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parliamentary republic
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{{Other uses of|Parliamentary republic|Parliamentary Republic (disambiguation){{!}}Parliamentary Republic}}{{More citations needed|date=December 2015}}{{Systems of government}}{{Forms of government}}A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament). There are a number of variations of parliamentary republics. Most have a clear differentiation between the head of government and the head of state, with the head of government holding real power, much like constitutional monarchies (however in some countries the head of state, regardless of whether the country's system is a parliamentary republic or a constitutional monarchy, has 'reserve powers' given to use at their discretion in order to act as a non-partisan 'referee' of the political process and ensure the nation's constitution is upheld).NEWS,weblink Australian politics explainer: Gough Whitlam's dismissal as prime minister, Twomey, Anne, The Conversation, 2018-10-18, en, NEWS,weblink The President's Role - Times of India, The Times of India, 2018-10-18, Some have combined the roles of head of state and head of government, much like presidential systems, but with a dependency upon parliamentary power.For the first case mentioned above, the form of executive-branch arrangement is distinct from most other governments and semi-presidential republics that separate the head of state (usually designated as the "president") from the head of government (usually designated as "prime minister", "premier" or "chancellor") and subject the latter to the confidence of parliament and a lenient tenure in office while the head of state lacks dependency and investing either office with the majority of executive power.{{clarify|date=July 2018}}

Powers

{{more citations needed|section|date=February 2019}}In contrast to republics operating under either the presidential system or the semi-presidential system, the head of state usually does not have executive powers as an executive president would (some may have 'reserve powers' or a bit more influence beyond that), because many of those powers have been granted to a head of government (usually called a prime minister).{{Clarify|date=December 2015}}However, in a parliamentary republic with a head of state whose tenure is dependent on parliament, the head of government and head of state can form one office (as in Botswana, the Marshall Islands, Nauru, South Africa and Suriname), but the president is still selected in much the same way as the prime minister is in most Westminster systems. This usually means that they are the leader of the largest party or coalition of parties in parliament.In some cases, the president can legally have executive powers granted to them to undertake the day-to-day running of government (as in Austria and Iceland) but by convention they either do not use these powers or they use them only to give effect to the advice of the parliament or head of government. Some parliamentary republics could therefore be seen as following the semi-presidential system but operating under a parliamentary system.

Historical development

Typically, parliamentary republics are states that were previously constitutional monarchies with a parliamentary system, with the position of head of state given to a monarch.BOOK, Parliamentary versus presidential government, 978-0-19-878044-1, Oxford University Press, Arend Lijphart, 1992, Following the defeat of Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War, France once again became a republic – the French Third Republic – in 1870. The President of the Third Republic had significantly less executive powers than those of the previous two republics had. The Third Republic lasted until the invasion of France by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following the end of the war, the French Fourth Republic was constituted along similar lines in 1946. The Fourth Republic saw an era of great economic growth in France and the rebuilding of the nation's social institutions and industry after the war, and played an important part in the development of the process of European integration, which changed the continent permanently. Some attempts were made to strengthen the executive branch of government to prevent the unstable situation that had existed before the war, but the instability remained and the Fourth Republic saw frequent changes in government – there were 20 governments in ten years. Additionally, the government proved unable to make effective decisions regarding decolonization. As a result, the Fourth Republic collapsed and what some critics considered to be a de facto coup d'état, subsequently legitimized by a referendum on 5 October 1958, led to the establishment of the French Fifth Republic in 1959.Chile became the first parliamentary republic in South America following a civil war in 1891. However, following a coup in 1925 this system was replaced by a Presidential one.{{Original research inline|date=January 2016}}

Commonwealth of Nations

Since the London Declaration of 29 April 1949 (just weeks after Ireland declared itself a republic, and excluded itself from the Commonwealth) republics have been admitted as members of the Commonwealth of Nations.In the case of many republics in the Commonwealth of Nations, it was common for the Sovereign, formerly represented by a Governor-General, to be replaced by an elected non-executive head of state. This was the case in South Africa (which ceased to be a member of the Commonwealth immediately upon becoming a republic), Malta, Trinidad and Tobago, India and Vanuatu. In many of these examples, the last Governor-General became the first president. Such was the case with Sri Lanka and Pakistan.Other states became parliamentary republics upon gaining independence.{{Clear}}

List of modern parliamentary republics

{|class="wikitable sortable"! colspan="5" | Parliamentary republics!Country!Head of state elected by!Cameral structure!Parliamentary republic adopted!Previous government form
Albania}}Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1991| One-party state
Armenia}}Parliament, by absolute majorityUnicameral 2018Changed after the 2015 referendum.Semi-presidential system>Semi-presidential republic
Austria}}Direct election, by second-round systemBicameral1945| One-party state (as part of Nazi Germany, see Anschluss)
{{flag|Bangladesh}}}}ParliamentUnicameral1991Was, previously, a parliamentary republic between 1971 and 1975.Presidential system>Presidential republic
Bosnia and Herzegovina}}Direct election of collective head of state, by first-past-the-post voteBicameral1991| One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)
Bulgaria}} BulgariaDirect election, by second-round systemUnicameral1991| One-party state
Croatia}} CroatiaDirect election, by second-round systemUnicameral2000Semi-presidential system>Semi-presidential republic
Czech Republic}}Direct election, by second-round system (since 2013; previously parliament, by majority)Bicameral1993| Parliamentary Republic (part of Czechoslovakia)
Dominica}}Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1978| Associated state of the United Kingdom
Estonia}}Parliament, by two-thirds majorityUnicameral1991Estonia was previously a parliamentary republic between 1919 and 1934 when the government was overthrown by a coup d'état. In 1938, Estonia adopted a presidential system and in June 1940 was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.| One-party state (part of Soviet Union)
Ethiopia}}Parliament, by two-thirds majorityBicameral1991| One-party state
Fiji}}Parliament, by majorityUnicameral2014| Military dictatorship
Finland}}Direct election, by second-round systemUnicameral2000Formerly a semi-presidential republic, it is now a parliamentary republic according to David Arter, First Chair of Politics at Aberdeen University. In his "Scandinavian Politics Today" (Manchester University Press, revised 2008 {{ISBN TITLE = FROM SEMI-PRESIDENTIALISM TO PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT: POLITICAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTS IN FINLAND SCANDINAVIAN POLITICAL STUDIES > VOLUME = 24 PAGES = 95–109 DATE = JUNE 2001, harv, as follows: "There are hardly any grounds for the epithet 'semi-presidential'." Arter's own conclusions are only slightly more nuanced: "The adoption of a new constitution on 1 March 2000 meant that Finland was no longer a case of semi-presidential government other than in the minimalist sense of a situation where a popularly elected fixed-term president exists alongside a prime minister and cabinet who are responsible to parliament (Elgie 2004: 317)". According to the Finnish Constitution, the president has no possibility to rule the government without the ministerial approval, and does not have the power to dissolve the parliament under his or her own desire. Finland is actually represented by its prime minister, and not by its president, in the Council of the Heads of State and Government of the European Union. The 2012 constitutional amendements reduced the powers of the president even further.Semi-presidential system>Semi-presidential republic
Georgia (country)|name=Georgia}}Electoral college (parliament and region delegates), by absolute majorityUnicameral 201weblink Georgia is transitioning to a parliamentary republicSemi-presidential system>Semi-presidential republic
Germany}}Federal Assembly (parliament and state delegates), by absolute majorityBicameral1949In the case of the former West German states, including former West Berlin, the previous one-party state is Nazi Germany, but in the case of the New Länder and former East Berlin it is East Germany. Please note that German reunification took place on 3 October 1990, when the five re-established states of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) joined the Federal Republic of Germany, and Berlin was united into a single city-state. Therefore, this date applies to today's Federal Republic of Germany as a whole, although the area of former East Germany was no part of that parliamentary republic until 1990.| One-party state
Greece}}Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1975| Military dictatorship; constitutional monarchy
Hungary}}Parliament, by absolute majorityUnicameral1990| One-party state
Iceland}}Direct election, by first-past-the-post voteUnicameral1944| Constitutional monarchy (part of Denmark)
India}}Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff voteBicameral1950| Constitutional monarchy (British Dominion)
Iraq}}Parliament, by two-thirds majorityUnicameralOfficially bicameral, upper house never entered into functions, to present day.2005| One-party state
Ireland}}Direct election, by instant-runoff voteBicameral1949The Irish head of state from 1936 to 1949 from 1936 until the Republic of Ireland Act 1948>Republic of Ireland Act came into force on 18 April 1949. A minority of Irish republicans assert that the Irish Republic proclaimed in 1919 is still extant.Monarchy in the Irish Free State>To 1936: Constitutional monarchy (British Dominion)1936–1949: ambiguous
Israel}}Parliament, by majorityUnicameral2001Semi-parliamentary system>Semi-parliamentary republic
Italy}}Parliament and region delegates, by absolute majorityBicameral1946| Constitutional monarchy
Kosovo}}Parliament, by two-thirds majority; by a simple majority, at the third ballot,if no candidate achieves the aforementioned majority in the first two ballotsUnicameral2008United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo>UN-administered Kosovo (formally part of Serbia)
Kyrgyzstan}}Direct election, by second-round systemUnicameral2010| Presidential republic
Latvia}}ParliamentUnicameral1991Latvia was previously a parliamentary republic between 1921 and 1934 when the then prime minister Kārlis Ulmanis took power in a coup d'état. In June 1940 Latvia was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.| One-party state (part of Soviet Union)
Lebanon}}ParliamentUnicameral1941| Protectorate (French mandate of Lebanon)
Malta}}Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1974Commonwealth realmHTTP://WWW.ARCHONTOLOGY.ORG/NATIONS/MALTA/00_1964_74_S.PHPWEBSITE=ARCHONTOLOGY.ORGACCESSDATE=18 FEBRUARY 2018, )HTTP://WWW.ARCHONTOLOGY.ORG/NATIONS/UK/01_REALMS.PHP>TITLE=BRITISH MONARCH'S TITLES: 1867-2018DATE=, 18 February 2018,
Mauritius}}Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1992Commonwealth realmHTTP://WWW.ARCHONTOLOGY.ORG/NATIONS/MAURITIUS/00_1968_1992_S.PHPWEBSITE=ARCHONTOLOGY.ORGACCESSDATE=18 FEBRUARY 2018, HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.CO.UK/BOOKS?ID=L027DQAAQBAJ&DQ=ISBN%3A0230271138&PG=PA29>TITLE=THE STATESMAN'S YEAR-BOOK 1984-85FIRST1=JOHNPUBLISHER=PALGRAVE MACMILLANACCESSDATE=18 FEBRUARY 2018LAST1=CAHOONWEBSITE=WORLDSTATESMEN.ORGARCHIVEDATE=15 JANUARY 2013DF=DMY-ALLACCESSDATE=18 FEBRUARY 2018, )
Moldova}}Direct election, by second-round system(since 2016; previously by parliament, by three-fifths majority)Unicameral2001| Semi-presidential republic
{{flag|Montenegro}}}}Direct election, by second-round systemUnicameral1992| One-party state (Part of Yugoslavia, and after Serbia and Montenegro)
Nepal}}Parliament and state legislatorsBicameralConstitution of Nepal {{webarchive weblink >date=December 23, 2015 }}2015Had a transitional government between 2008 and 2015.| Constitutional monarchy
North Macedonia}}Direct election, by second-round systemUnicameral1991| One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)
Pakistan}}Parliament and state legislators, by instant-runoff voteBicameral 2010KIRAN KHALID, CNN >URL=HTTP://WWW.CNN.COM/2010/WORLD/ASIAPCF/04/09/PAKISTAN.CONSTITUTION/ PUBLISHER=CNN.COM ACCESSDATE=2010-04-14, HTTP://WWW.NATION.COM.PK/PAKISTAN-NEWS-NEWSPAPER-DAILY-ENGLISH-ONLINE/REGIONAL/LAHORE/11-APR-2010/18TH-AMENDMENT-TO-RESTORE-CONSTITUTION >TITLE='18TH AMENDMENT TO RESTORE CONSTITUTION' | PAKISTAN | NEWS | NEWSPAPER | DAILY | ENGLISH | ONLINE DATE= DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=2010-04-14, | Semi-presidential republic
Samoa}}ParliamentUnicameral1960| Trust Territory of New Zealand
Serbia}}Direct election, by second-round systemUnicameral1991| One-party state (part of Yugoslavia, and after Serbia and Montenegro)
Singapore}}Direct election (since 1993)Unicameral1965Singapore in Malaysia>State of Malaysia
Slovakia}}Direct election, by second-round system (since 1999; previously by parliament)Unicameral1993| Parliamentary Republic (part of Czechoslovakia)
Slovenia}}Direct election, by second-round systemBicameral1991| One-party state (part of Yugoslavia)
Somalia}}ParliamentBicameral2012Had a transitional government between 1991 and 2012.| One-party state
Trinidad and Tobago}}ParliamentBicameral1976Commonwealth realmHTTP://WWW.ARCHONTOLOGY.ORG/NATIONS/TRINIDAD/00_1962_1976_STATE.PHPWEBSITE=ARCHONTOLOGY.ORGACCESSDATE=18 FEBRUARY 2018, )
Vanuatu}}Parliament and regional council presidents, by majorityUnicameral1980Condominium (international law)>condominium (New Hebrides)
! colspan=5|Parliamentary republics with a "mixed-republican" system
!Country!Head of state elected by!Cameral structure!Parliamentary republic adopted!Previous government form
Botswana}}Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1966| British protectorate (Bechuanaland Protectorate)
Kiribati}}Direct election, by first-past-the-post voteUnicameral1979| Protectorate
Marshall Islands}}ParliamentBicameral1979| UN Trust Territory (part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
Micronesia}}Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1986| UN Trust Territory (Part of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands)
Myanmar}}Parliament, by an electoral collegeBicameral2010| Military dictatorship
Nauru}}ParliamentUnicameral1968| Australian Trust Territory
San Marino}}ParliamentUnicameral301| Autocracy (part of the Roman Empire)
South Africa}}Parliament, by majorityBicameral1961Commonwealth realmHTTP://WWW.ARCHONTOLOGY.ORG/NATIONS/SOUTH_AFRICA/00_1910_1961_S.PHPWEBSITE=ARCHONTOLOGY.ORGACCESSDATE=18 FEBRUARY 2018, HTTPS://WWW.INDEPENDENT.CO.UK/NEWS/SOUTH-AFRICA-RETURNS-TO-THE-COMMONWEALTH-FOLD-1419686.HTML>TITLE=SOUTH AFRICA RETURNS TO THE COMMONWEALTH FOLDFIRST1=JOHNTHE INDEPENDENT>DATE=31 MAY 1994NEWSPAPER=SASKATOON STAR-PHOENIXACCESSDATE=18 FEBRUARY 2018, )
Suriname}}Parliament, by majorityUnicameral1987| Military dictatorship
{{flag|Switzerland}}}}Federal Assembly (parliament and canton delegates), by absolute majorityBicameral1848| Confederation
">

List of former parliamentary republics {|class"wikitable sortable"

!Country!Year became a parliamentary republic!Year status changed!Changed to!Status changed due to
Czechoslovakia}} First Czechoslovak Republic19201939One-party state Munich agreement
Czechoslovakia}} Third Czechoslovak Republic19451948One-party state Coup d'état
Czechoslovakia}} Fifth Czechoslovak Republic19891992Parliamentary Republics Velvet Divorce
Austria}} First Austrian Republic19201929Semi-presidential system Constitutional amendment
|{{BRA}}
19611963Presidential systemReferendum
Burma|1948}} (present-day Myanmar)19481962Military dictatorship1962 Burmese coup d'état
{{flagiconHistory of Chile during the Parliamentary Era (1891–1925)>Chile18911924Military junta1924 Chilean coup d'état
19251925Presidential systemConstitutional amendment
France}} French Third Republic18701940Presidential systemWorld War II German Occupation
France}} French Fourth Republic19461958Semi-presidential system Political instability
Guyana}}19701980Presidential systemConstitutional amendment
HungaryRepublic of Hungary (1946–1949)>Hungary19461949One-party stateCreation of the People's Republic of Hungary
|{{INA}}
19451959Presidential systemConstitutional amendment
|{{ISR}}
19481996Semi-parliamentary systemConstitutional amendment
KOR}} Second Republic of South Korea19601961Presidential systemMay 16 coup
Lithuania}} Lithuanian First Republic19201926One-party state1926 Lithuanian coup d'étatIn June 1940, Lithuania was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union.
|{{NGR}}
19631966Military dictatorship(which led in 1979to the democratic, Presidential system {{nowrap>Second Nigerian Republic)}}Coup d'état
{{flag|Pakistan}}19561958 Military dictatorship1958 Pakistani coup d'état
1973 style="text-align:center;"1977 Pakistani coup d'état
1988 style="text-align:center;"1999 Pakistani coup d'état
Poland}} Second Polish Republic19191939One-party stateInvasion of Poland
Portugal}} First Portuguese Republic19111926Military dictatorship(which led in 1933to the Estado Novo {{nowrap|One-party state)}}May 28 coup
Philippines|aguinaldo}} First Philippine Republic (Malolos Republic)18991901Military dictatorship(De facto United States Colony)Capture of Emilio Aguinaldo to the American forces
Philippines|1985}} Fourth Philippine Republic19731981Semi-Presidential Republic(de facto Military dictatorship under Martial Law between 1972 and 1986.)Constitutional Amendment
Democratic Republic of CongoRepublic of the Congo (Léopoldville)>Republic of the Congo19601965Military dictatorship(De facto One-party state)1965 Congolese coup d'état
Russia|1991}}1991 Russian presidential referendumPost of President of Russia is created, and development of separation of powers is started, some of Supreme Soviet of Russia>Supreme Soviet's executive powers is transferred to new post. Before that, Russia was a Soviet republic.1993Semi-presidential system1993 Russian constitutional referendumPreceded by 1993 Russian constitutional crisis>crisis and armed dissolving of the Supreme Soviet of Russia, then-parliament of the Russian Federation.
Rhodesia}}19701979Parliamentary systemCreation of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia
Spanish Republic}}19311939Fascist dictatorshipLoss of Spanish Civil War
|{{SRI}}
19721978Semi-presidential systemConstitutional amendment
SyriaSyrian Republic (1930-58)>Syrian Republic19301958One-party stateCreation of the United Arab Republic
Syria|1932}} Syrian Arab Republic19611963One-party state1963 Syrian coup d'état
Turkey}}19232018Presidential systemReferendum
|{{UGA}}
19631966One-party stateSuspension of the constitution
Zimbabwe Rhodesia}}19791979Parliamentary systemReversion to Southern Rhodesia
Zimbabwe}}19801987Presidential systemConstitutional amendment

See also

Notes

{{Reflist|group="note"}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

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