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Brazil
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{{about|the country}}{{pp|vandalism|small=yes}}{{short description|Federal republic in South America}}{{Use American English|date=February 2017}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2019}}{{Coord|10|S|52|W|display=title}}







factoids
|image_flag = Flag of Brazil.svg|alt_flag =|image_coat = Coat of arms of Brazil.svg|alt_coat =|symbol_type = Coat of arms''National Seal of Brazil'' {{small>National Seal of Brazil}} (File:National Seal of Brazil (color).svglink=National Seal of Brazil)}}Seal (emblem)>National sealpt italics=offnolink=yes}} {{small|"Order and Progress"}}Brazilian National Anthem>Hino Nacional Brasileiro" (Portuguese) {{small(File: Hino-Nacional-Brasil-instrumental-mec.ogg)}}Brazilian Flag Anthem>Hino à Bandeira Nacional"(Portuguese)HTTP://WWW.EB.MIL.BR/WEB/MIDIA-ELETRONICA/HINO-A-BANDEIRA-NACIONAL >TITLE=HINO à BANDEIRA NACIONAL LANGUAGE=PORTUGUESE DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=22 FEBRUARY 2014 "National Flag Anthem"}} (File:Brazilian Flag Anthem (Brazilian Army).ogg|center)|image_map = BRA orthographic.svg|alt_map =location_color=dark green South America >region_color= grey }}|capital = Brasília{{Coord4747W|type:city}}}}São Paulo{{small>{{coord3346W|display=inline}}}}and national language}}Portuguese language>PortugueseDEMOGRAPHICS >PUBLISHER=BRAZILIAN GOVERNMENT ACCESSDATE=8 OCTOBER 2011 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20111117051415/HTTP://WWW.BRASIL.GOV.BR/SOBRE/BRAZIL/BRAZIL-IN-NUMBERS/DEMOGRAPHICS, |ethnic_groups =
{{vunblist
|47.73% White
|{{nowrap|43.13% Mixed}}
|7.61% Black
|1.09% Asian
|0.43% Amerindian
}}|ethnic_groups_year = 2010FORMAT=PDF, 7 April 2012, |demonym = BrazilianFederalism>Federal Presidential system {{nowrap>constitutional republic}}President of Brazil>President|leader_name1 = Jair Bolsonaro Vice President of Brazil>Vice President|leader_name2 = Hamilton MourãoPresident of theChamber of Deputies}}|leader_name3 = Rodrigo MaiaPresident of the Federal Senate (Brazil)>President of the Federal SenateDavi Alcolumbre}}President of theSupreme Federal Court}}|leader_name5 = Dias ToffoliNational Congress of Brazil>National Congress|upper_house = Federal SenateChamber of Deputies (Brazil)>Chamber of DeputiesIndependence of Brazil>Independence|sovereignty_note = from the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the AlgarvesBrazilian Independence>Declared|established_date1 = 7 September 1822Treaty of Rio de Janeiro (1825)>Recognized|established_date2 = 29 August 1825Proclamation of the Republic (Brazil)>Republic|established_date3 = 15 November 1889|established_event4 = Treaty of Petrópolis|established_date4 = 11 November 1903Constitution of Brazil>Current constitution|established_date5 = 5 October 1988|area_km2 = 8515767|area_label = Total|area_rank = 5th|area_sq_mi = 3287597|percent_water = 0.65TITLE=PROJEçõES DA POPULAçãO {{!, Estatísticas {{!}} IBGE :: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística website=www.ibge.gov.br language=pt-br}}|population_estimate_year = 2019|population_estimate_rank = 6th|population_density_km2 = 25|population_density_sq_mi = 63|population_density_rank = 200thWEBSITE=WWW.IMF.ORGDATE= APRIL 2019, 26 April 2019, |GDP_PPP_year = 2019|GDP_PPP_rank = 8th|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $16,662|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 81st|GDP_nominal = $1.960 trillion|GDP_nominal_year = 2019|GDP_nominal_rank = 9th|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $9,343|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 65th|Gini = 53.3|Gini_year = 2017|Gini_change = decrease PUBLISHER= WORLD BANK, 9 November 2016, |Gini_rank = 10th|HDI = 0.759 |HDI_year = 2017|HDI_change = increase YEAR=2018 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, |HDI_rank = 79thBrazilian real>Real (R$)|currency_code = BRLTime in Brazil>BRT|utc_offset = −2 to −5|antipodes =Common Era>CE)|drives_on = rightTelephone numbers in Brazil>+55|iso3166code =|cctld = .br|religion_year = 2010|religion_ref = IBGE – Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics). 2010 Census. Retrieved 7 August 2012.item_style=white-space:nowrap; Catholic Church in Brazil>Catholic Protestantism in Brazil>Protestant Irreligion >2.0% Spiritism |3.2% Others }}}}Brazil (; {{IPA-pt|bɾaˈziw}}),{{IPA-pt|bɾɐˈziÉ«|eu}} officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (, {{Audio|Pt-br-República Federativa do Brasil.ogg|listen}}),BOOK, A History of Modern Brazil: 1889–1964, José María Bello, Stanford University Press, 1966, 978-0-8047-0238-6, 56, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers (3.2 million square miles)WEB,weblink Área Territorial Brasileira, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, Portuguese, Brazilian Territorial Area, 4 May 2018, Para a superfície do Brasil foi obtido o valor de 8.515.759,090 km2, publicado no DOU nº 124 de 30/06/2017, conforme Resolução Nº 02, de 29 de junho de 2017., and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, and its most populated city is São Paulo. The federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, and the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas;BOOK,weblink Encyclopedia of Global Warming and Climate Change, Second Edition, Philander, S. George, Princeton University, 2012, 978-1-4129-9261-9, Second, Vol. 1, Los Angeles, 148, 970592418, BOOK,weblink Brazil Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Republic, Vallance, Monique M., ABC-CLIO, Contributing editor Monique M. Vallance, 2012, 978-0-313-34672-9, Crocitti, John J., xxiii, Preface and Observations on Contemporary Brazil, 787850982, {{harvid, Crocitti, Vallance, 2012, }} it is also one of the most multicultural and ethnically diverse nations, due to over a century of mass immigration from around the world.WEB,weblink Os migrantes de hoje, BBC Brasil, 24 October 2018, Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of {{convert|7491|km|mi|0|sp=us}}. It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area.WEB,weblink Brazil – Land, Permanent Missions, United Nations, Geography,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141023154830weblink">weblink 23 October 2014, Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats.WEB,weblink Geography of Brazil, 1 May 2018, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, Geography > Coastline, 4 May 2018, This unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, and is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system. The ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic.WEB, Brazilian Federal Constitution, Presidency of the Republic, 1988,weblink Portuguese, 3 June 2008, WEB, Brazilian Federal Constitution, v-brazil.com, 2007,weblink Unofficial translate, 3 June 2008, Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.WEB,weblink UNESCO World Heritage Centre â€” World Heritage List, UNESCO, 25 May 2012, Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy.WEB,weblink FTSE Country Classification, FTSE Group, September 2018, 20 November 2018, It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, and eight and PPP measures.WEB,weblink International Monetary Fund, imf.org, WEB,weblink CIA – The World Factbook – Country Comparisons – GDP (purchasing power parity), Cia.gov, 25 January 2011, It is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World BankWEB,weblink Country and Lending Groups, World Bank, 5 March 2011, Uppermiddle Income defined as a per capita income between $3,976 – $12,275, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110318125456weblink">weblink 18 March 2011, and a newly industrialized country,BOOK, Globalization and the Transformation of Foreign Economic Policy, PaweÅ‚ Bożyk, Newly Industrialized Countries, Ashgate Publishing, 2006, 978-0-7546-4638-9, 164, BOOK, The Limits of Convergence, Mauro F. Guillén, Mauro F. Guillén, Multinationals, Ideology, and Organized Labor, 126 (table 5.1), Princeton University Press, 2003, 978-0-691-11633-4, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a greatBOOK, M. Schaefer, J. Poffenbarger, The Formation of the BRICS and its Implication for the United States: Emerging Together,weblink 2014, Springer, 978-1-137-38794-3, 32, BOOK, Sean W. Burges, Latin America and the Shifting Sands of Globalization,weblink 2016, Routledge, 978-1-317-69658-2, 114–15, or a middle power in international affairs.WEB,weblink Especialistas reclamam reconhecimento do Brasil como potência mundial, IBS News, 15 June 2011, 7 April 2017, WEB,weblink Pela primeira vez Brasil emerge como potência internacional, diz Patriota, 10 May 2012, 7 April 2017, WEB,weblink Brazil – Emerging Soft Power of the World, allAfrica.com, 15 September 2011, 7 April 2017, WEB,weblink Brasil ganha dos Estados Unidos em influência na América do Sul, The Economist, 2 September 2011, 7 April 2017, JOURNAL, 10.1111/blar.12417, Brazil: What Rise of What Power?, Bulletin of Latin American Research, 35, 5–19, 2016, Gardini, Gian Luca, On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging powerFRIDE: The international arena and emerging powers: stabilising or destabilising forces? {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160615194931weblink |date=15 June 2016 }}, Susanne Gratius, April 2008 and a potential superpower by several analysts.WEB, Peter Collecott,weblink Brazil's Quest for Superpower Status, The Diplomatic Courier, 29 October 2011, 10 August 2014, NEWS, Clendenning, Alan, Booming Brazil could be world power soon, 2, USA Today, The Associated Press, 17 April 2008,weblink 12 December 2008, BOOK, Jorge Dominguez, Byung Kook Kim, Between Compliance and Conflict: East Asia Latin America and the New Pax Americana,weblink 2013, Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, 978-1-136-76983-2, 98–99, Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.

Etymology

It is likely that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.BOOK, Boris, Fausto, A Concise History of Brazil,weblink 1999, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-56526-4, 9, harv, In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil commonly given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa ("ember") and the suffix -il (from -iculum or -ilium).BOOK, Jon S. Vincent., Culture and Customs of Brazil,weblink 2003, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-313-30495-8, 36, As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was highly valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil.BOOK, Richard P. Tucker, Insatiable Appetite: The Ecological Degradation of the Tropical World,weblink 2007, University of Michigan, 978-0-7425-5365-1, 186, Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples (mostly Tupi) along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders (mostly Portuguese, but also French) in return for assorted European consumer goods.BOOK, Wayne E. Lee, Empires and Indigenes: Intercultural Alliance, Imperial Expansion, and Warfare in the Early Modern World,weblink 2011, NYU Press, 978-0-8147-6527-2, 196, The official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross" (Terra da Santa Cruz),BOOK, Bonnier Corporation, Popular Science,weblink 1880, Bonnier Corporation, 493, 0161-7370, but European sailors and merchants commonly called it simply the "Land of Brazil" (Terra do Brasil) because of the brazilwood trade.BOOK, Jean de Léry, History of a Voyage to the Land of Brazil, Otherwise Called America,weblink 1990, University of California Press, 978-0-520-91380-6, 242, The popular appellation eclipsed and eventually supplanted the official Portuguese name. Some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots".BOOK, Jayme A. Sokolow., The Great Encounter: Native Peoples and European Settlers in the Americas, 1492–1800,weblink 2003, M.E. Sharpe, 978-0-7656-0982-3, 84, In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama". This was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".BOOK, Maria Herrera-Sobek, Celebrating Latino Folklore,weblink 2012, ABC-CLIO, 978-0-313-34340-7, 155,

History

Pre-Cabraline era

{{double image|left|Parque Nacional da Serra da Capivara (31729373313).jpg|150|Burian urn, AD 1000-1250, Marajoara culture - AMNH - DSC06177 b.jpg|167|Cave painting at Serra da Capivara National Park, the largest and oldest concentration of prehistoric sites in the Americas.WEB, Discoveries Challenge Beliefs on Humans' Arrival in the Americas,weblink New York Times, 27 March 2014, 31 May 2014, Simon, Romero, |Burial urn, Marajoara culture, American Museum of Natural History. That culture appeared to flourish between 800 AD and 1400 AD, based on archeological studies.}}Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years.About.com,weblink Robert M. Levine, John J. Crocitti, The Brazil Reader: History, Culture, Politics,weblink 12 December 2012, 1999, Duke University Press, 978-0-8223-2290-0, 11–, The earliest pottery ever found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago (6000 BC). The pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture.Science Magazine, 13 December 1991weblink The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, and complex social formations such as chiefdoms.BOOK, Mann, Charles C., Charles C. Mann, 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus, 2005, 2006, Vintage Books, 326–33, 978-1-4000-3205-1, Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people,BOOK, Levine, Robert M., The History of Brazil, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, 978-1-4039-6255-3, 32, harv, mostly semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing, gathering, and migrant agriculture. The indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups (e.g. the Tupis, Guaranis, Gês and Arawaks). The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, and there were also many subdivisions of the other groups.{{sfnp|Levine|2003|p=31}}Before the arrival of the Europeans, the boundaries between these groups and their subgroups were marked by wars that arose from differences in culture, language and moral beliefs.BOOK, Fausto, Carlos, Os Índios antes do Brasil, The Indians before Brazil, pt, Jorge, Zahar, 2000, 978-85-7110-543-0, 45–46, 55, harv, These wars also involved large-scale military actions on land and water, with cannibalistic rituals on prisoners of war.Gomes, Mercio P. The Indians and Brazil University Press of Florida 2000 {{ISBN|0-8130-1720-3}} pp. 28–29{{sfnp|Fausto|2000|pp=78–80}} While heredity had some weight, leadership status was more subdued over time, than allocated in succession ceremonies and conventions. Slavery among the Indians had a different meaning than it had for Europeans, since it originated from a diverse socioeconomic organization, in which asymmetries were translated into kinship relations.{{sfnp|Fausto|2000|p=50}}

Portuguese colonization

File:Desembarque de Pedro Álvares Cabral em Porto Seguro em 1500 by Oscar Pereira da Silva (1865–1939).jpg|thumb|Representation of the landing of Pedro Álvares Cabral in Porto SeguroPorto SeguroThe land now called Brazil was claimed for the Portuguese Empire on 22 April 1500, with the arrival of the Portuguese fleet commanded by Pedro Álvares Cabral.Boxer, p. 98. The Portuguese encountered indigenous peoples divided into several tribes, most of whom spoke languages of the Tupi–Guarani family, and fought among themselves.Boxer, p. 100. Though the first settlement was founded in 1532, colonization effectively began in 1534, when King John III of Portugal divided the territory into the fifteen private and autonomous Captaincy Colonies of Brazil.Boxer, pp. 100–101.Skidmore, p. 27.However, the decentralized and unorganized tendencies of the captaincy colonies proved problematic, and in 1549 the Portuguese king restructured them into the Governorate General of Brazil, a single and centralized Portuguese colony in South America.Boxer, p. 101. In the first two centuries of colonization, Indigenous and European groups lived in constant war, establishing opportunistic alliances in order to gain advantages against each other.Meuwese, Mark "Brothers in Arms, Partners in Trade: Dutch-Indigenous Alliances in the Atlantic World, 1595–1674" Koninklijke Brill NV 2012 {{ISBN|978-90-04-21083-7}} Chapter IIIMetcalf, Alida C. "Go-betweens And the Colonization of Brazil: 1500–1600" University of Texas Press 2005, pp. 70, 79, 202 View on Google Books{{sfnp|Crocitti|Vallance|2012}}Minahan, James B. "Ethnic Groups of the Americas" ABC-CLIO 2013 {{ISBN|978-1-61069-163-5}} p. 300, View on Google Books By the mid-16th century, cane sugar had become Brazil's most important export,Skidmore, p. 36. and slaves purchased in Sub-Saharan Africa, in the slave market of Western AfricaRichard Middleton and Anne Lombard "Colonial America: A History to 1763" Wiley-Blackwell Publishing 1st edition 1992 {{ISBN|978-1-4443-9628-7}} Chapter 2, Section 4 (final, last page and half of previous one) View on Google Books (not only those from Portuguese allies of their colonies in Angola and Mozambique), had become its largest import,Boxer, p. 110Skidmore, p. 34. to cope with plantations of sugarcane, due to increasing international demand for Brazilian sugar.Boxer, p. 102.Skidmore, pp. 32–33.File:Antônio Parreiras - Prisão de Tiradentes, 1914.jpg|thumb|left|Painting showing the arrest of Tiradentes; he was sentenced to death for his involvement in the best known movement for independence in Colonial Brazil. Painting of 1914.]]By the end of the 17th century, sugarcane exports began to decline,Boxer, p. 164. and the discovery of gold by bandeirantes in the 1690s would become the new backbone of the colony's economy, fostering a Brazilian Gold RushBoxer, pp. 168, 170. which attracted thousands of new settlers to Brazil from Portugal and all Portuguese colonies around the world.Boxer, p. 169. This increased level of immigration in turn caused some conflicts between newcomers and old settlers.BOOK, Kohn, George C., Dictionary of Wars,weblink 1st, 1986, Facts on File, Inc., 978-1-4381-2916-7, 174, Portuguese expeditions known as Bandeiras gradually advanced the Portugal colonial original frontiers in South America to approximately the current Brazilian borders.BOOK, George Richard Potter, Henry Clifford Darby, Harold Fullard, The New Cambridge Modern History,weblink 1st, 3, 1957, CUP Archive, 498, Corrado, Jacopo "The Creole Elite and the Rise of Angolan Protonationalism" Cambria Press 2008 {{ISBN|978-1-60497-529-1}} pp. 95 (Brazil) and 145, note 5 View on Google Books In this era other European powers tried to colonize parts of Brazil, in incursions that the Portuguese had to fight, notably the French in Rio during the 1560s, in Maranhão during the 1610s, and the Dutch in Bahia and Pernambuco, during the Dutch–Portuguese War, after the end of Iberian Union.Bethell, Leslie "Colonial Brazil" Cambridge University Press 1987 pp. 19, 74, 86, 169–70The Portuguese colonial administration in Brazil had two objectives that would ensure colonial order and the monopoly of Portugal's wealthiest and largest colony: to keep under control and eradicate all forms of slave rebellion and resistance, such as the Quilombo of Palmares,Schwartz, Stuart B. "Slaves, Peasants, and Rebels" Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois 1992 {{ISBN|0-252-06549-2}} Chapter 4 View on Google Books and to repress all movements for autonomy or independence, such as the Minas Conspiracy.MacLachlan, Colin M. "A History of Modern Brazil: The Past Against the Future"; Scholarly Resources Inc. 2003 p. 3 View on Google Books{{clear}}

United Kingdom with Portugal

File:Aclamação do rei Dom João VI no Rio de Janeiro.jpg|thumb|upright=1.2|The Acclamation of King João VI of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves in Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroIn late 1807, Spanish and Napoleonic forces threatened the security of continental Portugal, causing Prince Regent João, in the name of Queen Maria I, to move the royal court from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro.Boxer, p. 213 There they established some of Brazil's first financial institutions, such as its local stock exchanges,Marta Barcellos & Simone Azevedo; Histórias do Mercado de Capitais no Brasil ("Financial Markets' Histories in Brazil") (Portuguese) Campus Elsevier 2011 {{ISBN|85-352-3994-4}} Introduction (by Ney Carvalho), Intro. p. xiv and its National Bank, additionally ending the Portuguese monopoly on Brazilian trade and opening Brazil to other nations. In 1809, in retaliation for being forced into exile, the Prince Regent ordered the Portuguese conquest of French Guiana.Bueno, p. 145.With the end of the Peninsular War in 1814, the courts of Europe demanded that Queen Maria I and Prince Regent João return to Portugal, deeming it unfit for the head of an ancient European monarchy to reside in a colony. In 1815, to justify continuing to live in Brazil, where the royal court had thrived for the prior six years, the Crown established the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and the Algarves, thus creating a pluricontinental transatlantic monarchic state. However, such a ploy didn't last long, since the leadership in Portugal, resentful of the new status of its larger colony, continued to require the return of court to Lisbon (as postulated by the Liberal Revolution of 1820), and also groups of Brazilians, impatient for practical and real changes, still demanded independence and a republic, as demonstrated by the 1817 Pernambucan Revolt.BOOK, Jeffrey C. Mosher, Political Struggle, Ideology, and State Building: Pernambuco and the Construction of Brazil, 1817–1850,weblink 2008, U of Nebraska Press, 978-0-8032-3247-1, 9, In 1821, as a demand of revolutionaries who had taken the city of Porto,BOOK, Jeremy Adelman, Sovereignty and Revolution in the Iberian Atlantic,weblink 2006, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-12664-7, 334–, D. João VI was unable to hold out any longer, and departed for Lisbon. There he swore an oath to the new constitution, leaving his son, Prince Pedro de Alcântara, as Regent of the Kingdom of Brazil.Lustosa, pp. 109–110

Independent empire

File:Independence of Brazil 1888.jpg|upright=1.2|thumb|left|Declaration of the Brazilian independence by Prince Pedro (later Emperor Pedro I) on 7 September 1822.]]Tensions between Portuguese and Brazilians increased, and the Portuguese Cortes, guided by the new political regime imposed by the 1820 Liberal Revolution, tried to re-establish Brazil as a colony.Lustosa, pp. 117–19 The Brazilians refused to yield, and Prince Pedro decided to stand with them, declaring the country's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822.Lustosa, pp. 150–153 A month later, Prince Pedro was declared the first Emperor of Brazil, with the royal title of Dom Pedro I, resulting in the foundation of the Empire of Brazil.Vianna, p. 418The Brazilian War of Independence, which had already begun along this process, spread through northern, northeastern regions and in Cisplatina province.Diégues 2004, pp. 168, 164, 178 The last Portuguese soldiers surrendered on 8 March 1824;Diégues 2004, pp. 179–80 Portugal officially recognized Brazil on 29 August 1825.Lustosa, p. 208On 7 April 1831, worn down by years of administrative turmoil and political dissent with both liberal and conservative sides of politics, including an attempt of republican secession,{{sfnp|Fausto|1999|pp=82–83}} and unreconciled to the way that absolutists in Portugal had given in the succession of King John VI, Pedro I went to Portugal to reclaim his daughter's crown, abdicating the Brazilian throne in favor of his five-year-old son and heir (who thus became the Empire's second monarch, with the royal title of Dom Pedro II).Lyra (v. 1), p. 17File:Pedro Américo - D. Pedro II na abertura da Assembléia Geral.jpg|thumb|upright|Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil between 1831 and 1889.]]As the new Emperor could not exert his constitutional powers until he became of age, a regency was set up by the National Assembly.Carvalho 2007, p. 21 In the absence of a charismatic figure who could represent a moderate face of power, during this period a series of localized rebellions took place, such as the Cabanagem in Grão-Pará Province, the Malê Revolt in Salvador da Bahia, the Balaiada (Maranhão), the Sabinada (Bahia), and the Ragamuffin War beginning in Rio Grande do Sul and supported by Giuseppe Garibaldi. These emerged from the dissatisfaction of the provinces with the central power, coupled with old and latent social tensions peculiar to a vast, slaveholding and newly independent nation state.{{sfnp|Fausto|1999|loc=Chapter 2, 2.1 to 2.3}} This period of internal political and social upheaval, which included the Praieira revolt in Pernambuco, was overcome only at the end of the 1840s, years after the end of the regency, which occurred with the premature coronation of Pedro II in 1841.{{sfnp|Fausto|1999}}During the last phase of the monarchy, internal political debate centered on the issue of slavery. The Atlantic slave trade was abandoned in 1850,Bethell, Leslie "The Abolition of the Brazilian Slave Trade: Britain, Brazil and the Slave Trade" Cambridge University Press 1970, "Cambridge Latin American Studides", Chapters 9 to 12. View on Google Books as a result of the British Aberdeen Act, but only in May 1888 after a long process of internal mobilization and debate for an ethical and legal dismantling of slavery in the country, was the institution formally abolished.Scott, Rebecca and others, The Abolition of Slavery and the Aftermath of Emancipation in Brazil, Duke University Press 1988 {{ISBN|0-8223-0888-6}} Seymour Drescher, Chap. 2: "Brazilian Abolition in Comparative Perspective"The foreign affairs in the monarchy were basically related to issues with the countries of the Southern Cone with which Brazil had borders. Long after the Cisplatine War that resulted in independence for Uruguay,Levine, Robert M. "The history of Brazil" Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc. 1999, p. 62, View on Google Books Brazil won three international wars during the 58-year reign of Pedro II. These were the Platine War, the Uruguayan War and the devastating Paraguayan War, the largest war effort in Brazilian history.Lyra (v.1), pp. 164, 225, 272{{sfnp|Fausto|1999|loc=Chapter 2, p. 83, and 2.6 "The Paraguayan War"}}Although there was no desire among the majority of Brazilians to change the country's form of government,{{sfn|Ermakoff|2006|p=189}} on 15 November 1889, in attrition with the majority of Army officers, as well as with rural and financial elites (for different reasons), the monarchy was overthrown by a military coup.BOOK, Smallman, Shawn C., Fear in Memory in the Brazilian Army and Society, University of North Carolina Press, 2002, 978-0-8078-5359-7, The Overthrow of the Empire, 16–18, harv, 15 November is now Republic Day, a national holiday.NEWS,weblink Brazil’s Proclamation of the Republic through the press, 15 November 2017, The Brazilian Report, 13 November 2018, en-US,

Early republic

File:Proclamação da República by Benedito Calixto 1893.jpg|thumb|upright=1.1|left|Proclamation of the Republic, 1893, oil on canvas by Benedito CalixtoBenedito CalixtoThe early republican government was nothing more than a military dictatorship, with army dominating affairs both at Rio de Janeiro and in the states. Freedom of the press disappeared and elections were controlled by those in power.{{sfnp|Smallman|2002|loc=end of Chapter 1, from p. 18 "Military rule"}} Only in 1894, following the unfoldings of two severe crises, an economic along with a military one, the civilians rose to power staying there until October 1930.{{sfnp|Smallman|2002|pp=21–26}}Triner, Gail D. "Banking and Economic Development: Brazil, 1889–1930" Palgrave 2000, pp. 69–74 {{ISBN|0-312-23399-X}}Needell, Jeffrey D. "A Tropical Belle Epoque: Elite Culture and Society in Turn-of-the-Century Rio de Janeiro" Cambridge University Press 2010, pp. 10, 12If in relation to its foreign policy, the country in this first republican period maintained a relative balance characterized by a success in resolving border disputes with neighboring countries,David R. Mares; "Violent peace: militarized interstate bargaining in Latin America" Columbia University Press 2001 Chapter 5 p. 125
only broken by the Acre War (1899–1902) and its involvement in World War I (1914–1918),
Bradford Burns 1993, p. 305M.Sharp, I. Westwell & J.Westwood; "History of World War I, Volume 1" Marshall Cavendish Corporation 2002, p. 97{{Citation |title= Uma história diplomática do Brasil, 1531–1945 |pages= 265–69}} followed by a failed attempt to exert a prominent role in the League of Nations;Charles Howard Ellis; "The origin, structure & working of the League of Nations" The LawBook Exchange Ltd 2003 pp. 105, 145 Internally, from the crisis of Encilhamento{{Citation |author= Viscount of Taunay |title= O encilhamento: scenas contemporaneas da bolsa em 1890, 1891 e 1892 |publisher= Melhoramentos |year=1893}}{{Citation |last = Nassif |first = Luís |title= Os cabeças-de-planilha |publisher= Ediouro |year= 2007 | isbn = 978-85-00-02094-0 |pages= 69–107}}{{Citation |first= Ney O. Ribeiro |last= de Carvalho |title= O Encilhamento: anatomia de uma bolha brasileira |publisher= Bovespa |year= 2004 |isbn = 978-85-904019-1-9}} and the Armada Revolts,{{Citation |first = Hélio L |last = Martins |title= A Revolta da Armada |publisher= BibliEx |year= 1997}} a prolonged cycle of financial, political and social instability began until the 1920s, keeping the country besieged by various rebellions, both civilian{{Citation |first = Edmundo |last = Moniz |title= Canudos: a luta pela terra |publisher= Global |year= 1984}}{{Citation |last = Sevcenko |first = Nicolau |title= A Revolta da Vacina | publisher= Cosac Naify |year= 2010 | isbn = 978-85-7503-868-0}}{{Citation |first = Aureliano P |last = de Moura |title= Contestado: a guerra cabocla |publisher= Biblioteca do Exército |year= 2003}} and military.{{Citation |first = Arthur |last = Thompson |title= Guerra civil do Brazil de 1893–1895 |publisher= Ravaro |year= 1934}}{{Citation |last = Roland |first = Maria Inês |title= A Revolta da Chibata |publisher= Saraiva |year= 2000 | isbn = 978-85-02-03095-4}}{{Citation |first = Maria CS |last = Forjaz |title= Tenentismo e politica |publisher= Paz e Terra |year= 1977}}{{Multiple image
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| image1 = 50º Aniversário da República Brasileira.png
| caption1 = In half of the first 100 years of republic, the Army exercised power directly or through figures like Getúlio Vargas (center).


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| caption2 = Soldiers of the Brazilian Expeditionary Force greet Italian civilians in Massarosa, during World War II. Brazil was the only independent Latin American country to send ground troops to fight in WWII.
}}Little by little, a cycle of general instability sparked by these crises undermined the regime to such an extent, that in the wake of the murder of his running mate, the defeated opposition presidential candidate Getúlio Vargas supported by most of the military, successfully led the October 1930 Coup.Levine; Robert M. & Crocitti; John J. The Brazil Reader: History, Culture, Politics, Duke University Press 1999, IV – The Vargas EraKeen, Benjamin / Haynes, Kate A History of Latin America; Volume 2, Waldsworth Cengage Learning 2004, pp. 356–57 Vargas and the military were supposed to assume power temporarily, but instead closed the Congress, extinguished the Constitution, ruled with emergency powers and replaced the states' governors with their own supporters.McCann; Frank D. Soldiers of the Patria: A History of the Brazilian Army, 1889–1937, Stanford University Press 2004, p. 303 {{ISBN|0-8047-3222-1}}Ibidem Williams 2001In the 1930s, three failed attempts to remove Vargas and his supporters from power occurred. The first was the Constitutionalist Revolution in 1932, led by the Paulista oligarchy. The second was a Communist uprising in November 1935, and the last one a putsch attempt by local fascists in May 1938.E. Bradford Burns; A History of Brazil Columbia University Press 1993 p. 352 {{ISBN|978-0-231-07955-6}}Dulles, John W.F. Anarchists and Communists in Brazil, 1900–1935 University of Texas Press 2012 {{ISBN|0-292-74076-X}}Frank M. Colby, Allen L. Churchill, Herbert T. Wade & Frank H. Vizetelly; The New international year book Dodd, Mead & Co. 1989, p. 102 "The Fascist Revolt" The 1935 uprising created a security crisis in which the Congress transferred more power to the executive. The 1937 coup d'état resulted in the cancellation of the 1938 election, formalized Vargas as dictator, beginning the Estado Novo era, which was noted for government brutality and censorship of the press.Bourne, Richard Getulio Vargas of Brazil, 1883–1954 C. Knight 1974, p. 77Foreign policy during Vargas years was marked by the antecedents and World War II. Brazil remained neutral until August 1942, when the country entered on the allied side,Scheina, Robert L. Latin America's Wars Vol.II: The Age of the Professional Soldier, 1900–2001. Potomac Books, 2003 {{ISBN|1-57488-452-2}} Part 9; Ch. 17 – World War II, Brazil and Mexico, 1942–45Thomas M. Leonard & John F. Bratzel; Latin America during World War II Rowman & Littlefield Publishers Inc. 2007 p. 150 after suffering retaliation by Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy, in a strategic dispute over the South Atlantic.Mónica Hirst & Andrew Hurrell; The United States and Brazil: A Long Road of Unmet Expectations, Taylor & Francis Books 2005 {{ISBN|0-415-95066-X}} pp. 4–5 In addition to its participation in the battle of the Atlantic, Brazil also sent an expeditionary force to fight in the Italian campaign.{{Citation |first1=Celso |last1=Castro |first2=Vitor |last2=Izecksohn |first3=Hendrik |last3=Kraay |pages=13–14 |title=Nova história militar brasileira |publisher=Fundação Getúlio Vargas |year=2004 |isbn=978-85-225-0496-1}}With the Allied victory in 1945 and the end of the Nazi-fascist regimes in Europe, Vargas's position became unsustainable and he was swiftly overthrown in another military coup, with democracy "reinstated" by the same army that had ended it 15 years earlier.McCann 2004, p. 441 Vargas committed suicide in August 1954 amid a political crisis, after having returned to power by election in 1950.Roett; Riordan Brazil: Politics in a Patrimonial Society, GreenWood Publishing Group 1999, pp. 106–08 {{ISBN|0-275-95899-X}}Keen & Haynes 2004, pp. 361–62

Contemporary era

Several brief interim governments followed Vargas's suicide.Skidmore, p. 201 Juscelino Kubitschek became president in 1956 and assumed a conciliatory posture towards the political opposition that allowed him to govern without major crises.Skidmore, pp. 202–203 The economy and industrial sector grew remarkably,Skidmore, p. 204 but his greatest achievement was the construction of the new capital city of Brasília, inaugurated in 1960.Skidmore, pp. 204–205{{Multiple image
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| image1 = 0741 NOV B 05 Esplanada dos Ministerios Brasilia DF 03 09 1959.jpg
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|image2 = Tanques ocupam a Avenida Presidente Vargas, 1968-04-04.jpg
|caption2 =M41s along the Avenida Presidente Vargas during the military government.
}}Kubitschek's successor, Jânio Quadros, resigned in 1961 less than a year after taking office.Skidmore, pp. 209–210 His vice-president, João Goulart, assumed the presidency, but aroused strong political oppositionSkidmore, p. 210 and was deposed in April 1964 by a coup that resulted in a military regime.Fausto (2005), p. 397The new regime was intended to be transitoryGaspari, A Ditadura Envergonhada, pp. 141–42. but gradually closed in on itself and became a full dictatorship with the promulgation of the Fifth Institutional Act in 1968.Gaspari, A Ditadura Envergonhada, p. 35. Oppression was not limited to those who resorted to guerrilla tactics to fight the regime, but also reached institutional opponents, artists, journalists and other members of civil society,{{sfnp|Crocitti|Vallance|2012|p=395, last paragraph}}Richard Young, Odile Cisneros "Historical Dictionary of Latin American Literature and Theater" Scare Crow Press 2011, p. 224, 2nd § View on Google Books inside and outside the country through the infamous "Operation Condor".Laurence Burgorgue-Larsen & Amaya Úbeda de Torres "The Inter-American Court of Human Rights: Case Law and Commentary" Oxford University Press 2011 {{ISBN|978-0-19-958878-7}} p. 299 View on Google Books{{sfnp|Crocitti|Vallance|2012|p=396}} Despite its brutality, like other authoritarian regimes, due to an economic boom, known as an "economic miracle", the regime reached a peak in popularity in the early 1970s.{{sfnp|Crocitti|Vallance|2012|p=395–97}}Slowly however, the wear and tear of years of dictatorial power that had not slowed the repression, even after the defeat of the leftist guerrillas,Bradford Burns 1993, p. 457 plus the inability to deal with the economic crises of the period and popular pressure, made an opening policy inevitable, which from the regime side was led by Generals Ernesto Geisel and Golbery do Couto e Silva.{{sfnp|Fausto|1999|loc=Chapter 6 "The military government and the transition to democracy (1964–1984)"}} With the enactment of the Amnesty Law in 1979, Brazil began a slow return to democracy, which was completed during the 1980s.{{sfnp|Fausto|1999}}Civilians returned to power in 1985 when José Sarney assumed the presidency. He became unpopular during his tenure through failure to control the economic crisis and hyperinflation he inherited from the military regime.Fausto (2005), pp. 464–65. Sarney's unsuccessful government led to the election in 1989 of the almost-unknown Fernando Collor, subsequently impeached by the National Congress in 1992.Fausto (2005), pp. 465, 475.Collor was succeeded by his vice-president, Itamar Franco, who appointed Fernando Henrique Cardoso Minister of Finance. In 1994, Cardoso produced a highly successful Plano Real,Skidmore, p. 311. that, after decades of failed economic plans made by previous governments attempting to curb hyperinflation, finally stabilized the Brazilian economy.{{sfnp|Fausto|1999|loc=Epilogue}}Fausto (2005), p. 482. Cardoso won the 1994 election, and again in 1998.Fausto (2005), p. 474.File:Ulyssesguimaraesconstituicao.jpg|thumb|Ulysses Guimarães holding the Constitution of 1988 in his hands.]]The peaceful transition of power from Cardoso to his main opposition leader, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (elected in 2002 and re-elected in 2006), was seen as proof that Brazil had achieved a long-sought political stability.Fausto (2005), p. 502.Zirin, 2014. Chapter 3 However, sparked by indignation and frustrations accumulated over decades from corruption, police brutality, inefficiencies of the political establishment and public service, numerous peaceful protests erupted in Brazil from the middle of first term of Dilma Rousseff, who had succeeded Lula after winning election in 2010."Global protest grows as citizens lose faith in politics and the State" article on "the Guardian"Zirin, 2014. Chapter 7 & Conclusion.Enhanced by political and economic crises with evidence of involvement by politicians from all the primary political parties in several bribery and tax evasion schemes,Article at The New York Times, 19 April 2016, On the Brazilian political context that led to the approval of impeachment proceedings against Dilma Rousseff.Article at Reuters on the involvement of Brazilian politicians in tax evasion schemes unveiled by the Panama Papers. 4 April 2016. with large street protests for and against her,Article at Financial Times (18 April 2016) about the political ambience in Brazil on the day vote for the Deputies chamber decision about open an impeachment procedure against president Dilma. 2nd to 4th paragraph. Rousseff was impeached by the Brazilian Congress in 2016.WEB,weblink Dilma Rousseff impeached by Brazilian senate, Jonathan Watts & Donna Bowater, The Guardian, 31 August 2016, Article of New York Times about the denouement of Roussef's impeachment process. In 2017, the Supreme Court asked for the investigation of 71 Brazilian lawmakers and nine ministers in President Michel Temer's cabinet allegedly linked to the Petrobras corruption scandal."Brazil supreme court judge orders probe into nine ministers – paper". Reuters. 11 April 2017. President Temer is himself accused of corruption."President Michel Temer of Brazil Is Charged With Corruption". The New York Times. 26 June 2017. In 2018, 62% of the population on a poll claimed that corruption was Brazil's biggest problem.NEWS,weblink A scary election in Brazil, The Economist, 1 October 2018, en,

Geography

(File:Brazil topo.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.3|Topographic map of Brazil)Brazil occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior,ENCYCLOPEDIA, Land and Resources, Encarta, MSN,weblink 11 June 2008,weblink 31 October 2009, yes, {{Dubious|date=January 2010}} sharing land borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest; Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and France (French overseas region of French Guiana) to the north. It shares a border with every South American country except Ecuador and Chile.It also encompasses a number of oceanic archipelagos, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz. Its size, relief, climate, and natural resources make Brazil geographically diverse. Including its Atlantic islands, Brazil lies between latitudes 6°N and 34°S, and longitudes 28° and 74°W.Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world, and third largest in the Americas, with a total area of {{convert|8515767.049|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}},Official Area (In Portuguese) IBGE: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Retrieved 8 January 2010. including {{convert|55455|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}} of water. It spans four time zones; from UTC−5 comprising the state of Acre and the westernmost portion of Amazonas, to UTC−4 in the western states, to UTC−3 in the eastern states (the national time) and UTC−2 in the Atlantic islands.WEB, Hora Legal Brasileira, Observatório Nacional,weblink 28 December 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110722173247weblink">weblink 22 July 2011, yes, Brazil is the only country in the world that has the equator and the Tropic of Capricorn running through it. Brazilian topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands. Much of the terrain lies between {{convert|200|m}} and {{convert|800|m}} in elevation.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Natural Regions, Encarta, MSN,weblink 11 June 2008,weblink 31 October 2009, yes, {{Dubious|date=January 2010}} The main upland area occupies most of the southern half of the country. The northwestern parts of the plateau consist of broad, rolling terrain broken by low, rounded hills.{{double image|right|Amanhecer_no_Hercules_--.jpg|220|Canindé de São Francisco-002.jpg|197|Rocks formations and the Dedo de Deus (God's Finger) peak in the background, Serra dos Órgãos National Park, Rio de Janeiro state|Canion of Canindé de São Francisco, Sergipe, a geological accident carved by the São Francisco River.}}The southeastern section is more rugged, with a complex mass of ridges and mountain ranges reaching elevations of up to {{convert|1200|m}}. These ranges include the Mantiqueira and Espinhaço mountains and the Serra do Mar.In the north, the Guiana Highlands form a major drainage divide, separating rivers that flow south into the Amazon Basin from rivers that empty into the Orinoco River system, in Venezuela, to the north. The highest point in Brazil is the Pico da Neblina at {{convert|2994|m}}, and the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean.Brazil has a dense and complex system of rivers, one of the world's most extensive, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Rivers and Lakes, Encarta, MSN,weblink 11 June 2008,weblink 31 October 2009, yes, {{Dubious|date=January 2010}} Major rivers include the Amazon (the world's second-longest river and the largest in terms of volume of water), the Paraná and its major tributary the Iguaçu (which includes the Iguazu Falls), the Negro, São Francisco, Xingu, Madeira and Tapajós rivers.{{clr}}{{wide image|Chapada_Diamantina_Panorama_(cropped).jpg|800px|align-cap=center|Chapada Diamantina, in the Chapada Diamantina National Park, Bahia.}}

Climate

File:Köppen climate types of Brazil.svg|thumb|upright=1.2|left|Brazil map of Köppen climate classificationKöppen climate classificationThe climate of Brazil comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical. According to the Köppen system, Brazil hosts six major climatic subtypes: desert, equatorial, tropical, semiarid, oceanic and subtropical. The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests in the north and semiarid deserts in the northeast, to temperate coniferous forests in the south and tropical savannas in central Brazil.WEB, Brazil, Country Guide, BBC Weather,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110208034235weblink">weblink 8 February 2011, 11 June 2008, Many regions have starkly different microclimates.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Natural Regions, Encarta, MSN,weblink 11 June 2008,weblink 31 October 2009, yes, {{Dubious|date=January 2010}}WEB, Temperature in Brazil, Brazil Travel,weblink 11 June 2008, An equatorial climate characterizes much of northern Brazil. There is no real dry season, but there are some variations in the period of the year when most rain falls. Temperatures average {{convert|25|°C}}, with more significant temperature variation between night and day than between seasons.Over central Brazil rainfall is more seasonal, characteristic of a savanna climate. This region is as extensive as the Amazon basin but has a very different climate as it lies farther south at a higher altitude. In the interior northeast, seasonal rainfall is even more extreme.The semiarid climatic region generally receives less than {{convert|800|mm|1}} of rain,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070820215606weblink">weblink 20 August 2007, Annual averages of Mandacaru Agro-meteorological station, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Embrapa, Portuguese, 21 October 2008, most of which generally falls in a period of three to five months of the yearWEB,weblink CPD: South America, Site SA19, Caatinga of North-eastern Brazil, Brazil, Botany.si.edu, 29 October 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090606055642weblink">weblink 6 June 2009, and occasionally less than this, creating long periods of drought. Brazil's 1877–78 Grande Seca (Great Drought), the worst in Brazil's history,"Drought, Smallpox, and Emergence of Leishmania braziliensis in Northeastern Brazil." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). caused approximately half a million deaths."Ó Gráda, C.: Famine: A Short History {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160112061115weblink |date=12 January 2016 }}." Princeton University Press. A similarly devastating drought occurred in 1915."Inland fishery enhancements." FAO.South of Bahia, near the coasts, and more southerly most of the state of São Paulo, the distribution of rainfall changes, with rain falling throughout the year. The south enjoys subtropical conditions, with cool winters and average annual temperatures not exceeding {{convert|18|°C|1}}; winter frosts and snowfall are not rare in the highest areas.

Biodiversity and environment

 
{{double image|right|Lear's Macaw Anodorhynchus leari (cropped).jpg|200|Amazon CIAT (5).jpg|200|Lear's macaw, endemic to Raso da Catarina, Bahia.|The Amazon rainforest, the most biodiverse rainforest in the world.}}Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest, recognized as having the greatest biological diversity in the world,WEB, One fifth of the world's freshwater, Amazon, World Wide Fund for Nature, 6 August 2007,weblink 12 June 2008, with the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado, sustaining the greatest biodiversity.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Plant and Animal Life, Encarta, MSN,weblink 12 June 2008,weblink 31 October 2009, yes, In the south, the Araucaria pine forest grows under temperate conditions. The rich wildlife of Brazil reflects the variety of natural habitats. Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in Brazil could approach four million, mostly invertebrates.Larger mammals include carnivores pumas, jaguars, ocelots, rare bush dogs, and foxes, and herbivores peccaries, tapirs, anteaters, sloths, opossums, and armadillos. Deer are plentiful in the south, and many species of New World monkeys are found in the northern rain forests.NEWS, Atlantic Forest, Brazil, Map: Biodiversity hotspots, BBC News, 1 October 2004,weblink 12 June 2008, Concern for the environment has grown in response to global interest in environmental issues.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Environmental Issues, Encarta, MSN,weblink 12 June 2008,weblink 31 October 2009, yes, Brazil's Amazon Basin is home to an extremely diverse array of fish species, including the red-bellied piranha. Despite its reputation as a ferocious freshwater fish, the red-bellied piranha is actually a generally timid scavenger.{{double image|left|Jaguar_(Panthera_onca_palustris)_female_Piquiri_River_2.JPG|200|Golden_Lion_Tamarin_Poco_das_Antas.jpg|200|Female pantanal jaguar in Piquirí River, Pantanal.|Golden lion tamarin, an endemic animal of Brazil, in the Poço das Antas Biological Reserve.}}Biodiversity can contribute to agriculture, livestock, forestry and fisheries extraction. However, almost all economically exploited species of plants, such as soybeans and coffee, or animals, such as chickens, are imported from other countries, and the economic use of native species still crawls. In the Brazilian GDP, the forest sector represents just over 1% and fishing 0.4%.The natural heritage of Brazil is severely threatened by cattle ranching and agriculture, logging, mining, resettlement, oil and gas extraction, over-fishing, wildlife trade, dams and infrastructure, water pollution, climate change, fire, and invasive species. In many areas of the country, the natural environment is threatened by development.WEB, Under threat, Greenpeace,weblink 12 June 2008, The construction of highways has opened up previously remote areas for agriculture and settlement; dams have flooded valleys and inundated wildlife habitats; and mines have scarred and polluted the landscape.WEB, Amazon destruction: six football fields a minute, Greenpeace,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080405192352weblink">weblink 5 April 2008, 12 June 2008, At least 70 dams are said to be planned for the Amazon region, including the controversial Belo Monte hydroelectric dam."Brazil grants environmental licence for Belo Monte dam." BBC News. 2 February 2010.

Government and politics

File:Palácio do Planalto GGFD8938.jpg|thumb|Palácio do Planalto ("Plateau Palace"), the official workplace of the President of BrazilPresident of BrazilThe form of government is a democratic federative republic, with a presidential system. The president is both head of state and head of government of the Union and is elected for a four-year term, with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term. The current president is Jair Bolsonaro. The previous president, Michel Temer, replaced Dilma Rousseff after her impeachment.NEWS,weblink Brazil's Senate ousts Rousseff in impeachment vote, CNN, Catherine E. Shoichet and Euan McKirdy, CNN, 31 August 2016, The President appoints the Ministers of State, who assist in government. Legislative houses in each political entity are the main source of law in Brazil. The National Congress is the Federation's bicameral legislature, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate. Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively. Brazil is a democracy, according to the Democracy Index 2010.WEB, Democracy Index 2010,weblink eiu.com, 12 February 2016, The political-administrative organization of the Federative Republic of Brazil comprises the Union, the states, the Federal District, and the municipalities. The Union, the states, the Federal District, and the municipalities, are the "spheres of government". The federation is set on five fundamental principles: sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of human beings, the social values of labour and freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism. The classic tripartite branches of government (executive, legislative and judicial under a checks and balances system) are formally established by the Constitution. The executive and legislative are organized independently in all three spheres of government, while the judiciary is organized only at the federal and state and Federal District spheres.File:Brasilia Congresso Nacional 05 2007 221.jpg|thumb|National Congress, seat of the legislative branchlegislative branchAll members of the executive and legislative branches are directly elected.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110725100724weblink">weblink 25 July 2011, Embassy of Brazil â€“ Ottawa, Political Institutions â€“ The Executive, 19 July 2007, WEB,weblink City Mayors, Brazil federal, state and local government, 19 July 2007, JOURNAL
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, 196424
, JSTOR
, Judges and other judicial officials are appointed after passing entry exams. For most of its democratic history, Brazil has had a multi-party system, proportional representation. Voting is compulsory for the literate between 18 and 70 years old and optional for illiterates and those between 16 and 18 or beyond 70.Together with several smaller parties, four political parties stand out: Workers' Party (PT), Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB) and Democrats (DEM). Fifteen political parties are represented in Congress. It is common for politicians to switch parties, and thus the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly.WEB,weblink Government – Brazil, Southtravels.com, 5 October 1988, 17 March 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111128075345weblink">weblink 28 November 2011, yes, dmy-all, Almost all governmental and administrative functions are exercised by authorities and agencies affiliated to the Executive.

Law

File:Supremo Brasil.jpg|thumb|left|Supreme Federal Court of BrazilSupreme Federal Court of BrazilBrazilian law is based on the civil law legal system"The Brazilian Legal System", Organization of American States. Retrieved 17 May 2007. and civil law concepts prevail over common law practice. Most of Brazilian law is codified, although non-codified statutes also represent a substantial part, playing a complementary role. Court decisions set out interpretive guidelines; however, they are seldom binding on other specific cases. Doctrinal works and the works of academic jurists have strong influence in law creation and in law cases.The legal system is based on the Federal Constitution, promulgated on 5 October 1988, and is the fundamental law of Brazil. All other legislation and court decisions must conform to its rules.José Afonso da Silva, Curso de Direito Constitucional Positivo (Malheiros, 2004; {{ISBN|85-7420-559-1}}), p. 46. {{As of|2007|04}}, there have been 53 amendments. States have their own constitutions, which must not contradict the Federal Constitution.Silva, Curso de Direito Constitucional Positivo, p. 592. Municipalities and the Federal District have "organic laws" (), which act in a similar way to constitutions.BOOK, Fabiano Deffenti, Welber Oliveira Barral, Introduction to Brazilian Law,weblink 6 June 2013, 2011, Kluwer Law International, 978-90-411-2506-4, 20–, Legislative entities are the main source of statutes, although in certain matters judiciary and executive bodies may enact legal norms. Jurisdiction is administered by the judiciary entities, although in rare situations the Federal Constitution allows the Federal Senate to pass on legal judgments. There are also specialized military, labor, and electoral courts. The highest court is the Supreme Federal Court.This system has been criticized over the last few decades for the slow pace of decision-making. Lawsuits on appeal may take several years to resolve, and in some cases more than a decade elapses before definitive rulings.Miguel Glugoski and Odete Medauar, "Nossos direitos nas suas mãos," USP Journal, 24–30 November 2003. Retrieved 17 May 2007. Nevertheless, the Supreme Federal Tribunal was the first court in the world to transmit its sessions on television, and also via YouTube.Diego Abreu, "Primeira Corte do mundo a ter canal de vídeo no YouTube é o STF," G1. {{pt icon}} Accessed 12 October 2009."weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110706160609weblink">STF: Primeira corte do mundo no YouTube." ESMA-PB. {{pt icon}} Accessed 12 October 2009. More recently, in December 2009, the Supreme Court adopted Twitter to display items on the day planner of the ministers, to inform the daily actions of the Court and the most important decisions made by them."Página do STF no Twitter está no ar" (12 January 2009). STF Official Website. {{pt icon}} Consulted on 5 December 2009.

Military

{{multiple image| direction = vertical| align = right| width = 220| footer =| image1 = Saab Gripen NG.pngBrazilian Air Force Saab JAS 39 Gripen#Brazil>Saab Gripen NG| image2 = Astros_2020_(14338252946).jpgBrazilian Army Astros II MLRS>Astros 2020| image3 = GLAM_MB_Chegada_do_PHM_"Atlântico"_(29323273127).jpgBrazilian Navy's flagship PHM Atlântico>PHM Atlântico}}The armed forces of Brazil are the largest in Latin America by active personnel and the largest in terms of military equipment.Uma Nova Agenda Militar {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170325232014weblink |date=25 March 2017 }} Revista Época. Retrieved on 19 February 2009. It consists of the Brazilian Army (including the Army Aviation Command), the Brazilian Navy (including the Marine Corps and Naval Aviation), and the Brazilian Air Force. Brazil's conscription policy gives it one of the world's largest military forces, estimated at more than 1.6 million reservists annually.{{Citation|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html|title=The World Factbook|publisher=CIA|accessdate=26 March 2010}}Numbering close to 236,000 active personnel,WEB,weblink Decreto Nº 5.670 de 10 de Janeiro de 2006, Presidência da República, Portuguese, 2 October 2010, the Brazilian Army has the largest number of armored vehicles in South America, including armored transports and tanks. It is also unique in Latin America for its large, elite forces specializing in unconventional missions, the Brazilian Special Operations Command,WEB,weblink Brigada de Operações Especiais, Exército, 21 September 2013, yes,weblink 23 September 2013, WEB,weblink Defesanet – Brigada de operações especiais, 27 June 2010, WEB,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101028052113weblink">weblink 28 October 2010, Brigada de Operações Especiais – Bda Op Esp, tropaselite.t35.com, 27 June 2010, and the versatile Strategic Rapid Action Force, made up of highly mobilized and prepared Special Operations Brigade, Infantry Brigade Parachutist,WEB,weblink Military Power, 27 June 2010, Brasil, WEB,weblink Brigada de Infantaria Pára-quedista, Exército, 21 September 2013, 1st Jungle Infantry Battalion (Airmobile)WEB,weblink 1º Batalhão de Infantaria de Selva (Aeromóvel), Exército, 27 June 2010, and 12th Brigade Light Infantry (Airmobile)WEB,weblink 12º Brigada de Infantaria Leve (Aeromóvel), Exército, Brasil, 27 June 2010, able to act anywhere in the country, on short notice, to counter external aggression.WEB,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101018073453weblink">weblink 18 October 2010, Força de Ação Rápida – FAR, tropaselite.t35.com, 27 June 2010, The states' Military Police and the Military Firefighters Corps are described as an ancillary forces of the Army by the constitution, but are under the control of each state's governor.Brazil's navy, the second-largest in the Americas, once operated some of the most powerful warships in the world with the two {{Sclass-|Minas Geraes|battleship|0}} dreadnoughts, which sparked a South American dreadnought race between Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.Scheina (1987), p. 81. Today, it is a green water force and has a group of specialized elite in retaking ships and naval facilities, GRUMEC, unit specially trained to protect Brazilian oil platforms along its coast.WEB,weblink yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100327162505weblink">weblink 27 March 2010, Grupamento de Mergulhadores de Combate – GruMeC, tropaselite.t35.com, 27 June 2010, It's the only navy in Latin America that operates an aircraft carrier, NAe São Paulo,WEB,weblink 44, More asked questions, Marinha, 16 August 2007, yes,weblink 14 July 2007, and one of the ten navies of the world to operate one.WEB, Brasil,weblink Military Power, 27 June 2010, The Air Force is the largest in Latin America and has about 700 manned aircraft in service and effective about 67,000 personnel.WEB,weblink Sala de imprensa – FAB em números, Força Aérea Brasileira, Portuguese, 12 December 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080617153748weblink">weblink 17 June 2008, Brazil has not been invaded since 1865 during the Paraguayan War.WEB,weblink Especial – NOTÍCIAS – Uma nova agenda militar, Revistaepoca.globo.com, 19 June 2010, Additionally, Brazil has no contested territorial disputes with any of its neighboursWEB,weblink CIA – The World Factbook, Cia.gov, 2 October 2013, and neither does it have rivalries, like Chile and Bolivia have with each other.WEB,weblink People's Daily Online – Bolivia bans Argentina from reselling gas to Chile, English.peopledaily.com.cn, 25 October 2006, 19 June 2010, NEWS,weblink BBC News, Fresh anger over Bolivia gas plan, 16 April 2004, 1 April 2010, The Brazilian military has also three times intervened militarily to overthrow the Brazilian government.WEB,weblink Especial – NOTÍCIAS – Os pés de barro de um gigante, Revistaepoca.globo.com, 19 June 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100825094407weblink">weblink 25 August 2010, It has built a tradition of participating in UN peacekeeping missions such as in Haiti, East Timor and Central African Republic.NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Brazil Is Leading a Largely South American Mission to Haiti, Larry, Rohter, 1 August 2004, 1 April 2010,

Foreign policy

File:Brasilia-2.jpg|thumb|left|Itamaraty Palace, the seat of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs ]]Brazil's international relations are based on Article 4 of the Federal Constitution, which establishes non-intervention, self-determination, international cooperation and the peaceful settlement of conflicts as the guiding principles of Brazil's relationship with other countries and multilateral organizations.Article 4 of the Federal Constitution of Brazil V-Brazil. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.According to the Constitution, the President has ultimate authority over foreign policy, while the Congress is tasked with reviewing and considering all diplomatic nominations and international treaties, as well as legislation relating to Brazilian foreign policy.Article 84 of the Federal Constitution of Brazil V-Brazil. Retrieved on 20 September 2011.Brazil's foreign policy is a by-product of the country's unique position as a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and an emerging world power.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090710013700weblink">U.S. Congressional Report on Brazil United States Congress. Retrieved on 23 June 2009. Brazilian foreign policy has generally been based on the principles of multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and non-intervention in the affairs of other countries.Georges D. Landau, "The Decision-making Process in Foreign Policy: The Case of Brazil," Center for Strategic and International Studies: Washington DC: March 2003Brazil is a founding member state of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), also known as the Lusophone Commonwealth, and international organization and political association of Lusophone nations across four continents, where Portuguese is an official language.An increasingly well-developed tool of Brazil's foreign policy is providing aid as a donor to other developing countries.Cabral and Weinstock 2010. Brazil: an emerging aid player ({{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110113185641weblink|date=13 January 2011}}). London: Overseas Development Institute Brazil does not just use its growing economic strength to provide financial aid, but it also provides high levels of expertise and most importantly of all, a quiet non-confrontational diplomacy to improve governance levels. Total aid is estimated to be around $1 billion per year that includes:File:Diplomatic missions in Brazil.PNG|thumb|upright=1.5|Diplomatic missions of Brazil ]]
  • technical cooperation of around $480 million ($30 million in 2010 provided directly by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC))
  • an estimated $450 million for in-kind expertise provided by Brazilian institutions specialising in technical cooperation
In addition, Brazil manages a peacekeeping mission in Haiti ($350 million) and makes in-kind contributions to the World Food Programme ($300 million). This is in addition to humanitarian assistance and contributions to multilateral development agencies. The scale of this aid places it on par with China and India. The Brazilian South-South aid has been described as a "global model in waiting."Cabral, Lidia 2010. Brazil's development cooperation with the South: a global model in waiting ({{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110430190841weblink|date=30 April 2011}}). London: Overseas Development Institute

Law enforcement and crime

File:FNSP (7952500358).jpg|thumb|left|Car of the National Public Security ForceNational Public Security ForceIn Brazil, the Constitution establishes five different police agencies for law enforcement: Federal Police Department, Federal Highway Police, Federal Railroad Police, Military Police and Civil Police. Of these, the first three are affiliated with federal authorities and the last two are subordinate to state governments. All police forces are the responsibility of the executive branch of any of the federal or state powers. The National Public Security Force also can act in public disorder situations arising anywhere in the country.WEB,weblink Ordem pública é prioridade da Força Nacional de Segurança, Portal Brasil, 29 April 2012, 8 February 2015, The country still has above-average levels of violent crime and particularly high levels of gun violence and homicide. In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated the number of 32 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, one of the highest rates of homicide of the world.WEB,weblink Brasil tem maior número absoluto de homicídios do mundo, O Estado de S. Paulo, 10 December 2014, The number considered tolerable by the WHO is about 10 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants.WEB, Secretaria de Segurança Pública do Estado de São Paulo,weblink Taxa de delito por 100 mil habitantes, 31 January 2011, 14 February 2011,weblink 23 August 2011, yes, However, there are differences between the crime rates in the Brazilian states. While in São Paulo the homicide rate registered in 2013 was 10.8 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, in Alagoas it was 64.7 homicides per 100,000 inhabitants.WEB,weblink Os estados com mais homicídios no Brasil, Exame, 11 November 2014, 5 February 2015, Brazil also has high levels of incarceration and the third largest prison population in the world (behind only China and the United States), with an estimated total of approximately 700,000 prisoners around the country (June 2014), an increase of about 300% compared to the index registered in 1992.WEB,weblink Brasil passa a Rússia e tem a terceira maior população carcerária do mundo, Folha de S.Paulo, 5 June 2014, The high number of prisoners eventually overloaded the Brazilian prison system, leading to a shortfall of about two hundred thousand accommodations.WEB,weblink Brasil tem hoje deficit de 200 mil vagas no sistema prisional, G1, 15 January 2014, 21 March 2014,

Administrative divisions

{{See also|Regions of Brazil}}{| class="infobox"{{Brazil Labelled Map}}States of Brazil and Regions of BrazilBrazil is a federation composed of 26 states, one federal district, and the 5570 municipalities. States have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Federal government. They have a governor and a unicameral legislative body elected directly by their voters. They also have independent Courts of Law for common justice. Despite this, states have much less autonomy to create their own laws than in the United States. For example, criminal and civil laws can be voted by only the federal bicameral Congress and are uniform throughout the country.The states and the federal district may be grouped into regions: Northern, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and Southern. The Brazilian regions are merely geographical, not political or administrative divisions, and they do not have any specific form of government. Although defined by law, Brazilian regions are useful mainly for statistical purposes, and also to define the distribution of federal funds in development projects.Municipalities, as the states, have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Union and state government. Each has a mayor and an elected legislative body, but no separate Court of Law. Indeed, a Court of Law organized by the state can encompass many municipalities in a single justice administrative division called comarca (county).

Economy

{{See also|Brazilian real|Agriculture in Brazil|Mining in Brazil|Industry in Brazil}}{{double image|left|Sao_Paulo_Stock_Exchange.jpg|275|Avenida Paulista no pôr do sol.jpg|220|Quotes panel of B3, in São Paulo, one of the top 20 stock exchanges by market capitalization.|São Paulo, the country's main financial center, and the largest in Latin America}}Brazil is the largest national economy in Latin America, the world's ninth largest economy and the eighth largest in purchasing power parity (PPP) according to the 2018 estimates. Brazil has a mixed economy with abundant natural resources. After rapid growth in preceding decades, the country entered an ongoing recession in 2014 amid a political corruption scandal and nationwide protests.Its GDP (PPP) per capita was $15,919 in 2017WEB,weblink Brazil, International Monetary Fund (IMF), 1 April 2016, putting Brazil in the 77th position according to IMF data. Active in agricultural, mining, manufacturing and service sectors Brazil has a labor force of over 107 million (ranking 6th worldwide) and unemployment of 6.2% (ranking 64th worldwide).WEB, Economy of Brazil, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2008,weblink 3 June 2008, The country has been expanding its presence in international financial and commodities markets, and is one of a group of four emerging economies called the BRIC countries.WEB, O'Neill, Jim, Jim O'Neill (economist), BRICs, Goldman Sachs,weblink 6 June 2008, Brazil has been the world's largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years.BOOK,weblink 102, Value Chain Struggles, Jeff Neilson, Bill Pritchard, John Wiley & Sons, 2011, 978-1-4443-5544-4, {{multiple image
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| caption2 = The E-Jet, developed by Embraer, the third largest producer of civil aircraft in the world.WEB, Embraer vê clientes mais dispostos à compra de aviões, Exame Magazine,weblink 8 February 2014,
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| caption3 = P-51, an oil platform of Petrobras
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| caption4 = The Itaipu Dam on the Paraná River, located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay, is the second largest of the world (the first is the Three Gorges Dam, in China). Approximately 75% of the Brazilian energy matrix, one of the cleanest in the world, comes from hydropower.
}}Brazil's diversified economy includes agriculture, industry, and a wide range of services.BOOK, Alok Bansal, Yogeshwari Phatak, I C Gupta, Rajendra Jain, Transcending Horizons Through Innovative Global Practices,weblink 2009, Excel Books, 978-81-7446-708-9, 29, Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for 5.1% of the gross domestic product in 2007.WEB, Field Listing – GDP – composition by sector, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2008,weblink 9 June 2008, Brazil is one of the largest producer of oranges, coffee, sugar cane, cassava and sisal, soybeans and papayas.BOOK, Steve Luck, The American Desk Encyclopedia,weblink 1998, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-521465-9, 121, The industry – from automobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft and consumer durables – accounted for 30.8% of the gross domestic product. Industry is highly concentrated in metropolitan São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Campinas, Porto Alegre, and Belo Horizonte.BOOK, Paolo Maria Giordano, Francesco Lanzafame, Jörg Meyer-Stamer, Asymmetries in Regional Integration And Local Development,weblink 2005, IDB, 978-1-59782-004-2, 129, Brazil has become the fourth largest car market in the world.WEB, Gasnier, Mat, 15 January 2012, The 20 biggest car markets in the world: Russia on the up!, Best Selling Cars,weblink 17 November 2014, Major export products include aircraft, electrical equipment, automobiles, ethanol, textiles, footwear, iron ore, steel, coffee, orange juice, soybeans and corned beef.NEWS, The economy of heat, The Economist, 12 April 2007,weblink 6 June 2008, In total, Brazil ranks 23rd worldwide in value of exports.Brazil pegged its currency, the real, to the U.S. dollar in 1994. However, after the East Asian financial crisis, the Russian default in 1998CONFERENCE, Taimur, Baig, Ilan, Goldfajn, The Russian default and the contagion to Brazil, IMF Working Paper, International Monetary Fund, 2000,weblink PDF, 6 June 2008, and the series of adverse financial events that followed it, the Central Bank of Brazil temporarily changed its monetary policy to a managed-floatCONFERENCE, Os impasses da política econômica brasileira nos anos 90, Revista FAAP, 2010,weblink 4 February 2015, scheme while undergoing a currency crisis, until definitively changing the exchange regime to free-float in January 1999.CONFERENCE, Arminio, Fraga, Monetary Policy During the Transition to a Floating Exchange Rate: Brazil's Recent Experience, International Monetary Fund, 2000,weblink 6 June 2008, Brazil received an International Monetary Fund rescue package in mid-2002 of $30.4 billion,NEWS, Wheatley, Jonathan, Brazil: When an IMF Bailout Is Not Enough, Business Week, 2 September 2002,weblink 6 June 2008, then a record sum. Brazil's central bank paid back the IMF loan in 2005, although it was not due to be repaid until 2006.NEWS, Brazil to pay off IMF debts early, BBC News, 14 December 2005,weblink 6 June 2008, One of the issues the Central Bank of Brazil recently dealt with was an excess of speculative short-term capital inflows to the country, which may have contributed to a fall in the value of the U.S. dollar against the real during that period.CONFERENCE, Economic Quarterly, 171, Institute of Applied Economic Research, 1 March 2007,weblink PDF, 6 June 2008, Nonetheless, foreign direct investment (FDI), related to long-term, less speculative investment in production, is estimated to be $193.8 billion for 2007.PRESS RELEASE, Capital Flows to Emerging Markets Set at Close to Record Levels, The Institute of International Finance, 31 May 2007,weblink 6 June 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110713005259weblink">weblink 13 July 2011, yes, Inflation monitoring and control currently plays a major part in the Central bank's role of setting out short-term interest rates as a monetary policy measure.CONFERENCE, IPCA, IPC-FIPE and IPC-BR: Methodological and Empirical Differences, Central Bank of Brazil, 2004,weblink PDF, 6 June 2008, Between 1993 and 2010, 7012 mergers & acquisitions with a total known value of $707 billion with the involvement of Brazilian firms have been announced.WEB,weblink Statistics on Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A) – M&A Courses | Company Valuation Courses | Mergers & Acquisitions Courses, Imaa-institute.org, 16 April 2011, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120106045040weblink">weblink 6 January 2012, The year 2010 was a new record in terms of value with US$115 billion of transactions. The largest transaction with involvement of Brazilian companies has been: Cia. Vale do Rio Doce acquired Inco in a tender offer valued at US$18.9 billion.Corruption costs Brazil almost $41 billion a year alone in 2010, with 69.9% of the country's firms identifying the issue as a major constraint in successfully penetrating the global market.WEB,weblink Brazil: Corruption Costs $41 Billion, Latin Business Chronicle, 22 March 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130321110632weblink">weblink 21 March 2013, Local government corruption is so prevalent that voters perceive it as a problem only if it surpasses certain levels, and only if a local media e.g. a radio station is present to divulge the findings of corruption charges.WEB,weblink Exposing corrupt politicians? the effect of Brazil's publicly released audits on electoral outcomes, Quarterly Journal of Economics, May 2008, 22 March 2013, Initiatives, like this exposure, strengthen awareness which is indicated by the Transparency International's Corruption Perceptions Index; ranking Brazil 69th out of 178 countries in 2012.WEB,weblink Corruption perceptions index, Transparency International, 22 March 2013, The purchasing power in Brazil is eroded by the so-called Brazil cost.WEB,weblink Rousseff Crisis Spurred by Lula Debts as Brazil Boom Diminishes, Mobile.bloomberg.com, 27 September 2011, 7 April 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120508113727weblink">weblink 8 May 2012, Brazil also has a large cooperative sector that provides 50% of the food in the countryweblink The worlds largest healthcare cooperative Unimed is also located in Brazil, and accounts for 32% of the healthcare insurance market in the countryweblink

Energy

Brazil is the world's tenth largest energy consumer with much of its energy coming from renewable sources, particularly hydroelectricity and ethanol; the Itaipu Dam is the world's largest hydroelectric plant by energy generation.BOOK, Michael Schmidt, Vincent Onyango, Dmytro Palekhov, Implementing Environmental and Resource Management,weblink 2011, Springer, 978-3-540-77568-3, 42, The first car with an ethanol engine was produced in 1978 and the first airplane engine running on ethanol in 2005.BOOK, OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development Staff, OECD Economic Surveys: Brazil 2001,weblink 2001, OECD Publishing, 978-92-64-19141-9, 193, Recent oil discoveries in the Pre-salt layer have opened the door for a large increase in oil production.BOOK, Lael Brainard, Leonardo Martinez-Diaz, Brazil As an Economic Superpower?: Understanding Brazil's Changing Role in the Global Economy,weblink 2009, Brookings Institution Press, 978-0-8157-0365-5, 45, The governmental agencies responsible for the energy policy are the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the National Council for Energy Policy, the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels, and the National Agency of Electricity.BOOK, OECD, Economic Surveys: Brazil,weblink 2005, OECD Publishing, 978-92-64-00749-9, 105,

Tourism

{{multiple image
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|image2 = Abismo_Anhumas,_Bonito,_MS.JPG
| caption2 = Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul. The rivers in the region are known for their crystal clear waters.
}}Tourism in Brazil is a growing sector and key to the economy of several regions of the country. The country had 6.36 million visitors in 2015, ranking in terms of the international tourist arrivals as the main destination in South America and second in Latin America after Mexico.BOOK, UNWTO Tourism Highlights, 2016, 978-92-844-1814-5, 10.18111/9789284418145, Revenues from international tourists reached {{USD|6}} billion in 2010, showing a recovery from the 2008–2009 economic crisis.WEB,weblink UNWTO Tourism Highlights – 2011 Edition, World Tourism Organization, June 2011, 29 September 2011, Historical records of 5.4 million visitors and {{USD|6.8}} billion in receipts were reached in 2011.WEB,weblink Estatisticas e Indicadores: Receita Cambial, Ministério do Turismo, 2012, 13 February 2012, Portuguese, WEB,weblink Turismo Brasileiro com novo recorde em 2011, Ministério do Turismo, No Pátio, 13 January 2012, 13 February 2012, Portuguese, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130822074421weblink">weblink 22 August 2013, Natural areas are its most popular tourism product, a combination of ecotourism with leisure and recreation, mainly sun and beach, and adventure travel, as well as cultural tourism. Among the most popular destinations are the Amazon Rainforest, beaches and dunes in the Northeast Region, the Pantanal in the Center-West Region, beaches at Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina, cultural tourism in Minas Gerais and business trips to São Paulo city.BOOK, Guilherme Lohmann Palhares, Tourism in Brazil: Environment, Management and Segments,weblink 2012, Routledge, 978-0-415-67432-4, 126, In terms of the 2015 Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI), which is a measurement of the factors that make it attractive to develop business in the travel and tourism industry of individual countries, Brazil ranked in the 28st place at the world's level, third in the Americas, after Canada and United States.WEB, The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2015, World Economic Forum,weblink May 2015, WEB,weblink Jennifer Blanke and Thea Chiesa, Editors, 2013, Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2013, World Economic Forum, Geneva, Switzerland, 14 April 2013, See Table 4, pp. 18–19 and Country/Economy Profile: Brazil, pp. 116–17.Brazil's main competitive advantages are its natural resources, which ranked 1st on this criteria out of all countries considered, and ranked 23rd for its cultural resources, due to its many World Heritage sites. The TTCI report notes Brazil's main weaknesses: its ground transport infrastructure remains underdeveloped (ranked 116th), with the quality of roads ranking in 105th place; and the country continues to suffer from a lack of price competitiveness (ranked 114th), due in part to high ticket taxes and airport charges, as well as high prices and high taxation. Safety and security have improved significantly: 75th in 2011, up from 128th in 2008.According to the World Tourism Organization (WTO), international travel to Brazil accelerated in 2000, particularly during 2004 and 2005. However, in 2006 a slow-down took place, and international arrivals had almost no growth in 2007–08.WEB,weblink UNWTO Tourism Highlights, Edition 2007, UNWTO, World Tourism Organization, 14 June 2008, 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130409090548weblink">weblink 9 April 2013, WEB, 2009,weblink Anuário Estatístico de Turismo 2009, EMBRATUR, Ministério de Turismo, 5 September 2008, Portuguese, See tables 1.1 and 3.8WEB,weblink Tourism Highlights 2006 [pdf], The World Tourism Organization, 6 January 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070628064808weblink">weblink 28 June 2007, yes, dmy-all, In spite of this trend, revenues from international tourism continued to rise, from USD 4 billion in 2005 to 5 billion in 2007, despite 330 000 fewer arrivals. This favorable trend is the result of the strong devaluation of the US dollar against the Brazilian Real, which began in 2004, but which makes Brazil a more expensive international destination.WEB, 2007,weblink Boletim de Desempenho Econômico do Turismo, Facultade Getúlio Vargas, Ministério de Turismo, 21 June 2008, Portuguese, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081003062353weblink">weblink 3 October 2008, Fevereiro 2007, Ano IV, nº 13, p. 3{{multiple image
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| caption2 = Iguazu Falls, Paraná, in Brazil-Argentina border. The Garganta do Diabo Walkway allow panoramic view of the falls from the Brazilian side.
}}This trend changed in 2009, when both visitors and revenues fell as a result of the Great Recession of 2008–09.WEB, 2010,weblink UNTWO Tourism Highlights 2010 Edition, World Tourism Organization, 31 October 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130607130445weblink">weblink 7 June 2013, Click on the link "UNWTO Tourism Highlights" to access the pdf report. By 2010, the industry had recovered, and arrivals grew above 2006 levels to 5.2 million international visitors, and receipts from these visitors reached US$6 billion. In 2011 the historical record was reached with 5.4 million visitors and {{USD|6.8}} billion in receipts.Despite continuing record-breaking international tourism revenues, the number of Brazilian tourists travelling overseas has been growing steadily since 2003, resulting in a net negative foreign exchange balance, as more money is spent abroad by Brazilians than comes in as receipts from international tourists visiting Brazil.Tourism expenditures abroad grew from US$5.8 billion in 2006, to US$8.2 billion in 2007, a 42% increase, representing a net deficit of US$3.3 billion in 2007, as compared to US$1.5 billion in 2006, a 125% increase from the previous year.WEB, 2008,weblink Pesquisa Anual de Conjuntura Econômica do Turismo, Facultade Getúlio Vargas, Ministério de Turismo, 22 June 2008, Portuguese, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081003062332weblink">weblink 3 October 2008, Março 2008, Ano IV, p. 11 This trend is caused by Brazilians taking advantage of the stronger Real to travel and making relatively cheaper expenditures abroad. Brazilians traveling overseas in 2006 represented 4% of the country's population.WEB,weblink Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas e EMBRATUR, 2006, Caracterização e Dimensionamento do Turismo Domêstico no Brasil 2002 e 2006: Metodologia e Desenvolvimento, Ministério do Turismo, 22 June 2008, Portuguese, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061130164741weblink">weblink 30 November 2006, In 2005, tourism contributed with 3.2% of the country's revenues from exports of goods and services, and represented 7% of direct and indirect employment in the Brazilian economy.WEB, Carmen Altés, 2006, El Turismo en América Latina y el Caribe y la experiencia del BID, 9, 47, Inter-American Development Bank; Sustainable Development Department, Technical Paper Series ENV-149, Washington, DC, Spanish,weblink 14 June 2008, In 2006 direct employment in the sector reached 1.9 million people.WEB,weblink Margerida Coelho, 2008, Distribução Espacial da Ocupação no Setor de Turismo: Brasil e Regiões, Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada, 22 June 2008, Portuguese, Domestic tourism is a fundamental market segment for the industry, as 51 million people traveled throughout the country in 2005,WEB,weblink Fundação Instituto de Pesquisas Econômicas, 2007, Caracterização e Dimensionamento do Turismo Domêstico no Brasil 2002 e 2006, Ministério do Turismo, 21 June 2008, Portuguese, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081003062341weblink">weblink 3 October 2008, and direct revenues from Brazilian tourists reached US$22 billion,WEB,weblink Diretoria de Turismo, 2006, Boletim Anual São Paulo Turismo, Prefeitura de São Paulo, 20 November 2008, PDF, Portuguese, {{dead link|date=June 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} see 2.1.3 "Receitas setor trurístico 2005". 5.6 times more receipts than international tourists in 2005.In 2005, Rio de Janeiro, Foz do Iguaçu, São Paulo, Florianópolis and Salvador were the most visited cities by international tourists for leisure trips. The most popular destinations for business trips were São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre.WEB,weblink EMBRATUR, 2006, Anúario Estatístico Volume 33 2006, Ministério do Turismo, 22 June 2008, Portuguese, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080909235018weblink">weblink 9 September 2008, Tables 4.1 a 4.4: Summary Brasil by trip purpose 2004–2005 In 2006 Rio de Janeiro and Fortaleza were the most popular destinations for business trips.

Infrastructure

Science and technology

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| caption2 = Sirius, a diffraction-limited storage ring synchrotron light source at the Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo.
}}Technological research in Brazil is largely carried out in public universities and research institutes, with the majority of funding for basic research coming from various government agencies.BOOK, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development Staff, OECD Economic Surveys: Brazil 2006,weblink 2006, OECD Publishing, 978-92-64-02999-6, 94, Brazil's most esteemed technological hubs are the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, the Butantan Institute, the Air Force's Aerospace Technical Center, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation and the INPE.BOOK, United Nations Educational, Scientific, UNESCO Science Report 2010: The Current Status of Science Around the World,weblink 2010, UNESCO, 978-92-3-104132-7, 110–18, BOOK, Brian Harvey, Henk H.F. Smid, Thâeo Pirard, Emerging Space Powers: The New Space Programs of Asia, the Middle East and South-America,weblink 2010, Springer, 978-1-4419-0874-2, 324, The Brazilian Space Agency has the most advanced space program in Latin America, with significant resources to launch vehicles, and manufacture of satellite.{{sfnp|Crocitti|Vallance|2012|p=628}} Owner of relative technological sophistication, the country develops submarines, aircraft, as well as being involved in space research, having a Vehicle Launch Center Light and being the only country in the Southern Hemisphere the integrate team building International Space Station (ISS).NASA Signs International Space Station Agreement With Brazil NASA.The country is also a pioneer in the search for oil in deep water, from where it extracts 73% of its reserves.Uranium is enriched at the Resende Nuclear Fuel Factory, mostly for research purposes (as Brazil obtains 88% from its electricity from hydroelectricityWEB, O Sistema Elétrico Brasileiro,weblink O.C. Ferreira, 21 March 2013, ) and the country's first nuclear submarine was delivered in 2015 (by France).NEWS, Confirmed: Agreement with France Includes the Brazilian Nuclear Submarine,weblink Nonproliferation for Global Security Foundation, 23 December 2008, 23 December 2008, Brazil is one of the three countries in Latin AmericaWEB,weblink Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Elsa.physik.uni-bonn.de, 18 August 2008, 30 October 2010, with an operational Synchrotron Laboratory, a research facility on physics, chemistry, material science and life sciences, and Brazil is the only Latin American country to have a semiconductor company with its own fabrication plant, the CEITEC.WEB,weblink yes, CEITEC, Portal Brasil, Brasil.gov.br, 8 August 2011, 17 November 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111117055936weblink">weblink According to the Global Information Technology Report 2009-2010 of the World Economic Forum, Brazil is the world's 61st largest developer of information technology.{{Citation|url=http://www1.folha.uol.com.br/fsp/dinheiro/fi2603201010.htm|title=Brasil cai duas posições em ranking mundial|newspaper=Folha de S.Paulo|date=26 March 2010|access-date=26 March 2010}}Brazil also has a large number of outstanding scientific personalities. Among the most renowned Brazilian inventors are priests Bartolomeu de Gusmão, Landell de Moura and Francisco João de Azevedo, besides Alberto Santos-Dumont,WEB,weblink M. Santos Dumont Rounds Eiffel Tower." New York Times, 20 de outubro de 1901. Retrieved January 12, 2009, 29 December 2010, Evaristo Conrado Engelberg,WEB,weblink Engelberg, Inc, 17 July 2011, Vintage Machinery, 2011, Manuel Dias de Abreu,Abreu, Manuel de, pag. 17 – Grande Enciclopédia Universal – edição de 1980 – Ed.Amazonas Andreas PavelWEB,weblink 16 December 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090309065937weblink">weblink 9 March 2009, Portable stereo's creator got his due, eventually, and Nélio José Nicolai.Exposição destaca centenário do CEFET-MG Sítio do Cefet-MG, acessado em 13 de novembro de 2010 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140813115503weblink |date=13 August 2014 }}Brazilian science is represented by the likes of César Lattes (Brazilian physicist Pathfinder of Pi Meson),WEB,weblink Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, 50 anos do Méson-Pi, 29 December 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110526200502weblink">weblink 26 May 2011, Mário Schenberg (considered the greatest theoretical physicist of Brazil),WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130331194248weblink">weblink yes, 31 March 2013, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas – Coleção Galileo: Textos de Física, 21 October 2014, José Leite Lopes (only Brazilian physicist holder of UNESCO Science Prize),WEB,weblink Atta-Ur-Rahman, José Leite Lopes and Juan Martín Maldacena receive UNESCO science prizes, UNESCOPRESS, 21 October 2014, Artur Ávila (the first Latin American winner of Fields Medal)Brasileiro ganha a Medalha Fields, considerada o "Nobel da Matemática". and Fritz Müller (pioneer in factual support of the theory of evolution by Charles Darwin).West, David A. 2003. Fritz Müller: a naturalist in Brazil. Blacksburg: Pocahontas Press

Transport

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|image2 = Rodovia Rio-Teresópolis (BR-116) - panoramio (cropped).jpg
| caption2 = Presidente Dutra Highway in Guapimirim, Rio de Janeiro, part of the BR-116, the longest highway in the country, with {{convert|4385|km|mi|abbr=on}} of extension.WEB,weblink As 11 estradas mais incríveis do Brasil, Fernanda Castello Branco, Internet Group, iG, 22 September 2014,
|image3 = Seminário_da_TV_Tribuna_em_Santos._(42282761304).jpg
|caption3 = Port of Santos, the busiest port in Latin America.Global Finance – The Growth Challenge {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070512181621weblink |date=12 May 2007 }}}}
Brazilian roads are the primary carriers of freight and passenger traffic. The road system totaled 1.98 million km (1.23 million mi) in 2002. The total of paved roads increased from {{convert|35496|km|0|abbr=on}} (22,056 mi) in 1967 to {{convert|184140|km|0|abbr=on}} (114,425 mi) in 2002.WEB,weblink Road system in Brazil, Nationsencyclopedia.com, 30 October 2010, The first investments in road infrastructure have given up in the 1920s, the government of Washington Luis, being pursued in the governments of Getúlio Vargas and Eurico Gaspar Dutra.{{Citation|last1=Pereira|first1=L.A.G|last2=Lessa|first2=S.N.|last3=Cardoso|first3=A.D.|title=Planejamento e Transporte Rodoviário no Brasil}} President Juscelino Kubitschek (1956–61), who designed and built the capital Brasília, was another supporter of highways. Kubitschek was responsible for the installation of major car manufacturers in the country (Volkswagen, Ford and General Motors arrived in Brazil during his rule) and one of the points used to attract them was support for the construction of highways. With the implementation of Fiat in 1976 ending an automobile market closed loop, from the end of the 1990s the country has received large foreign direct investments installing in its territory other major car manufacturers and utilities, such as Iveco, Renault, Peugeot, Citroen, Honda, Mitsubishi, Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Hyundai, Toyota among others.Sydney Alberto Latini; "A Implantação da Indústria Automobilística no Brasil"; Editora Alaúde 2007 {{ISBN|978-85-98497-55-6}} Brazil is the seventh most important country in the auto industry.WEB,weblink Automotive industry in Brazil and the world, 14 May 2010, International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers, PDF, Brazil's railway system has been declining since 1945, when emphasis shifted to highway construction. The total length of railway track was {{convert|30875|km|0|abbr=on}} in 2002, as compared with {{convert|31848|km|0|abbr=on}} in 1970. Most of the railway system belonged to the Federal Railroad Corporation RFFSA, which was privatized in 2007."OPrincipais ferrovias." Ministerio dos Transportes {{pt icon}} {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130329092636weblink |date=29 March 2013 }} The São Paulo Metro was the first underground transit system in Brazil. The other metro systems are in Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Recife, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Teresina and Fortaleza.The country has an extensive rail network of {{convert|28538|km|abbr=off}} in length, the tenth largest network in the world.Country Comparison to the World: Gini Index – Brazil The World Factbook. Retrieved on 3 April 2012. Currently, the Brazilian government, unlike the past, seeks to encourage this mode of transport; an example of this incentive is the project of the Rio–São Paulo high-speed rail, that will connect the two main cities of the country to carry passengers.There are about 2,500 airports in Brazil, including landing fields: the second largest number in the world, after the United States."Ociosidade atinge 70% dos principais aeroportos." globo.com, 12 August 2007. {{pt icon}} São Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport, near São Paulo, is the largest and busiest airport with nearly 20 million passengers annually, while handling the vast majority of commercial traffic for the country.BOOK, Guilherme Lohmann Palhares, Tourism in Brazil: Environment, Management and Segments,weblink 2012, Routledge, 978-0-415-67432-4, 48, For freight transport waterways are of importance, e.g. the industrial zones of Manaus can be reached only by means of the Solimões–Amazonas waterway ({{convert|3250|km|abbr=off}} with {{convert|6|m|abbr=off}} minimum depth). The country also has {{convert|50000|km|abbr=off}} of waterways.Coastal shipping links widely separated parts of the country. Bolivia and Paraguay have been given free ports at Santos. Of the 36 deep-water ports, Santos, Itajaí, Rio Grande, Paranaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Sepetiba, Vitória, Suape, Manaus and São Francisco do Sul are the most important."weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081227224101weblink">Mercado Brasileiro Terminais de Contêineres," Santos Brasil. {{pt icon}} Bulk carriers have to wait up to 18 days before being serviced, container ships 36,3 hours on average."weblink," Navios esperam até 16 dias para atracar em porto do país, diz MDIC.

Health

File:Fotorreportagem do ICESP (42627443635).jpg|thumb|left|Institute of Cancer of the University of São Paulo Clinics Hospital, the largest hospital complex in Latin America.WEB,weblink HC faz aniversário em meio a reformas que somam R$ 350 milhões, Folha de S.PauloFolha de S.PauloThe Brazilian public health system, the Unified Health System (SUS), is managed and provided by all levels of government,BOOK, Gerard Martin La Forgia, Bernard F. Couttolenc, Hospital Performance in Brazil: The Search for Excellence,weblink 2008, World Bank Publications, 978-0-8213-7359-0, 17, being the largest system of this type in the world.WEB,weblink 20 Anos do SUS, Conselho Nacional de Saúde, 13 April 2012, On the other hand, private healthcare systems play a complementary role.BOOK, Lawrence F. Wolper, Health Care Administration: Planning, Implementing, and Managing Organized Delivery Systems,weblink 2004, Jones & Bartlett Learning, 978-0-7637-3144-1, 33, Public health services are universal and offered to all citizens of the country for free. However, the construction and maintenance of health centers and hospitals are financed by taxes, and the country spends about 9% of its GDP on expenditures in the area. In 2012, Brazil had 1.85 doctors and 2.3 hospital beds for every 1,000 inhabitants.WEB,weblink Physicians (per 1,000 people), World Health Organization's Global Health Workforce Statistics, WEB,weblink Hospital beds (per 1,000 people), World Health Organization The World Bank, Despite all the progress made since the creation of the universal health care system in 1988, there are still several public health problems in Brazil. In 2006, the main points to be solved were the high infant (2.51%) and maternal mortality rates (73.1 deaths per 1000 births). The number of deaths from noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (151.7 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants) and cancer (72.7 deaths per 100,000 inhabitants), also has a considerable impact on the health of the Brazilian population. Finally, external but preventable factors such as car accidents, violence and suicide caused 14.9% of all deaths in the country.WEB, Saúde, Radar social, Ministério do Planejamento,weblinkweblink" title="wayback.archive-it.org/all/20081216074831weblink">weblink yes, 16 December 2008, 10 June 2008, The Brazilian health system was ranked 125th among the 191 countries evaluated by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2000.WEB,weblink Measuring overall health system performance for 191 countries, World Health Organization, 2000, 30 April 2014,

Education

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}}The Federal Constitution and the Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education determine that the Union, the states, the Federal District, and the municipalities must manage and organize their respective education systems. Each of these public educational systems is responsible for its own maintenance, which manages funds as well as the mechanisms and funding sources. The constitution reserves 25% of the state budget and 18% of federal taxes and municipal taxes for education.BOOK, Usa Ibp Usa, Brazil: Tax Guide,weblink 2005, Int'l Business Publications, 978-0-7397-3279-3, 42, According to the IBGE, in 2011, the literacy rate of the population was 90.4%, meaning that 13 million (9.6% of population) people are still illiterate in the country; functional illiteracy has reached 21.6% of the population.BOOK, The Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook 2010: (CIA 2009 Edition),weblink 2010, Potomac Books, Inc., 978-1-59797-541-4, 143, Illiteracy is highest in the Northeast, where 19.9% of the population is illiterate.BOOK, World Bank, Rural Poverty Alleviation in Brazil: Towards an Integrated Strategy,weblink 2001, World Bank Publications, 978-0-8213-5206-9, 40, Higher education starts with undergraduate or sequential courses, which may offer different options of specialization in academic or professional careers. Depending on the choice, students can improve their educational background with courses of post-graduate studies or broad sense.Attending an institution of higher education is required by Law of Guidelines and Bases of Education. Kindergarten, elementary and medium educations are required of all students, provided the student does not hold any disability, whether physical, mental, visual or hearing.The University of São Paulo is the second best university in Latin America, according to recent 2019 QS World University Rankings. Of the top 20 Latin Americans universities, eight are Brazilian. Most of them are public.WEB,weblink QS University Rankings Latin America, QS World University Rankings, 11 November 2018,

Media and communication{{anchor|Media}}

{{see also|Concentration of media ownership#Brazil}}File:Jornal Nacional 3.jpg|thumb|left|Former President Dilma Rousseff at Jornal Nacional news program. Rede GloboRede GloboThe Brazilian press began in 1808 with the arrival of the Portuguese royal family to Brazil, hitherto forbidden any activity of the press – was the publication of newspapers or books. The Brazilian press was officially born in Rio de Janeiro on 13 May 1808, with the creation of the Royal Printing, National Press by the Prince Regent Dom João.BOOK, Roberto Gonzalez Echevarría, Enrique Pupo-Walker, The Cambridge History of Latin American Literature,weblink 1996, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-41035-9, 13, The Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, the first newspaper published in the country, began to circulate on 10 September 1808.BOOK, Donald H. Johnston, Encyclopedia of international media and communications, 3, 2003, Academic Press, 978-0-12-387671-3, 130, The largest newspapers nowadays are Folha de S.Paulo (from the state of São Paulo), Super Notícia (Minas Gerais 296.799), O Globo (RJ 277.876) and O Estado de S. Paulo (SP 235.217).BOOK, Jon S. Vincent, Culture and Customs of Brazil,weblink 2003, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-313-30495-8, 97–100, Radio broadcasting began on 7 September 1922, with a speech by then President Pessoa, and was formalized on 20 April 1923 with the creation of "Radio Society of Rio de Janeiro."BOOK, Bryan McCann, Hello, Hello Brazil: Popular Music in the Making of Modern Brazil,weblink 2004, Duke University Press, 978-0-8223-3273-2, 22, Television in Brazil began officially on 18 September 1950, with the founding of TV Tupi by Assis Chateaubriand.BOOK, David Ward, Television and Public Policy: Change and Continuity in an Era of Global Liberalization,weblink 2007, Routledge, 978-0-203-87728-9, 28, Since then television has grown in the country, creating large public networks such as Globo, SBT, Record and Bandeirantes. Today it is the most important factor in popular culture of Brazilian society, indicated by research showing that as much as 67%NEWS,weblink Um ponto de IBOPE equivale a quantas pessoas? E domicílios?, IBOPE, 23 March 2013, NEWS,weblink Top 10 das novelas, MSN Brasil, 23 March 2013, of the general population follow the same daily soap opera broadcast. Digital Television, using the SBTVD standard (based on the Japanese standard ISDB-T), was adopted 29 June 2006 and launched on 2 November 2007.BOOK, Marcelo S. Alencar, Digital Television Systems,weblink 2009, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-89602-3, 179–81, In May 2010, Brazil launched TV Brasil Internacional, an international television station, initially broadcasting to 49 countries.NEWS,weblink Brazil launches international TV station for Africa, BBC News, 25 May 2010, 30 October 2010, {{clear}}

Demographics

{{See also|Immigration to Brazil|List of Brazilian states by population density}}(File:ARCHELLA E THERY Img 05.png|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Population density of Brazilian municipalities){|class="wikitable" style="float: right; margin-left: 10px"! colspan="4" style="text-align:center; background:#cfb;"|Population{{UN_Population|ref}}! style="background:#cfb;"|Year! style="background:#cfb;"|Million1950 style="text-align:right;"|54.02000 style="text-align:right;"|175.3{{UN_Population{{#expr:{{formatnum:{{UN_PopulationR}}/1e6 round 1}}The population of Brazil, as recorded by the 2008 PNAD, was approximately 190 million2008 PNAD, IBGE. "População residente por situação, sexo e grupos de idade" ({{convert|22.31|PD/km2|disp=or|abbr=out}}), with a ratio of men to women of 0.95:12008 PNAD, IBGE. "População residente por situação, sexo e grupos de idade" and 83.75% of the population defined as urban.2008 PNAD, IBGE. "População residente por situação, sexo e grupos de idade." The population is heavily concentrated in the Southeastern (79.8 million inhabitants) and Northeastern (53.5 million inhabitants) regions, while the two most extensive regions, the Center-West and the North, which together make up 64.12% of the Brazilian territory, have a total of only 29.1 million inhabitants.The first census in Brazil was carried out in 1872 and recorded a population of 9,930,478."Brazil population reaches 190.8 million {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130809205237weblink |date=9 August 2013 }}". Brasil.gov.br. From 1880 to 1930, 4 million Europeans arrived."Shaping Brazil: The Role of International Migration". Migration Policy Institute. Brazil's population increased significantly between 1940 and 1970, because of a decline in the mortality rate, even though the birth rate underwent a slight decline. In the 1940s the annual population growth rate was 2.4%, rising to 3.0% in the 1950s and remaining at 2.9% in the 1960s, as life expectancy rose from 44 to 54 yearsJosé Alberto Magno de Carvalho, "Crescimento populacional e estrutura demográfica no Brasil {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161019004601weblink |date=19 October 2016 }}" Belo Horizonte: UFMG/Cedeplar, 2004 (PDF file), p. 5. and to 72.6 years in 2007.WEB,weblink Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, IBGE, 29 November 1999, 25 January 2010, It has been steadily falling since the 1960s, from 3.04% per year between 1950 and 1960 to 1.05% in 2008 and is expected to fall to a negative value of â€“0.29% by 2050WEB,weblink Projeção da População do Brasil – Brazil's populational projection, IBGE, 25 January 2010, thus completing the demographic transition.Magno de Carvalho, "Crescimento populacional e estrutura demográfica no Brasil{{dead link|date=May 2017|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}," pp. 7–8.In 2008, the illiteracy rate was 11.48%PNAD 2008, IBGE. "Pessoas de 5 anos ou mais de idade por situação, sexo, alfabetização e grupos de idade e grupos de idade." and among the youth (ages 15–19) 1.74%. It was highest (20.30%) in the Northeast, which had a large proportion of rural poor.PNAD 2008, IBGE. "Pessoas de 5 anos ou mais de idade por situação, sexo, alfabetização e grupos de idade" Illiteracy was high (24.18%) among the rural population and lower (9.05%) among the urban population.PNAD 2008, IBGE. "Pessoas de 5 anos ou mais de idade por situação, sexo e alfabetização."

Race and ethnicity

File:Fachada do Museu da Imigração de São Paulo.JPG|thumb|left|Immigration Museum of the State of São Paulo in the neighborhood of Mooca, in São Paulo city. The Italian Brazilians are 15% of the population and the largest Italian community outside ItalyItalyAccording to the National Research by Household Sample (PNAD) of 2008, 48.43% of the population (about 92 million) described themselves as White; 43.80% (about 83 million) as Pardo (brown), 6.84% (about 13 million) as Black; 0.58% (about 1.1 million) as Asian; and 0.28% (about 536 thousand) as Amerindian (officially called indígena, Indigenous), while 0.07% (about 130 thousand) did not declare their race.2008 PNAD, IBGE. "weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110614225239weblink">População residente por cor ou raça, situação e sexo."In 2007, the National Indian Foundation estimated that Brazil has 67 different uncontacted tribes, up from their estimate of 40 in 2005. Brazil is believed to have the largest number of uncontacted peoples in the world."In Amazonia, Defending the Hidden Tribes," The Washington Post (8 July 2007).Since the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, considerable miscegenation between Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans has taken place in all regions of the country (with European ancestry being dominant nationwide according to the vast majority of all autosomal studies undertaken covering the entire population, accounting for between 65% to 77%).JOURNAL,weblink Allele frequencies of 15 STRs in a representative sample of the Brazilian population, 10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.05.006, 2010, De Assis Poiares, Lilian, De Sá Osorio, Paulo, Spanhol, Fábio Alexandre, Coltre, Sidnei César, Rodenbusch, Rodrigo, Gusmão, Leonor, Largura, Alvaro, Sandrini, Fabiano, Da Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles, Forensic Science International: Genetics, 4, 2, e61–63, 20129458, yes,weblink 8 April 2011, Brazilian DNA is nearly 80% European, indicates study.NMO Godinho O impacto das migrações na constituição genética de populações latino-americanas {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110706162240weblink |date=6 July 2011 }}. PhD Thesis, Universidade de Brasília (2008).JOURNAL, 10.1371/journal.pone.0017063, The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographical Regions of Brazil Is More Uniform Than Expected, 2011, Pena, Sérgio D. J., Di Pietro, Giuliano, Fuchshuber-Moraes, Mateus, Genro, Julia Pasqualini, Hutz, Mara H., Kehdy Fde, Fernanda de Souza Gomes, Kohlrausch, Fabiana, Magno, Luiz Alexandre Viana, Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho, PLoS ONE, 6, 2, e17063, 21359226, 3040205, Harpending, Henry, Moraes, MO, De Moraes, ME, De Moraes, MR, Ojopi, EB, Perini, JA, Racciopi, C, Ribeiro-Dos-Santos, AK, Rios-Santos, F, Romano-Silva, MA, Sortica, VA, Suarez-Kurtz, G, 9, 2011PLoSO...617063P, {{Pie chart|thumb = rightRace and ethnicity in BrazilHTTP://WWW.IBGE.GOV.BR/HOME/ESTATISTICA/POPULACAO/TENDENCIA_DEMOGRAFICA/ANALISE_POPULACAO/1940_2000/DEFAULT.SHTM PUBLISHER=IBGE.GOV.BR ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110607201813/HTTP://PORT.PRAVDA.RU/SOCIEDADE/CURIOSAS/04-05-2011/31548-CENSO_DEMOGRAFICO-0/ TITLE=DEMOGRAPHICAL CENSUS REVEALS BRAZIL AS OLDER AND LESS WHITE ACCESSDATE=7 APRIL 2012PUBLISHER=FATIMANEWS.COM.BR, 7 April 2012, |other =White Brazilian>White|value1 =47.7|color1 =LightBluePardo Brazilian>Pardo (Multiracial)|value2 =43.1|color2 =#9966CCBlack Brazilian>Black|value3 =7.6|color3 =MediumAquamarineAsian Brazilian>Asian|value4 =1.1|color4 =#FFE135Indigenous peoples in Brazil>Natives|value5 =0.4|color5 =Red}}Brazilian society is more markedly divided by social class lines, although a high income disparity is found between race groups, so racism and classism can be conflated. Socially significant closeness to one racial group is taken in account more in the basis of appearance (phenotypes) rather than ancestry, to the extent that full siblings can pertain to different "racial" groups.JOURNAL, Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians, Flavia C., Parra, Roberto C., Amado, José R., Lambertucci, Jorge, Rocha, Carlos M., Antunes, Sérgio D. J., Pena, 7 January 2003, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 100, 1, 177–82, 10.1073/pnas.0126614100, 140919, 12509516, 2003PNAS..100..177P, Socioeconomic factors are also significant, because a minority of pardos are likely to start declaring themselves White or Black if socially upward.RIBEIRO, Darcy. O Povo Brasileiro, Companhia de Bolso, fourth reprint, 2008 (2008). Skin color and facial features do not line quite well with ancestry (usually, Afro-Brazilians are evenly mixed and European ancestry is dominant in Whites and pardos with a significant non-European contribution, but the individual variation is great).weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101124105905weblink">Negros de origem européia. afrobras.org.brJOURNAL, Genetic signatures of parental contribution in black and white populations in Brazil, 10.1590/S1415-47572009005000001, 2009, Guerreiro-Junior, Vanderlei, Bisso-Machado, Rafael, Marrero, Andrea, Hünemeier, Tábita, Salzano, Francisco M., Bortolini, Maria Cátira, Genetics and Molecular Biology, 32, 1–11, 21637639, 1, 3032968, JOURNAL, Genetic heritage variability of Brazilians in even regional averages, 2009 study, 10.1590/S0100-879X2009005000026, 2009, Pena, S.D.J., Bastos-Rodrigues, L., Pimenta, J.R., Bydlowski, S.P., Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 42, 10, 870–76, 19738982, The brown population (officially called pardo in Portuguese, also colloquially (wikt:moreno|moreno))Coelho (1996), p. 268.Vesentini (1988), p. 117. is a broad category that includes caboclos (assimilated Amerindians in general, and descendants of Whites and Natives), mulatos (descendants of primarily Whites and Afro-Brazilians) and cafuzos (descendants of Afro-Brazilians and Natives).Adas, Melhem Panorama geográfico do Brasil, 4th ed (São Paulo: Moderna, 2004), p. 268 {{ISBN|85-16-04336-3}}Azevedo (1971), pp. 2–3.Moreira (1981), p. 108. People of considerable Amerindian ancestry form the majority of the population in the Northern, Northeastern and Center-Western regions.Enciclopédia Barsa, vol. 4, pp. 254–55, 258, 265.Higher percents of Blacks, mulattoes and tri-racials can be found in the eastern coast of the Northeastern region from Bahia to ParaíbaAzevedo (1971), pp. 74–75. and also in northern Maranhão,Enciclopédia Barsa, vol. 10 (Rio de Janeiro: Encyclopædia Britannica do Brasil, 1987), p. 355.Azevedo (1971), p. 74. southern Minas GeraisAzevedo (1971), p. 161. and in eastern Rio de Janeiro. From the 19th century, Brazil opened its borders to immigration. About five million people from over 60 countries migrated to Brazil between 1808 and 1972, most of them of Portuguese, Italian, Spanish, German, Ukrainian, Polish, Jewish, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, and Arab origin.JOURNAL, Maria Stella Ferreira-Levy, O papel da migração internacional na evolução da população brasileira (1872 a 1972), Revista de Saúde Pública, 8 (supl.), 49–90, 1974, 10.1590/S0034-89101974000500003, , Table 2, p. 74. {{pt icon}}Zirin, 2014. Chapter 2, Section "The Beginning of the 'Mosaic' ".

Religion

{{Further|Catholic Church in Brazil|Protestantism in Brazil}}{{bar boxReligion in Brazil {{small>(2010 Census)}}|width=285px|titlebar=#ddd|left1=Religion|right1=Percent|float=left|bars={{bar percent|Roman Catholicism|lightblue|64.6}}{{bar percent|Protestantism|blue|22.2}}{{bar percent|No religion|lightgray|8.0}}{{bar percent|Spiritism|purple|2.0}}{{bar percent|Others|yellow|3.2}}}}Religion in Brazil was formed from the meeting of the Catholic Church with the religious traditions of enslaved African peoples and indigenous peoples.BOOK, Kevin Boyle, Juliet Sheen, Freedom of Religion and Belief: A World Report,weblink 2013, Routledge, 978-1-134-72229-7, 211, This confluence of faiths during the Portuguese colonization of Brazil led to the development of a diverse array of syncretistic practices within the overarching umbrella of Brazilian Catholic Church, characterized by traditional Portuguese festivities,WEB,weblink Brazil, Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs, 7 December 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110825203019weblink">weblink 25 August 2011, yes, and in some instances, Allan Kardec's Spiritism (a religion which incorporates elements of spiritualism and Christianity). Religious pluralism increased during the 20th century,BOOK, Brian Morris, Religion and Anthropology: A Critical Introduction,weblink 2006, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-85241-8, 223, and the Protestant community has grown to include over 22% of the population.BOOK, William Jeynes, David W. Robinson, International Handbook of Protestant Education,weblink 2012, Springer, 978-94-007-2386-3, 405, The most common Protestant denominations are Pentecostal and Evangelical ones. Other Protestant branches with a notable presence in the country include the Baptists, Seventh-day Adventists, Lutherans and the Reformed tradition.2010 census results{{double image|right|1 cristor redentor 2014.jpg|204|Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida, 2007.jpg|210|The Christ the Redeemer statue in Rio de Janeiro is one of the most famous religious statues worldwide"Arms wide open" BBC, Retrieved 29 April 2017."Religious statues: 10 of the world's most impressive" CNN, Retrieved 29 April 2017.|Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida in Aparecida, São Paulo, is the second largest Catholic church in the worldBOOK, J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann, Religions of the World, Second Edition: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, ABC-Clio Inc, 2010, 308, }}Roman Catholicism is the country's predominant faith. Brazil has the world's largest Catholic population.CONFERENCE, Brazil, International Religious Freedom Report, U.S. Department of State, 8 November 2005,weblink 8 June 2008, According to the 2000 Demographic Census (the PNAD survey does not inquire about religion), 73.57% of the population followed Roman Catholicism; 15.41% Protestantism; 1.33% Kardecist spiritism; 1.22% other Christian denominations; 0.31% Afro-Brazilian religions; 0.13% Buddhism; 0.05% Judaism; 0.02% Islam; 0.01% Amerindian religions; 0.59% other religions, undeclared or undetermined; while 7.35% have no religion.IBGE, População residente, por sexo e situação do domicílio, segundo a religião, Censo Demográfico 2000. Acessado em 13 de dezembro de 2007However, in the last ten years Protestantism, particularly in forms of Pentecostalism and Evangelicalism, has spread in Brazil, while the proportion of Catholics has dropped significantly.WEB,weblink Brazil, Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs, 7 December 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110825203019weblink">weblink 25 August 2011, yes, See drop-down essay on "The Growth of Religious Pluralism" After Protestantism, individuals professing no religion are also a significant group, exceeding 7% of the population as of the 2000 census. The cities of Boa Vista, Salvador, and Porto Velho have the greatest proportion of Irreligious residents in Brazil. Teresina, Fortaleza, and Florianópolis were the most Roman Catholic in the country.WEB, Do G1, em São Paulo,weblink G1 – País tem menor nível de adeptos do catolicismo desde 1872, diz estudo – notícias em Brasil, G1.globo.com, 23 August 2011, 7 April 2012, Greater Rio de Janeiro, not including the city proper, is the most irreligious and least Roman Catholic Brazilian periphery, while Greater Porto Alegre and Greater Fortaleza are on the opposite sides of the lists, respectively.

Urbanization

According to IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) urban areas already concentrate 84.35% of the population, while the Southeast region remains the most populated one, with over 80 million inhabitants.WEB, IDBGE, IBGE, 2011,weblink 8 October 2011, pt, The largest urban agglomerations in Brazil are São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte – all in the Southeastern Region – with 21.1, 12.3, and 5.1 million inhabitants respectively.WEB,weblink Arranjos Populacionais e Concentrações Urbanas do Brasil, 148, portuguese, PDF, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 16 March 2017, WEB,weblink Estimativas da população residente no Brasil e Unidades da Federação com data de referência em 1º de julho de 2016, PDF, portuguese, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, 16 March 2017, The majority of state capitals are the largest cities in their states, except for Vitória, the capital of Espírito Santo, and Florianópolis, the capital of Santa Catarina.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Principal Cities, Encarta, MSN,weblink 10 June 2008,weblink 31 October 2009, yes, {{Dubious|date=January 2010}}{{Largest urban agglomerations in Brazil}}

Language

File:Interior do Museu da Língua Portuguesa em São Paulo, Brasil.jpg|thumb|left|Museum of the Portuguese Language in São Paulo city, São Paulo.]]File:Parque Indígena do Xingu.jpg|thumb|left|Ocas of the Kuikuro people, Xingu Indigenous Park, Mato GrossoMato GrossoThe official language of Brazil is PortugueseWEB, People of Brazil, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2008,weblink 3 June 2008, (Article 13 of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Brazil), which almost all of the population speaks and is virtually the only language used in newspapers, radio, television, and for business and administrative purposes. Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas, making the language an important part of Brazilian national identity and giving it a national culture distinct from those of its Spanish-speaking neighbors.WEB,weblink Portuguese language and the Brazilian singularity, Brazilian Portuguese has had its own development, mostly similar to 16th-century Central and Southern dialects of European PortugueseWEB,weblink Learn About Portuguese Language, Sibila.com.br, 7 April 2012, (despite a very substantial number of Portuguese colonial settlers, and more recent immigrants, coming from Northern regions, and in minor degree Portuguese Macaronesia), with a few influences from the Amerindian and African languages, especially West African and Bantu restricted to the vocabulary only. As a result,{{citation needed|date=April 2015}} the language is somewhat different, mostly in phonology, from the language of Portugal and other Portuguese-speaking countries (the dialects of the other countries, partly because of the more recent end of Portuguese colonialism in these regions, have a closer connection to contemporary European Portuguese). These differences are comparable to those between American and British English.WEB, Languages of Brazil, Ethnologue,weblink 9 June 2008, In 1990, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), which included representatives from all countries with Portuguese as the official language, reached an agreement on the reform of the Portuguese orthography to unify the two standards then in use by Brazil on one side and the remaining lusophone countries on the other. This spelling reform went into effect in Brazil on 1 January 2009. In Portugal, the reform was signed into law by the President on 21 July 2008 allowing for a 6-year adaptation period, during which both orthographies will co-exist. The remaining CPLP countries are free to establish their own transition timetables.NEWS, Nash, Elizabeth, Portugal pays lip service to Brazil's supremacy, The Independent, 2 May 2008,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110624131043weblink">weblink 24 June 2011, 9 June 2008, London, The sign language law legally recognized in 2002,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100910070529weblink">LEI Nº 10.436, DE 24 DE ABRIL DE 2002. Presidência da República, Casa Civil, Subchefia para Assuntos Jurídicos. Retrieved on 19 May 2012. (the law was regulated in 2005)Brazilian decree nº 5626, 22 December 2005. Planalto.gov.br (23 December 2005). Retrieved on 19 May 2012. the use of the Brazilian Sign Language, more commonly known by its Portuguese acronym LIBRAS, in education and government services. The language must be taught as a part of the education and speech and language pathology curricula. LIBRAS teachers, instructors and translators are recognized professionals. Schools and health services must provide access ("inclusion") to deaf people.BOOK, Charles J. Russo, The Legal Rights of Students with Disabilities: International Perspectives,weblink 2011, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 978-1-4422-1085-1, 45, File:Festapomerana.jpg|thumb|Pomerode, Santa Catarina, is one of the municipalities with a cooficial language. In this region, Hunsrückisch and East Pomeranian, German dialects, are two of the minor languages (see Brazilian GermanBrazilian GermanMinority languages are spoken throughout the nation. One hundred and eighty Amerindian languages are spoken in remote areas and a significant number of other languages are spoken by immigrants and their descendants. In the municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Nheengatu (a currently endangered South American creole language – or an 'anti-creole', according to some linguists – with mostly Indigenous Brazilian languages lexicon and Portuguese-based grammar that, together with its southern relative língua geral paulista, once was a major lingua franca in Brazil,{{citation needed|date=April 2015}} being replaced by Portuguese only after governmental prohibition led by major political changes){{overly detailed inline|date=July 2015}}, Baniwa and Tucano languages had been granted co-official status with Portuguese.NEWS,weblink Language Born of Colonialism Thrives Again in Amazon, New York Times, 14 July 2008, Larry, Rohter, 28 August 2005, There are significant communities of German (mostly the Brazilian Hunsrückisch, a High German language dialect) and Italian (mostly the Talian, a Venetian dialect) origins in the Southern and Southeastern regions, whose ancestors' native languages were carried along to Brazil, and which, still alive there, are influenced by the Portuguese language.WEB,weblink O alemão lusitano do Sul do Brasil, DW-World.de, WEB,weblink O talian, Talian is officially a historic patrimony of Rio Grande do Sul,WEB, Approvato il progetto che dichiara il 'Talian' come patrimonio del Rio Grande del Sud – Brasile,weblink Sitoveneto, 9 March 2012, and two German dialects possess co-official status in a few municipalities.BOOK, Patrick Stevenson, The German Language and the Real World: Sociolinguistic, Cultural, and Pragmatic Perspectives on Contemporary German,weblink 1997, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-823738-9, 39, Learning at least one second language (generally English or Spanish) is mandatory for all the 12 grades of the mandatory education system (primary and secondary education, there called ensino fundamental and ensino médio respectively). Brazil is the first country in South America to offer Esperanto to secondary students.WEB,weblink Esperanto approved by Brazilian government as optional high school subject, mandatory if justified by demand, F30, 19 September 2009, 30 October 2010,

Culture

File:Puro ouro.jpg|thumb|Interior of the São Francisco Church and Convent in Salvador, Bahia, one of the richest expressions of Brazilian baroque.]]The core culture of Brazil is derived from Portuguese culture, because of its strong colonial ties with the Portuguese Empire.BOOK, Teresa A. Meade, A Brief History of Brazil,weblink 2009, Infobase Publishing, 978-0-8160-7788-5, 146, Among other influences, the Portuguese introduced the Portuguese language, Roman Catholicism and colonial architectural styles. The culture was, however, also strongly influenced by African, indigenous and non-Portuguese European cultures and traditions.BOOK, David Levinson, Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook,weblink 1998, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-1-57356-019-1, 325, Some aspects of Brazilian culture were influenced by the contributions of Italian, German and other European as well as Japanese, Jewish and Arab immigrants who arrived in large numbers in the South and Southeast of Brazil during the 19th and 20th centuries.BOOK, Jeffrey Lesser, Immigration, Ethnicity, and National Identity in Brazil, 1808 to the Present,weblink 2013, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-19362-7, 150–55, The indigenous Amerindians influenced Brazil's language and cuisine; and the Africans influenced language, cuisine, music, dance and religion.NEWS, Freyre, Gilberto, The Afro-Brazilian experiment: African influence on Brazilian culture, UNESCO, 1986,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20120530050909weblink">weblink yes, 30 May 2012, 8 June 2008, Brazilian art has developed since the 16th century into different styles that range from Baroque (the dominant style in Brazil until the early 19th century)Leandro Karnal, Teatro da fé: Formas de representação religiosa no Brasil e no México do século XVI, São Paulo, Editora Hucitec, 1998; available on fflch.usp.br {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130724010418weblink |date=24 July 2013 }}"The Brazilian Baroque," Encyclopaedia Itaú Cultural {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110430001754weblink |date=30 April 2011 }} to Romanticism, Modernism, Expressionism, Cubism, Surrealism and Abstractionism. Brazilian cinema dates back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century and has gained a new level of international acclaim since the 1960s.BOOK, Leslie Marsh, Brazilian Women's Filmmaking: From Dictatorship to Democracy,weblink 2012, University of Illinois Press, 978-0-252-09437-8, 3,

Architecture

{{double image|left|Museudainconfidencia2006.jpg|200|Catedral Metropolitana de Brasília 2.jpg|190|The Museum of the Inconfidência in Minas Gerais, an example of Portuguese colonial architecture.|The Cathedral of Brasilia, an example of Modern architecture}}The architecture of Brazil is influenced by Europe, especially Portugal. It has a history that goes back 500 years to the time when Pedro Cabral discovered Brazil in 1500. Portuguese colonial architecture was the first wave of architecture to go to Brazil.Hue, Jorge de Souza (1999). Uma visão da arquitectura colonial no Brasil [A vision of Colonial Architecture in Brazil] (in Portuguese). Rio de Janeiro. It is the basis for all Brazilian architecture of later centuries.Boxer, Charles Ralph (1962). The Golden Age of Brazil, 1695–1750: Growing Pains of a Colonial Society. University of California Press. In the 19th century during the time of the Empire of Brazil, Brazil followed European trends and adopted Neoclassical and Gothic Revival architecture. Then in the 20th century especially in Brasilia, Brazil experimented with Modernist architecture.The colonial architecture of Brazil dates to the early 16th century when Brazil was first explored, conquered and settled by the Portuguese. The Portuguese built architecture familiar to them in Europe in their aim to colonise Brazil. They built Portuguese colonial architecture which included Churches, civic architecture including houses and forts in Brazilian cities and the countryside. During 19th Century Brazilian architecture saw the introduction of more European styles to Brazil such as Neoclassical and Gothic Revival architecture. This was usually mixed with Brazilian influences from their own heritage which produced a unique form of Brazilian architecture. In the 1950s the modernist architecture was introduced when Brasilia was built as new federal capital in the interior of Brazil to help develop the interior. The architect Oscar Niemeyer idealized and built Government buildings, Churches and civic buildings was constructed in the modernist style.Guimaraens, Cêça de. Arquitetura {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081215103814weblink |date=15 December 2008 }}. Portal do Ministério das Relações Exteriores.Claro, Mauro. "Ambientes modernos. A casa modernista da Rua Santa Cruz, de Gregori Warchavchik, e outras casas da modernidade". In: Drops, 2008; 09 (025.03)

Music

{{double image|right|Heitor Vila-Lobos (c. 1922)part.jpg|120|Tom_Jobim_e_Chico_Buarque_no_Festival_Internacional_da_Canção_(FIC).tif|181|Heitor Villa-Lobos, the most widely known South American composer.{{sfn|Wright|1992|loc=4}}|Tom Jobim, one of the creators of bossa nova, and Chico Buarque, one of the leading names of MPB.}}The music of Brazil was formed mainly from the fusion of European and African elements.BOOK, Duduka Da Fonseca, Bob Weiner, Brazilian Rhythms for Drumset,weblink 1991, Alfred Music Publishing, 978-0-7692-0987-6, 7, Until the nineteenth century, Portugal was the gateway to most of the influences that built Brazilian music, although many of these elements were not of Portuguese origin, but generally European. The first was José Maurício Nunes Garcia, author of sacred pieces with influence of Viennese classicism.BOOK, Donna M. Di Grazia, Nineteenth-Century Choral Music,weblink 2013, Routledge, 978-1-136-29409-9, 457, The major contribution of the African element was the rhythmic diversity and some dances and instruments that had a bigger role in the development of popular music and folk, flourishing especially in the twentieth century.Popular music since the late eighteenth century began to show signs of forming a characteristically Brazilian sound, with samba considered the most typical and on the UNESCO cultural heritage list.WEB,weblink UNESCO Culture Sector – Intangible Heritage – 2003 Convention:, Unesco.org, 4 June 2013, Maracatu and Afoxê are two Afro-Brazilian music traditions that have been popularized by their appearance in the annual Brazilian Carnivals.BOOK, Larry Crook, Focus: Music of Northeast Brazil,weblink 2009, Taylor & Francis, 978-0-415-96066-3, 78, The sport of capoeira is usually played with its own music referred to as capoeira music, which is usually considered to be a call-and-response type of folk music.BOOK, Peter Fryer, Rhythms of Resistance: African Musical Heritage in Brazil,weblink 2000, Pluto Press, 978-0-7453-0731-2, 39, Forró is a type of folk music prominent during the Festa Junina in northeastern Brazil.WEB,weblink Brazil From A TO Z: FORRÓ, 25 December 2015, Brazilian Experience, Jack A. Draper III, a professor of Portuguese at the University of Missouri,WEB,weblink Jack A. Draper III, Romance Languages and Literatures: University of Missouri, argues that Forró was used as a way to subdue feelings of nostalgia for a rural lifestyle.BOOK, Forró and redemptive regionalism from the Brazilian northeast: popular music in a culture of migration, Forró and Redemptive Regionalism from the Brazilian Northeast, Draper, Jack A., III, 2010, Lang, 978-1-4331-1076-4, New York, 643568832, Choro is a very popular music instrumental style. Its origins are in 19th-century Rio de Janeiro. In spite of the name, the style often has a fast and happy rhythm, characterized by virtuosity, improvisation, subtle modulations and full of syncopation and counterpoint.BOOK, Chris, MacGowan, Ricardo, Pessanha, The Brazilian Sound: Samba, Bossa Nova, and the Popular Music of Brazil,weblink 1998, Temple University Press, 978-1-56639-545-8, 159–61, harv, Bossa nova is also a well-known style of Brazilian music developed and popularized in the 1950s and 1960s.{{sfnp|MacGowan|Pessanha|1998|p=6}} The phrase "bossa nova" means literally "new trend".BOOK, Gayle Kassing, History of Dance: An Interactive Arts Approach,weblink 2007, Human Kinetics 10%, 978-0-7360-6035-6, 236, A lyrical fusion of samba and jazz, bossa nova acquired a large following starting in the 1960s.BOOK, Michael Campbell, Popular Music in America: The Beat Goes on,weblink 2011, Cengage Learning, 978-0-8400-2976-8, 299,

Literature

{{double image|right|Machado de Assis aos 57 anos.jpg|135|Carlos Drummond de Andrade, 1970.tif|150|Machado de Assis, poet and novelist, founder of the Brazilian Academy of Letters.|Carlos Drummond de Andrade, considered by some as the greatest Brazilian poet.NEWS, Garner, Dwight, Review:Multitudinous Heart:Newly translated poetry by Carlos Drummond de Andrade,weblink July 3, 2015, The New York Times, January 20, 2016, }}Brazilian literature dates back to the 16th century, to the writings of the first Portuguese explorers in Brazil, such as Pêro Vaz de Caminha, filled with descriptions of fauna, flora and commentary about the indigenous population that fascinated European readers.{{sfnp|Crocitti|Vallance|2012|p=360}}Brazil produced significant works in Romanticism – novelists like Joaquim Manuel de Macedo and José de Alencar wrote novels about love and pain. Alencar, in his long career, also treated indigenous people as heroes in the Indigenist novels O Guarani, Iracema and Ubirajara."weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110725100730weblink">Brazilian Literature: An Introduction." Embassy of Brasil – Ottawa. Visited on 2 November 2009. Machado de Assis, one of his contemporaries, wrote in virtually all genres and continues to gain international prestige from critics worldwide.Candido; Antonio. (1970) Vários escritos. São Paulo: Duas Cidades. p. 18Caldwell, Helen (1970) Machado de Assis: The Brazilian Master and his Novels. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London, University of California Press.Fernandez, Oscar Machado de Assis: The Brazilian Master and His Novels The Modern Language Journal, Vol. 55, No. 4 (Apr. 1971), pp. 255–56Brazilian Modernism, evidenced by the Week of Modern Art in 1922, was concerned with a nationalist avant-garde literature,Beatriz Mugayar Kühl, Arquitetura do ferro e arquitetura ferroviária em São Paulo: reflexões sobre a sua preservação, p. 202. Atelie Editorial, 1998. while Post-Modernism brought a generation of distinct poets like João Cabral de Melo Neto, Carlos Drummond de Andrade, Vinicius de Moraes, Cora Coralina, Graciliano Ramos, Cecília Meireles, and internationally known writers dealing with universal and regional subjects like Jorge Amado, João Guimarães Rosa, Clarice Lispector and Manuel Bandeira.Daniel Balderston and Mike Gonzalez, Encyclopedia of Latin American and Caribbean Literature, 1900–2003, p. 288. Routledge, 2004.Sayers, Portugal and Brazil in Transitn, "Literature". U of Minnesota Press, 1 January 1999.Marshall C. Eakin and Paulo Roberto de Almeida, Envisioning Brazil: A Guide to Brazilian Studies in the United States: "Literature, Culture and Civilization". University of Wisconsin Press, 31 October 2005.

Cuisine

{{See also|List of Brazilian dishes}}{{double image|left|Brigadeiro.jpg|200|Pao de queijo com cafe.jpg|200|Brigadeiro is a national candy and one most and is recognized as one of the main dishes of the Brazilian cuisine.|Pão de queijo with coffee and a small cachaça bottle, examples of the cuisine from the interior of Brazil.}}Brazilian cuisine varies greatly by region, reflecting the country's varying mix of indigenous and immigrant populations. This has created a national cuisine marked by the preservation of regional differences.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Way of Life, Encarta, MSN,weblink 8 June 2008,weblink 31 October 2009, yes, Examples are Feijoada, considered the country's national dish;Roger, "Feijoada: The Brazilian national dish {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20091129154026weblink |date=29 November 2009 }}" braziltravelguide.com. and regional foods such as beiju, feijão tropeiro, vatapá, moqueca, polenta (from Italian cuisine) and acarajé (from African cuisine).Cascudo, Luis da Câmara. História da Alimentação no Brasil. São Paulo/Belo Horizonte: Editora USP/Itatiaia, 1983.The national beverage is coffee and cachaça is Brazil's native liquor. Cachaça is distilled from sugar cane and is the main ingredient in the national cocktail, Caipirinha.BOOK, Ronald H., Bayor, Multicultural America: An Encyclopedia of the Newest Americans,weblink 2011, Georgia Institute of Technology, 978-0-313-35786-2, 181, A typical meal consists mostly of rice and beans with beef, salad, french fries and a fried egg.JOURNAL, Barbosa, Lívia, Feijão com arroz e arroz com feijão: o Brasil no prato dos brasileiros, 10.1590/S0104-71832007000200005, 2007, Horizontes Antropológicos, 13, 28, 87–116, Often, it's mixed with cassava flour (farofa). Fried potatoes, fried cassava, fried banana, fried meat and fried cheese are very often eaten in lunch and served in most typical restaurants.JOURNAL, Ferraccioli, Patrícia, Silveira, Eliane Augusta da, 2010, Cultural feeding influence on palative memories in the usual brazilian cuisine, Rev. Enferm. UERJ, 18, 2, 198–203,weblink Popular snacks are pastel (a fried pastry); coxinha (a variation of chicken croquete); pão de queijo (cheese bread and cassava flour / tapioca); pamonha (corn and milk paste); esfirra (a variation of Lebanese pastry); kibbeh (from Arabic cuisine); empanada (pastry) and empada, little salt pies filled with shrimps or heart of palm.Brazil has a variety of desserts such as brigadeiros (chocolate fudge balls), bolo de rolo (roll cake with goiabada), cocada (a coconut sweet), beijinhos (coconut truffles and clove) and romeu e julieta (cheese with goiabada). Peanuts are used to make paçoca, rapadura and pé-de-moleque. Local common fruits like açaí, cupuaçu, mango, papaya, cocoa, cashew, guava, orange, lime, passionfruit, pineapple, and hog plum are turned in juices and used to make chocolates, ice pops and ice cream.Freyre, Gilberto. Açúcar. Uma Sociologia do Doce, com Receitas de Bolos e Doces do Nordeste do Brasil. São Paulo, Companhia das Letras, 1997.

Cinema

{{Multiple image
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|image1 = Palacio_festivais.jpg
|caption1 = Festival de Gramado, the biggest film festival in the country


|image2 = Fernando_Meirelles_-_Österreichpremiere_360_Wiener_Volkstheater_01.jpg
|caption2 = Fernando Meirelles, who was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Director for City of God
}}The Brazilian film industry began in the late 19th century, during the early days of the Belle Époque. While there were national film productions during the early 20th century, American films such as Rio the Magnificent were made in Rio de Janeiro to promote tourism in the city.WEB, Rio the Magnificent (1932),weblink YouTube, 19 October 2015, The films Limite (1931) and Ganga Bruta (1933), the latter being produced by Adhemar Gonzaga through the prolific studio Cinédia, were poorly received at release and failed at the box office, but are acclaimed nowadays and placed among the finest Brazilian films of all time.NEWS,weblink Brazil's Best, Restored and Ready for a 21st-Century Audience, Larry, Rohter, 9 November 2010, The New York Times, 3 November 2010, The 1941 unfinished film It's All True was divided in four segments, two of which were filmed in Brazil and directed by Orson Welles; it was originally produced as part of the United States' Good Neighbor Policy during Getúlio Vargas' Estado Novo government.During the 1960s, the Cinema Novo movement rose to prominence with directors such as Glauber Rocha, Nelson Pereira dos Santos, Paulo Cesar Saraceni and Arnaldo Jabor. Rocha's films Deus e o Diabo na Terra do Sol (1964) and Terra em Transe (1967) are considered to be some of the greatest and most influential in Brazilian film history.WEB, Tose, Juliano, Editorial,weblink Contracampo – revista de cinema, Revista Contracampo, 19 October 2015, During the 1990s, Brazil saw a surge of critical and commercial success with films such as O Quatrilho (Fábio Barreto, 1995), O Que É Isso, Companheiro? (Bruno Barreto, 1997) and Central do Brasil (Walter Salles, 1998), all of which were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film, the latter receiving a Best Actress nomination for Fernanda Montenegro. The 2002 crime film City of God, directed by Fernando Meirelles, was critically acclaimed, scoring 90% on Rotten Tomatoes,WEB, Cidade de Deus (City of God) (2003) – Rotten Tomatoes,weblink Rotten Tomatoes, Flixter, 19 October 2015, being placed in Roger Ebert's Best Films of the Decade listWEB, Ebert, Roger, The best films of the decade,weblink RogerEbert.com, 19 October 2015, and receiving four Academy Award nominations in 2004, including Best Director. Notable film festivals in Brazil include the São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro International Film Festivals and the Gramado Festival.

Theatre

{{double image|left|Teatro Municipal de São Paulo 8.jpg|230|01 - teatro Amazonas.jpg|220|São Paulo Municipal Theater, significant both for its architectural value as well as for its historical importance.|Interior of the Teatro Amazonas, in Manaus.}}The theatre in Brazil has its origins in the period of Jesuit expansion when theater was used for the dissemination of Catholic doctrine in the 16th century. in the 17th and 18th centuries the first dramatists who appeared on the scene of European derivation was for court or private performances.Padre Anchieta Brasil Escola. During the 19th century, dramatic theater gained importance and thickness, whose first representative was Luis Carlos Martins Pena (1813–1848), capable of describing contemporary reality. Always in this period the comedy of costume and comic production was imposed. Significant, also in the nineteenth century, was also the playwright Antônio Gonçalves Dias.WEB,weblink Brazilian Theatre: An Introduction, Ambasciata brasiliana a Ottawa, english, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120205061026weblink">weblink 5 February 2012, There were also numerous operas and orchestras. The Brazilian conductor Antônio Carlos Gomes became internationally known with operas like Il Guarany. At the end of the 19th century orchestrated dramaturgias became very popular and were accompanied with songs of famous artists like the conductress Chiquinha Gonzaga.O Teatro no Brasil Secretaria da Educação do Paraná.Already in the early 20th century there was the presence of theaters, entrepreneurs and actor companies, but paradoxically the quality of the products staggered, and only in 1940 the Brazilian theater received a boost of renewal thanks to the action of Paschoal Carlos Magno and his student's theater, the comedians group and the Italian actors Adolfo Celi, Ruggero Jacobbi and Aldo Calvo, founders of the Teatro Brasileiro de Comedia. From the 1960s it was attended by a theater dedicated to social and religious issues and to the flourishing of schools of dramatic art. The most prominent authors at this stage were Jorge Andrade and Ariano Suassuna.

Visual arts

{{double image|right|Americo-noite.jpg|150|Discovery of the Land1.jpg|200|The Night escorted by the geniuses of Love and Study, by Pedro Américo|Discovery of the Land mural, by Brazilian painter Candido Portinari, at the Library of Congress}}Brazilian painting emerged in the late 16th century,Louzada, Maria Alice & Louzada, Julio. Os Primeiros Momentos da Arte Brasileira {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110706153216weblink |date=6 July 2011 }}. Júlio Louzada Artes Plásticas Brasil. Acesso 5 out 2010 influenced by Baroque, Rococo, Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Realism, Modernism, Expressionism, Surrealism, Cubism and Abstracionism making it a major art style called Brazilian academic art.Leite, José Roberto Teixeira & Lemos, Carlos A.C. Os Primeiros Cem Anos, in Civita, Victor. Arte no Brasil. São Paulo: Abril Cultural, 1979 The Missão Artística Francesa (French Artistic Mission) arrived in Brazil in 1816 proposing the creation of an art academy modeled after the respected Académie des Beaux-Arts, with graduation courses both for artists and craftsmen for activities such as modeling, decorating, carpentry and others and bringing artists like Jean-Baptiste Debret.{{harvnb|Biscardi|Rocha|2006}}Upon the creation of the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, new artistic movements spread across the country during the 19th century and later the event called Week of Modern Art broke definitely with academic tradition in 1922 and started a nationalist trend which was influenced by modernist arts. Among the best-known Brazilian painters are Ricardo do Pilar and Manuel da Costa Ataíde (baroque and rococo), Victor Meirelles, Pedro Américo and Almeida Junior (romanticism and realism), Anita Malfatti, Ismael Nery, Lasar Segall, Emiliano di Cavalcanti, Vicente do Rego Monteiro, and Tarsila do Amaral (expressionism, surrealism and cubism), Aldo Bonadei, José Pancetti and Cândido Portinari (modernism).Sevcenko, Nicolau. Pindorama revisitada: cultura e sociedade em tempos de virada. Série Brasil cidadão. Editora Peirópolis, 2000. pp. 39–47

Sports

{{double image|left|Brasil conquista primeiro ouro olímpico nos penaltis 1039259-20082016- mg 4209.jpg|200|Ayrton Senna 8.jpg|200|Players with the first Olympic Gold of the Brazil national football team, won in the 2016 Summer Olympics. Football is the most popular sport in the country.|Ayrton Senna, who won three Formula One world championships for McLaren in 1988, 1990 and 1991, is widely regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers of all time.WEB,weblink Alonso, Massa, Schumacher say Senna is "greatest" on Top Gear, }}The most popular sport in Brazil is football.WEB,weblink Futebol, o esporte mais popular do Brasil, é destaque no Via Legal :: Notícias, Jusbrasil.com.br, 16 April 2011, The Brazilian men's national team is ranked among the best in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings, and has won the World Cup tournament a record five times.WEB, Football in Brazil, Goal Programme, International Federation of Association Football, 15 April 2008,weblink 6 June 2008, Zirin, 2014. Chapter 4 "Futebol: The Journey from Daring to Fear"Volleyball, basketball, auto racing, and martial arts also attract large audiences. The Brazil men's national volleyball team, for example, currently holds the titles of the World League, World Grand Champions Cup, World Championship and the World Cup. In auto racing, three Brazilian drivers have won the Formula One world championship eight times.WEB, Donaldson, Gerald, Emerson Fittipaldi, Hall of Fame, The Official Formula 1 Website,weblink 6 June 2008, WEB, Donaldson, Gerald, Nelson Piquet, Hall of Fame, The Official Formula 1 Website,weblink 6 June 2008, WEB, Donaldson, Gerald, Ayrton Senna, Hall of Fame, The Official Formula 1 Website,weblink 6 June 2008, Some sport variations have their origins in Brazil: beach football,WEB, Beach Soccer, International Federation of Association Football,weblink 6 June 2008, futsal (indoor football)WEB, Futsal, International Federation of Association Football,weblink 6 June 2008, and footvolley emerged in Brazil as variations of football. In martial arts, Brazilians developed Capoeira,WEB, The art of capoeira, BBC, 20 September 2006,weblink 6 June 2008, Vale tudo,WEB, Brazilian Vale Tudo, I.V.C,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/19980530081959weblink">weblink yes, 30 May 1998, 6 June 2008, and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu.WEB, International Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Federation, International Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Federation,weblink yes, 6 June 2008, 20 April 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080420155232weblink">weblink File:Terminam os Jogos Olímpicos Rio 2016 (29040726262).jpg|thumb|Closing ceremony of the 2016 Summer Olympics at the Maracanã Stadium, Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, like the 1950 FIFA World CupWEB, 1950 FIFA World Cup Brazil, Previous FIFA World Cups, International Federation of Association Football,weblink 6 June 2008, and recently has hosted the 2014 FIFA World Cup.WEB, 2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil, International Federation of Association Football,weblink 6 June 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080609044247weblink">weblink 9 June 2008, The São Paulo circuit, Autódromo José Carlos Pace, hosts the annual Grand Prix of Brazil.WEB, The Official Formula 1 Website, Formula One Administration,weblink yes, 4 June 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080604141640weblink">weblink 6 June 2008, São Paulo organized the IV Pan American Games in 1963, and Rio de Janeiro hosted the XV Pan American Games in 2007.BOOK, Ming Li, Eric W. MacIntosh, Gonzalo A. Bravo, International Sport Management,weblink 2011, Human Kinetics – College of Business at Ohio University, 978-1-4504-2241-3, 129, On 2 October 2009, Rio de Janeiro was selected to host the 2016 Olympic Games and 2016 Paralympic Games, making it the first South American city to host the games"Olympics 2016: Tearful Pele and weeping Lula greet historic win for Rio," The Guardian, 2 October 2009. and second in Latin America, after Mexico City. Furthermore, the country hosted the FIBA Basketball World Cups in 1954 and 1963. At the 1963 event, the Brazil national basketball team won one of its two world championship titles.WEB,weblink FIBA World Championship History (pdf), FIBA, 1 January 2007, 24 February 2012,

National holidays{|class"wikitable"

! Date !! Local name !! Name !! ObservationNew Year's Day >|Beginning of the calendar yearTiradentes >|In honor of the martyr of the Minas ConspiracyLabor Day >|Tribute to all workersIndependence of Brazil >|Proclamation of Independence against PortugalOur Lady of Aparecida >|Patroness of BrazilAll Souls' Day >|Day of remembrance for the deadEmpire of Brazil>Empire into Republic|Traditional Christmas celebration

See also

Notes

{{Reflist|group=nt}}

References

{{reflist}}

Bibliography

  • Azevedo, Aroldo. O Brasil e suas regiões. São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional, 1971
  • Barman, Roderick J. Citizen Emperor: Pedro II and the Making of Brazil, 1825–1891. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999. {{ISBN|0-8047-3510-7}}
  • Boxer, Charles R.. O império marítimo português 1415–1825. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002. {{ISBN|85-359-0292-9}}
  • Bueno, Eduardo. Brasil: uma História. São Paulo: Ática, 2003. {{ISBN|85-08-08213-4}}
  • Calmon, Pedro. História da Civilização Brasileira. Brasília: Senado Federal, 2002
  • Carvalho, José Murilo de. D. Pedro II. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2007
  • Coelho, Marcos Amorim. Geografia do Brasil. 4th ed. São Paulo: Moderna, 1996
  • Diégues, Fernando. A revolução brasílica. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2004
  • Enciclopédia Barsa. Volume 4: Batráquio – Camarão, Filipe. Rio de Janeiro: Encyclopædia Britannica do Brasil, 1987
  • Fausto, Boris and Devoto, Fernando J. Brasil e Argentina: Um ensaio de história comparada (1850–2002), 2nd ed. São Paulo: Editoria 34, 2005. {{ISBN|85-7326-308-3}}
  • Gaspari, Elio. A ditadura envergonhada. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002. {{ISBN|85-359-0277-5}}
  • Janotti, Aldo. O Marquês de Paraná: inícios de uma carreira política num momento crítico da história da nacionalidade. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1990
  • Lyra, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II (1825–1891): Ascenção (1825–1870). v. 1. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977
  • Lyra, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II (1825–1891): Declínio (1880–1891). v. 3. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977
  • Lustosa, Isabel. D. Pedro I: um herói sem nenhum caráter. São Paulo: Companhia das letras, 2006. {{ISBN|85-359-0807-2}}
  • Moreira, Igor A. G. O Espaço Geográfico, geografia geral e do Brasil. 18. Ed. São Paulo: Ática, 1981
  • Munro, Dana Gardner. The Latin American Republics; A History. New York: D. Appleton, 1942.
  • Peres, Damião (1949) O Descobrimento do Brasil por Pedro Álvares Cabral: antecedentes e intencionalidade Porto: Portucalense.
  • Scheina, Robert L. Latin America: A Naval History, 1810–1987. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1987. {{ISBN|0-87021-295-8}}
  • Schwarcz, Lilia Moritz. As barbas do Imperador: D. Pedro II, um monarca nos trópicos. 2nd ed. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1998. {{ISBN|85-7164-837-9}}
  • Skidmore, Thomas E. Uma História do Brasil. 4th ed. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 2003. {{ISBN|85-219-0313-8}}
  • Souza, Adriana Barreto de. Duque de Caxias: o homem por trás do monumento. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2008. {{ISBN|978-85-200-0864-5}}.
  • {{wikicite|ref={{harvid|Wright|1992}}|reference=Wright, Simon. 1992. Villa-Lobos. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. {{ISBN|0-19-315475-7}}}}
  • Vainfas, Ronaldo. Dicionário do Brasil Imperial. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2002. {{ISBN|85-7302-441-0}}
  • Vesentini, José William. Brasil, sociedade e espaço – Geografia do Brasil. 7th Ed. São Paulo: Ática, 1988
  • Vianna, Hélio. História do Brasil: período colonial, monarquia e república, 15th ed. São Paulo: Melhoramentos, 1994
  • Zirin, Dave. Brazil's Dance with the Devil: The World Cup, The Olympics, and the Fight for Democracy Haymarket Books 2014. {{ISBN|978-1-60846-360-2}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Alves, Maria Helena Moreira, State and Opposition in Military Brazil, Austin, TX, University of Texas Press, 1985,
  • BOOK, Amann, Edmund, The Illusion of Stability: The Brazilian Economy under Cardoso, World Development (pp. 1805–19), 1990,
  • WEB, Background Note: Brazil, US Department of State,weblink 16 June 2011,
  • BOOK, Bellos, Alex, Futebol: The Brazilian Way of Life, London, Bloomsbury Publishing plc, 2003,
  • BOOK, Bethell, Leslie, Colonial Brazil, Cambridge, CUP, 1991,
  • BOOK, Costa, João Cruz, A History of Ideas in Brazil, Los Angeles, CA, University of California Press, 1964,
  • BOOK, Fausto, Boris, A Concise History of Brazil, Cambridge, CUP, 1999, harv,
  • BOOK, Furtado, Celso, The Economic Growth of Brazil: A Survey from Colonial to Modern Times, Berkeley, CA, University of California Press,
  • BOOK, Leal, Victor Nunes, Coronelismo: The Municipality and Representative Government in Brazil, Cambridge, CUP, 1977,
  • BOOK, Malathronas, John, Brazil: Life, Blood, Soul, Chichester, Summersdale, 2003,
  • BOOK, Martinez-Lara, Javier, Building Democracy in Brazil: The Politics of Constitutional Change, Macmillan, 1995,
  • BOOK, Prado Júnior, Caio, The Colonial Background of Modern Brazil, Los Angeles, CA, University of California Press, 1967,
  • BOOK, Schneider, Ronald, Brazil: Culture and Politics in a New Economic Powerhouse, Boulder Westview, 1995,
  • BOOK, Skidmore, Thomas E., Black into White: Race and Nationality in Brazilian Thought, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1974,
  • BOOK, Wagley, Charles, An Introduction to Brazil, New York, New York, Columbia University Press, 1963,
  • BOOK, The World Almanac and Book of Facts: Brazil, New York, NY, World Almanac Books, 2006,

External links

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