduism.WEB,weblink Jamaica Gleaner : Pieces of the Past: Out Of Many Cultures: Roads and Resistance: RELIGIOUS ICONS part 2, old.jamaica-gleaner.com, 2018-10-16, WEB,weblink Faith in Jamaica {{!, Learn More About What We Believe|website=www.visitjamaica.com|language=en|access-date=2018-10-16}} The Hindu Diwali festival is celebrated yearly among the Indo-Jamaican community.religiousintelligence.co.uk, religiousfreedom.lib.virginia.edu {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141129080609weblink |date=29 November 2014 }}There is also a small population of about 200 Jews, who describe themselves as Liberal-Conservative.WEB, Haruth Communications, Harry Leichter,weblink Jamaican Jews, Haruth.com, 4 July 2009, The first Jews in Jamaica trace their roots back to early 15th-century Spain and Portugal.WEB, Mark, Dawes, Jews hold firm Life goes on in Old Synagogue,weblink Gleaner Co., 10 June 2003, 11 March 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110510014048weblink">weblink 10 May 2011, dmy-all, Kahal Kadosh Shaare Shalom, also known as the United Congregation of Israelites, is a historic synagogue located in the city of Kingston. Originally built in 1912, it is the official and only Jewish place of worship left on the island. The once abundant Jewish population has voluntarily converted to Christianity over time.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}} Shaare Shalom is one of the few synagogues in the world that contains sand covered floors and is a popular tourist destination.WEB,weblink A synagogue drawn in the sand - Haaretz - Israel News, WEB,weblink Why Sand Covers the Floor of One of the Western Hemisphere's, (File:Hussay Celebration in Jamaica.jpg|thumb|right|A historic Ashura celebration in Jamaica, which is known locally as Hussay or Hosay.)Other small groups include Muslims, who claim 5,000 adherents. The Muslim holidays of Ashura (known locally as Hussay or Hosay) and Eid have been celebrated throughout the island for hundreds of years. In the past, every plantation in each parish celebrated Hosay. Today it has been called an Indian carnival and is perhaps most well known in Clarendon where it is celebrated each August. People of all religions attend the event, showing mutual respect.WEB,weblink Hosay Festival, Westmoreland, Jamaica, caribbeanmuslims.com, WEB,weblink Out Of Many Cultures The People Who Came The Arrival Of The Indians, old.jamaica-gleaner.com,

Culture

File:Bob-Marley-in-Concert Zurich 05-30-80.jpg|thumb|left|Bob MarleyBob Marley

Music

Though a small nation, Jamaican culture has a strong global presence. The musical genres reggae, ska, mento, rocksteady, dub, and, more recently, dancehall and ragga all originated in the island's vibrant, popular urban recording industry.Dave Thompson (2002) Reggae and Caribbean Music. Backbeat Books. p. 261. {{ISBN|0879306556}}. These have themselves gone on to influence numerous other genres, such as punk rock (through reggae and ska), dub poetry, New Wave, two-tone, reggaeton, jungle, drum and bass, dubstep, grime and American rap music. Some rappers, such as The Notorious B.I.G., Busta Rhymes, and Heavy D, are of Jamaican descent.Bob Marley is probably the best known Jamaican musician; with his band The Wailers he had a string of hits in 1960s-70s, popularising reggae internationally and going on to sell millions of records.WEB,weblink 7 Fascinating Facts About Bob Marley, 10 October 2017, BOOK, Jason, Toynbee, Bob Marley: Herald of a Postcolonial World,weblink 23 August 2013, 8 May 2013, John Wiley & Sons, 978-0-7456-5737-0, 1969–, Many other internationally known artists were born in Jamaica, including Millie Small, Lee "Scratch" Perry, Gregory Isaacs, Half Pint, Protoje, Peter Tosh, Bunny Wailer, Big Youth, Jimmy Cliff, Dennis Brown, Desmond Dekker, Beres Hammond, Beenie Man, Shaggy, Grace Jones, Shabba Ranks, Super Cat, Buju Banton, Sean Paul, I Wayne, Bounty Killer and many others. Bands that came from Jamaica include Black Uhuru, Third World Band, Inner Circle, Chalice Reggae Band, Culture, Fab Five and Morgan Heritage.

Literature

The journalist and author H. G. de Lisser (1878–1944) used his native country as the setting for his many novels.Michael Hughes, "De Lisser, Herbert G.", A Companion to West Indian Literature, Collins, 1979, pp. 40-42. Born in Falmouth, Jamaica, de Lisser worked as a reporter for the Jamaica Times at a young age and in 1920 began publishing the magazine Planters' Punch. The White Witch of Rosehall is one of his better-known novels. He was named Honorary President of the Jamaican Press Association; he worked throughout his professional career to promote the Jamaican sugar industry.Roger Mais (1905 – 1955), a journalist, poet, and playwright wrote many short stories, plays, and novels, including The Hills Were Joyful Together (1953), Brother Man (1954), and Black Lightning (1955).Hawthorne, Evelyn J. "The Writer and the Nationalist Model", Roger Mais and the Decolonization of Caribbean Culture, NY: Peter Lang, 1989, p. 7.Ian Fleming (1908-1964), who had a home in Jamaica where he spent considerable time, repeatedly used the island as a setting in his James Bond novels, including Live and Let Die, Doctor No, "For Your Eyes Only", The Man with the Golden Gun, and Octopussy and The Living Daylights.WEB, Ian Fleming International Airport opened in Jamaica!,weblink News & Press, Ian Fleming Publications, 14 December 2011, 17 January 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120722035913weblink">weblink 22 July 2012, In addition, James Bond uses a Jamaica-based cover in Casino Royale. So far, the only James Bond film adaptation to have been set in Jamaica is Doctor No. Filming for the fictional island of San Monique in Live and Let Die took place in Jamaica.Marlon James (1970), novelist has published three novels: John Crow's Devil (2005), The Book of Night Women (2009) and A Brief History of Seven Killings (2014), winner of the 2015 Man Booker Prize.NEWS,weblink From Jamaica to Minnesota to Myself, James, Marlon, The New York Times, 10 March 2015, 27 June 2018, en,

Film

{{See also|List of Jamaican films}}Jamaica has a history in the film industry dating from the early 1960s. A look at delinquent youth in Jamaica is presented in the 1970s musical crime film The Harder They Come, starring Jimmy Cliff as a frustrated (and psychopathic) reggae musician who descends into a murderous crime spree.Kenner, Rob (2009) "Trevor Rhone, a Writer of ‘The Harder They Come,’ Dies at 69", The New York Times, 21 September 2009, retrieved 11 November 2012 Other notable Jamaican films include Countryman, Rockers, Dancehall Queen, One Love, Shottas, Out the Gate, Third World Cop and Kingston Paradise. Jamaica is also often used as a filming location, such as the James Bond film Dr. No (1962), Cocktail (1988) starring Tom Cruise, and the 1993 Disney comedy Cool Runnings, which is loosely based on the true story of Jamaica's first bobsled team trying to make it in the Winter Olympics.

Cuisine

File:Curry Goat with rice and peas (in this case kidney beans).jpg|thumb|right|Jamaican curry goat with rice and peasrice and peasThe island is famous for its Jamaican jerk spice, curries and rice and peas which is integral to Jamaican cuisine. Jamaica is also home to Red Stripe beer and Jamaican Blue Mountain Coffee.

National symbols

(From the Jamaica Information Service)WEB,weblink National Symbols of Jamaica, Jis.gov.jm, 6 August 1962, 26 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060619153047weblink">weblink 19 June 2006, (File:Jamaica motto.jpg|thumb|Jamaica motto on a building at Papine High School in Kingston, Jamaica)

Sport

Sport is an integral part of national life in Jamaica and the island's athletes tend to perform to a standard well above what might ordinarily be expected of such a small country. While the most popular local sport is cricket, on the international stage Jamaicans have tended to do particularly well at track and field athletics.WEB, Jamaican Sports An Overview,weblink My Island Jamaica, 11 October 2010, Jamaica has produced some of the world's most famous cricketers, including George Headley, Courtney Walsh, and Michael Holding.WEB, Cricket in Jamaica,weblink StephanieK, Jamaicans.com, 9 January 2016, The country was one of the venues of 2007 Cricket World Cup and the West Indies cricket team is one of 10 ICC full member teams that participate in international Test cricket.WEB, Test and ODI cricket playing nations,weblink Cricinfo, 11 October 2010, The Jamaica national cricket team competes regionally, and also provides players for the West Indies team. Sabina Park is the only Test venue in the island, but the Greenfield Stadium is also used for cricket.WEB, Cricket Ground Information,weblink Windies Online, 11 October 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511195543weblink">weblink 11 May 2011, dead, WEB, Greenfield Stadium,weblink Surf India, 11 October 2010, Chris Gayle is the most renowned batsman from Jamaica currently representing the West Indies cricket team.File: Usain Bolt after 200 m final Beijing 2015.jpg|180px|thumb|Usain BoltUsain BoltSince independence Jamaica has consistently produced world class athletes in track and field. In Jamaica involvement in athletics begins at a very young age and most high schools maintain rigorous athletics programs with their top athletes competing in national competitions (most notably the VMBS Girls and Boys Athletics Championships) and international meets (most notably the Penn Relays). In Jamaica it is not uncommon for young athletes to attain press coverage and national fame long before they arrive on the international athletics stage.Over the past six decades Jamaica has produced dozens of world class sprinters including Olympic and World Champion Usain Bolt, world record holder in the 100m for men at 9.58s, and 200m for men at 19.19s. Other noteworthy Jamaican sprinters include Arthur Wint, the first Jamaican Olympic gold medalist; Donald Quarrie, Elaine Thompson double Olympic champion from Rio 2016 in the 100m and 200m, Olympic Champion and former 200m world record holder; Roy Anthony Bridge, part of the International Olympic Committee; Merlene Ottey; Delloreen Ennis-London; Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce, the former World and two time Olympic 100m Champion; Kerron Stewart; Aleen Bailey; Juliet Cuthbert; three-time Olympic gold medalist; Veronica Campbell-Brown; Sherone Simpson; Brigitte Foster-Hylton; Yohan Blake; Herb McKenley; George Rhoden, Olympic gold medalist; Deon Hemmings, Olympic gold medalist; as well as Asafa Powell, former 100m world record holder and 2x 100m Olympic finalist and gold medal winner in the men's 2008 Olympic 4 × 100 m. American Olympic winner Sanya Richards-Ross was also born in Jamaica.Jamaica has also produced several world class amateur and professional boxers including Trevor Berbick and Mike McCallum. First-generation Jamaican athletes have continued to make a significant impact on the sport internationally, especially in the United Kingdom where the list of top British boxers born in Jamaica or of Jamaican parents includes Lloyd Honeyghan, Chris Eubank, Audley Harrison, David Haye, Lennox Lewis and Frank Bruno, Donovan "Razor" Ruddock, Mike Tyson, and Floyd Mayweather Jr., whose maternal grandfather is Jamaican.{{YouTube|gEAIWUxecvk|Floyd Mayweather is a Jamaican Yardie (big tings)}}Association football and horse-racing are other popular sports in Jamaica. The national football team qualified for the 1998 FIFA World Cup. Horse racing was Jamaica's first sport. It was brought in the 1700s by British immigrants to satisfy their longing for their favorite pastime back at home. During slavery, the Afro-Jamaican slaves were considered the best horse jockeys. Today, horse racing provides jobs for about 20,000 people including horse breeders, groomers, and trainers. Also, several Jamaicans are known internationally for their success in horse racing including Richard DePass, who once held the Guinness Book of World Records for the most wins in a day, Canadian awards winner George HoSang, and American award winners Charlie Hussey, Andrew Ramgeet, and Barrington Harvey. Also, there are hundreds of Jamaicans who are employed in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom as exercise riders and groomers.NEWS, Tortello, Dr. Rebecca, Jamaican Horse racing History: The sport of kings,weblink Jamaica Gleaner, Jamaica, 22 January 2019, Race car driving is also a popular sport in Jamaica with several car racing tracks and racing associations across the country.NEWS, Graham, Neville, New Cars To Light Up Dover,weblink Jamaica Gleaner, Jamaica, 22 January 2019, The Jamaica national bobsled team was once a serious contender in the Winter Olympics, beating many well-established teams. Chess and basketball are widely played in Jamaica and are supported by the Jamaica Chess Federation (JCF) and the Jamaica Basketball Federation (JBF), respectively. Netball is also very popular on the island, with the Jamaica national netball team called The Sunshine Girls consistently ranking in the top five in the world.WEB, International Federation of Netball Associations, IFNA, Current World Rankings,weblink 3 November 2013, Rugby league has been played in Jamaica since 2006.Jamaica Rugby league HistoryThe Jamaica national rugby league team is made up of players who play in Jamaica and from UK based professional and semi professional clubs (notably in the Super League and Championship). In November 2018 for the first time ever, the Jamaican rugby league team qualified for the Rugby League World Cup after defeating the USA & Canada. Jamaica will play in the 2021 Rugby League World Cup in England.NEWS,weblink Rugby League World Cup: Jamaica reach tournament for first time, BBC Sport, 17 November 2018, According to ESPN, the highest paid Jamaican professional athlete in 2011 was Justin Masterson, starting pitcher for the Cleveland Indians.WEB,weblink Best-paid athletes from 200 countries, espn.com, 4 May 2012,

Education

The emancipation of the slaves heralded the establishment of an education system for the masses. Prior to emancipation there were few schools for educating locals and many sent their children off to England to access quality education.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}} After emancipation the West Indian Commission granted a sum of money to establish Elementary Schools, now known as All Age Schools. Most of these schools were established by the churches.WEB,weblink Moravian Church Contribution to Education in Jamaica, 22 December 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071123064227weblink">weblink 23 November 2007, This was the genesis of the modern Jamaican school system.Presently the following categories of schools exist:
  • Early childhood – Basic, infant and privately operated pre-school. Age cohort: 2 – 5 years.
  • Primary – Publicly and privately owned (privately owned being called preparatory schools). Ages 3 – 12 years.
  • Secondary – Publicly and privately owned. Ages 10 – 19 years. The high schools in Jamaica may be either single-sex or co-educational institutions, and many schools follow the traditional English grammar school model used throughout the British West Indies.
  • Tertiary – Community colleges; teachers' colleges, with the Mico Teachers' College (now The MICO University College) being the oldest, founded in 1836; the Shortwood Teachers' College (which was once an all-female teacher training institution); vocational training centres, colleges and universities, publicly and privately owned. There are five local universities: the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus); the University of Technology, Jamaica, formerly The College of Art Science and Technology (CAST); the Northern Caribbean University, formerly West Indies College; the University of the Commonwealth Caribbean, formerly the University College of The Caribbean; and the International University of the Caribbean.
Additionally, there are many community and teacher training colleges.Education is free from the early childhood to secondary levels. There are also opportunities for those who cannot afford further education in the vocational arena, through the Human Employment and Resource Training-National Training Agency (HEART Trust-NTA) programme,WEB,weblink Transforming the Jamaican Education System, 22 December 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080520221921weblink">weblink 20 May 2008, dead, dmy, which is opened to all working age national populationWEB,weblink Vocational Education in Jamaica, UNESCO-UNEVOC, August 2012, 26 May 2014, and through an extensive scholarship network for the various universities.Students are taught Spanish in school from the primary level upwards; about 40–45% of educated people in Jamaica knows some form of Spanish.{{citation needed|date=May 2019}}

Economy

File:Negril-Beach.jpg|thumb|A beach in NegrilNegrilFile:JamesBondBeach2.jpg|thumb|right|James Bond Beach in OracabessaOracabessaJamaica is a mixed economy with both state enterprises and private sector businesses. Major sectors of the Jamaican economy include agriculture, mining, manufacturing, tourism, petroleum refining, financial and insurance services. Tourism and mining are the leading earners of foreign exchange. Half the Jamaican economy relies on services, with half of its income coming from services such as tourism. An estimated 4.3 million foreign tourists visit Jamaica every year. According to the World Bank, Jamaica is an upper-middle income country that, like its Caribbean neighbours, is vulnerable to the effects of climate change, flooding, and hurricanes. In 2018, Jamaica represented the CARICOM Caribbean Community at the G20 and the G7 annual meetings.NEWS,weblink Ja/Caricom and the G20 Summit), Jamaica Gleaner newspaper, In 2019 Jamaica reported its lowest unemployment rate in 50 years.WEB,weblink Lowest Unemployment in 50 Years, Jamaica Information Service (Government of Jamaica), Supported by multilateral financial institutions, Jamaica has, since the early 1980s, sought to implement structural reforms aimed at fostering private sector activity and increasing the role of market forces in resource allocationWEB,weblink GOJ Divestment and Projects Programme to Generate Billions in Investment Opportunities for Jamaican Capital, Government of Jamaica Ministry of Finance and Public Services, WEB,weblink Holness says divestment of state assets good thing for Jamaica, Jamaica Observer newspaper, WEB,weblink DBJ Bats For Small Investors In Wigton Divestment, Jamaica Gleaner newspaper, Since 1991, the government has followed a programme of economic liberalisation and stabilisation by removing exchange controls,WEB,weblink Jamaica - Foreign Exchange Controls, export.gov, Government of the United States, NEWS,weblink No Legal Restrictions of Foreign Currency Quotes, Jamaica Observer, Jamaica Observer Newspaper, floating the exchange rate,WEB,weblink Trade Reference Centre - Jamaica - Caribbean Trade Reference Centre, Trade Reference Centre - Jamaica - Caribbean Trade Reference Centre, WEB,weblink 2011 Investment Climate Statement - Jamaica, U.S. Department of State, cutting tariffs,WEB,weblink Jamaica - Import Tariffs, export.gov, Government of the United States, stabilising the Jamaican dollar, reducing inflationNEWS,weblink Jamaica Turns to Reggae Videos to Promote Inflation Target, Bloomberg, and removing restrictions on foreign investment.WEB,weblink Jamaica - 1-Openness to & Restriction on Foreign Investment, U.S. Department of State, Emphasis has been placed on maintaining strict fiscal discipline, greater openness to trade and financial flows, market liberalisation and reduction in the size of government. During this period, a large share of the economy was returned to private sector ownership through divestment and privatisation programmes. The free-trade zones at Kingston, Montego Bay and Spanish Town allow duty-free importation, tax-free profits, and free repatriation of export earnings.WEB,weblink Jamaica (Economy), Official Commonwealth Website (UK), Jamaica's economy grew strongly after the years of independence, but then stagnated in the 1980s, due to the heavy falls in price of bauxite and fluctuations in the price of agriculture. The financial sector was troubled in 1994, with many banks and insurance companies suffering heavy losses and liquidity problems. According to the Commonwealth Secretariat, "The government set up the Financial Sector Adjustment Company (Finsac) in January 1997 to assist these banks and companies, providing funds in return for equity, and acquired substantial holdings in banks and insurance companies and related companies,.. but it only exasperated the problem, and brought the country into large external debt. From 2001, once it had restored these banks and companies to financial health, Finsac divested them." The Government of Jamaica remains committed to lowering inflation, with a long-term objective of bringing it in line with that of its major trading partners.In 1996 and 1997 there was a decrease in GDP largely due to significant problems in the financial sector and, in 1997, a severe island-wide drought (the worst in 70 years) and hurricane that drastically reduced agricultural production.WEB,weblink Jamaica, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, In 1997 and 1998, nominal GDP was approximately a high of about 8 percent of GDP and then lowered to 4½ percent of GDP in 1999 and 2000.WEB,weblink Jamaica Letter of Intent July 19, 2000, International Monetary Fund, The economy in 1997 was marked by low levels of import growth, high levels of private capital inflows and relative stability in the foreign exchange market.WEB,weblink Jamaica: October 1998, World Trade Organization, Recent economic performance shows the Jamaican economy is recovering. Agricultural production, an important engine of growth increased to 5.5% in 2001 compared to the corresponding period in 2000, signalling the first positive growth rate in the sector since January 1997.WEB,weblink Jamaica, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, In 2018, Jamaica reported a 7.9% increase in corn, 6.1% increase in plantains, 10.4% increase in bananas, 2.2% increase in pineapples, 13.3% increase in dasheen, 24,9% increase in coconuts, and a 10.6% increase in whole milk production.WEB,weblink Growth in Agriculture Subsectors, Government of Jamaica (Jamaica Information Service), Bauxite and alumina production increased 5.5% from January to December 1998, compared to the corresponding period in 1997. January's bauxite production recorded a 7.1% increase relative to January 1998 and continued expansion of alumina production through 2009 is planned by Alcoa.No gas from Trinidad, Venezuela by 2009 – Jamaica Observer.com {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080217022409weblink|date=17 February 2008}}
at www.jamaicaobserver.com Jamaica is the fifth largest exporter of bauxite in the world, after Australia, China, Brazil and Guinea. The country also exports limestone of which it holds large deposits. The government is currently implementing plans to increase its extraction.WEB,weblink Limestone research finds richest deposits in St Elizabeth, Portland and Trelawny, Jamaica Observer newspaper,
A Canadian company, Carube Copper Corp, has found and confirmed, "...the existence of at least seven significant Cu/Au porphyry systems (in St. Catherine)." They have estimated that, "The porphyry distribution found at Bellas Gate is similar to that found in the Northparkes mining district of New South Wales, Australia (which was) sold to China in 2013 for US$820 million." Carube noted that Jamaica's geology, "... is similar to that of Chile, Argentina and the Dominican Republic — all productive mining jurisdictions." Mining on the sites began in 2017.WEB,weblink Carube Copper Corp to begin exploring for gold and copper at Bellas Gate in April, Collinder, Avia, Jamaica Observer newspaper, Tourism, which is the largest foreign exchange earner, showed improvement as well. In 1999 the total visitor arrivals was 2 million, an increase of 100,000 from the previous year.JOURNAL, McDavid, Hamilton, AN INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS OF THE JAMAICAN HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM SECTOR, Social and Economic Studies : Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies, University of the West Indies, 52, 1, 161–184, 27865318, 2003, Since 2017, Jamaica's tourism has risen exponentially, rising to 4.3 million average tourists per year. Jamaica's largest tourist markets are from North America, South America, and Europe. In 2017, Jamaica recorded a 91.3% increase in stopover visitors from Southern and Western Europe (and a 41% increase in stopover arrivals from January to September 2017 over the same period from the previous year) with Germany, Portugal and Spain registering the highest percentage gains.NEWS,weblink Jamaica sees European tourism boom, Jamaica Observer, In 2018, Jamaica won several World Travel Awards in Portugal winning the "Chairman's Award for Global Tourism Innovation", "Best Tourist Board in the Caribbean" "Best Honeymoon Destination", "Best Culinary Destination", "World's Leading Beach Destination" and "World's Leading Cruise Destination".WEB,weblink Jamaica sweeps World Travel Awards, Jamaica Observer newspaper, WEB,weblink Jamaica Scores Big With Travvy Tourism Awards, Jamaica Ministry of Tourism, Two months later, the Travvy Tourism Awards held in New York City, awarded Jamaica's Tourism Minister Edmund Bartlett, with the inaugural Chairman's Award for, "Global Tourism Innovation for the Development of the Global Tourism Resilience and Crisis Management Centre (GTRCM)". Bartlett has also won the Pacific Travel Writer's Association's award in Germany for the, "2018 Best Tourism Minister of the Year".NEWS,weblink Bartlett is World's Tourism Minister of the Year, Jamaica Observer newspaper, Petrojam, Jamaica's national and only petroleum refinery, is co-owned by the Government of Venezuela. Petrojam, "..operates a 35,000 barrel per day hydro-skimming refinery, to produce Automotive Diesel Oil; Heavy Fuel Oil; Kerosene/Jet Fuel, Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG), Asphalt and Gasoline." Customers include the Power industry, Aircraft refuelers, and Local Marketing companies.WEB,weblink PetroJam (About Us), PetroJam (Government of Jamaica), On 20 February 2019, the Jamaican Government voted to retake ownership of Venezuela's 49% share.WEB,weblink House Approves Bill to Retake Ownership of Petrojam Shares, Jamaica Information Service (Government of Jamaica), Jamaica's agricultural exports are sugar, bananas, cocoa,WEB,weblink Jamaican cocoa could be sweet again, Jamaica Observer newspaper, coconut, molassesWEB,weblink Jamaica Economy, Britannica Encyclopedia, oranges, limes, grapefruit,WEB,weblink Shortage Creates Price Surge for Fresh Citrus, Collinder, Avia, 18 August 2017, Jamaica Gleaner newspaper, rum, yams, allspice (of which it is the world's largest and "most exceptional quality" exporter),JOURNAL, Medicinal Properties of the Jamaican Pepper Plant Pimenta dioica and Allspice, Current Drug Targets, 13, 14, 1900–1906, 3891794, 2012, Zhang, L., Lokeshwar, B. L., 23140298, 10.2174/138945012804545641, and Blue Mountain Coffee which is considered a world renowned gourmet brand.Jamaica has a wide variety of industrial and commercial activities. The aviation industry is able to perform most routine aircraft maintenance, except for heavy structural repairs. There is a considerable amount of technical support for transport and agricultural aviation. Jamaica has a considerable amount of industrial engineering, light manufacturing, including metal fabrication, metal roofing, and furniture manufacturing. Food and beverage processing, glassware manufacturing, software and data processing, printing and publishing, insurance underwriting, music and recording, and advanced education activities can be found in the larger urban areas. The Jamaican construction industry is entirely self-sufficient, with professional technical standards and guidance.WEB,weblink History of Aviation in Jamaica: Part I, Jamaica-gleaner.com, 4 July 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090717101044weblink">weblink 17 July 2009, dmy-all, Since the first quarter of 2006, the economy of Jamaica has undergone a period of staunch growth. With inflation for the 2006 calendar year down to 6.0% and unemployment down to 8.9%, the nominal GDP grew by an unprecedented 2.9%.Statistical Institute of Jamaica at www.statinja.com An investment programme in island transportation and utility infrastructure and gains in the tourism, mining, and service sectors all contributed this figure. All projections for 2007 show an even higher potential for economic growth with all estimates over 3.0% and hampered only by urban crime and public policies.{{citation needed|date=February 2019}}In 2006, Jamaica became part of the CARICOM Single Market and Economy (CSME) as one of the pioneering members.WEB,weblink Statement - Prime Minister Dr Keith Rowley on CSME, CARICOM, The global economic downturn had a significant impact on the Jamaican economy for the years 2007 to 2009, resulting in negative economic growth. The government implemented a new Debt Management Initiative, the Jamaica Debt Exchange (JDX) on 14 January 2010. The initiative would see holders of Government of Jamaica (GOJ) bonds returning the high interest earning instruments for bonds with lower yields and longer maturities. The offer was taken up by over 95% of local financial institutions and was deemed a success by the government.WEB,weblink Jamaica Debt Exchange - IMF, IMF, Owing to the success of the JDX program, the Bruce Golding-led government was successful in entering into a borrowing arrangement with the IMF on 4 February 2010 for the amount of US$1.27b. The loan agreement is for a period of three years.WEB,weblink Jamaica Gleaner News – IMF says yes – US$1.27b loan for Jamaica approved – US$950m fund for financial sector, Jamaica-gleaner.com, 5 February 2010, 31 October 2011, In April 2014, the Governments of Jamaica and China signed the preliminary agreements for the first phase of the Jamaican Logistics Hub (JLH) – the initiative that aims to position Kingston as the fourth node in the global logistics chain, joining Rotterdam, Dubai and Singapore, and serving the Americas.WEB,weblink Jamaica signs deal for China-built cargo shipping hub, Reuters, The Project, when completed, is expected to provide many jobs for Jamaicans, Economic Zones for multinational companiesWEB,weblink Proposed Caymanas Economic Zone To Be One Of 16 – Jamaica Information Service, Jamaica Information Service, and much needed economic growth to alleviate the country's heavy debt-to-GDP ratio. Strict adherence to the IMF's refinancing programme and preparations for the JLH has favourably affected Jamaica's credit rating and outlook from the three biggest rating agencies. In 2018, both Moody's and Standard and Poor Credit ratings upgraded Jamaica's ratings to both "stable and positive" respectively.WEB,weblink Moody's Investor Services Upgrades Jamaica Sovereign Rating and Revises Outlook from Positive to Stable, Government of Jamaica (Ministry of Finance and Public Services), WEB,weblink Rating agency gives positive outlook for Jamaica, Jamaica Observer newspaper,

Infrastructure

Transport

{{Further|Transport in Jamaica}}(File:Halfway Tree Transport Center, Kingston, Jamaica.jpg|thumb|Halfway Tree Transport Center, Kingston)The transport infrastructure in Jamaica consists of roadways, railways and air transport, with roadways forming the backbone of the island's internal transport system.

Roadways

The Jamaican road network consists of almost {{convert|21000|km|mi}} of roads, of which over {{convert|15000|km|mi}} is paved.The CIA World Factbook – Jamaica. Retrieved 2015-09-16. The Jamaican Government has, since the late 1990s and in cooperation with private investors, embarked on a campaign of infrastructural improvement projects, one of which includes the creation of a system of freeways, the first such access-controlled roadways of their kind on the island, connecting the main population centres of the island. This project has so far seen the completion of {{convert|33|km|mi}} of freeway.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}}

Railways

Railways in Jamaica no longer enjoy the prominent position they once did, having been largely replaced by roadways as the primary means of transport. Of the {{convert|272|km|mi}} of railway found in Jamaica, only {{convert|57|km|mi}} remain in operation, currently used to transport bauxite. On 13 April 2011, a limited passenger service was resumed between May Pen, Spanish Town and Linstead.{{citation needed|date=July 2019}}

Air transport

File:Montego Bay plane Photo D Ramey Logan.jpg|thumb|right|A US AirwaysUS Airways(File:Norman Manley International Airport.jpg|thumb|Norman Manley International Airport)There are three international airports in Jamaica with modern terminals, long runways, and the navigational equipment required to accommodate the large jet aircraft used in modern and air travel: Norman Manley International Airport in Kingston; Ian Fleming International Airport in Boscobel, Saint Mary Parish; and the island's largest and busiest airport, Sir Donald Sangster International Airport in the resort city of Montego Bay. Manley and Sangster International airports are home to the country's national airline, Air Jamaica. In addition there are local commuter airports at Tinson Pen (Kingston), Port Antonio, and Negril, which cater to internal flights only. Many other small, rural centres are served by private airstrips on sugar estates or bauxite mines.

Ports, shipping and lighthouses

{{See also|Lighthouses in Jamaica}}Owing to its location in the Caribbean Sea in the shipping lane to the Panama Canal and relative proximity to large markets in North America and emerging markets in Latin America, Jamaica receives high container traffic. The container terminal at the Port of Kingston has undergone large expansion in capacity in recent years to handle growth both already realised as well as that which is projected in coming years.The Jamaica Observer {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070926232147weblink |date=26 September 2007 }}. Retrieved 27 June 2007. Montego Freeport in Montego Bay also handles a variety of cargo like (though more limited than) the Port of Kingston, mainly agricultural products.There are several other ports positioned around the island, including Port Esquivel in St. Catherine (WINDALCO), Rocky Point in Clarendon, Port Kaiser in St. Elizabeth, Port Rhoades in Discovery Bay, Reynolds Pier in Ocho Rios, and Boundbrook Port in Port Antonio.To aid the navigation of shipping, Jamaica operates nine lighthouses.Annual Transport Statistics Report: Jamaica in Figures 2003-2004 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130315174612weblink |date=2013-03-15 }}, Ministry of Transport and Works, July 2005. They are maintained by the Port Authority of Jamaica, an agency of the Ministry of Transport and Works.

Energy

{{See also|Solar power in Jamaica}}Jamaica depends on petroleum imports to satisfy its national energy needs. Many test sites have been explored for oil, but no commercially viable quantities have been found.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20010203232100weblink">weblink dead, 3 February 2001, Petroleum Corp of Jamaica, Petroleum Industry Statistics, 21 July 2007, The most convenient sources of imported oil and motor fuels (diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel) are from Mexico and Venezuela.Jamaica's electrical power is produced by diesel (bunker oil) generators located in Old Harbour. Other smaller power stations (most owned by the Jamaica Public Service Company,WEB,weblink Jamaica Public Service Company, 1 January 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110107125651weblink">weblink 7 January 2011, dead, the island's electricity provider) support the island's electrical grid including the Hunts Bay Power Station, the Bogue Power Station, the Rockfort Power Station and small hydroelectric plants on the White River, Rio Bueno, Morant River, Black River (Maggotty) and Roaring River.WEB,weblink JPS – JPS' Power Plants, 1 January 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101202075147weblink">weblink 2 December 2010, A wind farm, owned by the Petroleum Corporation of Jamaica, was established at Wigton, Manchester.WEB,weblink Wigton Wind Farm Company, 25 March 2008, Jamaica has successfully operated a SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor of 20 kW capacity since the early 1980s, but there are no plans to expand nuclear power at present.List of nuclear reactors#JamaicaJamaica imports approximately {{convert|80000|oilbbl}} of oil energy products per day, including asphalt and lubrication products. Just 20% of imported fuels are used for road transportation, the rest being used by the bauxite industry, electricity generation, and aviation. 30,000 barrels/day of crude imports are processed into various motor fuels and asphalt by the Petrojam Refinery in Kingston.WEB,weblink Corporate Fact Sheet | Petrojam Limited, Petrojam.com, 2017-09-25, Jamaica produces enormous quantities of drinking alcohol (at least 5% water content), most of which appears to be consumed as beverages, and none used as motor fuel. Facilities exist to refine hydrous ethanol feedstock into anhydrous ethanol (0% water content), but as of 2007, the process appeared to be uneconomic and the production plant was idle.WEB,weblink Petroleum Corp of Jamaica, Petrojam Ethanol, 21 July 2007,weblink" title="archive.today/20070717000252weblink">weblink 17 July 2007, dead, dmy,

Communication

Jamaica has a fully digital telephone communication system with a mobile penetration of over 95%.Doing eBusiness in Jamaica, The Economist Intelligence Unit.The country's two mobile operators – FLOW Jamaica (formerly LIME, bMobile and Cable and Wireless Jamaica) and Digicel Jamaica have spent millions in network upgrades and expansion. The newest operator, Digicel was granted a licence in 2001 to operate mobile services in the newly liberalised telecom market that had once been the sole domain of the incumbent FLOW (then Cable and Wireless Jamaica) monopoly. Digicel opted for the more widely used GSM wireless system, while a past operator, Oceanic (which became Claro Jamaica and later merged with Digicel Jamaica in 2011) opted for the CDMA standard. FLOW (formerly "LIME" – pre-Columbus Communications merger) which had begun with TDMA standard, subsequently upgraded to GSM in 2002, decommissioned TDMA in 2006 and only utilised that standard until 2009 when LIME launched its 3G network.WEB,weblink LIME 3G launch in 2009, Both operators currently provide islandwide coverage with HSPA+ (3G) technology. Currently, only Digicel offers LTE to its customersWEB,weblink Digicel Jamaica launches LTE, TeleGeography, whereas FLOW Jamaica has committed to launching LTE in the cities of Kingston and Montego Bay, places where Digicel's LTE network is currently only found in, in short order.A new entrant to the Jamaican communications market, Flow Jamaica, laid a new submarine cable connecting Jamaica to the United States. This new cable increases the total number of submarine cables connecting Jamaica to the rest of the world to four. Cable and Wireless Communications (parent company of LIME) acquired the company in late 2014 and replaced their brand LIME with FLOW.WEB,weblink Cable & Wireless Communications - NEW FLOW BRAND UNVEILED IN JAMAICA, www.cwc.com, FLOW Jamaica currently has the most broadband and cable subscribers on the island and also has 1 million mobile subscribers,WEB,weblink Flow celebrates hitting one million customers, Jamaica Observer, Limited, Jamaica Observer, second to Digicel (which had, at its peak, over 2 million mobile subscriptions on its network).Digicel entered the broadband market in 2010 by offering WiMAX broadband,WEB,weblink Digicel launches WiMAX to non-business users, TeleGeography, www.telegeography.com, capable of up to 6 Mbit/s per subscriber. To further their broadband share post-LIME/FLOW merger in 2014, the company introduced a new broadband service called Digicel Play,WEB,weblink Home, www.digicelgroup.com, which is Jamaica's second FTTH offering (after LIME's deployment in selected communities in 2011WEB,weblink LIME Jamaica launches 100Mbps FTTH service, TeleGeography, ). It is currently only available in the parishes of Kingston, Portmore and St. Andrew. It offers speeds of up to 200 Mbit/s down, 100 Mbit/s up via a pure fibre optic network. Digicel's competitor, FLOW Jamaica, has a network consisting of ADSL, Coaxial and Fibre to the Home (inherited from LIME) and only offers speeds up to 100 Mbit/s. FLOW has committed to expanding its Fibre offering to more areas in order to combat Digicel's entrance into the market.It was announced that the Office and Utilities Regulations (OUR), Ministry of Science, Technology, Energy and Mining (MSTEM) and the Spectrum Management Authority (SMA) have given approval for another mobile operator licence in January 2016.WEB,weblink Jamaican government approves third mobile player, TeleGeography, The identity of this entrant was ascertained on May 20, 2016, when the Jamaican Government named the new carrier as Symbiote Investments Limited operating under the name Caricel.WEB,weblink Caricel — first Jamaican company to get mobile spectrum licence, Jamaica Observer, Limited, Jamaica Observer, The company will focus on 4G LTE data offerings and will first go live in the Kingston Metropolitan Area and will expand to the rest of Jamaica thereafter.

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Ahmed, Faiz, The Development Path Taken by Jamaica: A brief account of the islands natural-history, economic policies, and social conditions,weblink 2008, 2 April 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121003211109weblink">weblink 3 October 2012, dead, (pp. 45–83)
  • BOOK, Arbell, Mordehay, The Portuguese Jews of Jamaica, {{Google books, -35vXOgop6QC, yes, |year=2000|publisher=Canoe Press|isbn=978-976-8125-69-9}}
  • Ammar, N. "From Whence they came". Jamaica Journal.
  • Bahadur, Gaiutra. Coolie Woman: The Odyssey of Indenture. The University of Chicago (2014), {{ISBN|978-0-226-21138-1}}
  • JOURNAL, Bernstein, Antje, 2006, English in Jamaica: The Coexistence of Standard Jamaican English and the English-based Jamaican Creole,weblink English Language and Literature Studies, seminar paper, 31 August 2015,
  • BOOK, Chapman, Valentine Jackson, The marine algae of Jamaica: Myxophyceae and Chlorophyceae, {{Google books, uSyxbwAACAAJ, yes, |year=1961}}
  • BOOK, Chapman, Valentine Jackson, The marine Algae of Jamaica: Part II: Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae, {{Google books, UyHEQQAACAAJ, yes, |year=1963}}
  • Hall, D. "Bounties European Immigration with Special Reference of the German Settlement at Seaford Town, Parts 1 and 2". Jamaica Journal, 8, (4), 48–54 and 9 (1), 2–9.
  • BOOK, Issa, Suzanne, Mr Jamaica, Abe Issa: a pictorial biography, {{Google books, L1cQAAAACAAJ, yes, |year=1994|publisher=S. Issa|isbn=978-976-8091-69-7}}
  • Jacobs, H. P. (2003). Germany in Jamaica. Indian heritage in Jamaica. Jamaica Journal, 10, (2,3,4), 10–19,
  • JOURNAL, Mullally, R, 2003, 'One Love' The Black Irish of Jamaica, Jamaica Journal, 42, 104–116,
  • JOURNAL, Parboosingh, I. S., An Indo-Jamaica beginning, Jamaica Journal, 18, 3, 2–10, 12,
  • BOOK, Senior, Olive, Encyclopedia of Jamaican Heritage, {{Google books, URx7AAAAMAAJ, yes, |year=2003|publisher=Twin Guinep Publishers|isbn=978-976-8007-14-8}}
  • BOOK, Sherlock, Philip Manderson, Bennett, Hazel, The Story of the Jamaican People, {{Google books, Weh6AAAAMAAJ, yes, |year=1998|publisher=Ian Randle Publishers|isbn=978-1-55876-145-2}}
  • BOOK, Ian, Thomson, The Dead Yard: Tales of Modern Jamaica, {{Google books, hJliXDXchE8C, yes, |year=2009|publisher=Nation Books|isbn=978-0-571-22761-7}}
  • BOOK, Williams, Joseph John, Whence the "Black Irish" of Jamaica?, {{Google books, gyJ7AAAAMAAJ, yes, |year=1932|publisher=L. MacVeagh, Dial Press, Inc.}}
  • The Gleaner. Seaford Town Advertising Feature. 14 August 2003, D7-D8.

External links

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