South America

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South America
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{{Redirect|Southern America|the region of the United States of America|Southern United States|the botanical continent defined in the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions|Southern America (WGSRPD)}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|A continent in the Western Hemisphere, and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere}}{{More citations needed|date=October 2017}}{{Use American English|date=August 2016}}

 (List of continents by area>4th)South America}} ({{UN_PopulationList of continents by population>5th){{UN_Population|ref}}|density = 21.4/km2 (56.0/sq mi)List of continents by GDP (nominal)>4th)GDP NOMINAL, CURRENT PRICES >URL=HTTPS://WWW.IMF.ORG/EXTERNAL/DATAMAPPER/NGDPD@WEO/WEOWORLD/SMQ DATE=2019, 20 April 2019, PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUNDACCESS-DATE=20 APRIL 2019, List of continents by GDP (nominal)#GDP per capita (nominal) by continents>4th)HTTPS://WWW.IMF.ORG/EXTERNAL/DATAMAPPER/NGDPDPC@WEO/WEOWORLD/SMQ >TITLE=NOMINAL GDP PER CAPITADATE=2019, 20 April 2019, Demographics of South America>South American|countries = 13|list_countries = List of sovereign states and dependent territories in South America#Sovereign statesList of sovereign states and dependent territories in South America#Dependent territories>2Spanish language>Spanish, Portuguese language, English language>English, French language, Dutch language>Dutch, Quechua languages, Caribbean Hindustani>Hindustani, Sranan Tongo, Saramaccan language, Languages of South America>other languages|time = UTC-2 to UTC-5|cities = List of cities in South America{hide}Collapsible list|list_style = text-align:left;São Paulo Lima Bogotá Rio de Janeiro Santiago Caracas Buenos Aires Salvador, Bahia>Salvador Brasília
{edih}|m49 = 005 – South America419 – Latin America019 – Americas001 – World
}}South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas,WEB,weblink South America, Encyclopædia Britannica, WEB,weblink Map And Details Of All 7 Continents,, In some parts of the world students are taught that there are only six continents, as they combine North America and South America into one continent called the Americas., September 2, 2016, which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).JOURNAL,weblink Unveiling the South American Balance, Estudos Internacionais 2(2): 215–232., 1970-01-01, 2016-12-08, Schenoni, Luis L., {{Additional citation needed|An article from 1970 does not tell us if usage has increased "in the last decades"|date=August 2019}}It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean; North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. It includes twelve sovereign states (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela), a part of France (French Guiana), and a non-sovereign area (the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory though this is disputed by Argentina). In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Trinidad and Tobago, and Panama may also be considered part of South America.South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers (6,890,000 sq mi). Its population {{As of|{{UN_Population|Year}}|lc=y}} has been estimated at more than {{#expr:floor({{replace|{{UN_Population|South America}}|,||}}/1e6)}} million.{{UN_Population|ref}} South America ranks fourth in area (after Asia, Africa, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America). Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina, Venezuela and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has also concentrated half of the region's GDP and has become a first regional power.Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains; in contrast, the eastern part contains both highland regions and vast lowlands where rivers such as the Amazon, Orinoco, and Paraná flow. Most of the continent lies in the tropics.The continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, and societies and states reflect Western traditions.


{{See also|:Category:Environment of South America}}(File:South America - Blue Marble orthographic.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|A composite relief image of South America)South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas. The continent is generally delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically and geographicallyCohen, Saul Bernard. 2003. "North and Middle America" (Ch. 5). Geopolitics of the World System, {{ISBN|0847699072}} all of Panama â€“ including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus â€“ is typically included in North America alone"Americas" Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49), United Nations Statistics DivisionWEB,weblink North America, Atlas of Canada, 2003-11-14, 2012-05-21, dead,weblink" title="">weblink March 3, 2008, North America Atlas National Geographic and among the countries of Central America.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Panama,, 1999-12-31, 2012-05-21, WEB,weblink Panama, The World Factbook,, 2012-05-21, Almost all of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate.South America is home to the world's highest uninterrupted waterfall, Angel Falls in Venezuela; the highest single drop waterfall Kaieteur Falls in Guyana; the largest river by volume, the Amazon River; the longest mountain range, the Andes (whose highest mountain is Aconcagua at {{convert|6,962|m|ft|abbr=on|disp=or}}); the driest non-polar place on earth, the Atacama Desert;WEB,weblink Parts of Chile's Atacama Desert haven't seen a drop of rain since recordkeeping began. Somehow, more than a million people squeeze life from this parched land, National Geographic Magazine, 2009-04-18, WEB,weblink Driest Place | Driest Desert Atacama Desert,, 2007-01-25, 2009-04-18, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 8, 2009, JOURNAL, McKay, C.P., May–June 2002, 14, 30, Two dry for life: The Atacama Desert and Mars, 3,weblink Ad Astra, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2009-08-26, the largest rainforest, the Amazon Rainforest; the highest capital city, La Paz, Bolivia; the highest commercially navigable lake in the world, Lake Titicaca; and, excluding research stations in Antarctica, the world's southernmost permanently inhabited community, Puerto Toro, Chile.South America's major mineral resources are gold, silver, copper, iron ore, tin, and petroleum. These resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries especially in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity often has hindered the development of diversified economies. The fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led historically to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states, often causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export.South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, anaconda, piranha, jaguar, vicuña, and tapir. The Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth's species.Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the continent's land area and population. The remaining countries and territories are divided among three regions: The Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone.

Outlying islands

Traditionally, South America also includes some of the nearby islands. Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Trinidad, Tobago, and the federal dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northerly South American continental shelf and are often considered part of the continent. Geo-politically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are generally grouped as a part or subregion of North America, since they are more distant on the Caribbean Plate, even though San Andres and Providencia are politically part of Colombia and Aves Island is controlled by Venezuela.South America Atlas National GeographicWEB,weblink United Nations Statistics Division – Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49),, 2011-09-20, 2012-05-21, Other islands that are included with South America are the Galápagos Islands that belong to Ecuador and Easter Island (in Oceania but belonging to Chile), Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé (both Chilean) and Tierra del Fuego (split in between Chile and Argentina). In the Atlantic, Brazil owns Fernando de Noronha, Trindade and Martim Vaz, and the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands are governed by the United Kingdom, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands may be associated with either South America or Antarctica.BOOK, South Georgia and theSouth Sandwich Islands, 2017, {{Citation needed|date=April 2012}}{{Clear}}


File:Koppen-Geiger Map South America present.svg|thumb|Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for South America.JOURNAL, Beck, Hylke E., Zimmermann, Niklaus E., McVicar, Tim R., Vergopolan, Noemi, Berg, Alexis, Wood, Eric F., Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution, Scientific Data, 30 October 2018, 5, 180214, 10.1038/sdata.2018.214, ]](File:Tropical cyclones 1945 2006 wikicolor.png|thumb|Map of all tropical cyclone tracks from 1945 to 2006.)The distribution of the average temperatures in the region presents a constant regularity from the 30° of latitude south, when the isotherms tend, more and more, to be confused with the degrees of latitude.O CLIMA. In: Atlas Mundial. São Paulo: Cia. Melhoramentos de São Paulo, 1999, pp. 20–21 {{ISBN|85-06-02889-2}}In temperate latitudes, winters are milder and summers warmer than in North America. Because its most extensive part of the continent is in the equatorial zone, the region has more areas of equatorial plains than any other region.The average annual temperatures in the Amazon basin oscillate around {{convert|27|C|||}}, with low thermal amplitudes and high rainfall indices. Between the Maracaibo Lake and the mouth of the Orinoco, predominates an equatorial climate of the type Congolese, that also includes parts of the Brazilian territory.The east-central Brazilian plateau has a humid and warm tropical climate. The northern and eastern parts of the Argentine pampas have a humid subtropical climate with dry winters and humid summers of the Chinese type, while the western and eastern ranges have a subtropical climate of the dinaric type. At the highest points of the Andean region, climates are colder than the ones occurring at the highest point of the Norwegian fjords. In the Andean plateaus, the warm climate prevails, although it is tempered by the altitude, while in the coastal strip, there is an equatorial climate of the Guinean type. From this point until the north of the Chilean coast appear, successively, Mediterranean oceanic climate, temperate of the Breton type and, already in Tierra del Fuego, cold climate of the Siberian type.The distribution of rainfall is related to the regime of winds and air masses. In most of the tropical region east of the Andes, winds blowing from the northeast, east and southeast carry moisture from the Atlantic, causing abundant rainfall. However, due to a consistently strong wind shear and a weak Intertropical Convergence Zone, South Atlantic tropical cyclones are rare.WEB
, Why doesn't the South Atlantic Ocean experience tropical cyclones?
, Landsea
, Chris
, 13 July 2005
, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorlogical Laboratory
, National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration
, 9 June 2018
, In the Orinoco Llanos and in the Guianas plateau, the precipitation levels go from moderate to high. The Pacific coast of Colombia and northern Ecuador are rainy regions, with Chocó in Colombia being the most rainy place in the world along with the northern slopes of Indian Himalayas.WEB, Wettest Places On Earth By Annual Rainfall,weblink World Atlas, 12 May 2019, The Atacama Desert, along this stretch of coast, is one of the driest regions in the world. The central and southern parts of Chile are subject to extratropical cyclones, and most of the Argentine Patagonia is desert. In the pampas of Argentina, Uruguay and South of Brazil the rainfall is moderate, with rains well distributed during the year. The moderately dry conditions of the Chaco oppose the intense rainfall of the eastern region of Paraguay. In the semiarid coast of the Brazilian Northeast the rains are linked to a monsoon regime.
Important factors in the determination of climates are sea currents, such as the current Humboldt and Falklands. The equatorial current of the South Atlantic strikes the coast of the Northeast and there is divided into two others: the current of Brazil and a coastal current that flows to the northwest towards the Antilles, where there it moves towards northeast course thus forming the most Important and famous ocean current in the world, the Gulf Stream.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2017-01-26, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2015-04-11,



{{further|History of South America#Pre-Columbian era}}File:SantaCruz-CuevaManos-P2210651b.jpg|thumb|The prehistoric Cueva de las ManosCueva de las ManosSouth America is believed to have been joined with Africa from the late Paleozoic Era to the early Mesozoic Era, until the supercontinent Pangaea began to rift and break apart about 225 million years ago. Therefore, South America and Africa share similar fossils and rock layers.South America is thought to have been first inhabited by humans when people were crossing the Bering Land Bridge (now the Bering Strait) at least 15,000 years ago from the territory that is present-day Russia. They migrated south through North America, and eventually reached South America through the Isthmus of Panama.The first evidence for the existence of the human race in South America dates back to about 9000 BC, when squashes, chili peppers and beans began to be cultivated for food in the highlands of the Amazon Basin. Pottery evidence further suggests that manioc, which remains a staple food today, was being cultivated as early as 2000 BC.O'Brien, Patrick. (General Editor). Oxford Atlas of World History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. p. 25By 2000 BC, many agrarian communities had been settled throughout the Andes and the surrounding regions. Fishing became a widespread practice along the coast, helping establish fish as a primary source of food. Irrigation systems were also developed at this time, which aided in the rise of an agrarian society.South American cultures began domesticating llamas, vicuñas, guanacos, and alpacas in the highlands of the Andes circa 3500 BC. Besides their use as sources of meat and wool, these animals were used for transportation of goods.

Pre-Columbian civilizations

File:Machu Picchu, Perú, 2015-07-30, DD 39.JPG|alt=|thumb|The Inca estate of Machu Picchu, Peru is one of the New Seven Wonders of the World.]]The rise of plant growing and the subsequent appearance of permanent human settlements allowed for the multiple and overlapping beginnings of civilizations in South America.One of the earliest known South American civilizations was at Norte Chico, on the central Peruvian coast. Though a pre-ceramic culture, the monumental architecture of Norte Chico is contemporaneous with the pyramids of Ancient Egypt. Norte Chico governing class established a trade network and developed agriculture then followed by Chavín by 900 BC, according to some estimates and archaeological finds. Artifacts were found at a site called Chavín de Huantar in modern Peru at an elevation of {{convert|3177|m|sp=us||}}. Chavín civilization spanned 900 BC to 300 BC.In the central coast of Peru, around the beginning of the 1st millennium AD, Moche (100 BC â€“ 700 AD, at the northern coast of Peru), Paracas and Nazca (400 BC â€“ 800 AD, Peru) cultures flourished with centralized states with permanent militia improving agriculture through irrigation and new styles of ceramic art. At the Altiplano, Tiahuanaco or Tiwanaku (100 BC â€“ 1200 AD, Bolivia) managed a large commercial network based on religion.Around the 7th century, both Tiahuanaco and Wari or Huari Empire (600–1200, Central and northern Peru) expanded its influence to all the Andean region, imposing the Huari urbanism and Tiahuanaco religious iconography.The Muisca were the main indigenous civilization in what is now Colombia. They established the Muisca Confederation of many clans, or cacicazgos, that had a free trade network among themselves. They were goldsmiths and farmers.Other important Pre-Columbian cultures include: the Cañaris (in south central Ecuador), Chimú Empire (1300–1470, Peruvian northern coast), Chachapoyas, and the Aymaran kingdoms (1000–1450, Western Bolivia and southern Peru).Holding their capital at the great city of Cusco, the Inca civilization dominated the Andes region from 1438 to 1533. Known as Tawantin suyu, and "the land of the four regions," in Quechua, the Inca Empire was highly distinct and developed. Inca rule extended to nearly a hundred linguistic or ethnic communities, some nine to fourteen million people connected by a 25,000 kilometer road system. Cities were built with precise, unmatched stonework, constructed over many levels of mountain terrain. Terrace farming was a useful form of agriculture.The Mapuche in Central and Southern Chile resisted the European and Chilean settlers, waging the Arauco War for more than 300 years.{{Clear}}

European colonization

File:Vespucci's first voyage, from Letter to Soderini.jpg|thumb|left|Woodcut depicting Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first voyage (1497-98) to the New World, from the first known published edition of Vespucci's 1504 letter to Piero SoderiniPiero SoderiniIn 1494, Portugal and Spain, the two great maritime European powers of that time, on the expectation of new lands being discovered in the west, signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, by which they agreed, with the support of the Pope, that all the land outside Europe should be an exclusive duopoly between the two countries.The treaty established an imaginary line along a north-south meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands, roughly 46° 37' W. In terms of the treaty, all land to the west of the line (known to comprise most of the South American soil) would belong to Spain, and all land to the east, to Portugal. As accurate measurements of longitude were impossible at that time, the line was not strictly enforced, resulting in a Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian.File:Inca-Spanish confrontation.JPG|thumb|The Inca–Spanish confrontation in the Battle of CajamarcaBattle of CajamarcaBeginning in the 1530s, the people and natural resources of South America were repeatedly exploited by foreign conquistadors, first from Spain and later from Portugal. These competing colonial nations claimed the land and resources as their own and divided it in colonies.European infectious diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles, and typhus) – to which the native populations had no immune resistance â€“ caused large-scale depopulation of the native population under Spanish control. Systems of forced labor, such as the haciendas and mining industry's mit'a also contributed to the depopulation. After this, African slaves, who had developed immunities to these diseases, were quickly brought in to replace them.File:Desembarque de Pedro Álvares Cabral em Porto Seguro em 1500 by Oscar Pereira da Silva (1865–1939).jpg|thumb|left|The Portuguese arrival in Brazil on 22 April 1500 was led by Pedro Álvares CabralPedro Álvares CabralFile:Waterkant seen from Suriname river III.JPG|thumb|The Dutch colonial houses in the historic center of ParamariboParamariboFile:Plate 6 Provisional Battalion.jpg|thumb|left|Illustration of the Demerara rebellion in British GuianaBritish GuianaThe Spaniards were committed to converting their native subjects to Christianity and were quick to purge any native cultural practices that hindered this end; however, many initial attempts at this were only partially successful, as native groups simply blended Catholicism with their established beliefs and practices. Furthermore, the Spaniards brought their language to the degree they did with their religion, although the Roman Catholic Church's evangelization in Quechua, Aymara, and Guaraní actually contributed to the continuous use of these native languages albeit only in the oral form.Eventually, the natives and the Spaniards interbred, forming a mestizo class. At the beginning, many mestizos of the Andean region were offspring of Amerindian mothers and Spanish fathers. After independence, most mestizos had native fathers and European or mestizo mothers.Many native artworks were considered pagan idols and destroyed by Spanish explorers; this included many gold and silver sculptures and other artifacts found in South America, which were melted down before their transport to Spain or Portugal. Spaniards and Portuguese brought the western European architectural style to the continent, and helped to improve infrastructures like bridges, roads, and the sewer system of the cities they discovered or conquered. They also significantly increased economic and trade relations, not just between the old and new world but between the different South American regions and peoples. Finally, with the expansion of the Portuguese and Spanish languages, many cultures that were previously separated became united through that of Latin American.Guyana was first a Dutch, and then a British colony, though there was a brief period during the Napoleonic Wars when it was colonized by the French. The country was once partitioned into three parts, each being controlled by one of the colonial powers until the country was finally taken over fully by the British.

Slavery in South America

{{Slavery}}{{See also|Slavery among the indigenous peoples of the Americas|Atlantic slave trade}}(File:Johann Moritz Rugendas in Brazil.jpg|thumb|left|Public flogging of a slave in 19th-century Brazil.)Indigenous peoples of the Americas in various European colonies were forced to work in European plantations and mines; along with African slaves who were also introduced in the proceeding centuries. The colonists were heavily dependent on indigenous labor during the initial phases of European settlement to maintain the subsistence economy, and natives were often captured by expeditions. The importation of African slaves began midway through the 16th century, but the enslavement of indigenous peoples continued well into the 17th and 18th centuries. The Atlantic slave trade brought African slaves primarily to South American colonies, beginning with the Portuguese since 1502.Anstey, Roger: The Atlantic Slave Trade and British abolition, 1760–1810. London: Macmillan, 1975, p. 5. The main destinations of this phase were the Caribbean colonies and Brazil, as European nations built up economically slave-dependent colonies in the New World. Nearly 40% of all African slaves trafficked to the Americas went to Brazil. An estimated 4.9 million slaves from Africa came to Brazil during the period from 1501 to 1866.WEB, Vergonha Ainda Maior: Novas informações disponíveis em um enorme banco de dados mostram que a escravidão no Brasil foi muito pior do que se sabia antes (,weblink Veja, 16 March 2015, Portuguese, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 March 2015, Stephen D. Behrendt, David Richardson, and David Eltis, W.E.B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research, Harvard University. Based on "records for 27,233 voyages that set out to obtain slaves for the Americas". BOOK, Stephen Behrendt, Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience, 1999, Basic Civitas Books, New York, 978-0-465-00071-5, Transatlantic Slave Trade,weblink While the Portuguese, English and French settlers enslaved mainly African blacks, the Spaniards became very disposed of the natives. In 1750 Portugal abolished native slavery in the colonies because they considered them unfit for labour and began to import even more African slaves. Slaves were brought to the mainland on slave ships, under inhuman conditions and ill-treatment, and those who survived were sold into the slave markets.After independence, all South American countries maintained slavery for some time. The first South American country to abolish slavery was Chile in 1823, Uruguay in 1830, Bolivia in 1831, Colombia and Ecuador in 1851, Argentina in 1853, Peru and Venezuela in 1854, Paraguay in 1869, and in 1888 Brazil was the last South American nation and the last country in western world to abolish slavery.

Independence from Spain and Portugal

File:Entrevista de Guayaquil.jpg|thumb|left|The Guayaquil conference between José de San Martín and Simón BolívarSimón BolívarFile:Independence of Brazil 1888.jpg|thumb|The proclamation of the Independence of Brazil by Prince Pedro on 7 September 1822]]File:Coroaçao pedro I 001.jpg|thumb|Coronation of Pedro I as 1st Emperor of BrazilEmperor of BrazilFile:JuraIndependencia.jpg|thumb|left|Bernardo O'Higgins swears officially the independence of ChileChileThe European Peninsular War (1807–1814), a theater of the Napoleonic Wars, changed the political situation of both the Spanish and Portuguese colonies. First, Napoleon invaded Portugal, but the House of Braganza avoided capture by escaping to Brazil. Napoleon also captured King Ferdinand VII of Spain, and appointed his own brother instead. This appointment provoked severe popular resistance, which created Juntas to rule in the name of the captured king.Many cities in the Spanish colonies, however, considered themselves equally authorized to appoint local Juntas like those of Spain. This began the Spanish American wars of independence between the patriots, who promoted such autonomy, and the royalists, who supported Spanish authority over the Americas. The Juntas, in both Spain and the Americas, promoted the ideas of the Enlightenment. Five years after the beginning of the war, Ferdinand VII returned to the throne and began the Absolutist Restoration as the royalists got the upper hand in the conflict.The independence of South America was secured by Simón Bolívar (Venezuela) and José de San Martín (Argentina), the two most important Libertadores. Bolívar led a great uprising in the north, then led his army southward towards Lima, the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Meanwhile, San Martín led an army across the Andes Mountains, along with Chilean expatriates, and liberated Chile. He organized a fleet to reach Peru by sea, and sought the military support of various rebels from the Viceroyalty of Peru. The two armies finally met in Guayaquil, Ecuador, where they cornered the Royal Army of the Spanish Crown and forced its surrender.In the Portuguese Kingdom of Brazil, Dom Pedro I (also Pedro IV of Portugal), son of the Portuguese King Dom João VI, proclaimed the independent Kingdom of Brazil in 1822, which later became the Empire of Brazil. Despite the Portuguese loyalties of garrisons in Bahia, Cisplatina and Pará, independence was diplomatically accepted by the crown in Portugal in 1825, on condition of a high compensation paid by Brazil mediatized by the United Kingdom.

Nation-building and fragmentation

File:Juan Manuel Blanes - El Juramento de los Treinta y Tres Orientales.jpg|thumb|The Thirty-Three Orientals proclaimed the independence of Cisplatine ProvinceCisplatine ProvinceFile:Oscar Pereira da Silva - Cena de Batalha no Sul do Brasil.jpg|thumb|Battle of Fanfa, battle scene in Southern Brazil during the Ragamuffin WarRagamuffin WarThe newly independent nations began a process of fragmentation, with several civil and international wars. However, it was not as strong as in Central America. Some countries created from provinces of larger countries stayed as such up to modern times (such as Paraguay or Uruguay), while others were reconquered and reincorporated into their former countries (such as the Republic of Entre Ríos and the Riograndense Republic).The first separatist attempt was in 1820 by the Argentine province of Entre Ríos, led by a caudillo.WEB,weblink Caudillo, In spite of the "Republic" in its title, General Ramírez, its caudillo, never really intended to declare an independent Entre Rios. Rather, he was making a political statement in opposition to the monarchist and centralist ideas that back then permeated Buenos Aires politics. The "country" was reincorporated at the United Provinces in 1821.In 1825 the Cisplatine Province declared its independence from the Empire of Brazil, which led to the Cisplatine War between the imperials and the Argentine from the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata to control the region. Three years later, the United Kingdom intervened in the question by proclaiming a tie and creating in the former Cisplatina a new independent country: The Oriental Republic of Uruguay.Later in 1836, while Brazil was experiencing the chaos of the regency, Rio Grande do Sul proclaimed its independence motivated by a tax crisis. With the anticipation of the coronation of Pedro II to the throne of Brazil, the country could stabilize and fight the separatists, which the province of Santa Catarina had joined in 1839. The Conflict came to an end by a process of compromise by which both Riograndense Republic and Juliana Republic were reincorporated as provinces in 1845.WEB,weblink Ragamuffin War, Day, Peter, 17 December 1997, Brasil Escola, 27 March 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 March 2007, WEB,weblink Ragamuffin Revolution, Souza, Rainer, 20 January 2002, RioGrande, 2007-03-27, The Peru–Bolivian Confederation, a short-lived union of Peru and Bolivia, was blocked by Chile in the War of the Confederation (1836–1839) and again during the War of the Pacific (1879–1883). Paraguay was virtually destroyed by Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay in the Paraguayan War.

Wars and conflicts

File:Brazilians during the siege of Paysandu.jpg|thumb|Imperial Brazilian Navy and army troops during the Siege of PaysandúSiege of PaysandúFile:Battle of Potrero Sauce 01.jpg|thumb|The Uruguayan Army at the Battle of SauceBattle of SauceFile:Procession in Paraguay 1868.jpg|thumb|The Imperial Brazilian Army during a procession in ParaguayParaguayFile:Batalla de Chorrillos.jpg|thumb|The Chilean Army in the battlefield of the Battle of ChorrillosBattle of ChorrillosFile:U-199Flyover.jpg|thumb|A German submarine under attack by Brazilian Air ForceBrazilian Air ForceSouth American history in early 19th century was built almost exclusively on wars. Despite the Spanish American wars of independence and the Brazilian War of Independence, the new nations quickly began to suffer with internal conflicts and wars among themselves.In 1825 the proclamation of independence of Cisplatina led to the Cisplatine War between historical rivals the Empire of Brazil and the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, Argentina's predecessor. The result was a stalemate, ending with the British arranging for the independence of Uruguay. Soon after, another Brazilian province proclaimed its independence leading to the Ragamuffin War which Brazil won.Between 1836 and 1839 the War of the Confederation broke out between the short-lived Peru-Bolivian Confederation and Chile, with the support of the Argentine Confederation. The war was fought mostly in the actual territory of Peru and ended with a Confederate defeat and the dissolution of the Confederacy and annexation of many territories by Argentina.Meanwhile, the Argentine Civil Wars plagued Argentina since its independence. The conflict was mainly between those who defended the centralization of power in Buenos Aires and those who defended a confederation. During this period it can be said that "there were two Argentines": the Argentine Confederation and the Argentine Republic. At the same time the political instability in Uruguay led to the Uruguayan Civil War among the main political factions of the country. All this instability in the platine region interfered with the goals of other countries such as Brazil, which was soon forced to take sides. In 1851 the Brazilian Empire, supporting the centralizing unitarians, and the Uruguayan government invaded Argentina and deposed the caudillo, Juan Manuel Rosas, who ruled the confederation with an iron hand. Although the Platine War did not put an end to the political chaos and civil war in Argentina, it brought temporary peace to Uruguay where the Colorados faction won, supported by the Brazilian Empire, British Empire, French Empire and the Unitarian Party of Argentina.BOOK,weblink Latin America's Wars, Robert L., Scheina, 31 January 2003, Potomac Books, Inc., Google Books, 978-1597974776, Peace lasted only a short time: in 1864 the Uruguayan factions faced each other again in the Uruguayan War. The Blancos supported by Paraguay started to attack Brazilian and Argentine farmers near the borders. The Empire made an initial attempt to settle the dispute between Blancos and Colorados without success. In 1864, after a Brazilian ultimatum was refused, the imperial government declared that Brazil's military would begin reprisals. Brazil declined to acknowledge a formal state of war, and, for most of its duration, the Uruguayan–Brazilian armed conflict was an undeclared war which led to the deposition of the Blancos and the rise of the pro-Brazilian Colorados to power again. This angered the Paraguayan government, which even before the end of the war invaded Brazil, beginning the biggest and deadliest war in both South American and Latin American histories: the Paraguayan War.The Paraguayan War began when the Paraguayan dictator Francisco Solano López ordered the invasion of the Brazilian provinces of Mato Grosso and Rio Grande do Sul. His attempt to cross Argentinian territory without Argentinian approval led the pro-Brazilian Argentine government into the war. The pro-Brazilian Uruguayan government showed its support by sending troops. In 1865 the three countries signed the Treaty of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay. At the beginning of the war, the Paraguayans took the lead with several victories, until the Triple Alliance organized to repel the invaders and fight effectively. This was the second total war experience in the world after the American Civil War. It was deemed the greatest war effort in the history of all participating countries, taking almost 6 years and ending with the complete devastation of Paraguay. The country lost 40% of its territory to Brazil and Argentina and lost 60% of its population, including 90% of the men. The dictator Lopez was killed in battle and a new government was instituted in alliance with Brazil, which maintained occupation forces in the country until 1876.WEB, Portuguese,weblink A Guerra do Paraguai – História – Resumo, Borges, Fernando Tadeu de Miranda,, The last South American war in the 19th century was the War of the Pacific with Bolivia and Peru on one side and Chile on the other. In 1879 the war began with Chilean troops occupying Bolivian ports, followed by Bolivia declaring war on Chile which activated an alliance treaty with Peru. The Bolivians were completely defeated in 1880 and Lima was occupied in 1881. The peace was signed with Peru in 1883 while a truce was signed with Bolivia in 1884. Chile annexed territories of both countries leaving Bolivia with no path to the sea.WEB,weblink" title="">weblink América Latina – Guerra do Pacífico,weblink unfit, 4 March 2009, Carlos, Rossi, 9 July 2007, Portuguese, In the new century, as wars became less violent and less frequent, Brazil entered into a small conflict with Bolivia for the possession of the Acre, which was acquired by Brazil in 1902. In 1917 Brazil declared war on the Central Powers and join the allied side in the World War I, sending a small fleet to the Mediterranean Sea and some troops to be integrated with the British and French troops. Brazil was the only South American country that fought in WWI.Woodard, James P. "A Place in Politics: São Paulo, Brazil; From Seigneurial Republicanism to Regionalist Revolt" Duke University Press 2009 Chapter 3 "War and the Health of the State" especially pp. 77–81 visualization on Google BooksConniff, Michael L. and McCann, Frank D. "Modern Brazil, Elites and Masses in Historical Perspective" University of Nebraska Press 1991 {{ISBN|0803263481}} p. 168 visualization on Google Books Later in 1932 Colombia and Peru entered a short armed conflict for territory in the Amazon. In the same year Paraguay declared war on Bolivia for possession of the Chaco, in a conflict that ended three years later with Paraguay's victory. Between 1941 and 1942 Peru and Ecuador fought decisively for territories claimed by both that were annexed by Peru, usurping Ecuador's frontier with Brazil.WEB,weblink Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Uppsala Universitet, Peru, Also in this period the first naval battle of World War II was fought on the continent, in the River Plate, between British forces and German submarines.Churchill 1948, pp. 525–526.{{full citation needed|date=May 2019}} The Germans still made numerous attacks on Brazilian ships on the coast, causing Brazil to declare war on the Axis powers in 1942, being the only South American country to fight in this war (and in both World Wars). Brazil sent naval and air forces to combat German and Italian submarines off the continent and throughout the South Atlantic, in addition to sending an expeditionary force to fight in the Italian Campaign.Maximiano, Cesar. with Bonalume, Ricardo N. & Bujeiro, Ramiro. Brazilian Expeditionary Force in World War II. Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2011. {{ISBN|9781849084833}} (Print version).Frank D. MacCann – 'Estudios Interdisciplinarios de America Latina y el Caribe', vol. 6, No. 2, 1995.A brief war was fought between Argentina and the UK in 1982, following an Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands, which ended with an Argentine defeat. The last international war to be fought on South American soil was the 1995 Cenepa War between Ecuador and the Peru along their mutual border.

Rise and fall of military dictatorships

File:Soldadosargentinos3.jpg|thumb|upright|left|220px|Argentine soldiers during the Falklands WarFalklands WarFile:Brazilian battleship Minas Geraes firing a broadside.jpg|left|thumb|The Brazilian Minas Geraes class kindled an Argentine–Brazilian–Chilean naval arms race.]]Wars became less frequent in the 20th century, with Bolivia-Paraguay and Peru-Ecuador fighting the last inter-state wars. Early in the 20th century, the three wealthiest South American countries engaged in a vastly expensive naval arms race which was catalyzed by the introduction of a new warship type, the "dreadnought". At one point, the Argentine government was spending a fifth of its entire yearly budget for just two dreadnoughts, a price that did not include later in-service costs, which for the Brazilian dreadnoughts was sixty percent of the initial purchase.Richard Hough, The Big Battleship (London: Michael Joseph, 1966), 19. {{oclc|8898108}}.Robert Scheina, Latin America: A Naval History, 1810–1987 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1987), 86. {{ISBN|0-87021-295-8}}. {{oclc|15696006}}.The continent became a battlefield of the Cold War in the late 20th century. Some democratically elected governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay were overthrown or displaced by military dictatorships in the 1960s and 1970s. To curtail opposition, their governments detained tens of thousands of political prisoners, many of whom were tortured and/or killed on inter-state collaboration. Economically, they began a transition to neoliberal economic policies. They placed their own actions within the US Cold War doctrine of "National Security" against internal subversion. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Peru suffered from an internal conflict.Argentina and Britain fought the Falklands War in 1982.Colombia has had an ongoing, though diminished internal conflict, which started in 1964 with the creation of Marxist guerrillas (FARC-EP) and then involved several illegal armed groups of leftist-leaning ideology as well as the private armies of powerful drug lords. Many of these are now defunct, and only a small portion of the ELN remains, along with the stronger, though also greatly reduced, FARC.Revolutionary movements and right-wing military dictatorships became common after World War II, but since the 1980s, a wave of democratization passed through the continent, and democratic rule is widespread now."The Cambridge History of Latin America", edited by Leslie Bethell, Cambridge University Press (1995) {{ISBN|0-521-39525-9}} Nonetheless, allegations of corruption are still very common, and several countries have developed crises which have forced the resignation of their governments, although, on most occasions, regular civilian succession has continued.File:Presidentes unasur (cropped).jpg|thumb|upright=1.1|Presidents of UNASURUNASURInternational indebtedness turned into a severe problem in the late 1980s, and some countries, despite having strong democracies, have not yet developed political institutions capable of handling such crises without resorting to unorthodox economic policies, as most recently illustrated by Argentina's default in the early 21st century.BOOK, Leslie Bethell, Bibliographical Essays,weblink 1995, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-39525-0, {{POV statement|date=November 2012}} The last twenty years have seen an increased push towards regional integration, with the creation of uniquely South American institutions such as the Andean Community, Mercosur and Unasur. Notably, starting with the election of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela in 1998, the region experienced what has been termed a pink tide – the election of several leftist and center-left administrations to most countries of the area, except for the Guianas and Colombia.

Countries and territories

{{See also|List of South American countries by population|List of sovereign states and dependent territories in South America by median age of population}}{| class="wikitable sortable" style="float:center; text-align:center; white-space:nowrap" ! class="unsortable" | Arms! class="unsortable" | Flag! Country or territory! Capital! AreaLand areas and population estimates are taken from The 2008 World Factbook which currently uses July 2007 data, unless otherwise noted.! Population({{UN_Population|Year}}){{UN_Population|ref}}! Populationdensity30px)pxxsize=45}}| Argentina| Buenos Aires {{cvtkm2sortable=on}} {{UN_Population|Argentina}} {{cvt/km2sortable=on}}text=none|Bolivia}}pxxsize=45}}| Bolivia| La Paz,SucreLa Paz is the administrative capital of Bolivia; Sucre is the judicial seat. {{cvtkm2sortable=on}} {{UN_Population|Bolivia (Plurinational State of)}} {{cvt/km2sortable=on}}text=none|Norway}}pxxsize=45}}| Bouvet Island(Norway)Bouvet Island is part of South America according to the United Nations geoscheme.| — {{cvtkm2sortable=on}} 0 {{cvt/km2sortable=on}}text=none|Brazil}}pxxsize=45}}| Brazil| Brasília {{cvtkm2sortable=on}} {{UN_Population|Brazil}} {{cvt/km2sortable=on}}text=none|Chile}}pxxsize=45}}ChileIncludes Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean, a Chilean territory frequently reckoned in Oceania. Santiago, Chile>Santiago is the administrative capital of Chile; Valparaíso is the site of legislative meetings.Santiago, Chile>Santiago {{cvtkm2sortable=on}} {{UN_Population|Chile}} {{cvt/km2sortable=on}}text=none|Colombia}}pxxsize=45}}| Colombia| Bogotá {{cvtkm2sortable=on}} {{UN_Population|Colombia}} {{cvt/km2sortable=on}}text=none|Ecuador}}pxxsize=45}}| Ecuador| Quito {{cvtkm2sortable=on}} {{UN_Population|Ecuador}} {{cvt/km2sortable=on}}text=none|Falkland Islands}}pxxsize=45}}| Falkland Islands(United Kingdom)Claimed by Argentina.Stanley, Falkland Islands>Stanley {{cvtkm2sortable=on}} {{UN_Population|Falkland Islands (Malvinas)}} {{cvt/km2sortable=on}}text=none|French Guiana}}pxxsize=45}}| French Guiana(France)| Cayenne (Préfecture) {{cvtkm2sortable=on}} {{UN_Population|French Guiana}} {{cvt/km2sortable=on}}text=none|Guyana}}pxxsize=45}}| GuyanaGeorgetown, Guyana>Georgetown {{cvtkm2sortable=on}} {{UN_Population|Guyana}} {{cvt/km2sortable=on}}30px)pxxsize=45}}| Paraguay| Asunción {{cvtkm2sortable=on}} {{UN_Population|Paraguay}} {{cvt/km2sortable=on}}text=none|Peru}}pxxsize=45}}| Peru| Lima {{cvtkm2sortable=on}} {{UN_Population|Peru}} {{cvt/km2sortable=on}}text=none|South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands}}pxxsize=45}}South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands(United Kingdom)Claimed by Argentina; the South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in the Atlantic Ocean>South Atlantic Ocean are commonly associated with Antarctica (due to proximity) and have no permanent population, only hosting a periodic contingent of about 100 researchers and visitors.King Edward PointHTTP://COUNTRY-FACTS.FINDTHEDATA.ORG/Q/240/2390/WHAT-IS-THE-CAPITAL-CITY-OF-SOUTH-GEORGIA-AND-THE-SOUTH-SANDWICH-ISLANDS-A-COUNTRY-IN-THE-CONTINENT-OF-OCEANIAURL-STATUS=DEADDATE=28 JANUARY 2014WEBSITE=COUNTRY-FACTS.FINDTHEDATA.ORG, 11 November 2017, {{cvtkm2sortable=on}} 20 {{cvt/km2sortable=on}}text=none|Suriname}}pxxsize=45}}| Suriname| Paramaribo {{cvtkm2sortable=on}} {{UN_Population|Suriname}} {{cvt/km2sortable=on}}text=none|Uruguay}}pxxsize=45}}| Uruguay| Montevideo {{cvtkm2sortable=on}} {{UN_Population|Uruguay}} {{cvt/km2sortable=on}}text=none|Venezuela}}pxxsize=45}}| Venezuela| Caracas {{cvtkm2sortable=on}} {{UN_Population|Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of)}} {{cvt/km2sortable=on}} class="sortbottom"! colspan="4" | Total! style="text-align:right;"| {{cvt|17824513|km2|disp=br()|sortable=on}}! style="text-align:right;"| {{UN_Population|South America}}! style="text-align:right;"| {{cvt|21.5|/km2|disp=br()|sortable=on}}


File:UNASUR (Ecuador).jpg|thumb|Headquarters of the UNASUR in Quito, EcuadorEcuadorFile:SACN member states.jpg|thumb|left|Scheme for geographic regions and subregions used by the United Nations Statistics DivisionUnited Nations Statistics Division(File:Bandeiras UNASUL.jpg|thumb|South American flags)Historically, the Hispanic countries were founded as Republican dictatorships led by caudillos. Brazil was the only exception, being a constitutional monarchy for its first 67 years of independence, until a coup d'état proclaimed a republic. In the late 19th century, the most democratic countries were Brazil,{{sfn|Lira 1977, Vol 2|p=9}}{{full citation needed|date=May 2019}} Chile, Argentina and Uruguay.BOOK,weblink Toward Pro-poor Policies: Aid, Institutions, and Globalization, Tungodden, Bertil, Stern, Nicholas Herbert, Stern, Nicholas, Kolstad, Ivar, 2004, World Bank Publications, 978-0821353882, 219, en, In the interwar period, nationalism grew stronger on the continent, influenced by countries like Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. A series of authoritarian rules broke out in South American countries with views bringing them closer to the Axis Powers,Dennison de Oliveira, "Os soldados alemães de Vargas" Portuguese [Germans against Hitler; "The German soldiers of Vargas" ] 1st Chapter, Jurua print. 2008 {{ISBN|85-362-2076-7}} like Vargas's Brazil. In the late 20th century, during the Cold War, many countries became military dictatorships under American tutelage in attempts to avoid the influence of the Soviet Union. After the fall of the authoritarian regimes, these countries became democratic republics.During the first decade of the 21st century, South American governments have drifted to the political left, with leftist leaders being elected in Chile, Uruguay, Brazil, Argentina, Ecuador, Bolivia, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. Most South American countries are making increasing use of protectionist policies, helping local development.All South American countries are presidential republics with the exceptions of Peru, which is a semi-presidential republic, and Suriname, a parliamentary republic. French Guiana is a French overseas department, while the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are British overseas territories. It is currently the only inhabited continent in the world without monarchies; the Empire of Brazil existed during the 19th century and there was an unsuccessful attempt to establish a Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia in southern Argentina and Chile. Also in the twentieth century, Suriname was established as a constituent kingdom of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Guyana retained the British monarch as head of state for 4 years after its independence.Recently, an intergovernmental entity has been formed which aims to merge the two existing customs unions: Mercosur and the Andean Community, thus forming the third-largest trade bloc in the world.WEB,weblink,, 2008-10-29, 2010-10-24, This new political organization, known as Union of South American Nations, seeks to establish free movement of people, economic development, a common defense policy and the elimination of tariffs.


File:South America night.jpg|thumb|right|Satellite view of South America at night from NASANASASouth America has over {{#expr:floor({{replace|{{UN_Population|South America}}|,||}}/1e6)}} million{{UN_Population|ref}} inhabitants and a population growth rate of about 0.6% per year. There are several areas of sparse demographics such as tropical forests, the Atacama Desert and the icy portions of Patagonia. On the other hand, the continent presents regions of high population density, such as the great urban centers. The population is formed by descendants of Europeans (mainly Spaniards, Portuguese and Italians), Africans and indigenous peoples. There is a high percentage of mestizos that vary greatly in composition by place. There is also a minor population of Asians, especially in Brazil. The two main languages are by far Spanish and Portuguese, followed by French, English and Dutch in smaller numbers.


(File:Languages of South America (en).svg|thumb|left|Official languages in South America)Spanish and Portuguese are the most spoken languages in South America, with approximately 200 million speakers each. Spanish is the official language of most countries, along with other native languages in some countries. Portuguese is the official language of Brazil. Dutch is the official language of Suriname; English is the official language of Guyana, although there are at least twelve other languages spoken in the country, including Portuguese, Chinese, Hindustani and several native languages.WEB,weblink The Languages spoken in Guyana, Studylands, en-US, 2016-04-12, English is also spoken in the Falkland Islands. French is the official language of French Guiana and the second language in Amapá, Brazil.Indigenous languages of South America include Quechua in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile and Colombia; Wayuunaiki in northern Colombia (La Guajira) and northwestern Venezuela (Zulia); Guaraní in Paraguay and, to a much lesser extent, in Bolivia; Aymara in Bolivia, Peru, and less often in Chile; and Mapudungun is spoken in certain pockets of southern Chile. At least three South American indigenous languages (Quechua, Aymara, and Guarani) are recognized along with Spanish as national languages.Other languages found in South America include Hindustani and Javanese in Suriname; Italian in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Venezuela; and German in certain pockets of Argentina and Brazil. German is also spoken in many regions of the southern states of Brazil, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch being the most widely spoken German dialect in the country; among other Germanic dialects, a Brazilian form of East Pomeranian is also well represented and is experiencing a revival. Welsh remains spoken and written in the historic towns of Trelew and Rawson in the Argentine Patagonia. There are also small clusters of Japanese-speakers in Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Arabic speakers, often of Lebanese, Syrian, or Palestinian descent, can be found in Arab communities in Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela and in Paraguay.JOURNAL, 10.1017/S0022216X13001156, On the Trail and Trial of a Palestinian Diaspora: Mapping South America in the Arab–Israeli Conflict, 1967–1972, Journal of Latin American Studies, 45, 4, 2013, 751–777, Karam, John Tofik,


File:Santuario de Las Lajas, Ipiales, Colombia, 2015-07-21, DD 21-23 HDR-Edit.JPG|thumb|Las Lajas Sanctuary, Ipiales, ColombiaColombia{{see also|History of the Jews in Latin America and the Caribbean|Buddhism in Brazil|Islam in Argentina}}An estimated 90% of South Americans are ChristiansWEB,weblink Christians, 18 December 2012,, 11 November 2017, (82% Roman Catholic, 8% other Christian denominations mainly traditional Protestants and Evangelicals but also Orthodox), accounting for c. 19% of Christians worldwide.African descendent religions and Indigenous religions are also common throughout all South America, some examples of are Santo Daime, Candomblé, Umbanda and Encantados.Crypto-Jews or Marranos, conversos, and Anusim were an important part of colonial life in Latin America.Both Buenos Aires, Argentina and São Paulo, Brazil figure among the largest Jewish populations by urban area.Japanese Buddhism, Shintoism, and Shinto-derived Japanese New Religions are common in Brazil and Peru. Korean Confucianism is especially found in Brazil while Chinese Buddhism and Chinese Confucianism have spread throughout the continent.Kardecist Spiritism can be found in several countries.Part of Religions in South America (2013):WEB, Las religiones en tiempos del Papa Francisco,weblink Latinobarómetro, 4 April 2015, 10 May 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 7, Spanish, PDF, April 2014, dead, {| class="wikitable sortable"|+ Religion in South America! style="width:170px; px; background:Lavender; color:Black;"|Countries! style="width:170px; px; background:Lavender; color:Black;"|Christians! style="width:170px; px; background:Lavender; color:Black;"| Roman Catholics! style="width:170px; px; background:Lavender; color:Black;"| Other Christians! style="width:170px; px; background:Lavender; color:Black;"| No religion (atheists and agnostics)77%11%74%4%64%8%57%25%80%7%87%2%81%3%29%5%47%41%71%8%

Ethnic demographics

File:Palenqueras al natural.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Afro-Colombian fruit sellers in Cartagena.]]File:Japanese Brazilian Miko Curitiba Paraná.jpg|thumb|upright|A Japanese-Brazilian Miko during a festival in CuritibaCuritibaFile:Festuva.jpg|thumb|left|Former president of Brazil Lula and members of the Italian Brazilian community during the Grape Festival at Caxias do SulCaxias do SulFile:Quechuawomanandchild.jpg|thumb|PeruvianPeruvianGenetic admixture occurs at very high levels in South America. In Argentina, the European influence accounts for 65–79% of the genetic background, Amerindian for 17–31% and sub-Saharan African for 2–4%. In Colombia, the sub-Saharan African genetic background varied from 1% to 89%, while the European genetic background varied from 20% to 79%, depending on the region.In Peru, European ancestries ranged from 1% to 31%, while the African contribution was only 1% to 3%.JOURNAL, 3983580, 24764751, 37, 1 Suppl, Interethnic admixture and the evolution of Latin American populations, 2014, Genet. Mol. Biol., 151–170, Salzano, FM, Sans, M, 10.1590/s1415-47572014000200003, The Genographic Project determined the average Peruvian from Lima had about 28% European ancestry, 68% Native American, 2% Asian ancestry and 2% sub-Saharan African.WEB,weblink Your Regional Ancestry: Reference Populations,, 31 December 2016, Descendants of indigenous peoples, such as the Quechua and Aymara, or the UrarinaDean, Bartholomew 2009 Urarina Society, Cosmology, and History in Peruvian Amazonia, Gainesville: University Press of Florida {{ISBN|978-0-8130-3378-5}} weblink of Amazonia make up the majority of the population in Bolivia (56%) and, per some sources, in Peru (44%).WEB,weblink Peru, World Factbook, CIA, 2009-04-18, WEB,weblink Bolivia, World Factbook, CIA, 2009-04-18, In Ecuador, Amerindians are a large minority that comprises two-fifths of the population. The native European population is also a significant element in most other former Portuguese colonies.People who identify as of primarily or totally European descent, or identify their phenotype as corresponding to such group, are more of a majority in Argentina,WEB,weblink Argentina, World Factbook, CIA, 2009-04-18, and UruguayWEB,weblink Argentina y Uruguay, su población está formada casi exclusivamente por una población blanca e blanca mestiza procedente del sur de Europa, más del 90% E. García Zarza, 1992, 19,, 2009-04-18, and more than half of the population of Chile (64.7%)JOURNAL, 1050080, Genetic epidemiology of single gene defects in Chile, 7815439, 1994, Cruz-Coke, R, Moreno, RS, 31, 9, 702–706, Journal of Medical Genetics, 10.1136/jmg.31.9.702, and (48.4%) in Brazil.WEB,weblink População residente por situação, sexo e grupos de idade,, 2012-05-21, WEB,weblink Latinoamerica., PDF,, 2010-10-24, WEB,weblink The Chilean population is rather homogeneous with 95.4% of its population having native European ancestors,, 1973-09-11, 2010-10-24,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-01-07, dead, In Venezuela, according to the national census 42% of the population is primarily native Spanish, Italian and Portuguese descendants.WEB,weblink PDF, Calendario de Publicaciones del Censo 2011,, 11 November 2017, In Colombia, people who identify as European descendant are about 37%.WEB,weblink Étnia, condiciones de vida y discriminación, Simon, Schwartzman, 27 January 2008, Spanish, In Peru, European descendants are the third group in number (15%).WEB,weblink Peru - An Overview of the Market,, dead,weblink 11 July 2011, Mestizos (mixed European and Amerindian) are the largest ethnic group in Paraguay, Venezuela, ColombiaBushnell, David & Rex A. Hudson (2010) "The Society and Its Environment"; Colombia: a country study: 87. Washington, DC: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. and Ecuador and the second group in Peru and Chile.South America is also home to one of the largest populations of Africans. This group is significantly present in Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Venezuela and Ecuador.Brazil followed by Peru have the largest Japanese, Korean and Chinese communities in South America, Lima has the largest ethnic Chinese community in Latin America.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, December 4, 2008, Japan, Brazil mark a century of settlement, family ties, Japan Times, Nakamura, Akemi, January 15, 2008, East Indians form the largest ethnic group in Guyana and Suriname.{{clear}}{|class="wikitable sortable"Ethnic distribution in South AmericaHTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/FIELDS/2075.HTML, The World Factbook,, 11 November 2017, JOURNAL, Lizcano Fernández, Francisco, May–August 2005, Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI, Convergencia, 38, 185–232; table on p. 218, 1405-1435,weblink Spanish, PDF, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 September 2008, dmy, style="background:#e8e8e8;"! style="width:190px;"|Country! style="width:110px;"|Amerindians! style="width:100px;"|White people! style="width:100px;"|Mestizos / Pardos! style="width:100px;"|Mulatos! style="width:100px;"|Black people! style="width:100px;"|Zambos! style="width:100px;"|Asian peopleArgentina85% >| 0%Bolivia55% >| In Brazil, an express bus system called Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), which operates in several cities, has also been developed.

See also

Notes and references

Content notes

{{cnote|Continent model|In some parts of the world South America is viewed as a subcontinent of the AmericasWEB,weblink Mercosul in the Regional Context, 2007-05-19, Ambassador Rubens A. Barbosa, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 30, 2006, (a single continent in these areas), for example Latin America, Latin Europe, and Iran. In most of the countries with English as an official language, however, it is considered a continent;see Americas (terminology).}}




External links

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