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{{pp-vandalism|small=yes}}{{About|Indian people from India|other uses|Indian (disambiguation)}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2016}} {{Use Indian English|date=July 2016}}







factoids
HTTP://WWW.CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN/2011CENSUS/POPULATION_ENUMERATION.HTMLPUBLISHER=CENSUS OF INDIAPUBLISHER=CENSUS OF INDIA2011 Census of India{{Circa>1.34 billion}}HTTPS://ESA.UN.ORG/UNPD/WPP/DVD/FILES/1_INDICATORS%20(STANDARD)/EXCEL_FILES/1_POPULATION/WPP2017_POP_F01_1_TOTAL_POPULATION_BOTH_SEXES.XLSX >TITLE=TOTAL POPULATION - BOTH SEXESPUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS, POPULATION DIVISION, POPULATION ESTIMATES AND PROJECTIONS SECTIONACCESSDATE=22 JUNE 2017, 2017 estimate{{CircaPUBLISHER = MINISTRY OF EXTERNAL AFFAIRS (INDIA) ACCESSDATE= 28 MAY 2016, {{small|Indian diaspora}} India}}Saudi Arabia}} PUBLISHER=THE HUFFINGTON POSTDATE=2017-06-21, HTTP://TIMESOFINDIA.INDIATIMES.COM/NRI/MIDDLE-EAST-NEWS/INDIANS-BRACE-FOR-SAUDI-FAMILY-TAX/ARTICLESHOW/59243550.CMS>TITLE=INDIANS BRACE FOR SAUDI 'FAMILY TAX' ACCESSDATE=21 JUNE 2017, Nepal}} | pop2 = 4,000,000Where big can be bothersome. The Hindu. 7 January 2001. United Arab Emirates}}ACCESSDATE=7 MARCH 2017DATE=3 MARCH 2017, United States}} PUBLISHER=U.S. CENSUS BUREAU, 15 October 2016, Malaysia}} PUBLISHER=DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION, MINISTRY OF COMMUNICATIONS AND MULTIMEDIA, MALAYSIAARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160212125740/HTTP://PMR.PENERANGAN.GOV.MY/INDEX.PHP/INFO-TERKINI/19463-UNJURAN-POPULASI-PENDUDUK-2015.HTMLDEADURL=YES, Pakistan}}WORK=THE EXPRESS TRIBUNEACCESSDATE=3 AUGUST 2017LAST=GISHKORIACCESSDATE=7 MARCH 2017DATE=3 MARCH 2017, BAGRI>FIRST1=NEHA THIRANIURL=HTTPS://QZ.COM/926009/THERE-ARE-MORE-INDIAN-MIGRANTS-LIVING-IN-PAKISTAN-THAN-THE-UNITED-STATES/WORK=QUARTZ, MORE INDIAN MIGRANTS IN PAKISTAN THAN IN US: PEW REPORT - TIMES OF INDIA>URL=HTTP://TIMESOFINDIA.INDIATIMES.COM/INDIA/MORE-INDIAN-MIGRANTS-IN-PAKISTAN-THAN-IN-US-PEW-REPORT/ARTICLESHOW/57519432.CMSWORK=THE TIMES OF INDIA, MORE INDIAN MIGRANTS LIVING IN PAKISTAN THAN US: PEW RESEARCH CENTRE - THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE>URL=HTTPS://TRIBUNE.COM.PK/STORY/1348433/INDIAN-MIGRANTS-LIVING-PAKISTAN-UNITED-STATES-PEW-RESEARCH-CENTRE/WORK=THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE, 7 March 2017, (post-partition migrants)United Kingdom}}PUBLISHER=OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICSACCESSDATE=28 FEBRUARY 2015, Canada}}PUBLISHER=STATCAN.GC.CA ACCESSDATE=2016-05-02, South Africa}} DATE=27 JULY 2011 ACCESSDATE=2011-08-01, 3, Myanmar}} DEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=12 JUNE 2010, dmy-all, Mauritius}}| pop12 = 994,500Sri Lanka}} PUBLISHER=DEPARTMENT OF CENSUS AND STATISTICS, SRI LANKA, 20 April 2012, Oman}}| pop14 = 796,001Kuwait}}URL=HTTP://GULFNEWS.COM/NEWS/GULF/KUWAIT/KUWAIT-MP-SEEKS-FIVE-YEAR-CAP-ON-EXPAT-WORKERS-STAY-1.1284513 DATE=30 JANUARY 2014, Qatar}}ACCESSDATE=7 FEBRUARY 2017, Trinidad and Tobago}}| pop17 = 556,800Australia}}WEBSITE=AUSTRALIAN BUREAU OF STATISTICSACCESSDATE=31 MARCH 2016, Thailand}}| pop19 = 465,000Bahrain}}| pop20 = 400,000Guyana}}| pop21 = 327,000Fiji}}| pop22 = 315,000France}} (Réunion, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte) | pop23 = 456,470 Singapore}}WORK=SINGAPORE GOVERNMENTACCESSDATE=14 FEBRUARY 2016ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160216110141/HTTP://WWW.NPTD.GOV.SG/PORTALS/0/HOMEPAGE/HIGHLIGHTS/POPULATION-IN-BRIEF-2015.PDFDF=DMY-ALL, Italy}}| pop25 = 197,301Germany}}Immigration from outside Europe almost doubled {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20171209232407weblink |date=9 December 2017 }}. Federal Institute for Population Research. Retrieved 1 March 2017The Netherlands}}| pop27 = 156,000New Zealand}}WEBSITE=STATS.GOVT.NZ, 11 December 2017, Suriname}}| pop29 = 148,000Indonesia}}| pop30 = 120,000Languages of India, including: {{hlist> Assamese language > Bengali language > Bodo language > Chhattisgarhi language > Dogri language > Indian English > Gujarati language > Hindi language>Hindi Kashmiri language>Kashmiri Kannada language>Kannada Konkani language>Konkani Maithili language>Maithili Malayalam language>Malayalam Meitei language>Manipuri Marathi language>Marathi Nepali language>Nepali Odia language>Odia Punjabi language>Punjabi Rajasthani language>Rajasthani Sanskrit > Santali language > Sindhi language > Tamil language > Telugu language > Tulu language > Urdu}}Predominantly:Hinduism Minorities:{{hlist> Islam Christianity >Sikhism Buddhism > Jainism Zoroastrianism > Judaism Bahá'í Faith>Bahá'íIrreligion in India>Irreligion}}Non-resident Indian and person of Indian origin>Indian diaspora}}Indians are the nationals or citizens of India, the second most populous nation in the world, containing 17.50%{{citation | title = Official population clock | url =weblink | access-date = 27 January 2015 | archive-url =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151124035144weblink">weblink | archive-date = 24 November 2015 | dead-url = yes | df = dmy-all }} of the world's population. "Indian" refers to nationality, rather than a particular ethnicity or language; the Indian nationality consists of dozens of regional ethno-linguistic groups, reflecting the rich and complex history of the country. Due to emigration, the Indian diaspora is present throughout the world, notably in other parts of Asia and North America. The demonymn Indian today applies to nationals of the Republic of India, although before the partition of India in 1947, nationals residing in the entirety of British India (including what is now Pakistan and Bangladesh) were known as Indians as well.BOOK, Stern, Robert W., Democracy and Dictatorship in South Asia: Dominant Classes and Political Outcomes in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, 2001, Greenwood Publishing Group, 9780275970413, 6, English, BOOK, Henry Newman, The Calcutta Review, 1921, University of Calcutta, 252, English, I have also found that Bombay is India, Satara is India, Bangalore is India, Madras is India, Delhi, Lahore, the Khyber, Lucknow, Calcutta, Cuttack, Shillong, etc., are all India.,

Ethnonym

File:Bharata Chakravartin - Chandragiri.jpg|thumb|upright|Emperor (Bharata Chakravartin]], after whom India was named Bharatvarsha. BOOK,weblink Jain Pooja-Kavya: Ek Chintan, 9788126308187, )The name Bhārata has been used as a self-ascribed name by people of the Indian subcontinent and the Republic of India.Article 1 of the English version of the Constitution of India: "India that is Bharat shall be a Union of States." The designation Bhārata appears in the official Sanskrit name of the country, Bhārata Gaṇarājya. The name is derived from the ancient Jain and Hindu puranas, which refer to the land that comprises India as Bhārata vará¹£am and uses this term to distinguish it from other vará¹£as or continents.{{Citation|title=Ancient Indian Historical Tradition|last=Pargiter|first=F. F.|publisher=Motilal Banarsidass|place=Delhi|year=1922|page=131}} India was named "Bhāratavarsha" or "Bhārata" or "Bharata-bhumi" after Bharata Chakravartin, the son of first Jain Tirthankar Rishabhanatha.{{sfn|Champat Rai Jain|1929|p=159}}{{sfn|Umakant P. Shah|1987|p=72}} In the Hindu text, Skanda Purana (chapter 37) it is stated that "Rishabhanatha was the son of Nabhiraja, and Rishabha had a son named Bharata, and after the name of this Bharata, this country is known as Bharata-varsha."{{sfn|Sangave|2001|p=106}} This has been mentioned in Vishnu Purana (2,1,31), Vayu Purana,(33,52), Linga Purana(1,47,23), Brahmanda Purana (14,5,62), Agni Purana ( 107,11–12), Skanda Purana, Khanda (37,57) and Markandeya Purana (50,41) it is clearly stated that this country is known as Bharata VarshaweblinkVishnu Purana mentions:ऋषभो मरुदेव्याश्च ऋषभात भरतो भवेत् भरताद भारतं वर्षं, भरतात सुमतिस्त्वभूत्Rishabhanatha was born to Marudevi, Bharata was born to Rishabh, Bharatvarsha (India) arose from Bharata, and Sumati arose from Bharata — Vishnu Purana (2,1,31)BOOK, Vishnu Purana, 44,weblink 9788171826735, Chaturvedi, B. K., 2006, While the word Indian and India is derived from Greek (Indía), via Latin India. Indía in Koine Greek denoted the region beyond the Indus () river, since Herodotus (5th century BC) , hÄ“ IndikÄ“ chōrÄ“; "the Indian land", , Indos, "an Indian", from Old Persian HinduÅ¡ and medieval term Hindustani.Hudson, John C., ed., Goode's World Atlas 20th Edition Chicago, Illinois, USA:2000—Rand McNally Map Page 203 Major Languages of India—map of the ethnolinguistic groups of India The name is derived ultimately from Sindhu, the Sanskrit name of the river Indus, but also meaning "river" generically.BOOK, Martha Pui Yiu, Cheung, Zan Ning (919–1001 CE), To Translate Means to Exchange, An Anthology of Chinese Discourse on Translation: From Earliest Times to the Buddhist Project, 2014, 2006, Routledge, 978-1-317-63928-2, 179, 181,

History

{{Multiple image|caption_align=center|header_align=center
| align = left
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| width = 200
| image1 = Mohenjo-daro Priesterkönig.jpeg
| caption1 = Priest-King, Indus Valley civilisation
| image2 = Maurya_Empire%2C_c.250_BCE_2.png
| caption2 = Map of the Mauryan Empire 3rd century BC
| image3 = Cave 26, Ajanta.jpg
| caption3 = Buddhist rock-cut architecture, 2nd century BC
}}(File:Photograph of the Lion Capital at Sarnath, Uttar Pradesh by Madho Prasad, c.1905.jpg|thumb|Ashoka pillar, erected by Emperor Ashoka in about 250 BC. It has been adopted as emblem of India.)The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the blending of the Indus Valley Civilization and Indo-Aryan culture into the Vedic Civilization; the development of Hinduism as a synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions; rise of sixteen oligarchic republics known as Mahajanapadas; rise of Åšramaṇa movement; birth of Jainism and Buddhism in 6th-century BCE,WEB,weblink Religion -- Chapter 3, www.brow.on.ca, 11 December 2017, and the onset of a succession of powerful dynasties and empires for more than two millennia throughout various geographic areas of the subcontinent, including the growth of Muslim dynasties during the Medieval period intertwined with Hindu powers; the advent of European traders resulting in the establishment of the British rule; and the subsequent independence movement that led to the Partition of India and the creation of the Republic of India.The Indian people established during ancient, medieval to early eighteenth century some of the greatest empires and dynasties in South Asian history like the Maurya Empire, Satavahana dynasty, Gupta Empire, Rashtrakuta dynasty, Chalukya Empire, Chola Empire, Karkota Empire, Pala Empire, Vijayanagara Empire, Maratha Empire and Sikh Empire.The first great Empire of the Indian people was the Maurya Empire having Patliputra(currently Patna, Bihar) as its capital, conquered the major part of South Asia in the 4th and 3rd century BC during the reign of the Indian Emperors Chandragupta Maurya and Ashoka alongside their senior advisor, Acharya Chanakya, the pioneer of the field of political science and economics in the World. The next great ancient Empire of the Indian people was the Gupta Empire. This period, witnessing a Hindu religious and intellectual resurgence, is known as the classical or "Golden Age of India". During this period, aspects of Indian civilisation, administration, culture, and Hinduism and Buddhism spread to much of Asia, while Chola Empire in the south had flourishing maritime trade links with the Roman Empire during this period. The ancient Indian mathematicians Aryabhata, Bhāskara I and Brahmagupta invented the concept of zero and the Hindu–Arabic numeral system decimal system during this period.The Earth and Its Peoples by Richard Bulliet, Pamela Crossley, Daniel Headrick, Steven Hirsch, Lyman Johnson p.192 During this period Indian cultural influence spread over many parts of Southeast Asia which led to the establishment of Indianized kingdoms in Southeast Asia.The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia: From early times to c. 1800, Band 1 by Nicholas Tarling p.281File:India1760 1905.jpg|thumb|190px|(Maratha Empire]]: Territory under Maratha control in 1760 (yellow), without its vassals)During the early medieval period the great Rashtrakuta dynasty dominated the major part of the Indian subcontinent.from the 8th to 10th century and the Indian Emperor Amoghavarsha of the Rashtrakuta Dynasty was described by the Arab traveller Sulaiman as one of the four great kings of the world.The Shaping of Modern Gujarat: Plurality, Hindutva, and Beyond; Acyuta Yājñika, Suchitra Sheth, Penguins Books, (2005), p.42, {{ISBN|978-0-14400-038-8}} The medieval south Indian mathematician MahāvÄ«ra lived in the Rashtrakuta dynasty and was the first Indian mathematician who separated astrology from mathematics and who wrote the earliest Indian text entirely devoted to mathematics.The Math Book: From Pythagoras to the 57th Dimension, 250 Milestones by Clifford A. Pickover: page 88 The greatest maritime Empire of the medieval Indians was the Chola dynasty. Under the great Indian Emperors Rajaraja Chola I and his successor Rajendra Chola I the Chola dynasty became a military, economic and cultural power in South Asia and South-East Asia.Kulke and Rothermund, p 115Keay, p 215 The power of the Chola empire was proclaimed to the eastern world by the expedition to the Ganges which Rajendra Chola I undertook and by the occupation of cities of the maritime empire of Srivijaya in Southeast Asia, as well as by the repeated embassies to China.K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, A History of South India, p 158During the late medieval period the great Vijayanagara Empire dominated the major part of southern India from the 14th to 16th century and reached its peak during the reign of the south Indian Emperor Sri KrishnadevarayaColumbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture by John Stewart Bowman p.270 The medieval Kerala School of Astronomy and Mathematics flourished during this period under such well known south Indian mathematicians as Madhava (c. 1340-1425) who made important contributions to Trigonometery and Calculus, and Nilakhanta (c. 1444-1545) who postulated on the orbitals of planets."History of Science and Philosophy of Science: A Historical Perspective of the Evolution of Ideas in Science", editor: Pradip Kumar Sengupta, author: Subhash Kak, 2010, p91, vol XIII, part 6, Publisher: Pearson Longman, {{ISBN|978-81-317-1930-5}}The Mughal Empire unified much of Indian sub-continent under one realm. Under the Mughals India developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture. This marked a huge influence in the Indian society.BOOK, The Baburnama: Memoirs of Babur, Prince and Emperor, Modern Library, 978-0-375-76137-9, Zahir ud-Din Mohammad, Babur, Thackston, Wheeler M., Wheeler Thackston, New York, xlvi, 10 September 2002, In India the dynasty always called itself {{transl, fa, Gurkani, , after 's title {{transl|fa|Gurkân}}, the Persianized form of the Mongolian , 'son-in-law,' a title he assumed after his marriage to a Genghisid princess.|title-link=Baburnama}} The Mughal Empire balanced and pacified local societies through new administrative practices{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 115}}{{sfn|Robb|2001|pp = 90–91}} and had diverse and inclusive ruling elites,{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 17}} leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 152}} Newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pathans, the Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience.BOOK, Catherine Ella Blanshard Asher, Cynthia Talbot, India before Europe, 2006, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-80904-7, 265, BOOK, Burjor Avari, Islamic Civilization in South Asia: A History of Muslim Power and Presence in the Indian Subcontinent,weblink Routledge, 9780415580618, 131–, 2013, BOOK, Erinn Banting, Afghanistan: The people,weblink 9780778793366, 2003, {{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 23–24}}The Marathas and Sikhs emerged in the 17th century and established the Maratha Empire and Sikh Empire which became the dominant power in India in the 18th century.Western India in the Nineteenth Century: A Study in the Social History by Ravinder Kumar p.5 The Maratha Empire is credited to a large extent for ending the Mughal rule in India.JOURNAL, M. N., Pearson, Shivaji and the Decline of the Mughal Empire, The Journal of Asian Studies, 35, 2, 221–235, February 1976, 2053980, yes, 10.2307/2053980, WEB,weblink Delhi, the Capital of India, John, Capper, 11 December 2017, Asian Educational Services, 11 December 2017, Google Books, BOOK,weblink An Advanced History of Modern India, Sailendra Nath Sen, Introduction-14, The author says: "The victory at Bhopal in 1738 established Maratha dominance at the Mughal court", 15 December 2017, WEB,weblink Is the Pakistan army martial? - The Express Tribune, 29 September 2012, tribune.com.pk, 11 December 2017, The empire at its peak stretched from Tamil Nadu in the south, to Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the northWEB,weblink An Advanced History of Modern India, Sailendra Nath, Sen, 11 December 2017, Macmillan India, 11 December 2017, Google Books, and Bengal and Andaman Islands in the east.Andaman & Nicobar Origin | Andaman & Nicobar Island History. Andamanonline.in.During the era of the British Raj, India was a (Member states of the League of Nations#10 January 1920: founding members|founding member) of the League of Nations in 1920, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.{{citation|last=Mansergh|first=Nicholas|authorlink=Nicholas Mansergh|title=Constitutional relations between Britain and India|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=DJkOAQAAMAAJ|accessdate=19 September 2013|publisher=His Majesty's Stationery Office|location=London|page=xxx}} Quote: "India Executive Council: Sir Arcot Ramasamy Mudaliar, Sir Firoz Khan Noon and Sir V. T. Krishnamachari served as India's delegates to the London Commonwealth Meeting, April 1945, and the U.N. San Francisco Conference on International Organisation, April–June 1945."

Culture

India is one of the world's oldest civilisations.BOOK, Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark, Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, Heuston, Kimberley, May 2005, The Ancient South Asian World,weblink Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-517422-9, 56413341, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121120093649weblink">weblink 20 November 2012, dmy-all, The Indian culture, often labelled as an amalgamation of several various cultures, spans across the Indian subcontinent and has been influenced and shaped by a history that is several thousand years old.John Keay (2011), India: A History, 2nd Ed - Revised and Updated, Grove Press / Harper Collins, {{ISBN|978-0-8021-4558-1}}, see Introduction and Chapters 3 through 11Mohammada, Malika (2007), The foundations of the composite culture in India, Aakar Books, {{ISBN|81-89833-18-9}} Throughout the history of India, Indian culture has been heavily influenced by Dharmic religions.Nikki Stafford Finding Lost, ECW Press, 2006 {{ISBN|1-55022-743-2}} p. 174 They have been credited with shaping much of Indian philosophy, literature, architecture, art and music.BOOK,weblink 3, 1, Cultural History of India, New Age International Limited Publications, 2005, 978-81-224-1587-2, Greater India was the historical extent of Indian culture beyond the Indian subcontinent. This particularly concerns the spread of Hinduism, Buddhism, architecture, administration and writing system from India to other parts of Asia through the Silk Road by the travellers and maritime traders during the early centuries of the Common Era.Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, by Keat Gin Ooi p.642Hindu-Buddhist Architecture in Southeast Asia by Daigorō Chihara p.226 To the west, Greater India overlaps with Greater Persia in the Hindu Kush and Pamir Mountains.BOOK,weblink Justice, Punishment and the Medieval Muslim Imagination, Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization, Lange, Christian, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-88782-3, 2008-07-10, {{dead link|date=November 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Lange: Greater Persia (including Khwārazm, Transoxania, and Afghanistan)." During medieval period, Islam played a significant role in shaping Indian cultural heritageBOOK
, Sharma
, Usha
, Cultural and Religious Heritage of India
, Mittal Publications, 2004
, 978-81-7099-960-7
, 2004
, Over the centuries, there has been significant integration of Hindus, Jains, and Sikhs with Muslims across IndiaBOOK
, E. Dunn
, Ross
, The adventures of Ibn Battuta, a Muslim traveller of the fourteenth century
, University of California Press, 1986
, 978-0-520-05771-5
, BOOK
, Tharoor
, Shashi
, India: From Midnight to the Millennium and Beyond
, Arcade Publishing, 2006
, 978-1-55970-803-6
,

Religion

File:Coin of Vikramaditya Chandragupta II with the name of the king in Brahmi script 380 415 CE.jpg|thumb|180px|Goddess Lakshmi on gold coinage issued under Gupta EmpireGupta EmpireFile:HOLI IN INDIA - ENJOYED BY ALL.jpg|thumb|180px|HoliHoliIndia is the birthplace of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, collectively known as Indian religions. Indian religions, also known as Dharmic religions are a major form of world religions along with Abrahamic ones. Today, Hinduism and Buddhism are the world's third- and fourth-largest religions respectively, with over 1 billion followers altogether,BOOK,weblink 359, 45, What Is Hinduism?: Modern Adventures Into a Profound Global Faith, Himalayan Academy Publications, 2007, 978-1-934145-00-5, WEB,weblink Non Resident Nepali – Speeches, Nrn.org.np, 1 August 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101225084929weblink">weblink 25 December 2010, dmy-all, WEB,weblink BBCVietnamese.com, Bbc.co.uk, 1 August 2010, and possibly as many as 1.5 or 1.6 billion followers.WEB,weblink Religions of the world: numbers of adherents; growth rates, Religioustolerance.org, 1 August 2010, Throughout India's history, religion has been an important part of the country's culture. Religious diversity and religious tolerance are both established in the country by the law and by custom; the Constitution of India has declared the right to freedom of religion to be a fundamental right.BOOK, Basu, Durga Das, Durga Das Basu, Introduction to the Constitution of India, 21, 2013, LexisNexis, 978-81-803-8918-4, 124, Atheism and agnosticism have a long history in India and flourished within Åšramaṇa movement.Johannes Quack (2014), Disenchanting India: Organized Rationalism and Criticism of Religion in India, Oxford University Press, {{ISBN|978-0199812615}}, page 50 with footnote 3. The Cārvāka school originated in India around the 6th century BCE and is one of the earliest form of materialistic and atheistic movement in ancient India.Ramkrishna Bhattacharya (2011), Studies on the Cārvāka/Lokāyata, Anthem Press, {{ISBN|978-0857284334}}, pages 26-29KN Tiwari (1998), Classical Indian Ethical Thought, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120816077}}, page 67;Roy W Perrett (1984), The problem of induction in Indian philosophy, Philosophy East and West, 34(2): 161-174;{{harv|Bhattacharya|2011|pp=21–32}};{{harv|Radhakrishnan|1957|pp=187, 227–234}};Robert Flint, {{Google books|7es0AQAAIAAJ|Anti-theistic theories|page=463}}, Appendix Note VII - Hindu Materialism: The Charvaka System; William Blackwood, London;V.V. Raman (2012), Hinduism and Science: Some Reflections, Zygon - Journal of Religion and Science, 47(3): 549–574, Quote (page 557): "Aside from nontheistic schools like the Samkhya, there have also been explicitly atheistic schools in the Hindu tradition. One virulently anti-supernatural system is/was the so-called Charvaka school.", {{doi|10.1111/j.1467-9744.2012.01274.x}} Sramana, Buddhism, Jainism, Ä€jÄ«vika and some schools of Hinduism like Samkhya consider atheism to be valid and reject the concept of creator deity, ritualism and supernaturalism.BOOK, Chakravarti, Sitansu, Hinduism, a way of life, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1991, 71,weblink 978-81-208-0899-7, 9 April 2011, JOURNAL, Joshi, L.R., 1966, A New Interpretation of Indian Atheism, Philosophy East and West, 16, 3/4, 189–206, 10.2307/1397540, 1397540, BOOK, Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, Charles A. Moore, A Sourcebook in Indian Philosophy, Princeton University Press, 1957, Twelfth Princeton Paperback printing 1989, 227–249, 978-0-691-01958-1, India has produced some notable atheist politicians and social reformers.BOOK, Phil Zuckerman, Atheism and Secularity,weblink 7 September 2013, 21 December 2009, ABC-CLIO, 978-0-313-35182-2, Chapeter 7: Atheism and Secularity in India, Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, p. 259According to the 2011 census, 79.8% of the population of India practices Hinduism and 14.2% adheres to Islam, while the remaining 7.37% adheres to other religions, mostly Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Christianity.WEB,weblink Census of India – Socio-cultural aspects, Censusindia.gov.in, 3 February 2011, Zoroastrianism and Judaism each has several thousands of Indian adherents, and also have an ancient history in India.{{harvnb|Hodivala|1920|p=88}} India has the largest population of people adhering to Zoroastrianism and Bahá'í Faith in the world, even though these two religions are not native to India.BOOK
, Smith, Peter
, An introduction to the Baha'i faith
, Cambridge University Press, 2008, 94
,weblink
, 978-0-521-86251-6, Many other world religions also have a relationship with Indian spirituality, such as the Bahá'í Faith which recognises Buddha and Krishna as manifestations of the God Almighty.BOOK, Enroth, Ronald, A Guide to New Religious Movements,weblink 2005, InterVarsity Press, 978-0-8308-2381-9, 160, Despite the strong role of religion in Indian life, atheism and agnostics also have visible influence along with a self-ascribed tolerance to other people. According to the 2012 WIN-Gallup Global Index of Religion and Atheism report, 81% of Indians were religious, 13% were not religious, 3% were convinced atheists, and 3% were unsure or did not respond.WEB, Global Index Of Religion And Atheism,weblink WIN-Gallup, 3 September 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121016062403weblink">weblink 16 October 2012,
Traditionally, Indian society is grouped according to their caste. It's a system in which social stratification within various social sections defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups are often termed jāti or castes. Within a jāti, there exists exogamous groups known as gotras, the lineage or clan of an individuals.BOOK, Islamization in Modern South Asia: Deobandi Reform and the Gujjar Response, David Emmanuel, Singh, Walter de Gruyter, 2012, 199, 978-1-61451-246-2,weblink Caste barriers have mostly broken down in cities but still exists in some form in rural areas.WEB, The Impact of Positive Discrimination in Education in India: Evidence from a Natural Experiment, Guilhem, Cassan, Paris School of Economics and Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquee, September 2011,weblink Hinduism is the majority in most states; Kashmir and Lakshadweep are Muslim majority; Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya are Christian majority; Punjab is a Sikh majority with Hindus 37%. It is to be noted that while participants in the Indian census may choose to not declare their religion, there is no mechanism for a person to indicate that he/she does not adhere to any religion. Due to this limitation in the Indian census process, the data for persons not affiliated with any religion may not be accurate.India contains the majority of the world's Hindus, Jains, Sikhs, Zoroastrians and Bahá'í. Christianity is widespread in the Northeast India, parts of southern India, particularly in Kerala and among various populations of Central India. Muslims are the largest religious minority. India is also home to the third-largest Muslim population in the world after Indonesia and Pakistan.BOOK,weblink Indian and Foreign Review, 6 May 2015, WEB,weblink UNITED STATES COMMISSION ON INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM-Annual Report 2015, WEB,weblink 15th anniversary retrospective:UNITED STATES COMMISSION ON INTERNATIONAL RELIGIOUS FREEDOM,

Family

(File:Bride entering the hall - Indian Hindu Wedding.jpg|thumb|150px|Indian bride in traditional wedding attire)Historically, India had a prevailing tradition of the joint family system or undivided family. Joint family system is an extended family arrangement prevalent throughout the Indian subcontinent, particularly in India.WEB, Talwar, Swati, Meaning of HUF (Hindu Undivided Family),weblink Taxpaisa.com, 29 June 2014, The family is headed by a patriarch, the oldest male, who makes decisions on economic and social matters on behalf of the entire family. The patriarch's wife generally exerts control over the household, minor religious practices and often wields considerable influence in domestic matters. A patrilineal joint family consists of an older man and his wife, his sons and unmarried daughters, his sons’ wives and children. Family income flows into a common pool, from which resources are drawn to meet the needs of all members, which are regulated by the heads of the family.JOURNAL, The Hindu Joint Family: The Norms and the Numbers, Henry Orenstein, Michael Micklin, Pacific Affairs, 39, 3/4, Autumn, 1966, 2754275, 314–325, harv, 10.2307/2754275, 1966, However, with modernisation and economic development, India has witnessed a break up of traditional joint family into more nuclear families and the traditional joint family in India accounted for a small percent of Indian households.BOOK, Dynamics of Change in the Modern Hindu Family, 1993, South Asia Books, Raghuvir Sinha, 978-81-7022-448-8, WEB, Indian Families,weblink Facts About India, 11 October 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110730125635weblink">weblink 30 July 2011, dmy-all, Arranged marriages have been the tradition in Indian society. Marriage is considered a union of the two families rather than just the individuals, the process involved in an arranged marriage can be different depending on the communities and families. Recent survey study found that fewer marriages are purely arranged without consent and that the majority of surveyed Indian marriages are arranged with consent.WEB, Is Education Associated with a Transition towards Autonomy in Partner Choice? A Case Study of India, Manjistha Banerji, Steven Martin, Sonalde Desai, 2008, University of Maryland & NCAER,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160303214920weblink">weblink 3 March 2016, dmy-all, The study also suggested that Indian culture is trending away from traditional arranged marriages, they find that the marriage trends in India are similar to trends observed over last 40 years where arranged marriages was previously common, particularly in China and Japan.

Dress

India's clothing styles have continuously evolved over the course of history. Cotton was first cultivated in Indian subcontinent around the 5th millennium BC.Stein, Burton (1998). A History of India. Blackwell Publishing. {{ISBN|0-631-20546-2}}, p. 47 Dyes used during this period are still in use, particularly indigo, red madder, lac and turmeric.WEB, Harrapa clothing,weblink A.harappa.com, 15 December 2017, Silk was woven around 2450 BC and 2000 BC.WEB, Abbott, Phill,weblink Rethinking silk's origins : Nature News, Nature.com, 9 November 2013, JOURNAL, Good, I.L., Kenoyer, J.M., Meadow, R.H., New evidence for early silk in the Indus civilization, Archaeometry, 50, 457–466, 2009, 10.1111/j.1475-4754.2008.00454.x, 3, In 11th-century BC Rig-veda mentions dyed and embroidered garments known as paridhan and pesas respectively and thus highlights the development of sophisticated garment manufacturing techniques during this period.BOOK
, Verma
, S.P.
, Ancient system of oriental medicine
, Anmol Publications PVT. LTD., 2005
, 978-81-261-2127-4,weblink In the 5th century BCE, Greek historian Herodotus describes the richness of the quality of Indian textiles.BOOK
, Beveridge
, Henry
, A comprehensive history of India
, Blackie and son, 1867
, 978-81-85418-45-2, By the 2nd century AD, cotton, muslins and silk textiles manufactured in India were imported by the Roman Empire and was one of the major exports of ancient India to other parts of the world along with Indian spices and Wootz steel.BOOK
, Jayapalan
, N.,weblink
, Economic History of India
, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 2008
, 978-81-269-0697-0,
Traditional Indian clothing greatly varies across different parts of the country and is influenced by local culture, geography and climate. Women traditionally wear Sari, Gagra Choli, Angarkha, Phiran, Shalwar Kameez, Gharara and Bandi with Dupatta or Ghoonghat worn over head or shoulder to complete the outfit.Govind Sadashiv Ghurye (1951) "Indian Costume.", p.11 Men traditionally wear Angarkha, Achkan, Kurta, Kameez, Phiran, Sherwani and Koti for upper garment, lower garment includes Dhoti, Churidar, Shalwar, and Lungi. Pagri is usually worn around head to complete the outfit.Govind Sadashiv Ghurye (1951) "Indian Costume.", p.12 In urban centres, people often wear western clothing and variety of other contemporary fashion.BOOK, arti sandhu, Indian Fashion: Tradition, Innovation, Style,weblink 4 June 2012, 2015, bloomsbury, 978-18478-8780-1, 126,

Cuisine

File:Vegetarian Curry.jpeg|right|thumb|180px|Vegetarian thali with naan, daal, raita and papad]]Indian food varies from region to region. Staple foods of Indian cuisine include a variety of lentils (dal), whole-wheat flour (aá¹­á¹­a), rice and pearl millet (bājra), which has been cultivated in Indian subcontinent since 6200 BCE.BOOK, K T Achaya, The Story of Our Food,weblink 18 June 2015, 2003, Universities Press, 9788173712937, BOOK, Harris, David R., The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia, Psychology Press, 1996, 978-1-85728-538-3, 565, Over time, segments of the population embraced vegetarianism during Åšramaṇa movementPadmanabh S Jaini (2001), Collected papers on Buddhist Studies, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120817760}}, pages 57-77Padmanabh S Jaini (2000), Collected papers on Jaina Studies, Motilal Banarsidass, {{ISBN|978-8120816916}}, pages 3-14 while an equitable climate permitted a variety of fruits, vegetables, and grains to be grown throughout the year. A food classification system that categorised any item as saatvic, raajsic or taamsic developed in Yoga tradition.Autobiography Of A Yogi, Paramahansa Yogananda, Self Realization Fellowship, 1973, p. 22Maharishi Mahesh Yogi on the Bhagavad Gita Translation and Commentary, Arkana, 1990 p. 236 The Bhagavad Gita prescribed certain dietary practices. During this period, consumption of various types of meat became taboo, due to being considered sacred or impure.WEB,weblink Chapter 17, Verse 8,9,10, Bhagavad-Gita, 31 August 2011, BOOK, Donald K. Sharpes, Sacred Bull, Holy Cow: A Cultural Study of Civilization's Most Important Animal,weblink 4 June 2012, 2006, Peter Lang, 978-0-8204-7902-6, 208, Indian cuisines use numerous ingredients, deploy a wide range of food preparation styles, cooking techniques and culinary presentation depending on geographical location.BOOK, On food and cooking, Harold McGee, 978-0-684-80001-1, 2004, Scribner,weblink

Performing arts

File:Kathakali -Play with Kaurava.jpg|thumb|180px| KathakaliKathakali The oldest preserved examples of Indian music are the melodies of the Samaveda (1000 BC) that are still sung in certain Åšrauta sacrifices; this is the earliest account of Indian musical hymns.BOOK
, Emmie te Nijenhuis,weblink
, Indian music, Part 2, Volume 6
, BRILL
, 978-90-04-03978-0
, 1974, The Samaveda, and other Hindu texts, heavily influenced India's classical music tradition, which is known today in two distinct styles: Hindustani music and Carnatic music. Both the Hindustani and Carnatic music systems are based on the melodic base known as Rāga, sung to a rhythmic cycle known as Tāla. These principles were refined in the nātyaśāstra (200 BC) and the dattilam (300 AD).A Study of Dattilam: A Treatise on the Sacred Music of Ancient India, 1978, p. 283, Mukunda Lāṭha, Dattila
The nātyaśāstrais an ancient Indian treatise on the performing arts, encompassing theatre, dance and music. It was written during the period between 200 BCE and 200 CE in classical India and is traditionally attributed to the Sage Bharata.WEB, Natyashastra, Sanskrit Documents,weblink Natya Shastra is incredibly wide in its scope. While it primarily deals with stagecraft, it has come to influence music, classical dance, and literature as well. It covers stage design, music, dance, makeup, and virtually every other aspect of stagecraft.Indian drama and theatre has a long history alongside its music and dance. One of the earliest known theatre play is Má¹›cchakatika composed by Åšudraka. Followed by AÅ›vaghoá¹£a's Śāriputraprakaraṇa and Bhāsa's Swapnavāsavadatta and Pancharātra. Most notable works are Kālidāsa's Abhijñānaśākuntala, Vikramorvaśīya and Mālavikāgnimitra. Harsha's Ratnavali, Priyadarsika, and Naganandam, other notable ancient dramatists include Bhatta Narayana, Bhavabhuti, Vishakhadatta, Thirayattam "Thirayattam" (Folklore Text- malayalam, Moorkkanad apeethambaran), State Institute of language, Kerala. {{ISBN|978-81-200-4294-0}} and Viswanatha Kaviraja.BOOK
, Nātyakalpadrumam, 6
, Māni Mādhava Chākyār
, Sangeet Natak Akademi, New Delhi
, 1996, Nātyakalpadrumam
,
Notable fable story-plays Panchatantra, Baital Pachisi, Kathasaritsagara, Brihatkatha and Jataka tales were performed in folk theatres since ancient period.Burton, Richard F. (2002). Vikram and the Vampire Or Tales of Hindu Devilry pg xi. Adamant Media Corporation Jataka tales has become part of Southeast and East Asian folklore with the spread of Buddhism. These literature's were also influential in development of One Thousand and One Nights during medieval period.{{citation|title=The Arabian Nights: A Companion|first=Robert|last=Irwin|publisher=Tauris Parke Paperbacks|year=2003|isbn=978-1-86064-983-7|page=65}}

Contribution and discoveries

Indian people have played a major role in the development of the philosophy, sciences, mathematics, arts, architecture and astronomy throughout history. During the ancient period, notable mathematics accomplishment of India included Hindu–Arabic numeral system with decimal place-value and a symbol for zero, interpolation formula, Fibonacci's identity, theorem, the first complete arithmetic solution (including zero and negative solutions) to quadratic equations.WEB,weblink History of Algebra, 5 October 2014, Chakravala method, sign convention, madhava series, and the sine and cosine in trigonometric functions can be traced to the jyā and koti-jyā.Boyer, Carl B. (1991). A History of Mathematics (Second ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. {{ISBN|0-471-54397-7}}, p. 210. Notable military inventions include war elephants, crucible steel weapons popularly known as Damascus steel and Mysorean rockets.Narasimha Roddam (2 April 1985) Rockets in Mysore and Britain, 1750–1850 A.D., National Aeronautical Laboratory and Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560017 India, Project Document DU 8503,WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2011-12-19, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120303205010weblink">weblink 3 March 2012, dmy-all, Other notable inventions during ancient period include chess, cotton, sugar, fired bricks, carbon pigment ink, ruler, lac, lacquer, stepwell, indigo dye, snake and ladder, muslin, ludo, calico, Wootz steel, incense clock, shampoo, palampore, chintz, and prefabricated home.Indian cultural aspects, religions, philosophy, arts and architecture have developed over several millennia and have spread through much of Asia in peaceful manner. Many architectural structures of India such as Sanchi Stupa, Taj Mahal and Mahabodhi Temple are UNESCO World Heritage sites today.WEB,weblink Properties Inscribed on the World heritage List, UNESCO, 1 October 2010, In modern times, Indian people have continued to contribute to mathematics, sciences and astrophysics. Among them are Satyendra Nath Bose, Srinivasa Ramanujan, Jagadish Chandra Bose, Meghnad Saha, Homi J. Bhabha, Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis and notable Nobel Prize recipients C. V. Raman, Har Gobind Khorana, Venkatraman Ramakrishnan and Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar who is notable for currently accepted theory on the later evolutionary stages of massive stars, including black holes.WEB,weblink Nobel Prizes-Britannica, 6 May 2015,

National personification

Bharat Mata (Hindi, from Sanskrit , Bhārata Mātā), Mother India, or Bhāratāmbā (from अंबा ambā 'mother') is the national personification of India as a mother goddess.The image of Bharat Mata formed with the Indian independence movement of the late 19th century. A play by Kiran Chandra Bandyopadhyay, Bhārat Mātā, was first performed in 1873. She is usually depicted as a woman clad in an orange or saffron sari holding a flag, and sometimes accompanied by a lion.WEB,weblink Life and Times of Bharat Mata - Manushi, Issue 142, indiatogether.org, 11 December 2017,

Indian diaspora

Although, population groups originating in different parts of the Indian subcontinent and within the international borders of the modern country of India had been migrating to south east Asia, far east Asia, central Asia, north Africa and even along the European mediterranean coast, the Indian diaspora generally socio-politically or historically refers to those whose families or themselves migrated to other parts of the world after the British Empire established itself in India. Population estimates vary from a conservative 12 million to 20 million diaspora.WEB, Executive Summary - The Indian Diaspora,weblink Indiandiaspora.nic.in, 15 December 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304222045weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, yes, dmy-all, WEB, India and its Diaspora,weblink Moia.gov.in, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304023255weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, dmy-all,

Britain

The British Indian community had grown to number over one million. According to the 2001 UK Census, 1,053,411 Britons had full Indian ethnicity (representing 1.8% of the UK's population). An overwhelming majority of 99.3% resided in England (in 2008 the figure is thought to be around 97.0%). In the seven-year period between 2001 and 2009, the number of Indian-born people in the UK increased in size by 38% from 467,634 to around 647,000 (an increase of approximately 180,000).WEB,weblink Estimated population resident in the United Kingdom, by foreign country of birth (Table 1.3), Office for National Statistics, September 2009, 8 July 2010, yes,weblink 22 January 2011, dmy-all,

Canada

There are over 1.5 million people of Indian origin or ancestry in Canada, the majority of which live in Greater Toronto and Vancouver, with growing communities in Alberta and Quebec. Nearly 4% of the total Canadian population is of Indian ancestry, a figure higher than both the United States and Britain. According to Statistics Canada, Indo-Canadians are one of the fastest growing visible minority groups in Canada, making up the second largest non-European ethnic group in the country after Chinese Canadians. The Indo-Canadian community can trace its history in Canada back 120 years to 1897 when a contingent of Sikh soldiers visited the western coast of Canada, primarily British Columbia which at the time was very sparsely populated and the Canadian government wanted to settle in order to prevent a takeover of the territory by the United States.

South Africa

More than a million people of Indian descent live in South Africa, concentrated around the city of Durban.

Tanzania

About 40,000 people of Indian origin live in Tanzania mostly in the urban areas.

United States

According to the American Community Survey of the US Census Bureau, the Indian American population in the United States grew from almost 1.67 million in 2000 to 3.1 million in 2010 which is the third-largest Asian American community in the United States after Chinese Americans and Filipino Americans.

Caribbean

Indians from the Hindi Belt and other parts of South Asia; primarily the Awadhi, Bhojpuri, and Purvanchal regions of the Hindi Belt in the present-day states of Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh in India and the Terai and Madhesh regions of the Hindi Belt in Provinces No. 2, No. 3, and No. 5 in Nepal were sent to the Caribbean by the British, French, and Dutch, from the 1830s to the 1920s as indentured laborers to work on the sugarcane, cocoa, rice, and coffee estates. There are more than a million Indo-Caribbeans. Many of them live in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, and Jamaica, but some live in others parts of the Caribbean. There are also many Indians living in Guadeloupe and Martinique, who most are of South Indian descent. Many of them have migrated to the United States, United Kingdom, France, Canada, the Netherlands, and Ireland, and some of them have migrated to the neighboring Latin American. A majority of them are Hindus, while there are some Muslims, Christians, Jains, Sikhs, or another religion. They are known as the descendants of the jahajis or girmityas.WEB, Forced Labour, 2010, The National Archives, Government of the United Kingdom,weblink

Genetics

Recent genome studies appear to show that modern South Asians are the mixed descendants — in varying degrees of admixture depending on regions of origin across India — of two major ancient ancestral components. The most ancient component being from Australoids, the original indigenous genetic component of South Asia, and the other less ancient component being Caucasoids, which is shared with Central Asia, West Asia and Europe.JOURNAL, 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.11.010, Shared and Unique Components of Human Population Structure and Genome-Wide Signals of Positive Selection in South Asia, 2011, Metspalu, Mait, Romero, Irene Gallego, Yunusbayev, Bayazit, Chaubey, Gyaneshwer, Mallick, Chandana Basu, Hudjashov, Georgi, Nelis, Mari, Mägi, Reedik, Metspalu, Ene, Remm, Maido, Pitchappan, Ramasamy, Singh, Lalji, Thangaraj, Kumarasamy, Villems, Richard, Kivisild, Toomas, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 89, 6, 731–44, 22152676, 3234374, 1, JOURNAL, 10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.07.006, Genetic Evidence for Recent Population Mixture in India, 2013, Moorjani, Priya, Thangaraj, Kumarasamy, Patterson, Nick, Lipson, Mark, Loh, Po-Ru, Govindaraj, Periyasamy, Berger, Bonnie, Bonnie Berger, Reich, David, Singh, Lalji, The American Journal of Human Genetics, 93, 3, 422–438, 1, 23932107, 3769933, A third ancient component, Mongoloid, from South East Asia, is also present in most modern South Asians but in very small degrees. However, in Northeast India, the Mongoloid component can be admixed in degrees similar or greater than the Australoid and Caucasoid components.African admixture in South Asia is confined to small populations known as Siddis who arrived in the region in more recent historical times as merchants, sailors, indentured servants, slaves, and mercenaries. These mixed Afro-Indian descendants, however, are currently estimated at only 50,000–60,000 people among a general Indian population of more than 1.2 billion. According to genetic researchers, about 58% of the Siddis' autosomal DNA is derived from an ethnic group descended from Bantu peoples of the East African region, while the remainder is associated with local Indo-European-speaking North and Northwest Indian populations, due to recent admixture events.JOURNAL, Narang, Ankita, Recent Admixture in an Indian Population of African Ancestry, American Journal of Human Genetics, 15 July 2011, 89, 1, 111–120, 10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.06.004, etal, 21737057, 3135806,

See also

References

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