Buffalo, New York

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Buffalo, New York
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{{short description|City in Western New York state, US}}{{Use American English|date = September 2019}}{{use mdy dates|date=July 2015}}

| imagesize = 275px| image_caption = | image_flag = Flag of Buffalo, New York.svg| image_seal = Seal of Buffalo, New York.svg| image_map = Erie County New York incorporated and unincorporated areas Buffalo highlighted.svg| mapsize = | map_caption = Location within Erie County| pushpin_map = New York#USA| pushpin_map_caption = Location within the state of New York##Location within the United States| pushpin_relief = 1| pushpin_label = Buffalo| subdivision_type = CountryUnited States|size=23px}}U.S. state>StateNew York|size=23px}}List of counties in New York>CountyErie County, New York>Erie| government_type = List of mayors of Buffalo, New York>MayorByron Brown (Democratic Party (United States)>D)city council>City Council| leader_name1 = Buffalo Common Council| established_title = First settled (village)| established_date = 1789| established_title2 = Founded| established_date2 = 1801| established_title3 = Incorporated (city)| established_date3 = 1832| unit_pref = Imperial| area_footnote = | area_magnitude = 1 E9| area_total_km2 = 136.0| area_land_km2 = 105.2| area_water_km2 = 30.8| area_total_sq_mi = 52.5| area_land_sq_mi = 40.6| area_water_sq_mi = 11.9| elevation_m = 183| elevation_ft = 60042177858region:US-NY|display=inline,title}}2010 United States Census>2010| population_note = | population_total = 261452| population_density_km2 = 2,568| population_density_sq_mi = 6,436List of United States urban areas>46th)List of Metropolitan Statistical Areas>49th)Combined statistical area>CSAList of Combined Statistical Areas>44th)| population_demonyms = BuffalonianEastern Time Zone (North America)>EST| utc_offset = −05:00Eastern Daylight Time>EDT| utc_offset_DST = −04:00| website =| postal_code_type = ZIP Code| postal_code = 142XXArea code 716>716Federal Information Processing Standard>FIPS code| blank_info = 36-11000Geographic Names Information System>GNIS feature ID| blank1_info = 0973345| footnotes = | pop_est_as_of = 2018| pop_est_footnotes = | population_est = 256304}}Buffalo is the second largest city in the U.S. state of New York and the largest city in Upstate New York. {{As of|2018||df=}}, the population was 256,304. The city is the county seat of Erie County and a major gateway for commerce and travel across the Canada–United States border, forming part of the bi-national Buffalo Niagara Region.The Buffalo area was inhabited before the 17th century by the Native American Iroquois tribe and later by French colonizers. The city grew significantly in the 19th and 20th centuries as a result of immigration, the construction of the Erie Canal and rail transportation, and its close proximity to Lake Erie. This growth provided an abundance of fresh water and an ample trade route to the Midwestern United States while grooming its economy for the grain, steel and automobile industries that dominated the city's economy in the 20th century. Since the city's economy relied heavily on manufacturing, deindustrialization in the latter half of the 20th century led to a steady decline in population. While some manufacturing activity remains, Buffalo's economy has transitioned to service industries with a greater emphasis on healthcare, research and higher education, which emerged following the Great Recession.Buffalo is on the eastern shore of Lake Erie, at the head of the Niagara River, 16 miles south of Niagara Falls. Its early embrace of electric power led to the nickname "The City of Light". The city is also famous for its urban planning and layout by Joseph Ellicott, an extensive system of parks designed by Frederick Law Olmsted, as well as significant architectural works. Its culture blends Northeastern and Midwestern traditions, with annual festivals including Taste of Buffalo and Allentown Art Festival, two professional sports teams (Buffalo Bills and Buffalo Sabres), and a thriving and progressive music and arts scene.


The city of Buffalo received its name from a nearby creek called Buffalo Creek.{{Sfn|Ketchum|1865|p=63–65}} British military engineer Captain John Montresor made reference to "Buffalo Creek" in his 1764 journal, which may be the earliest recorded appearance of the name.BOOK, Buffalo Historical Society Publications, The Achievements of Captain John Montresor, Severance, Frank H., Buffalo Historical Society, Buffalo, NY, 1902, Bigelow Brothers,weblink 15, August 14, 2015, live,weblink September 16, 2015, mdy-all, There are several theories regarding how Buffalo Creek received its name.You asked us: The 868–3900 line to your desk at the Star: How Buffalo got its name, Toronto Star, Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Toronto Star, September 24, 1992, Stefaniuk, W., Retrieved April 23, 2014.Worldly setting, sophisticated choices, atmosphere at Beau Fleuve, Buffalo News, Buffalo, NY: Berkshire Hathaway, March 19, 1993, Okun, J., Retrieved April 23, 2014.'Beau Fleuve' story doesn't wash, Buffalo News, Buffalo, NY: Berkshire Hathaway, July 21, 2003, Retrieved April 23, 2014. While it is possible its name originated from French fur traders and Native Americans calling the creek Beau Fleuve (French for "Beautiful River"), it is also possible Buffalo Creek was named after the American buffalo, whose historical range may have extended into western New York.BOOK, Hornaday, William T., The Extermination of the American Bison, 1889, Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 385–386,weblink August 20, 2015, Geographic Distribution, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 24, 2015, mdy-all, {{Sfn|Sprague|1882|pp=17–18}}


Prehistory and European exploration

(File:Village of Buffalo.tif|left|thumb|An early map of the village of Buffalo and outer lots in 1854. Inset is Ellicott's 1804 plan.|alt=Sepia map of an old waterfront village plan.)(File:Buffalo 1813.jpg|thumb|The village of Buffalo in 1813.)File:Walk in the Water (steamboat).JPG|thumb|Walk-in-the-WaterWalk-in-the-WaterThe first inhabitants of the State of New York are believed to have been nomadic Paleo-Indians, who migrated after the disappearance of Pleistocene glaciers during or before 7000 BCE.{{Sfn|Thompson|1977|p=113}}Around 1000 CE, 1,000 years ago, the Woodland period began, marked by the rise of the Iroquois Confederacy and its tribes throughout the state.{{Sfn|Thompson|1977|p=113}}During French exploration of the region in 1620, the region was occupied simultaneously by the agrarian Erie people, a tribe outside of the Five Nations of the Iroquois southwest of Buffalo Creek,{{Sfn|Thompson|1977|pp=114–115, 117}} and the Wenro people or Wenrohronon, an Iroquoian-speaking tribal offshoot of the large Neutral Nation who lived along the inland south shore of Lake Ontario and at the east end of Lake Erie and a bit of its northern shore.{{Sfn|Bingham|1931|p=1}} For trading, the Neutral people made a living by growing tobacco and hemp to trade with the Iroquois,{{Sfn|Thompson|1977|p=118}} using animal paths or warpaths to travel and move goods across the state. These paths were later paved, and now function as major roads.{{Sfn|Thompson|1977|p=117–118}}Later, during the Beaver Wars of the 1640s-1650s, the combined warriors of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy conquered the populous NeutralsENCYCLOPEDIA, 1961, The American Heritage Book of Indians, Editor: Alvin M. Josephy, Jr., by The editors of American Heritage Magazine, pages 187–219, American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc., 61-14871, 189, and their peninsular territory, while the Senecas alone took out the Wenro and their territory, c. 1651{{sfn|Bingham|1931|p=5}}JOURNAL, 10.1525/aa.1927.29.2.02a00050, The Migrations of the Seneca Nation, Houghton, Frederick, 1927, American Anthropologist, 241–250, 29, 2, –1653.{{Efn|Josephy, p. 189, [with the Neutrals]... " broken in 1651, with mopping up continuing for several years."}} Soon after, the Iroquois destroyed Erie nation and territoryJOURNAL,weblink The Indians of the Past and of the Present, The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 46, 3, Donehoo, George P., 1922, 177–198, 20086480, over their assistance to Huron people during the Beaver Wars.{{Sfn|Thompson|1977|p=119}}Louis Hennepin and Sieur de La Salle made the earliest European discoveries of the upper Niagara and Ontario regions in the late 1600s.{{Sfn|Becker|1906|pp=15–20}} On August 7, 1679, La Salle launched a vessel, Le Griffon, that became the first full-sized ship to sail across the Great Lakes before it disappeared in Green Bay, Wisconsin.{{Sfn|Turner|1849|p=119–126}}After the American Revolution, the colony of New York—now a state—began westward expansion, looking for habitable land by following trends of the Iroquois.{{Sfn|Thompson|1977|p=140}} Land near fresh water was of considerable importance.{{Sfn|Thompson|1977|p=148}} New York and Massachusetts were fighting for the territory Buffalo lies on, and Massachusetts had the right to purchase all but a one-mile (1600-meter) wide portion of land. The rights to the Massachusetts' territories were sold to Robert Morris in 1791, and two years later to the Holland Land Company.{{Sfn|Sprague|1882|p=19}}{{Sfn|Becker|1906|p=108}}As a result of the war, in which the Iroquois tribe sided with the British Army,{{Sfn|Thompson|1977|p=141}} Iroquois territory was gradually reduced in the mid-to-late-1700s by European settlers through successive treaties statewide, such as the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1784), the First Treaty of Buffalo Creek (1788), and the Treaty of Geneseo (1797). The Iroquois were corralled onto reservations, including Buffalo Creek. By the end of the 18th century, only {{convert|338|mi2|acre km2 ha}} of reservation territory remained.{{Sfn|Brush|1901|p=87}}

Founding, Erie Canal, and railroads

(File:Lars Gustaf Sellstedt - Buffalo Harbor, 1871.jpg|thumb|left|Buffalo harbour from the foot of Porter Avenue, 1871|alt=Painting of a sunset over a waterfront harbour)(File:City of Buffalo.jpg|thumb|1872 engraving of Buffalo|alt=Aerial engraving of a 19th-century city with trees and homes|right)(File:Buffalo Harbour from the village (NYPL b13476046-424509).jpg|thumb|right|Early view of Buffalo's harbour)Former slave Joseph "Black Joe" Hodges,{{Sfn|Becker|1906|pp=106–108}}{{sfn|Bingham|1931|pp=137–138}} and Cornelius Winney, a Dutch trader from Albany who arrived in 1789, were early settlers along the mouth of Buffalo Creek.{{Sfn|Sprague|1882|pp=20, 21}} The first white settlers along the creek were prisoners captured during the Revolutionary War.{{Sfn|Becker|1906|p=106–107}} The first resident and landowner{{Sfn|Ketchum|1865|p=141}} of Buffalo with a permanent presence was Captain William Johnston, a white Iroquois interpreter who had been in the area since the days after the Revolutionary War and who the Senecas granted creekside land as a gift of appreciation. His house stood at present-day Washington and Seneca streets.{{Sfn|Bingham|1931|pp=132–134}}On July 20, 1793, the Holland Land Purchase was completed, containing the land of present-day Buffalo, brokered by Dutch investors from Holland.{{Sfn|Turner|1849|p=401}} The Treaty of Big Tree removed Iroquois title to lands west of the Genesee River in 1797.{{sfn|Bingham|1931|p=145}} In the fall of 1797, Joseph Ellicott, the architect who helped survey Washington D.C. with brother Andrew,BOOK, Recalling Pioneer Days, Bartlett, George Hunter, The Buffalo Historical Society, 1922, 3, 2027/wu.89065904492, JOURNAL, Stewart, John, 1899, Early Maps and Surveyors of the City of Washington, D. C., 40066723, Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington, D.C., 2, 48–71, was appointed as the Chief of Survey for the Holland Land Company.{{Sfn|Bingham|1931|146}} Over the next year, he began to survey the tract of land at the mouth of Buffalo Creek. This was completed in 1803,{{Sfn|Becker|1906|p=111}} and the new village boundaries extended from the creekside in the south to present-day Chippewa Street in the north and Carolina Street to the west,BOOK,weblink The index guide to Buffalo and Niagara Falls, Fernald, Frederik Atherton, 1910, Buffalo, N.Y., F.A. Fernald, The Library of Congress, 21, November 30, 2017, live,weblink March 26, 2017, mdy-all, which is where most settlers remained for the first decade of the 19th century.{{Citation needed|date=December 2017}} Although the company named the settlement "New Amsterdam," the name did not catch on, reverting to Buffalo within ten years.BOOK,weblink Thomas' Buffalo City Directory for 1862, to which is Prefixed a Sketch of the Early History of Buffalo, Clinton, George W., Hunt, Sanford B., 1862, E.A. Thomas, Franklin Steam Printing House, Buffalo, NY, 16, August 31, 2015,weblink September 25, 2015, live, mdy-all, Buffalo had the first road to Pennsylvania built in 1802 for migrants passing through to the Connecticut Western Reserve in Ohio.{{Sfn|French|Place|1860|p=210}}In 1804, Ellicott designed a radial grid plan that would branch out from the village forming bicycle-like spokes, interrupted by diagonals, like the system used in the nation's capital.JOURNAL, Elmendorf, Dwight L., March 1913, Washington the Capital, The Mentor, 1, 2, In the middle of the village was the intersection of eight streets, in what would become Niagara Square. Several blocks to the southeast he designed a semicircle fronting Main Street with an elongated park green, formerly his estate.{{Sfn|Turner|1849|p=439}}BOOK, The Design of Discord: Studies of Anomie, Powell, Elwin Humphreys, 1988-01-01, Transaction Publishers, 9781412836494, 59, en, This would be known as Shelton Square,BOOK, Buffalo, Myers, Stephen G., 2012, Arcadia Publishing, 9780738591650, 25, en, at that time the center of the city (which would be dramatically altered in the mid-20th century),BOOK, Buffalo, Myers, Stephen G., 2012, Arcadia Publishing, 9780738591650, en, with the intersecting streets bearing the names of Dutch Holland Land Company members,BOOK, Semi-centennial Celebration of the City of Buffalo: Address of the Hon. E.C. Sprague Before the Buffalo Historical Society, July 3, 1882, Buffalo Historical Society, Buffalo Historical Society, 1882, Buffalo, N.Y., 20, 21, en, {{Efn|Formerly known as Stadtnitski, Vollenhoven and Schimmelpennick Avenues, removed after backlash by village residents.}} today Erie, Church and Niagara streets.{{Sfn|Turner|1849|p=439}} Lafayette Square also lies one block to the north, which was then bounded by streets bearing Iroquois names.{{Sfn|Becker|1906|p=111}}According to an early resident, the village had sixteen residences, a schoolhouse and two stores in 1806, primarily near Main, Swan and Seneca streets.{{Sfn|Turner|1849|p=498}} There were also blacksmith shops, a tavern and a drugstore.{{Sfn|Becker|1906|p=114–115}} The streets were small at 40 feet wide, and the village was still surrounded by woods.{{Sfn|Becker|1906|pp=111, 118}} The first lot sold by the Holland Land Company was on September 11, 1806, to Zerah Phelps.{{Sfn|Bingham|1931|p=493}} By 1808, lots would sell from $25 to $50.{{Sfn|Becker|1906|p=115}}In 1804, Buffalo's population was estimated at 400, similar to Batavia, but Erie County's growth was behind Chautauqua, Genesee and Wyoming counties.{{Sfn|Thompson|1977|p=152}} Neighboring village Black Rock to the northwest (today a Buffalo neighborhood) was also an important center.{{Sfn|Turner|1849|p=439}} Horatio J. Spafford noted in A Gazetteer of the State of New York that in fact, despite the growth the village of Buffalo had, Black Rock "is deemed a better trading site for a great trading town than that of Buffalo," especially when considering the regional profile of mundane roads extending eastward.{{Sfn|Thompson|1977|p=152}} Before the east-to-west turnpike{{Explain|date=December 2017}} was completed, travelling from Albany to Buffalo would take a week,{{Sfn|Turner|1849|p=494}} while even a trip from nearby Williamsville to Batavia could take upwards of three days.{{Sfn|Turner|1849|p=495}}{{Efn|When travelling with an ox and wagon team.}}(File:The city of Buffalo NY 1880.jpg|thumb|left|Sketch of Buffalo, 1880|alt=Old panorama sketch of a large city with thousands of buildings)Although slavery was rare in the state, limited instances of slavery had taken place in Buffalo during the early part of the 19th century. General Peter Buell Porter is said to have had five slaves during his time in Black Rock, and several news ads also advertised slaves for sale.{{Sfn|Bingham|1931|pp=356–357}}In 1810, a courthouse was built. By 1811, the population was 500, with many people farming or doing manual labor.{{Sfn|Becker|1906|p=115, 118}} The first newspaper to be published was the Buffalo Gazette in October that same year.{{Sfn|Becker|1906|p=115}}On December 31, 1813, Buffalo and the village of Black Rock were burned by the British after the Battle of Buffalo.BOOK, The U.S. Army in the War of 1812: An Operational and Command Study, Quimby, Robert, Michigan State University Press, 1997, 978-0-87013-441-8, East Lansing, MI, 355, WEB,weblink 200 years ago, the village of Buffalo burned, Gee, Denise Jewell, 2013-12-30, The Buffalo News, 2017-02-26, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 27, 2017, mdy-all, The battle and subsequent fire was in response to the unprovoked destruction of Niagara-on-the-Lake, then known as "Newark," by American forces.NEWS,weblink The Buffalo of Yesteryear: Chictawauga, Scajaquady and the 'morass' that was Buffalo, 2017-11-29, The Buffalo News, 2017-11-29, en-US, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 29, 2017, mdy-all, {{Sfn|Becker|1906|p=125–126}} On August4, 1814, British forces under Lt. Colonel John Tucker and Lt. Colonel William Drummond, General Gordon Drummond's nephew, attempted to raid Black Rock and Buffalo as part of a diversion to force an early surrender at Fort Erie the next day, but were defeated by a small force of American riflemen under Major Lodwick Morgan at the Battle of Conjocta Creek, and withdrew back into Canada. Consequently, Fort Erie's siege under Gordon Drummond later failed, and British forces withdrew. Though only three buildings remained in the village, rebuilding was swift, finishing in 1815.BOOK,weblink Publications of the Buffalo Historical Society, Severance, Frank H., Buffalo : Bigelow Bros., Harold B. Lee Library, 1879, 334–356, Papers relating to the Burning of Buffalo, {{Sfn|Becker|1906|p=132}}The population in 1840 was 18,213.The National Cyclopaedia of Useful Knowledge, Vol.III, London (1847), Charles Knight, p.915 The village of Buffalo was part of and the seat of Niagara County until the legislature passed an act separating the two on April 2, 1861.{{Sfn|Bingham|1931|p=385}}On October 26, 1825,WEB,weblink Erie Canal opens, October 29, 2014, The History Channel website, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 14, 2014, mdy-all, the Erie Canal was completed, formed from part of Buffalo Creek,BOOK, Proceedings of the Common Council of the City of Buffalo, 1909, James D. Warren's Sons Co., 2262, en, with Buffalo a port-of-call for settlers heading westward.WEB,weblink Canal History, October 29, 2014, New York State Canals, New York State Canal Corporation, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 7, 2016, mdy-all, At the time, the population was about 2,400.WEB,weblink John W. Clark papers, April 2003, October 29, 2014, William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan, Champieux, Robin, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 29, 2014, mdy-all, By 1826, the 130 sq. mile Buffalo Creek Reservation at the western border of the village was transferred to Buffalo.{{Sfn|Brush|1901|p=87}} The Erie Canal brought a surge in population and commerce, which led Buffalo to incorporate as a city in 1832.WEB,weblink A Brief Chronology of the Development of the City of Buffalo, October 29, 2014, National Park Service, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 4, 2014, mdy-all, The canal area was mature by 1847, with passenger and cargo ship activity leading to congestion in the harbor.BOOK, The Manufacturing Interests of the City of Buffalo: Including Sketches of the History of Buffalo. With Notices of Its Principal Manufacturing Establishments, 1866, C.F.S. Thomas, 13, en, mdy-all, (File:Buffalo City Hall 1930.jpg|left|thumb|Buffalo City Hall under construction, 1930|alt=Cranes working on a small skyscraper)(File:McKinleyAssassination.jpg|thumb|Assassination of William McKinley at the Temple of Music, 1901|alt=A crowd surrounds a man being shot by an assailant)The mid-1800s saw a population boom, with the city doubling in size from 1845 to 1855.{{Sfn|Goldman|1983|p=72}} In 1855, almost two-thirds of the city's population were foreign-born immigrants, largely a mix of unskilled or educated Irish and Germans Catholics, who began self-segregating in different parts of the city. The Irish immigrants planted their roots along the railroad-heavy Buffalo River and Erie Canal to the southeast, to which there is still a heavy presence today; German immigrants found their way to the East Side, living a more laid-back, residential life.{{Sfn|Goldman|1983|pp=72–74}} Some immigrants were apprehensive about the change of environment and left the city for the western region, while others tried to stay behind in the hopes of expanding their native cultures.{{Sfn|Goldman|1983|pp=75–76}}Fugitive black slaves began to make their way northward to Buffalo in the 1840s, and many of them settled on the city's East Side.{{Sfn|Goldman|1983|p=87}} In 1845, construction began on the Macedonia Baptist Church, a meeting spot in the Michigan and William Street neighborhood where blacks first settled.BOOK, African American Historic Places, Savage, Beth L., Shull, Carol D., Preservation Press, 1994, 9780471143451, Washington, D.C., 346–347, en, 94033218, 30976865, It was also an important meeting place for the abolitionist movement.{{Better source|date=September 2015}} Buffalo was a terminus point of the Underground Railroad with many fugitive slaves crossing the Niagara River to Fort Erie, Ontario in search of freedom.BOOK, Underground Railroad in New York and New Jersey, Stackpole Books, 2014-05-14, 9780811746298, William J., Switala, 126, During the 1840s, Buffalo's port continued to develop. Both passenger and commercial traffic expanded with some 93,000 passengers heading west from the port of Buffalo.WEB, Priebe Jr., J. Henry, The City of Buffalo 1840–1850,weblink September 9, 2007,weblink" title="">weblink September 5, 2013, {{Better source|date=September 2015}} Grain and commercial goods shipments led to repeated expansion of the harbor.{{Citation needed|date=September 2015}} In 1843, the world's first steam-powered grain elevator was constructed by local merchant Joseph Dart and engineer Robert Dunbar.WEB,weblink Grain Elevators, October 29, 2014, Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society, Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society, Baxter, Henry, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 13, 2014, mdy-all, "Dart's Elevator" enabled faster unloading of lake freighters along with the transshipment of grain in bulk from barges, canal boats, and rail cars.BOOK,weblink Reconsidering Concrete Atlantis: Buffalo Grain Elevators, 2006, The Urban Design Project, School of Architecture and Planning, University at Buffalo, 24–25, Schneekloth, Lynda H., Monuments of a Vanished Prosperity: Buffalo's Grain Elevators and the Rise and Fall of the Great Transnational System of Grain Transport, Kowsky, Francis R., September 25, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 27, 2016, mdy-all, By 1850, the city's population was 81,000.In 1860, many railway companies and lines crossed through and terminated in Buffalo. Major ones were the Buffalo, Bradford and Pittsburgh Railroad (1859), Buffalo and Erie Railroad and the New York Central Railroad (1853).{{Sfn|French|Place|1860|p=|pp=66–74}} During this time, Buffalonians controlled a quarter of all shipping traffic on Lake Erie, and shipbuilding was a thriving industry for the city.{{Sfn|French|Place|1860|p=286}}Later, the Lehigh Valley Railroad would have its line terminate at Buffalo in 1867.{{wide image|Shelton Square Pano (restored).png|1120px|Panorama of downtown Buffalo in 1911, looking west from Shelton Square}}

Rise of heavy industry, decline, urban renewal

(File:Buffalo 1945 NARA 68145063.jpg|thumb|right|Downtown Buffalo in 1945)(File:Buffalo Elevators (retouched).jpg|thumb|left|Workers unload wheat into an elevator along the Buffalo River in 1900|alt=A ship is docked on a canal)File:BETHLEHEM STEEL PLANT AT LACKAWANNA ON LAKE ERIE, JUST SOUTH OF BUFFALO - NARA - 549494.jpg|thumb|upright=1.25|Sprawling steel plant at alt=Color image of a heavy industrial district abutting a winding riverAt the dawn of the 20th century, local mills were among the first to benefit from hydroelectric power generated by the Niagara River. The city got the nickname City of Light at this time due to the widespread electric lighting."ELECTRIC LIGHTS TO OPTICS RESEARCH: BUFFALO, "CITY OF LIGHT", by Amanda Marie Rogers, New York Makers, December 18, 2013 It was also part of the automobile revolution, hosting the brass era car builders Pierce Arrow and the Seven Little Buffaloes early in the century.Believe it, or not. Clymer, Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877–1925 (New York: Bonanza Books, 1950), p.178. At the same time, an exit of local entrepreneurs and industrial titans brought about a nascent stage that would see the city lose its competitiveness against Pittsburgh, Cleveland and Detroit.{{Sfn|Dillaway|2006|p=28–30}}President William McKinley was shot and mortally wounded by an anarchist at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo on September 6, 1901.WEB,weblink President William McKinley is shot, November 2, 2014, The History Channel website, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 14, 2014, mdy-all, McKinley died in the city eight days laterWEB,weblink Swearing-In Ceremony for President Theodore Roosevelt, November 2, 2014, Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies, dead,weblink" title="">weblink November 1, 2014, mdy, and Theodore Roosevelt was sworn in at the Wilcox Mansion. The Great Depression of 1929–39 saw severe unemployment, especially among working-class men. The New Deal relief programs operated full force. The city became a stronghold of labor unions and the Democratic Party.* Lansky, Lewis. "Buffalo and the Great Depression, 1929–1933," in Milton Plesur, ed., American Historian: Essays to Honor Selig Adler (1980), pp 204–13During World War II, Buffalo saw the return of prosperity and full employment due to its position as a manufacturing center.WEB, 1941–1945, History, Parkside Community Association,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink July 8, 2010, WEB, Rizzo, Michael, Joseph J. Kelly 1942–1945, Through The Mayor's Eyes, The Buffalonian,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink September 26, 2011, As one of the most populous cities of the 1950s, Buffalo's economy revolved almost entirely on its manufacturing base. Major companies such as Republic Steel and Lackawanna Steel employed tens of thousands of Buffalonians. Integrated national shipping routes would use the Soo Locks near Lake Superior and a vast network of railroads and yards that crossed the city.Lobbying by local businesses and interest groups against the St. Lawrence Seaway began in the 1920s, long before its construction in 1957, which cut the city off from valuable trade routes. Its approval was reinforced by legislation shortly before its construction.{{Sfn|Goldman|1983|p=270}} Shipbuilding in Buffalo, such as the American Ship Building Company, shut down in 1962, ending an industry that had been a sector of the city's economy since 1812, and a direct result of reduced waterfront activity.{{Sfn|Goldman|1983|p=271}} With deindustrialization, and the nationwide trend of suburbanization; the city's economy began to deteriorate.NEWS,weblink Back in business, June 30, 2012, The Economist, November 2, 2014, The Economist Newspaper Limited, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 30, 2014, mdy-all, {{Sfn|Goldman|1983|pp=270–271, 294}} Like much of the Rust Belt, Buffalo, home to more than half a million people in the 1950s, has seen its population decline as heavy industries shut down and people left for the suburbs or other cities.{{Sfn|Goldman|1983|pp=270–271, 294}}WEB,weblink Population of the 100 Largest Urban Places: 1950, June 15, 1998, November 2, 2014, United States Census, live,weblink" title="">weblink August 24, 2014, mdy-all,

Recent development

Like other Rust Belt cities such as Pittsburgh and Cleveland, Buffalo has attempted to revitalize its beleaguered economy and crumbling infrastructure. The trend of back offices opening in the area began in the 1980s.JOURNAL, Koritz, Douglas, Restructuring or Destructuring?, Urban Affairs Quarterly, en, 26, 4, 497–511, 10.1177/004208169102600403, 1991,


{{maplink|frame=y|text=City of Buffalo|frame-align=right|zoom=9|type=shape-inverse|id=Q40435|stroke-color=#001|stroke-width=2}}File:NiagaraRiverNASA.jpg|thumb|2001 image of the Niagara Peninsula, Niagara Falls and Buffalo from NASA's Terra satellite ]]Buffalo is on Lake Erie's eastern end, opposite Fort Erie, Ontario, Canada.WEB,weblink Buffalo, New York, The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica, June 23, 2014, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2017-01-27, live,weblink February 2, 2017, mdy-all, It is at the origin of the Niagara River, which flows northward over Niagara Falls and into Lake Ontario.WEB,weblink Encyclopaedia Britannica, Editors, 2010-05-17,, Encyclopaedia Britannica, INc., 2017-01-27, live,weblink February 2, 2017, mdy-all, The city is {{convert|50|mi|km}} south-southeast from Toronto. Relative to downtown, the city is generally flat with the exception of area surrounding North and High streets, where a hill of 90 feet gradually develops approaching from the south and north. The Southtowns include the Boston Hills, while the Appalachian Mountains sit in the Southern Tier below them. To the north and east, the region maintains a flatter profile descending to Lake Ontario. Various types of shale, limestone and lagerstätten are prevalent in the geographic makeup of Buffalo and surrounding areas, which line the waterbeds within and bordering the city.BOOK,weblink Geologic map of the Buffalo quadrangle, Luther, D. D., 1906, New York State Education Dept., Columbia University Libraries, English, Although there have not been any recent or significant earthquakes, Buffalo sits atop of the Southern Great Lakes Seismic Zone, which is part of the Great Lakes tectonic zone.WEB,weblink UB Geologists Find Evidence That Upstate New York Is Criss-Crossed By Hundreds Of Faults - University at Buffalo,, en, 2018-01-11, Buffalo has four channels that flow through its boundaries: the Niagara River, Buffalo River and Creek, Scajaquada Creek, and the Black Rock Canal, which is adjacent to the Niagara River.BOOK,weblink History of the city of Buffalo and Erie County : with ... biographical sketches of some of its prominent men and pioneers ..., Smith, Henry Perry, D. Mason & Co., 1884, Syracuse, N.Y., 16, According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of {{convert|52.5|sqmi|km2}}, of which {{convert|40.6|sqmi|km2}} is land and the rest water. The total area is 22.66% water.


{{see also|List of tallest buildings in Buffalo}}{{Wide image|Buffalo Skyline.jpg|1120px|Skyline of Buffalo, looking east from Lake Erie}}


(File:Elmwood Village.jpg|thumb|Elmwood Village)Buffalo's architecture is diverse, with a collection of buildings from the 19th and 20th centuries.NEWS,weblink Saving Buffalo's Untold Beauty, Ouroussoff, Nicolai, November 14, 2008, The New York Times, September 19, 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 6, 2014, mdy-all, Most structures and works are still standing, such as the country's largest intact parks system designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux.WEB,weblink Buffalo, NY, September 19, 2014, Forbes, LLC, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 7, 2014, mdy-all, AV MEDIA, Karson, Robin, The Best Planned City: Olmsted, Vaux, and the Buffalo Park System,weblink January 21, 2014, Motion picture, Library of American Landscape History, At the end of the 19th century, the Guaranty Building—constructed by Louis Sullivan—was a prominent example of an early high-rise skyscraper.WEB, Louis Sullivan still has a skyscraper in Buffalo, but Chicago has none,weblink 2015-09-23, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 25, 2015, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Preservation Tech Notes: Guaranty Building, June 1989, September 23, 2015, National Park Service, E. Kaplan, Marilyn, live,weblink" title="">weblink January 13, 2016, mdy-all, The Darwin D. Martin House designed by Frank Lloyd Wright and built between 1903 and 1905, is considered to be one of the most important projects from Wright's Prairie School era. The Larkin Administration Building, now demolished, was Frank Lloyd Wright's first commercial commission. The 20th century saw works such as the Art Deco-style Buffalo City Hall and Buffalo Central Terminal, Electric Tower, the Richardson Olmsted Complex, and the Rand Building. Urban renewal from the 1950s–1970s gave way to the construction of the Brutalist-style Buffalo City Court Building and One Seneca Tower—formerly the HSBC Center, the city's tallest building.WEB, Preparing for 38 floors of emptiness at One Seneca Tower,weblink 2015-09-26, November 17, 2013, The Buffalo News, Melinda, Miller, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 26, 2015, mdy-all,



{{climate chart| Buffalo, New York31|333|342|355|367|475|480|378|371|459|448|436|4|float=right|clear=both|units=imperial}}Buffalo has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb bordering on Dfa), which is common in the Great Lakes region.JOURNAL, Peel, M. C., Finlayson B. L., McMahon, T. A., 2007, Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 5, 1633–1644, 10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007, 1027-5606, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Buffalo's Climate, National Weather Service, 2015-08-19, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 24, 2015, mdy-all, Buffalo has snowy winters, but it is rarely the snowiest city in New York state.WEB,weblink Madsen, Steve, Comparison Golden Snowball City Stats 1940 – 2007, Goldensnowball,weblink" title="">weblink February 8, 2014, , Retrieved May 31, 2013.WEB,weblink January 3, 2012, WeatherBug Meteorologists, What Are The Snowiest Cities in the U.S.?, Weatherbug, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 13, 2014, mdy-all, , Retrieved May 31, 2013. The Blizzard of 1977 resulted from a combination of high winds and snow accumulated on land and on frozen Lake Erie.WEB, Buffalo remembers infamous blizzard of '77,weblink USA Today, 2015-09-19, June 1, 2002, Snow does not typically impair the city's operation, but can cause significant damage during the autumn as with the October 2006 storm.NEWS,weblink Buffalo socked by wintry October surprise, October 13, 2006, WISTV, September 30, 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 6, 2014, mdy-all, WEB,weblink October Surprise Storm: 7th Anniversary, WGRZ, Gannett, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 1, 2014, mdy-all, In November 2014, the region had a record-breaking storm, producing over {{convert|5+1/2|ft|in cm|lk=in|abbr=off}} of snow; this storm was named "Snowvember".WEB, Buffalo, Western New York Buried by Another Wave of Snow – NBC News,weblink 2015-09-19, McClam, Erin, Arkin, Daniel, November 20, 2014, NBC News, live,weblink September 30, 2015, dmy-all, Buffalo has the sunniest and driest summers of any major city in the Northeast, but still has enough rain to keep vegetation green and lush. Summers are marked by plentiful sunshine and moderate humidity and temperature. Obscured by the notoriety of Buffalo's winter snow is the fact Buffalo benefits from other lake effects such as the cooling southwest breezes off Lake Erie in summer that gently temper the warmest days. As a result, temperatures only rise above {{convert|90|F|1|abbr=on}} three times in the average year, and the Buffalo station of the National Weather Service has never recorded an official temperature of {{convert|100|F|1|abbr=on}} or more.WEB,weblink Record high of {{convert, 99, F, 0, on, was recorded in August 1948 | |date=July 27, 2012 |archiveurl= |archivedate=December 7, 2013}} Rainfall is moderate but typically occurs at night. Lake Erie's stabilizing effect continues to inhibit thunderstorms and enhance sunshine in the immediate Buffalo area through most of July. August usually has more showers and is hotter and more humid as the warmer lake loses its temperature-stabilizing influence. The highest recorded temperature in Buffalo was {{convert|99|°F|0}} on August 27, 1948WEB,weblink August Daily Averages for Buffalo, NY,, December 6, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink March 16, 2014, and the lowest recorded temperature was {{convert|−20|°F|0}}, which occurred twice, on February 9, 1934 and February 2, 1961.WEB,weblink February Daily Averages for Buffalo, NY,, December 6, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink March 16, 2014, {{Buffalo, New York weatherbox}}


{{US Census population|1810= 1508|1820= 2095|1830= 8668|1840= 18213|1850= 42261|1860= 81129|1870= 117714|1880= 155134|1890= 255664|1900= 352387|1910= 423715|1920= 506775|1930= 573076|1940= 575901|1950= 580132|1960= 532759|1970= 462768|1980= 357870|1990= 328123|2000= 292648|2010= 261310|estyear=2018|estimate=256304ACCESSDATE=MAY 29, 2018, mdy-all, |align-fn=centerPUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUSARCHIVEDATE=JULY 24, 2013DF=MDY, page 36U.S. Decennial CensusHTTPS://WWW.CENSUS.GOV/PROD/WWW/DECENNIAL.HTML>TITLE=CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSINGACCESSDATE=JUNE 14, 2013ARCHIVEDATE=APRIL 12, 2013DF=MDY URL-STATUS=DEADTITLE=ANNUAL ESTIMATES OF THE RESIDENT POPULATION: APRIL 1, 2010 TO JULY 1, 2012, June 14, 2013, }}{|class="wikitable sortable collapsible" style="font-size: 90%;"! Racial composition !! 2010WEB,weblink Buffalo (city), New York, United States Census Bureau,weblink" title="">weblink May 4, 2014, !! 1990WEB, Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink August 12, 2012, dead, mdy, !! 1970 !! 1940White American>White 50.4% 64.7% 78.7% 96.8%African American>Black or African American 38.6% 30.7% 20.4% 3.1%Hispanic and Latino Americans>Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 10.5% 4.9% 1.6%From 15% sample (X)Asian American>Asian 3.2% 1.0% 0.2% −Like most former industrial cities of the Great Lakes region in the United States, Buffalo is recovering from an economic depression from suburbanization and the loss of its industrial base. The city's population peaked in 1950 when it was the 15th largest city in the United States, down from the 8th largest city in America in 1900, and its population has been spreading out to the suburbs every census since then.At the 2010 Census, the city's population was 50.4% White (45.8% non-Hispanic White alone), 38.6% Black or African-American, 0.8% American Indian and Alaska Native, 3.2% Asian, 3.9% from some other race and 3.1% from two or more races, while 10.5% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.WEB,weblink Buffalo Demographics: 2010, quickfacts.census.go, November 8, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink May 4, 2014, Since 2003, there has been an ever-growing number of Burmese refugees, mostly of the Karen ethnicity, with an estimated 4,665 now residing in Buffalo.NEWS, From Burma to Buffalo, The refugee wave is changing our city, Zremski, Jerry, Gee, Derek, The Buffalo News, October 16, 2016,weblink October 20, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 21, 2016, mdy-all, The city's median household income is $24,536 and the median family income is $30,614. Males have a median income of $30,938 versus $23,982 for females. The city's per capita income is $14,991. Of the population 26.6%, and 23% of families, are below the poverty line. Of the total population, 38.4% of those under the age of 18 and 14% of those 65 and older live below the poverty line.


{{expand section|pre-1950s economic history|date=December 2017}}File:ElectricTower 2010-11-08.jpg|thumb|Electric TowerElectric TowerFile:M&T Plaza.jpg|thumb|left|One M&T Plaza, headquarters of M&T BankM&T BankBuffalo's economic sectors include industrial, light manufacturing, high technology and services.{{Citation needed|date = May 2015}} The State of New York, with over 15,000 employees, is the city's largest employer.WEB,weblink List: Largest Employers, July 26, 2013, September 19, 2014, Buffalo Business First, American City Business Journals, Rott, Jerry, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 5, 2014, mdy-all, Other major employers include the United States government, Kaleida Health, M&T Bank (which is headquartered in Buffalo), the University at Buffalo, General Motors, Time Warner Cable and Tops Friendly Markets.{{Citation needed|date = May 2015}} Buffalo is home to Rich Products, Canadian brewer Labatt, cheese company Sorrento Lactalis, Delaware North Companiesweblink/ {{webarchive|url=|date=June 26, 2012}} and New Era Cap Company. More recently, the Tesla Gigafactory 2 opened in South Buffalo in summer 2017, as a result of the Buffalo Billion program.The loss of traditional jobs in manufacturing, rapid suburbanization and high labor costs have led to economic decline and made Buffalo one of the poorest U.S. cities with populations of more than 250,000 people. An estimated 28.7–29.9% of Buffalo residents live below the poverty line, behind either only Detroit,WEB,weblink Poverty USA – Catholic Campaign for Human Development – A hand up, not a hand out,, July 27, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink July 10, 2011, or only Detroit and Cleveland.Buffalo 3rd Poorest Large City {{webarchive|url= |date=January 5, 2013 }}. WGRZ TV. Retrieved October 14, 2008. Buffalo's median household income of $27,850 is third-lowest among large cities, behind only Miami and Cleveland; however the metropolitan area's median household income is $57,000.Buffalo falls to second-poorest big city in U.S., with a poverty rate of nearly 30 percent. Buffalo News. Retrieved September 2, 2007.{{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} This, in part, has led to the Buffalo-Niagara Falls metropolitan area having the most affordable housing market in the U.S. The quarterly NAHB/Wells Fargo Housing Opportunity Index (HOI) noted nearly 90% of the new and existing homes sold in the metropolitan area during the second quarter were affordable to families making the area's median income of $57,000.{{citation needed|date=March 2015}} {{As of|2014}}, the median home price in the city was $95,000.WEB,weblink Buffalo Market Trends, September 19, 2014, Trulia, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 9, 2014, mdy-all, Buffalo's economy has begun to see significant improvements since the early 2010s.WEB,weblink Buffalo Economy News, City of Buffalo, October 5, 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 6, 2014, mdy-all, Money from New York State Governor Andrew Cuomo through a program known locally as "Buffalo Billion" has brought new construction, increased economic development, and hundreds of new jobs to the area.WEB,weblink Signs of economic revival finally appear, The Buffalo News, October 5, 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 6, 2014, mdy-all, As of March 2015, Buffalo's unemployment rate was 5.9%,WEB,weblink State Labor Department Releases Preliminary March 2015 Area Unemployment Rates,, April 21, 2015, New York State Department of Labor, April 28, 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 31, 2015, mdy-all, slightly above the national average of 5.5%.WEB,weblink National Employment Monthly Update,, April 3, 2015, National Conference of State Legislatures, April 28, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink April 14, 2015, mdy-all, In 2016, the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis valued the Buffalo area's economy at $54.9 billion.NEWS, Thomas, G. Scott, Which industries are driving the Buffalo area's economy? Here are the top 10,weblink February 16, 2016, Buffalo Business First, February 16, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink April 10, 2016, mdy-all,


Buffalo's crime rate is higher than the national average. In 2015, there were 41 murders, 1,033 robberies, and 1,640 assaults.WEB, Crime rate in Buffalo, New York (NY): murders, rapes, robberies, assaults, burglaries, thefts, auto thefts, arson, law enforcement employees, police officers, crime map,weblink, 4 August 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink August 4, 2017, mdy-all, In 2016, published an article including an FBI report that ranked Buffalo's violent crime rate as the 15th-worst in the nation.WEB, Thomas, G. Scott, New FBI report: Buffalo's violent-crime rate is 15th-worst in the nation,weblink bizjournals, 4 August 2017, live,weblink August 4, 2017, mdy-all,


File:Buffalo wings.jpg|thumb|right|Buffalo wings served with celerycelery


Buffalo's cuisine encompasses a variety of cultural contributions, including Sicilian, Italian, Irish, Jewish, German, Polish, African-American, Greek and American influences. In 2015, the National Geographic Society ranked Buffalo third on their list of "The World's Top Ten Food Cities".WEB, The World's Top Ten Food Cities,weblink February 2015, National Geographic, July 30, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink August 11, 2015, mdy-all, Locally owned restaurants offer Chinese, German, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, Thai, Mexican, Sicilian, Italian, Arab, Indian, Myanmar, Caribbean, soul food and French cuisine.WEB, Famous Buffalo and Western New York Foods, Restaurants & Food Festivals, Buffalo,weblink July 3, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink September 7, 2013, WEB, Top 100 Buffalo/WNY Foods (and Restaurants), Part 1 of 5, Buffalo, February 10, 2009,weblink July 3, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink September 13, 2013, Buffalo's local pizzerias differ from the thin-crust New York–style pizzerias and deep-dish Chicago-style pizzerias and is locally known for being a midpoint between the two.WEB, Addotta, Kip, Pizza!, Kip Addotta dot com,weblink July 3, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink September 20, 2012, The Beef on weck sandwich, kielbasa, sponge candy, pastry hearts, pierogi and haddock fish fries are local favorites, as is a loganberry-flavored beverage that remains relatively obscure outside of Western New York and Southern Ontario.WEB, Horwitz, Jeremy, Loganberry: The Buffalo Drink You'll Like or Love, Buffalo, January 2008,weblink July 3, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink September 6, 2013, Teressa Bellissimo first prepared the now widespread Chicken Wings at the Anchor Bar in October 1964.MAGAZINE, Trillin, Calvin,weblink The New Yorker, The New Yorker,weblink" title="">weblink December 13, 2013, Buffalo has several well-known food companies. Non-dairy whipped topping was invented in Buffalo in 1945 by Robert E. Rich, Sr.BOOK, History of Non-Dairy Whip Topping, Coffee Creamer, Cottage Cheese, and Icing/Frosting (With and Without Soy) (1900–2013), Shurtleff, William, 2013, 978-1-928914-62-4, 6,weblink Aoyagi, Akiko, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 21, 2016, mdy-all, His company, Rich Products, is one of the city's largest private employers.WEB,weblink Leading Businesses and Brands, September 19, 2014, Buffalo Niagara Enterprise, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 28, 2014, mdy-all, General Mills was organized in Buffalo and Gold Medal brand flour, Wheaties, Cheerios and other General Mills brand cereals are manufactured here. Archer Daniels Midland operates its largest flour mill in the city.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, June 15, 2013, May 13, 2013, World Grain Staff, ADM to reopen flour mill after fire, World-Grain Report, , Retrieved May 31, 2013. Buffalo is home to one of the world's largest privately held food companies, Delaware North Companies, which operates concessions in sports arenas, stadiums, resorts and many state and federal parks.WEB, Who We Are – A Global Leader in Hospitality and Food Service, Delaware North Companies Homepage,weblink July 3, 2009,weblink" title="">weblink January 26, 2014, The Taste of Buffalo and National Buffalo Wing Festival showcase food from the Buffalo area. These are two of the many festivals that take place in Buffalo during the summer.

Fine and performing arts

File:Albright-Knox Art Gallery 2.jpg|thumb|The Albright–Knox Art GalleryAlbright–Knox Art GalleryBuffalo is home to over 50 private and public art galleries,WEB, Algonquin Studios,weblink City of Buffalo Public Art Collection,,weblink" title="">weblink June 3, 2013, most notably the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, home to a collection of modern and contemporary art, and the Burchfield-Penney Art Center.WEB,weblink Burchfield Penney Art Center,, en, 2018-04-02, In 2012, AmericanStyle ranked Buffalo twenty-fifth in its list of top mid-sized cities for art.NEWS,weblink Top 25 Mid-Size Cities for Art, Menzie, Karol, AmericanStyle, September 19, 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 24, 2014, mdy-all, It is also home to many independent media and literary arts organizations like Squeaky Wheel Film and Media Arts Center. The Buffalo area's largest theater is Shea's Performing Arts Center, designed to accommodate 4,000 people with interiors by Louis Comfort Tiffany. Built in 1926, the theater presents Broadway musicals and concerts.NEWS,weblink Shea's Performing Arts Center in Buffalo, Healy, Patrick, 2011-12-23, The New York Times, 0362-4331, 2016-09-16, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 13, 2015, mdy-all, The theater community in the Buffalo Theater District includes over 20 professional companies.BOOK,weblink Unofficial, Unbiased Guide to the 331 Most Interesting Colleges 2005, Simon and Schuster, 2004, March 8, 2013, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 5, 2014, mdy-all, 9780743251990, BOOK,weblink The Back Stage Guide to Working in Regional Theater: Jobs for Actors, Jim Volz, Random House, 2007, March 8, 2013, live,weblink January 14, 2016, mdy-all, 9780823078806, BOOK,weblink 2011 Photographer's Market, Mary Burzlaff Bostic, Writer's Digest, 2010, March 8, 2013, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 5, 2014, mdy-all, 9781599632551, The Allentown Art Festival showcases local and national artists every summer, in Buffalo's Allentown district. Buffalo is also home to the Freedom Wall, which is at the corner of Michigan Avenue and East Ferry Street. The Albright-Knox Art Gallery Public Art Initiative commissioned the Freedom Wall with support from the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authorityweblink The Freedom Wall, 2017.


File:Kleinhans buffalo.jpg|thumb|Kleinhans Music Hall is home to the Buffalo Philharmonic OrchestraBuffalo Philharmonic OrchestraThe Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra, which performs at Kleinhans Music Hall, is one of the city's most prominent performing arts institutions. During the 1960s and 1970s, under the musical leadership of Lukas Foss and Michael Tilson Thomas, the Philharmonic collaborated with Grateful Dead and toured with the Boston Pops Orchestra.WEB,weblink History of the BPO, 2014-09-19, Buffalo Philharmonic Orchestra, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 10, 2014, dmy-all, Buffalo has the roots of many jazz and classical musicians, and it is also the founding city for several mainstream bands and musicians, {{Citation needed span|text = including Rick James, Billy Sheehan, The Quakes, Brian McKnight, Joe Public (band) and The Goo Goo Dolls. Vincent Gallo, a Buffalo-born filmmaker and musician, played in several local bands.|reason = |date = September 2015}} Jazz fusion band Spyro Gyra and jazz saxophonists Grover Washington Jr. also got their starts in Buffalo.{{Citation needed|date=September 2015}} Composer Harold Arlen, who wrote “Somewhere over the Rainbow”, was born and started his career in Buffalo. Pianist and composer Leonard Pennario was born in Buffalo in 1924 and made his debut concert at Carnegie Hall in 1943.{{Citation needed|date=September 2015}} Buffalo's "Colored Musicians Club", an extension of what was long ago a separate musicians' union local, is thriving today and maintains a significant jazz history within its walls. Well-known indie artist Ani DiFranco hails from Buffaloweblink


Although the region's primary tourism destination is Niagara Falls to the north, Buffalo's tourism relies on historical attractions and outdoor recreation. The city's points of interest include the Edward M. Cotter fireboat, considered the world's oldest active fireboatWEB,weblink E.M. Cotter, September 19, 2014, E.M. Cotter, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 20, 2014, mdy-all, and is a United States National Historic Landmark, Buffalo and Erie County Botanical Gardens, the Buffalo and Erie County Historical Society,WEB,weblink The Buffalo & Erie County Historical Society Buffalo New York,,weblink" title="">weblink October 27, 2013, Buffalo Museum of Science,WEB,weblink Buffalo Museum of Science – Home,,weblink" title="">weblink April 24, 2014, the Buffalo Zoo—the third oldest in the United StatesWEB,weblink Buffalo Zoo Mission Statement, September 19, 2014, Buffalo Zoo, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 9, 2014, mdy-all, —Forest Lawn Cemetery, Buffalo and Erie County Naval & Military Park, the Anchor Bar and Darwin D. Martin House.Redeveloped historical neighborhoods have also attracted tourism. The site of the former Erie Canal Harbor, Canalside has become a popular destination for tourists and residents since 2007 when Buffalo and the New York Power Authority began to redevelop the former site of the Buffalo Memorial Auditorium into historically accurate canals.WEB,weblink About Canalside – Canalside Buffalo,, 2019-04-21, Larkin Square, in the former Hydraulics neighborhood and headquarters for the Larkin Company, has also become popular, featuring food trucks, concerts, and other events during the summer.WEB,weblink About Larkin Square – Larkin Square, en-US, 2019-04-21, Buffalo is one of the largest Polish-American centers in the United States. As a result, many aspects of Polish culture have found a home in the city from food to festivals. One of the best examples is the yearly celebration of Easter Monday, known to many Eastern Europeans as Dyngus Day.WEB,weblink Dyngus Day America, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 24, 2016, mdy-all,


{{See also|Sports in Buffalo}}File:RWS2015.jpg|thumb|left|A cameraman shoots a game at New Era FieldNew Era FieldBuffalo and the surrounding region is home to three major leagues professional sports teams. The NHL's Buffalo Sabres play in the city of Buffalo, the NLL’s Buffalo Bandits play in KeyBank center, while the NFL's Buffalo Bills play in suburban Orchard Park, New York, where they have been since 1973.The Bills, established in 1959, played in War Memorial Stadium until 1973, when Rich Stadium, now New Era Field, opened. The team competes in the AFC East division. Since the AFL–NFL merger in 1970, the Bills have won the AFC conference championship four consecutive times (1990, 1991, 1992, 1993), resulting in four lost Super Bowls (Super Bowl XXV, Super Bowl XXVI, Super Bowl XXVII and Super Bowl XXVIII); they were the only NFL team without a playoff appearance in the 21st century from 2011 until 2017, having missed the playoffs each season since 2000.File:HSBC Arena Sabres.jpg|thumb|right|KeyBank Center, in Downtown Buffalo, has been home of the Sabres since 1996.]]The Sabres, established in 1970, played in Buffalo Memorial Auditorium until 1996, when Marine Midland Arena, now KeyBank Center opened. The team is within the Atlantic Division of the NHL. The team has won one Presidents' Trophy (2006–2007) and three conference championships (1974–1975, 1979–1980 and 1998–1999). However, like the Bills, the Sabres don't have a league championship, having lost the 1975 Stanley Cup to the Philadelphia Flyers and the 1999 Stanley Cup to the Dallas Stars. Since 2014, both the Bills and Sabres have been owned by Terrence Pegula, a key investor in Buffalo's revitalization efforts.The Buffalo Bandits where established in 1992 and played their home games in Buffalo Memorial Auditorium until 1996 when they followed the Sabres to Marine Midland Arena. They have won eight division championships and four league championships (1991–1992, 1992–1993, 1995–1996 and 2007–2008And most recently won the east division in spring 2019!The Buffalo Braves played at the National Basketball Association from 1970 to 1978, with their home games held at the Buffalo Memorial Auditorium. After the team struggled financially, it relocated to California and became the San Diego Clippers.Buffalo is also home to several minor sports teams, including the Buffalo Bisons (baseball; an affiliate of the MLB's Toronto Blue Jays since 2014), FC Buffalo (soccer) as well as a professional women's team, the Buffalo Beauts (hockey).The Buffalo Bulls are a Division I college team representing the State University of New York at Buffalo.{|class="wikitable"! |Sport! |League! |Club! |Founded! |Venue! |Titles! |Championship yearsFootballNFLBuffalo Bills1960New Era FieldBESECKER >FIRST=AARON TITLE=IT'S OFFICIAL: THE RALPH WILL BE CALLED NEW ERA FIELD NEWSPAPER=THE BUFFALO NEWS URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=AUGUST 23, 2016, mdy-all, 21964 American Football League Championship Game*, 1965 American Football League Championship Game>1965*HockeyNHLBuffalo Sabres1970KeyBank Center0BaseballILBuffalo Bisons1979†Sahlen Field31997 International League season, 1998 International League season>1998, 2004LacrosseNLLBuffalo Bandits1992KeyBank Center41992 Major Indoor Lacrosse League season, 1993 Major Indoor Lacrosse League season>1993, 1996 Major Indoor Lacrosse League season, 2008 NLL season>2008SoccerNPSLFC Buffalo2009All-High Stadium0HockeyNWHLBuffalo Beauts2015Northtown Center12017 † Date refers to current incarnation; Buffalo Bisons previously operated from the 1870s until 1970 and the current Bisons count this team as part of their history.

Parks and recreation

File:Canalside Naval.jpg|thumb|right|View of Canalside and Buffalo Naval Park ]](File:Delaware Park lake.jpg|thumb|left|Hoyt Lake at Delaware Park)The Buffalo parks system has over 20 parks with several parks accessible from any part of the city. The Olmsted Park and Parkway System is the hallmark of Buffalo's many green spaces. Three-fourths of city parkland is part of the system, which comprises six major parks, eight connecting parkways, nine circles and seven smaller spaces. Constructed in 1868 by Frederick Law Olmsted and his partner Calvert Vaux, the system was integrated into the city and marks the first attempt in America to lay out a coordinated system of public parks and parkways. The Olmsted-designed portions of the Buffalo park system are listed on the National Register of Historic Places and are maintained by the Buffalo Olmsted Parks Conservancy (BOPC), a non-profit, for public benefit corporation which serves as the city's parks department. It is the first non-governmental organization of its kind to serve in such a capacity in the United States.WEB, The Conservancy,weblink Buffalo Olmsted Parks Conservancy, 2016, August 24, 2016, live,weblink October 13, 2016, mdy-all, Situated at the confluence of Lake Erie and the Buffalo and Niagara rivers, Buffalo is a waterfront city. Its rise to economic power came through its waterways in the form of transshipment, manufacturing, and an endless source of energy. Buffalo's waterfront remains, though to a lesser degree, a hub of commerce, trade and industry. Beginning in 2009, a significant portion of Buffalo's waterfront began to be transformed into a focal point for social and recreational activity. To this end, Buffalo Harbor State Park, nicknamed "Outer Harbor", was opened in 2014.WEB,weblink Buffalo's first state park to start taking shape on outer harbor, The Buffalo News, August 27, 2014, Mark Sommer, April 12, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 5, 2015, mdy-all, Buffalo's intent was to stress its architectural and historical heritage to create a tourism destination, and early data indicates they were successful.WEB,weblink 2015 Business Plan, Visit Buffalo Niagara, 2015, August 24, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 10, 2016, mdy-all,

Law and government

{{See also|List of mayors of Buffalo, New York}}File:Buffalo federal court.jpg|thumb|upright|Robert H. Jackson United States CourthouseRobert H. Jackson United States CourthouseAt the municipal level, the City of Buffalo has a mayor and a council of nine councilmembers. Buffalo also serves as the seat of Erie County with some of the 11 members of county legislature representing at least a portion of Buffalo. At the state level, there are three states assemblymembers and two state senators representing parts of the city proper. At the federal level, Buffalo is the heart of {{ushr|NY|26}} in the House of Representatives, represented by Democrat Brian Higgins.File:McKinley Monument, Buffalo, NY - IMG 3702.JPG|thumb|left|upright|Buffalo City Hall, with McKinley MonumentMcKinley MonumentIn a trend common to northern "Rust Belt" regions, the Democratic Party has dominated Buffalo's political life for the last half-century. The last time anyone other than a Democrat held the position of Mayor in Buffalo was Chester A. Kowal in 1965. In 1977, Democratic Mayor James D. Griffin was elected as the nominee of two minor parties, the Conservative Party and the Right to Life Party, after he lost the Democratic primary for Mayor to then Deputy State Assembly Speaker Arthur Eve. Griffin switched political allegiances several times during his 16 years as Mayor, generally hewing to socially conservative platforms.Griffin's successor, Democrat Anthony M. Masiello (elected in 1993) continued to campaign on social conservatism, often crossing party lines in his endorsements and alliances. However, in 2005, Democrat Byron Brown was elected the city's first African-American mayor in a landslide (64%–27%) over Republican Kevin Helfer, who ran on a conservative platform. In 2013, the Conservative Party endorsed Brown for a third term because of his pledge to cut taxes.{{citation needed|date=December 2014}} This change in local politics was preceded by a fiscal crisis in 2003 when years of economic decline, a diminishing tax-base and civic mismanagement left the city deep in debt and on the edge of bankruptcy. At New York State Comptroller Alan Hevesi's urging, the state took over the management of Buffalo's finances, appointing the Buffalo Fiscal Stability Authority, a New York State public-benefit corporation. Mayor Tony Masiello began conversations about merging the city with the larger Erie County government the following year, but they came to nought.The offices of the Buffalo District, US Army Corps of Engineers are next to the Black Rock Lock in the Erie Canal's Black Rock channel. In addition to maintaining and operating the lock, the District plans, designs, constructs and maintains water resources projects from Toledo, Ohio to Massena, New York. These include the flood-control dam at Mount Morris, New York, oversight of the lower Great Lakes (Lake Erie and Lake Ontario), review and permitting of wetlands construction, and remedial action for hazardous waste sites. Buffalo is also the home of a major office of the National Weather Service (NOAA), which serves all of western and much of central New York State. Buffalo is home to one of the 56 national FBI field offices. The field office covers all of Western New York and parts of the Southern Tier and Central New York. The field office operates several task forces in conjunction with local agencies to help combat issues such as gang violence, terrorism threats and health care fraud.WEB,weblink FBI Buffalo Division,, March 29, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink March 10, 2011, Buffalo is also the location of the chief judge, United States Attorney and administrative offices for the United States District Court for the Western District of New York.


(File:UBsouth campus wide shot.jpg|thumb|Overlooking the University at Buffalo's South Campus from Abbott Hall)Buffalo Public Schools serve most of the city of Buffalo. The city has 78 public schools, including a growing number of charter schools. {{As of|2006}}, the total enrollment was 41,089 students with a student-teacher ratio of 13.5 to 1. The graduation rate is up to 52% in 2008, up from 45% in 2007, and 50% in 2006.The Buffalo News {{webarchive |url= |date=October 3, 2009 }} More than 27% of teachers have a master's degree or higher and the median amount of experience in the field is 15 years. The metropolitan area has 292 schools with 172,854 students.WEB,weblink SUNY Buffalo Regional Knowledge Network,weblink" title="">weblink March 22, 2012, (File:Rockwell hall.JPG|left|thumb|Rockwell Hall, Buffalo State College)Buffalo's magnet school system attracts students with special interests, such as science, bilingual studies, and Native American studies. Specialized facilities include the Buffalo Elementary School of Technology; the Dr Martin Luther King Jr., Multicultural Institute; the International School; the Dr. Charles R. Drew Science Magnet; BUILD Academy; Leonardo da Vinci High School; PS 32 Bennett Park Montessori; the Buffalo Academy for Visual and Performing Arts, BAVPA; the Riverside Institute of Technology; Lafayette High School/Buffalo Academy of Finance; Hutchinson Central Technical High School; Burgard Vocational High School; South Park High School; and the Emerson School of Hospitality.The city is home to 47 private schools and the metropolitan region has 150 institutions. Most private schools, such as Bishop Timon – St. Jude High School, Canisius High School, Mount Mercy Academy, and Nardin Academy have a Catholic affiliation. In addition, there are two Islamic schools, Darul Uloom Al-Madania and Universal School of Buffalo. There are also nonsectarian options including The Buffalo Seminary (the only private, nonsectarian, all-girls school in Western New York state),WEB,weblink Buffalo Seminary, Buffalo Seminary,weblink" title="">weblink April 24, 2014, Nichols School and numerous Charter Schools.Private school tuition is approximately 40% less than Buffalo Public Schools' per student spending. Private schools graduate nearly 100% of students, public schools only approximately 30%.Complementing its standard function, the Buffalo Public Schools Adult and Continuing Education Division provides education and services to adults throughout the community.WEB,weblink Buffalo Public Schools Adult and Continuing Education Division,weblink" title="">weblink October 31, 2013, In addition, the Career and Technical Education Department offers more than 20 academic programs, and is attended by about 6,000 students each year.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, June 13, 2010, CTE High School Programs,, May 31, 2013, The State University of New York (SUNY) operates three institutions within the city of Buffalo. The State University of New York at Buffalo is known as "Buffalo" or "UB" and is the largest public university in New York.WEB,weblink SUNY: Complete Campus List,, 2011-11-23, The University at Buffalo is the only university in Buffalo and is a nationally ranked tier 1 research university.WEB,weblink SUNY Buffalo US News and World Report: National University Ranking, US News and World Report, 2016-03-31, live,weblink" title="">weblink April 21, 2016, mdy-all, Buffalo State College and Erie Community College are a college and a community college, respectively. Additionally, the private institutions Canisius College and D'Youville College are within the city.{{clear|left}}



File:Medical Campus.jpg|thumb|Buffalo Niagara Medical Campus as seen from the Erie Basin MarinaErie Basin MarinaThe city is home to two private healthcare systems, which combined operate eight hospitals and countless clinics in the greater metropolitan area, as well as three public hospitals operated by Erie County and the State of New York. Oishei Children's HospitalWEB,weblink Oishei Children's Hospital, Oishei Children's Hospital, opened in November 2017 and is the only long-standing children's hospital in New York. Buffalo General Medical Center and the Gates Vascular Institute have earned top rankings in the US for their cutting-edge research and treatment into the stroke and neurological care. Erie County Medical Center has been accredited as a Level One Trauma Center and serves as the trauma and burn care center for Western New York, much of the Southern Tier, and portions of Northwestern Pennsylvania and Ontario, Canada. Roswell Park has also become recognized as one of the United States' leading cancer treatment and research centers, and it recruits physicians and researchers from across the world to come live and work in the Buffalo area.


{{see also|Niagara International Transportation Technology Coalition}}(File:Deford airport small.jpg|thumb|Buffalo Niagara International Airport)File:Buffalo, New York 1955 Yellow Book.jpg|left|thumb|The 1955 Yellow Book planned the three major highways that would serve the Buffalo area: Interstate 190, Interstate 290, and Interstate 90Interstate 90(File:20150827 61 NFTA Light Rail at Fountain Plaza (21990211710).jpg|thumb|Buffalo Metro Rail in downtown Buffalo)The Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (NFTA) operates Buffalo Niagara International Airport, reconstructed in 1997, in the suburb of Cheektowaga.{{Citation needed|date=September 2015}} The airport serves Western New York and much of the Finger Lakes and Southern Tier Regions.The Buffalo Metro Rail, also operated by the NFTA, is a {{convert|6.4|mi|km}} long,{{Citation needed|date=September 2015}} single line light rail system that extends from Erie Canal Harbor in downtown Buffalo to the University Heights district (specifically, the South Campus of University at Buffalo) in the city's northeastern part.{{Citation needed|date=September 2015}} The line's downtown section runs above ground and is free of charge to passengers.{{Citation needed|date=September 2015}} North of Fountain Plaza Station, at the northern end of downtown, the line moves underground until it reaches its northern terminus at University Heights. Passengers pay a fare to ride this section of the rail.{{Citation needed|date=September 2015}}Two train stations, Buffalo-Depew and Buffalo-Exchange Street, serve the city and are operated by Amtrak. Historically, the city was a major stop on through routes between Chicago and New York City through the lower Ontario peninsula.BOOK, Drury, George H., The Historical Guide to North American Railroads: Histories, Figures, and Features of more than 160 Railroads Abandoned or Merged since 1930, Kalmbach Publishing, 1994, Waukesha, Wisconsin, 91, 229–231, 978-0-89024-072-4, File: Buffalo New York aerial view.jpg|thumb|The Buffalo Outer Harbor in 1992. Northwest of the city is the Niagara RiverNiagara RiverBuffalo is at the Lake Erie's eastern end and serves as a playground for many personal yachts, sailboats, power boats and watercraft.{{Citation needed|date=September 2015}} The city's extensive breakwall system protects its inner and outer harbors, which are maintained at commercial navigation depths for Great Lakes freighters.{{Citation needed|date=September 2015}} A Lake Erie tributary that flows through south Buffalo is the Buffalo River and Buffalo Creek.JOURNAL, McLaren, Patrick, Singer, Jill, 2008-07-01, Sediment Transport and Contaminant Behavior in the Buffalo River, New York: Implications for River Management, Journal of Coastal Research, 244, 954–968, 10.2112/06-0802.1, 0749-0208, Eight New York State highways, one three-digit Interstate Highway and one U.S. Highway traverse the city of Buffalo. New York State Route 5, commonly referred to as Main Street within the city{{Citation needed|date=September 2014}}, enters through Lackawanna as a limited-access highway and intersects with Interstate 190, a north-south highway connecting Interstate 90 in the southeastern suburb of Cheektowaga with Niagara Falls. NY 354 (Clinton Street) and NY 130 (Broadway) are east to west highways connecting south and downtown Buffalo to the eastern suburbs of West Seneca and Depew. NY 265 (Delaware Avenue) and NY 266 (Niagara Street and River Road) both start in downtown Buffalo and end in the city of Tonawanda. One of three U.S. highways in Erie County, the other two being U.S. 20 (Transit Road) and U.S. 219 (Southern Expressway), U.S. 62 (Bailey Avenue) is a north to south trunk road that enters the city through Lackawanna and exits at the Amherst town border at a junction with NY 5. Within the city, the route passes by light industrial developments and high-density areas of the city. Bailey Avenue has major intersections with Interstate 190 and the Kensington Expressway.Three major expressways serve Buffalo. The Scajaquada Expressway (NY 198) is primarily a limited access highway connecting Interstate 190 near Unity Island to New York State Route 33, which starts at the edge of downtown and the city's East Side, continues through heavily populated areas of the city, intersects with Interstate 90 in Cheektowaga and ends at the airport. The Peace Bridge is a major international crossing near the city's Black Rock district that connects Buffalo with Fort Erie and Toronto via the Queen Elizabeth Way.WEB,weblink Peace Bridge Facts, Ripa, Roger,, en-GB, 2018-08-23, The city of Buffalo has a higher than average percentage of households without a car. In 2015, 30 percent of Buffalo households lacked a car, and decreased slightly to 28.2 percent in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Buffalo averaged 1.03 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8.JOURNAL, Car Ownership in U.S. Cities Data and Map, Governing,weblink May 3, 2018, {{clear|left}}


Buffalo's water system is operated by Veolia Water.WEB,weblink Treatment – Buffalo Water,, 2012, Veolia Water, April 21, 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 6, 2015, mdy-all, To reduce large-scale ice blockage in the Niagara River—with resultant flooding, ice damage to docks and other waterfront structures, as well as blockage of the water intakes for the hydro-electric power plants at Niagara Falls—the New York Power Authority and Ontario Power Generation have jointly operated the Lake Erie-Niagara River Ice Boom since 1964.{{Citation needed|date=September 2015}} The boom is installed on December 16, or when the water temperature reaches {{convert|4|C}}, whichever happens first.{{Citation needed|date=September 2015}} The boom is opened on April 1 unless there is more than {{convert|650|km2}} of ice remaining in Eastern Lake Erie.{{Citation needed|date=September 2015}} When in place, the boom stretches {{convert|2680|m}} from the outer breakwall at Buffalo Harbor almost to the Canadian shore near the ruins of the pier at Erie Beach in Fort Erie.{{Citation needed|date=September 2015}} The boom was originally made of wooden timbers, but these have been replaced by steel pontoons.WEB,weblink Lake Erie-Niagara River Ice Boom Information Sheet, International Joint Commission, November 1999, The International Niagara Board of Control of the International Joint Commission, April 21, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 24, 2015, mdy-all,


File:WIVBTVTruckStPatDay.jpg|thumb|A WIVB-TV truck during St. Patrick's DaySt. Patrick's DayBuffalo's major newspaper is The Buffalo News. Established in 1880 as the Buffalo Evening News, the newspaper has 181,540 in daily circulation and 266,123 on Sundays.{{Citation needed|date=September 2015}} With the radio stations WBEN (later WBEN-AM), WBEN-FM, and television station WBEN-TV, Buffalo's first and for several years only television station, the Buffalo Evening News dominated the local media market until 1977, when the newspaper and the stations were separated. The stations showed their affiliation with the newspaper in their call sign: WBEN. Other newspapers in the Buffalo area include The Public,WEB,weblink The Public, The Challenger Community News,WEB,weblink The Challenger Community News, and Buffalo Business First.According to Nielsen Media Research, the Buffalo television market is the 52nd largest in the United States {{As of|2013|lc=y}}.WEB, Local Television Market Universe Estimates,weblink Nielsen, Nielsen Media Research, March 31, 2015, Movies shot with significant footage of Buffalo include: Hide in Plain Sight (1980),WEB,weblink Buffalo's star turn, The Buffalo News, April 17, 2011, Simon, Jeff, September 25, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 27, 2016, mdy-all, Tuck Everlasting (1981), Best Friends (1982), The Natural (1984), Vamping (1984), Canadian Bacon (1995), Buffalo '66 (1998), Manna from Heaven (2002), Bruce Almighty (2003),WEB,weblink "Marshall" isn't the first movie to be filmed in Buffalo,, May 23, 2016, September 25, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 27, 2016, mdy-all, The Savages (2007), Henry's Crime (2011), (Sharknado 2: The Second One) (2014), (Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (2014 film)#Sequels|Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles: Out of The Shadows) (2016),WEB, Belcher, Mark, Buffalo to be taken over by Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles for two weeks,weblink, September 25, 2016, April 15, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 20, 2016, mdy-all, Marshall (2016), Accidental Switch (2016), and The American Side (2017).NEWS,weblink Locally-shot 'The American Side' to premiere in Buffalo, Buckley, Eileen, 2017-09-22, en, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 23, 2017, mdy-all, Although additional movies, such as Promised Land (2012), have used Buffalo as a setting, filming often takes place in other locations such as Pittsburgh or Canada. High production costs are blamed for filmmakers shooting all or most of their Buffalo-based scenes elsewhere.WEB,weblink Hopes for 'Draft Day' film may rest on financing, The Buffalo News, January 12, 2013, Pignataro, T.J., September 25, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 27, 2016, mdy-all, The Buffalo History Museum has compiled a lengthy and comprehensive filmography of feature films, documentary films, and television productions filmed or set in the Buffalo area.WEB,weblink The Buffalo Filmography, The Buffalo History Museum, May 13, 2019,

Notable people

Sister cities

Buffalo has a number of sister cities as designated by Sister Cities International (SCI):WEB,weblink Interactive City Directory: Buffalo, New York, Sister-cities International, Washington DC, USA, March 14, 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 2, 2015, mdy-all, , Retrieved May 31, 2013.Sister Cities from Buffalo's website {{webarchive |url= |date=November 30, 2011 }}{|class="wikitable"valign-="top"|
  • {{flagdeco|ITA}} Siena, Tuscany, Italy (1961)WEB, Siena, Italy – City of Buffalo, City of Buffalo, New York,weblink December 24, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink September 28, 2011,
  • {{flagdeco|JPN}} Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan (1962)WEB,weblink Buffalo-Kanazawa Sister City Committee, Japan in, dead,weblink" title="">weblink July 22, 2015,
  • {{flagdeco|DEU}} Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany (1972)WEB, Dortmund, Germany – City of Buffalo, City of Buffalo, New York,weblink December 24, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink September 28, 2011,
  • {{flagdeco|POL}} Rzeszów, Poland (1975)WEB,weblink Serwis informacyjny UM Rzeszów – Informacja o współpracy Rzeszowa z miastami partnerskimi,, May 31, 2013,weblink" title="">weblink April 19, 2014, WEB, History, Buffalo-Rzeszow Sister Cities, Inc.,weblink December 24, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink December 10, 2012,
  • {{flagdeco|GHA}} Cape Coast, Ghana (1976)
  • {{flagdeco|GHA}} Aboadze, Ghana
  • {{flagdeco|ISR}} Kiryat Gat, Israel (1977)
  • {{flagdeco|RUS}} Tver, Russia (1989)WEB, Tver, Russia – City of Buffalo, City of Buffalo, New York,weblink December 24, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink September 28, 2011,
  • {{flagdeco|UKR}} Drohobych, Lviv Oblast, Ukraine (2000)WEB, Buffalo and Drohobych join ranks of sister cities, The Ukrainian Weekly, April 1, 2001,weblink December 24, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink September 30, 2007, dead,
  • {{flagdeco|FRA}} Lille, Nord, France (2000)WEB, Lille, France – City of Buffalo, City of Buffalo, New York,weblink December 24, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink September 28, 2011,
  • {{flagdeco|ITA}} Torremaggiore, Apulia, Italy (2004)NEWS,weblink March 16, 2013, Kearns, Michelle, Sister cities, a banquet of international friendships, The Buffalo News,weblink" title="">weblink June 18, 2013, dead, , Retrieved May 31, 2013.
  • {{flagdeco|NGA}} Abuja, Nigeria (2004)
  • {{flagdeco|JAM}} Saint Ann's Bay, Jamaica (2007)NEWS, Buffalo gains sister city: St. Ann, Jamaica, Buffalo News,weblink September 19, 2007, December 24, 2008,weblink" title="">weblink September 25, 2007, dead,







  • BOOK,weblink Pioneer history of the Holland Purchase of western New York, Turner, Orsamus, Jewett, Thomas & Co., 1849, Buffalo, N.Y., 14246512, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Gazetteer of the State of New York, French, J. H., Place, Frank, R. Pearsall Smith, 1860, Syracuse, N.Y., 682410715, harv,
  • BOOK, Ketchum, William, An Authentic and Comprehensive History of Buffalo, with Some Account of Its Early Inhabitants, Both Savage and Civilized, Comprising Historic Notices of the Six Nations, Or Iroquois Indians, Vol. II, Origin of the Name of Buffalo, 1865, Rockwell, Baker & Hill, Buffalo, N.Y., 9780665514968, 49073883, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Publications of the Buffalo Historical Society, Severance, Frank H., Buffalo : Bigelow Bros., Harold B. Lee Library, 1879, Papers relating to the Burning of Buffalo, harv,
  • BOOK, Semi-centennial Celebration of the City of Buffalo: Address of the Hon. E.C. Sprague Before the Buffalo Historical Society, July 3, 1882, Sprague, E. C., Buffalo Historical Society, 1882, Buffalo, N.Y., en, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Queen of the lakes, Buffalo, the electric city of the future, Builders' Association Exchange of Buffalo, National Association of Builders, The Courier Co. Printers, 1896, Buffalo, N.Y., 17204632, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Iroquois Past and Present, Brush, Edward H., Baker, Jones & Co., 1901, Buffalo, N.Y., harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Sketches of early Buffalo and the Niagara region, Becker, Sophie C., McLaughlin Press, 1906, Buffalo, N.Y., 12629461, harv,
  • BOOK, Bingham, Robert W., The cradle of the Queen city : a history of Buffalo to the incorporation of the city, 1931, Buffalo Historical Society, Buffalo, N.Y., 364308016, harv,
  • BOOK,weblink Geography of New York State, Thompson, John H., Syracuse University Press, 1977, 9780815621829, Syracuse, N.Y., 77004337, 2874807, harv,
  • BOOK, High hopes: the rise and decline of Buffalo, New York, Goldman, Mark, State University of New York Press, 1983, 9780873957342, Albany, N.Y., 09110713, harv,
  • BOOK, Power failure: politics, patronage, and the economic future of Buffalo, New York, Dillaway, Diana, 2006, Prometheus Books, 978-1591024002, Amherst, N.Y., harv,
  • BOOK, City on the edge: Buffalo, New York, Goldman, Mark, 2007, Prometheus Books, 9781591024576, Amherst, N.Y., 74648927,

Further reading

  • BOOK, Buffalo Architecture: a guide, Kowsky, Francis R., MIT Press, 1985, 9780262520638, Cambridge, MA, 637993088,
  • BOOK, Against the Grain: The History of Buffalo's First Ward, Bohen, Timothy, Petit Printing, 2012, 9780615620527, Buffalo, N.Y., 815395883,
  • BOOK, Strangers in the land of paradise: the creation of an African American community, Buffalo, New York, 1900–1940, Williams, Lillian Serence, Indiana University Press, 1999, 9780253335524,
  • BOOK, Buffalo's waterfront, Leary, Thomas E, Sholes, Elizabeth C., 1997, Arcadia, 978-0752408293, Charleston, SC, English, 38087547,
  • BOOK, Buffalo, Myers, Stephen G, 2012, 9780738591650, English, 835592368,
  • BOOK, Race, neighborhoods, and community power: Buffalo politics, 1934–1997, Kraus, Neil, 2000, State University of New York Press, 978-0791447437, Albany, English, 43296770,

External links

{{Sister project links |wikt=no |commons=Buffalo, New York |commonscat=yes |n=Category:Buffalo, New York |q=Buffalo, New York |s=no |b=no |v=no |voy=Buffalo |d=Q40435}} {{Geographic location|Centre = BuffaloKenmore, New York>Kenmore, TonawandaAmherst, New York>AmherstSloan, New York>Sloan, CheektowagaWest Seneca, New York>West SenecaLackawanna, New York>Lackawanna|Southwest = Lake ErieFort Erie, Ontario>Fort Erie, Niagara RiverGrand Island, New York>Grand Island}}{{City of Buffalo, New York}}{{Navboxes|title = Articles relating to Buffalo, New York|list ={{Erie County, New York}}{{Buffalo-Niagara Falls metropolitan area}}{{New York state public-benefit corporations}}{{New York}}{{New York cities and mayors of 100,000 population}}{{USLargestMetros}}{{Northeast US}}}}{{Authority control}}

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