Buenos Aires

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Buenos Aires
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{{about|the capital city of Argentina|the broader conurbation|Greater Buenos Aires|the province|Buenos Aires Province|other uses}}{{Use dmy dates|date=November 2018}}

Argentina: A Short History by Colin M. Lewis, Oneworld Publications, Oxford, 2002. {{ISBN|1-85168-300-3}}| image_map = | mapsize = 150px| map_caption = Location in Argentina| pushpin_map = Argentina#South America| pushpin_relief = 134125854region:AR|display=inline,title}}| subdivision_type = Country| subdivision_name = Argentina| subdivision_type1 = | subdivision_name1 = | established_title = Established| established_date = 2 February 1536 (by Pedro de Mendoza)11 June 1580 (by Juan de Garay)| government_type = Autonomous cityBuenos Aires City Legislature>City LegislatureList of mayors and chiefs of government of Buenos Aires>Chief of Government| leader_name = Horacio Rodríguez Larreta| leader_title1 = SenatorsFederico Pinedo, Marta Varela, Fernando Solanas>Pino Solanas| area_magnitude = | area_total_km2 = 203| area_land_km2 = 203| area_land_sq_mi = 78.5| area_metro_km2 = 4758| area_metro_sq_mi = 1837| elevation_m = 25| elevation_ft = | population_as_of = 2010 census| population_footnotes =| population_density_km2 = auto| population_est = | population_urban = 2,891,082 | population_metro = 15,594,428List of cities in Argentina by population>1stTime in Argentina>ART| utc_offset1 = −3| timezone1_DST = | utc_offset1_DST = | postal_code_type = Argentine telephone numbering plan>}} {{Es icon}}| population_est_as_of = | population_demonyms = porteño (m), porteña (f) Human Development Index>HDI (2016)Very High (List of Argentine provinces by Human Development Index>2nd)HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170825180358/HTTP://HDR.UNDP.ORG/SITES/DEFAULT/FILES/PNUDARGENT-PNU_2017_BAJA.PDF >ARCHIVEDATE=25 AUGUST 2017 TITLE= INFORMACIóN PARA EL DESARROLLO SOSTENIBLE: ARGENTINA Y LA AGENDA 2030 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, 25 August 2017, }}Buenos Aires ({{IPAc-en|ËŒ|b|w|eɪ|n|É™|s|_|ˈ|ɛər|iː|z}} or {{IPAc-en|-|ˈ|aɪ|r|ɪ|s}};ENCYCLOPEDIA, 2001, Buenos Aires City, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 July 2011, {{IPA-es|ˈbwenos ˈaiɾes}}){{citation|last=Wells|first=John C.|year=2008|title=Longman Pronunciation Dictionary|edition=3rd|publisher=Longman|isbn=9781405881180}} is the capital and largest city of Argentina. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast. "Buenos Aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the former was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre". The Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which also includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the fourth-most populous metropolitan area in the Americas, with a population of around 15.6 million.WEB,weblink Censo 2010. Resultados provisionales: cuadros y grá, 25 February 2011, Spanish, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 December 2010, The city of Buenos Aires is neither part of Buenos Aires Province nor the Province's capital; rather, it is an autonomous district. In 1880, after decades of political infighting, Buenos Aires was federalized and removed from Buenos Aires Province.BOOK, La federalización de Buenos Aires: debates y documentos, Ruiz Moreno, Isidro, Buenos Aires: Hyspamerica, 1986, 978-950-614-467-8, Buenos Aires, The city limits were enlarged to include the towns of Belgrano and Flores; both are now neighborhoods of the city. The 1994 constitutional amendment granted the city autonomy, hence its formal name: Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires; "CABA"). Its citizens first elected a chief of government (i.e. mayor) in 1996; previously, the mayor was directly appointed by the President of the Republic.Buenos Aires is considered an 'alpha city' by the study GaWC5.WEB,weblink The World According to GaWC 2010, Globalization and World Cities Research Network, 15 April 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 October 2013, Buenos Aires' quality of life was ranked 91st in the world, being one of the best in Latin America in 2018.WEB,weblink Vienna tops Mercer's 20th Quality of Living ranking, Mercer, 15 April 2018, WEB,weblink 2018 Quality of Living City Rankings, Mercer, 15 April 2018, It is the most visited city in South America, and the second-most visited city of Latin America (behind Mexico City).NEWS,weblink México DF, Buenos Aires y San Pablo, los destinos turísticos favoritos, Infobae, es, 18 January 2015, Buenos Aires is a top tourist destination,NEWS,weblink Buenos Aires Travel Guide, Travel + Leisure, 2 May 2012, and is known for its preserved Eclectic European architectureWEB,weblink Introduction to architecture in Buenos Aires, Lonely Planet, 14 June 2011, 18 January 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 January 2015, and rich cultural life.WEB,weblink Buenos Aires History and Culture, Adventure Life, 28 May 2012, Buenos Aires held the 1st Pan American Games in 1951 as well as hosting two venues in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Buenos Aires hosted the 2018 Summer Youth OlympicsWEB,weblink Buenos Aires elected as Host City for 2018 Youth Olympic Games, International Olympic Committee, 4 July 2013, 13 September 2013, and the 2018 G20 summit.WEB,weblink Argentina fue elegida sede del G-20 para 2018, Natasha, Niebieskikwiat,, Buenos Aires is a multicultural city, being home to multiple ethnic and religious groups. Several languages are spoken in the city in addition to Spanish, contributing to its culture and the dialect spoken in the city and in some other parts of the country. This is because in the last 151 years the city, and the country in general, has been a major recipient of millions of immigrants from all over the world, making it a melting pot where several ethnic groups live together and being considered one of the most diverse cities of the Americas.WEB,weblink Buenos Aires Ciudad, Turismo Religioso, Spanish, 25 November 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 January 2016,


(File:Buenos Aires (Aldus Verthoont, ca 1628).jpg|thumb|left|Aldus verthoont hem de stadt Buenos Ayrros geleegen in Rio de la Plata, painting by a Dutch sailor who anchored at the port around 1628.|200x200px)It is recorded under the archives of Aragonese that Catalan missionaries and Jesuits arriving in Cagliari (Sardinia) under the Crown of Aragon, after its capture from the Pisans in 1324 established their headquarters on top of a hill that overlooked the city. The hill was known to them as Bonaira (or Bonaria in Sardinian language), as it was free of the foul smell prevalent in the old city (the castle area), which is adjacent to swampland. During the siege of Cagliari, the Catalans built a sanctuary to the Virgin Mary on top of the hill. In 1335, King Alfonso the Gentle donated the church to the Mercedarians, who built an abbey that stands to this day. In the years after that, a story circulated, claiming that a statue of the Virgin Mary was retrieved from the sea after it miraculously helped to calm a storm in the Mediterranean Sea. The statue was placed in the abbey. Spanish sailors, especially Andalusians, venerated this image and frequently invoked the "Fair Winds" to aid them in their navigation and prevent shipwrecks. A sanctuary to the Virgin of Buen Ayre would be later erected in Seville.WEB,weblink Origin of the name Buenos Aires, Todo Buenos Aires, 18 January 2015, In the first foundation of Buenos Aires, Spanish sailors arrived thankfully in the Río de la Plata by the blessings of the "Santa Maria de los Buenos Aires", the "Holy Virgin Mary of the Good Winds" who was said to have given them the good winds to reach the coast of what is today the modern city of Buenos Aires. Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian Madonna di BonariaWEB,weblink Massimo Pittau – La Madonna di Bonaria di Cagliari e Buenos Aires,, (that is still to this day the patroness of SardiniaWEB,weblink Quel legame mariano tra Bonaria e Buenos Aires,, ). Mendoza's settlement soon came under attack by indigenous people, and was abandoned in 1541.WEB, es,weblink Nuestro Banderín, Buenos Aires Rotary Club, 18 January 2015, For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, who is said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land!, as he arrived. But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives, ultimately concluded that the name was indeed closely linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre.BOOK,weblink Estudio topográfico é historia demografica de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, Compañía Sud-Americana de Billetes de Banco, B. Martinez, Alberto, 1889, Buenos Aires, 14, A second (and permanent) settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción (now the capital of Paraguay). Garay preserved the name originally chosen by Mendoza, calling the city Ciudad de la Santísima Trinidad y Puerto de Santa María del Buen Aire ("City of the Most Holy Trinity and Port of Saint Mary of the Fair Winds"). The short form "Buenos Aires" became the common usage during the 17th century.WEB,weblink Calendario Histórico – Segunda fundación de Buenos Aires, es, Government of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, 9 February 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 October 2012, The usual abbreviation for Buenos Aires in Spanish is Bs.As.WEB,weblink Spanish Abbreviations,, 18 January 2015, It is common as well to refer to it as "B.A." or "BA".WEB,weblink BA Abbreviation,, 18 January 2015, While "BA" is used more by expats residing in the city, the locals more often use the abbreviation "Baires", in one word.


{{see also|Timeline of Buenos Aires}}

Colonial times

File:Garay2.jpg|thumb|left|Juan de Garay founding Buenos Aires in 1580. The initial settlement, founded by Pedro de MendozaPedro de MendozaFile:Santiago de Liniers.jpg|thumb|right|Santiago de Liniers, 1st Count of Buenos AiresSantiago de Liniers, 1st Count of Buenos AiresSeaman Juan Díaz de Solís, navigating in the name of Spain, was the first European to reach the Río de la Plata in 1516. His expedition was cut short when he was killed during an attack by the native Charrúa tribe in what is now Uruguay.The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre (literally "City of Our Lady Saint Mary of the Fair Winds") after Our Lady of Bonaria (Patroness Saint of Sardinia) on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza. The settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre.More attacks by the indigenous people forced the settlers away, and in 1542 the site was abandoned.Aborígenes de la Argentina {{webarchive|url= |date=5 June 2014 }}. (Spanish) John D. Torres Barreto. Retrieved 9 February 2012.Pedro de Mendoza. (Spanish) Retrieved 8 February 2012. {{webarchive |url= |date=11 July 2014 }} A second (and permanent) settlement was established on 11 June 1580 by Juan de Garay, who arrived by sailing down the Paraná River from Asunción (now the capital of Paraguay). He dubbed the settlement "Santísima Trinidad" and its port became "Puerto de Santa María de los Buenos Aires."From its earliest days, Buenos Aires depended primarily on trade. During most of the 17th century, Spanish ships were menaced by pirates, so they developed a complex system where ships with military protection were dispatched to Central America in a convoy from Seville the only port allowed to trade with the colonies, to Lima, Peru and from it to the inner cities of the viceroyalty. Because of this, products took a very long time to arrive in Buenos Aires, and the taxes generated by the transport made them prohibitive. This scheme frustrated the traders of Buenos Aires, and a thriving informal yet accepted by the authorities contraband industry developed inside the colonies and with the Portuguese. This also instilled a deep resentment among porteños towards the Spanish authorities.Sensing these feelings, Charles III of Spain progressively eased the trade restrictions and finally declared Buenos Aires an open port in the late 18th century. The capture of Porto Bello by British forces also fueled the need to foster commerce via the Atlantic route, to the detriment of Lima-based trade. One of his rulings was to split a region from the Viceroyalty of Perú and create instead the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, with Buenos Aires as the capital. However, Charles's placating actions did not have the desired effect, and the porteños, some of them versed in the ideology of the French Revolution, became even more convinced of the need for independence from Spain.

War of Independence

{{see also|Argentine War of Independence}}File:General view of Buenos Ayres from the Plaza de Toros - Emeric Essex Vidal - Picturesque illustrations of Buenos Ayres and Monte Video (1820).jpg|thumb|left|Emeric Essex Vidal, General view of Buenos Ayres from the Plaza de Toros, 1820. In this area now lies the Plaza San Martín.]]During the British invasions of the Río de la Plata, British forces attacked Buenos Aires twice. In 1806 the British successfully invaded Buenos Aires, but an army from Montevideo led by Santiago de Liniers defeated them. In the brief period of British rule, the viceroy Rafael Sobremonte managed to escape to Córdoba and designated this city as capital. Buenos Aires became the capital again after its liberation, but Sobremonte could not resume his duties as viceroy. Santiago de Liniers, chosen as new viceroy, prepared the city against a possible new British attack and repelled the attempted invasion of 1807. The militarization generated in society changed the balance of power favorably for the criollos (in contrast to peninsulars), as well as the development of the Peninsular War in Spain. An attempt by the peninsular merchant Martín de Álzaga to remove Liniers and replace him with a Junta was defeated by the criollo armies. However, by 1810 it would be those same armies who would support a new revolutionary attempt, successfully removing the new viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros. This is known as the May Revolution, which is now celebrated as a national holiday. This event started the Argentine War of Independence, and many armies left Buenos Aires to fight the diverse strongholds of royalist resistance, with varying levels of success. The government was held first by two Juntas of many members, then by two triumvirates, and finally by a unipersonal office, the Supreme Director. Formal independence from Spain was declared in 1816, at the Congress of Tucumán. Buenos Aires managed to endure the whole Spanish American wars of independence without falling again under royalist rule.File:Pellegrini Buenos Aires Catedral.jpg|thumb|Impression of the Buenos Aires CathedralBuenos Aires CathedralHistorically, Buenos Aires has been Argentina's main venue of liberal, free-trading and foreign ideas, while many of the provinces, especially those to the north-west, advocated a more nationalistic and Catholic approach to political and social issues. Much of the internal tension in Argentina's history, starting with the centralist-federalist conflicts of the 19th century, can be traced back to these contrasting views. In the months immediately following the 25 May Revolution, Buenos Aires sent a number of military envoys to the provinces with the intention of obtaining their approval. Many of these missions ended in violent clashes, and the enterprise fuelled tensions between the capital and the provinces.In the 19th century the city was blockaded twice by naval forces: by the French from 1838 to 1840, and later by an Anglo-French expedition from 1845 to 1848. Both blockades failed to force the city into submission, and the foreign powers eventually desisted from their demands.

19th and 20th century

File:Pabellon-argentino plazasmartin 1900.jpg|thumb|left|Argentine Pavilion in Plaza San Martín (1889).]]During most of the 19th century, the political status of the city remained a sensitive subject. It was already the capital of Buenos Aires Province, and between 1853 and 1860 it was the capital of the seceded State of Buenos Aires. The issue was fought out more than once on the battlefield, until the matter was finally settled in 1880 when the city was federalized and became the seat of government, with its mayor appointed by the president. The Casa Rosada became the seat of the president.Health conditions in poor areas were negative, with high rates of tuberculosis. Public-health physicians and politicians typically blamed both the poor themselves and their ramshackle tenement houses (conventillos) for the spread of the dreaded disease. People ignored public-health campaigns to limit the spread of contagious diseases, such as the prohibition of spitting on the streets, the strict guidelines to care for infants and young children, and quarantines that separated families from ill loved ones.Diego Armus, The Ailing City: Health, Tuberculosis, and Culture in Buenos Aires, 1870–1950 (2011) File:Museo del Bicentenario - "La Casa Rosada" por Della Valle.jpg|thumb|left|The Casa Rosada during the Argentina CentennialArgentina CentennialIn addition to the wealth generated by the Buenos Aires Customs and the fertile pampas, railroad development in the second half of the 19th century increased the economic power of Buenos Aires as raw materials flowed into its factories. A leading destination for immigrants from Europe, particularly Italy and Spain, from 1880 to 1930 Buenos Aires became a multicultural city that ranked itself with the major European capitals. The Colón Theater became one of the world's top opera venues, and the city became the regional capital of radio, television, cinema, and theatre. The city's main avenues were built during those years, and the dawn of the 20th century saw the construction of South America's tallest buildings and its first underground system. A second construction boom, from 1945 to 1980, reshaped downtown and much of the city. File:Buenos Aires - San Nicolás - Construcción del Obelisco.jpg|thumb|Construction of the Obelisk of Buenos Aires on the 9 de Julio Avenue9 de Julio Avenue File:Buenos Aires, 1986.jpg|thumb|9 de Julio Avenue9 de Julio AvenueBuenos Aires also attracted migrants from Argentina's provinces and neighboring countries. Shanty towns (villas miseria) started growing around the city's industrial areas during the 1930s, leading to pervasive social problems and social contrasts with the largely upwardly-mobile Buenos Aires population. These laborers became the political base of Peronism, which emerged in Buenos Aires during the pivotal demonstration of 17 October 1945, at the Plaza de Mayo.Guía visual de Buenos Aires centro histórico, Clarín Viajes, 2001. Industrial workers of the Greater Buenos Aires industrial belt have been Peronism's main support base ever since, and Plaza de Mayo became the site for demonstrations and many of the country's political events; on 16 June 1955, however, a splinter faction of the Navy bombed the Plaza de Mayo area, killing 364 civilians (see Bombing of Plaza de Mayo). This was the only time the city was attacked from the air, and the event was followed by a military uprising which deposed President Perón, three months later (see Revolución Libertadora).In the 1970s the city suffered from the fighting between left-wing revolutionary movements (Montoneros, ERP and F.A.R.) and the right-wing paramilitary group Triple A, supported by Isabel Perón, who became president of Argentina in 1974 after Juan Perón's death.The March 1976 coup, led by General Jorge Videla, only escalated this conflict; the "Dirty War" resulted in 30,000 desaparecidos (people kidnapped and killed by the military during the years of the junta).We are Millions: Neo-liberalism and new forms of political action in Argentina, Marcela Lópéz Levy, Latin America Bureau, London, 2004. {{ISBN|978-1899365630}} The silent marches of their mothers (Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo) are a well-known image of Argentines' suffering during those times. The dictatorship's appointed mayor, Osvaldo Cacciatore, also drew up plans for a network of freeways intended to relieve the city's acute traffic gridlock. The plan, however, called for a seemingly indiscriminate razing of residential areas and, though only three of the eight planned were put up at the time, they were mostly obtrusive raised freeways that continue to blight a number of formerly comfortable neighborhoods to this day.The city was visited by Pope John Paul II twice, firstly in 1982 and again in 1987; on these occasions gathered some of the largest crowds in the city's history. The return of democracy in 1983 coincided with a cultural revival, and the 1990s saw an economic revival, particularly in the construction and financial sectors.On 17 March 1992 a bomb exploded in the Israeli Embassy, killing 29 and injuring 242. Another explosion, on 18 July 1994, destroyed a building housing several Jewish organizations, killing 85 and injuring many more, these incidents marked the beginning of Middle Eastern terrorism to South America. Following a 1993 agreement, the Argentine Constitution was amended to give Buenos Aires autonomy and rescinding, among other things, the president's right to appoint the city's mayor (as had been the case since 1880). On 30 June 1996, voters in Buenos Aires chose their first elected mayor (Jefe de Gobierno).

21st century

(File:Microcentro, Buenos Aires (40774240522).jpg|thumb|left|217x217px|Aerial view of the city skyline.)In 1996, following the 1994 reform of the Argentine Constitution, the city held its first mayoral elections under the new statutes, with the mayor's title formally changed to "Head of Government". The winner was Fernando de la Rúa, who would later become President of Argentina from 1999 to 2001.De la Rúa's successor, Aníbal Ibarra, won two popular elections, but was impeached (and ultimately deposed on 6 March 2006) as a result of the fire at the República Cromagnon nightclub. Jorge Telerman, who had been the acting mayor, was invested with the office. In the 2007 elections, Mauricio Macri of the Republican Proposal (PRO) party won the second-round of voting over Daniel Filmus of the Frente para la Victoria (FPV) party, taking office on 9 December 2007. In 2011, the elections went to a second round with 60.96% of the vote for PRO, compared to 39.04% for FPV, thus re-electing Macri as mayor of the city with María Eugenia Vidal as deputy mayor.Elecciones 2011 {{Webarchive|url= |date=4 March 2016 }} – PerfilThe 2015 elections were the first to use an electronic voting system in the city, similar to the one used in Salta Province.Más de 300 mil porteños probaron ayer el voto electrónico {{Webarchive|url= |date=22 June 2017 }} – InformateSalta, 27 April 2015 In these elections held on 5 July 2015, Macri stepped down as mayor and pursue his presidential bid and Horacio Rodríguez Larreta took his place as the mayoral candidate for PRO. In the first round of voting, FPV's Mariano Recalde obtained 21.78% of the vote, while Martín Lousteau of the ECO party obtained 25.59% and Larreta obtained 45.55%, meaning that the elections went to a second round since PRO was unable to secure the majority required for victory.Elecciones porteñas 2015: amplio triunfo de Horacio Rodríguez Larreta, pero habrá ballottage con Martín Lousteau – La Nacion, 5 July 2015 The second round was held on 19 July 2015 and Larreta obtained 51.6% of the vote, followed closely by Lousteau with 48.4%, thus, PRO won the elections for a third term with Larreta as mayor and Diego Santilli as deputy. In these elections, PRO was stronger in the wealthier neighbourhoods of northern Buenos Aires, while ECO was stronger in the south of the city.Mapa de resultados ballottage – La Nacion, 19 July 2015.NEWS,weblink PRO's Rodriguez Larreta elected Buenos Aires city mayor in tight runoff, 14 June 2017, File:Puente de la mujer - panoramio (1).jpg|Women's Bridge was designed by Santiago Calatrava.File:Obelisco-diurno 0652.jpg|View of 9 de Julio Avenue with the ObeliskFile:Puerto Madero, Buenos Aires (40689219792).jpg|The main financial centre of Buenos Aires


The city of Buenos Aires lies in the pampa region, except for some zones like the Buenos Aires Ecological Reserve, the Boca Juniors (football) Club "sports city", Jorge Newbery Airport, the Puerto Madero neighborhood and the main port itself; these were all built on reclaimed land along the coasts of the Rio de la Plata (the world's widest river).WEB,weblink Cuenca del Plata,, 13 September 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 July 2013, WEB,weblink Geografia de Argentina,, 13 September 2013, WEB,weblink Sitio oficial de turismo de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires | LA CIUDAD DE TODOS LOS ARGENTINOS, es,, 13 September 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 February 2009, The region was formerly crossed by different streams and lagoons, some of which were refilled and others tubed. Among the most important streams are Maldonado, Vega, Medrano, Cildañez and White. In 1908 many streams were channelled and rectified, as floods were damaging the city's infrastructure. Starting in 1919, most streams were enclosed. Notably, the Maldonado was tubed in 1954, and runs below Juan B. Justo Avenue.File:Satellite image of Buenos Aires, Argentina - December 19, 2014.jpg|upright=2.75|thumb|center|Satellite view of the Greater Buenos Aires area, and the Río de la PlataRío de la Plata


{{see also|Climate of Argentina|Climatic regions of Argentina}}Under the Köppen climate classification, Buenos Aires has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with four distinct seasons.WEB,weblink" title="">weblink 27 February 2014,weblink Clima, Atlas Ambiental de Buenos Aires, Spanish, 24 December 2015, JOURNAL, Peel, M. C., Finlayson B. L., McMahon, T. A., 2007, Updated world map of the Köppen−Geiger climate classification, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 5, 1633–1644, 10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007,weblink 1027-5606, As a result of maritime influences from the adjoining Atlantic Ocean,JOURNAL, Pezza, Alexandre, Simmonds, Ian, Coelho, Caio, 2010, The unusual Buenos Aires snowfall of July 2007, Atmospheric Science Letters, John Wiley & Sons, 11, 4, 249–254, 10.1002/asl.283, 2010AtScL..11..249P, the climate is temperate with extreme temperatures being rare.WEB,weblink Clima, Official Tourism site of Buenos Aires, Spanish, 24 December 2015, Because the city is located in an area where the Pampero and Sudestada winds pass by,WEB,weblink Capítulo 2: Impacto en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Plan de Acción Buenos Aires 2030, Gobierno de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Spanish, 29 December 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 October 2011, the weather is variable due to these contrasting air masses.{{sfn|Blouet|2010|p=391}}File:Plaza San Martín, Buenos Aires (27146002798).jpg|thumb|Heavy rain and lightning in Plaza San Martin. Storms are usual during the summer.]]Summers are hot and humid. The warmest month is January, with a daily average of {{convert|24.9|°C|1}}.WEB,weblink Caracteristicas Climaticas de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional, Spanish, 29 May 2017, Heat waves are common during summers.WEB,weblink El Verano en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional, Spanish, 3 January 2016, However, most heat waves are of short duration (less than a week) and are followed by the passage of the cold, dry Pampero wind which brings violent and intense thunderstorms followed by cooler temperatures.{{sfn|Blouet|2010|p=391}}WEB,weblink Viento Pampero, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional, Spanish, 2 January 2016, The highest temperature ever recorded was {{convert|43.3|°C|0}} on 29 January 1957.WEB,weblink 28 July 2018,weblink 112 años midiendo el tiempo de Buenos Aires, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional, Spanish, 28 July 2018, live, Winters are cool with mild temperatures during the day and chilly nights. Highs during the season average {{convert|16.3|C|1}} while lows average {{convert|8.1|C|1}}.WEB,weblink El Invierno en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional, Spanish, 24 December 2015, Relative humidity averages in the upper 70s%, which means the city is noted for moderate-to-heavy fogs during autumn and winter.NEWS, 19 April 2010, Atlas Ambiental de Buenos Aires,weblink AABA, Spanish, 19 April 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 6 July 2011, dead, dmy-all, July is the coolest month, with an average temperature of {{convert|11.0|°C|1}}. Cold spells originating from Antarctica occur almost every year, and can persist for several days. Occasionally, warm air masses from the north bring warmer temperatures.JOURNAL, Bejaran, R., Camilloni, I., 2003, Objective method for classifying air masses: an application to the analysis of Buenos Aires' (Argentina) urban heat island intensity,weblink Theoretical and Applied Climatology, Springer-Verlag, 74, 1–2, 93–103, 10.1007/s00704-002-0714-4, 12 March 2016, 2003ThApC..74...93B, The lowest temperature ever recorded in central Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires Central Observatory) was {{convert|−5.4|°C|0}} on 9 July 1918. Snow is very rare in the city: the last snowfall occurred on 9 July 2007 when, during the coldest winter in Argentina in almost 30 years, severe snowfalls and blizzards hit the country. It was the first major snowfall in the city in 89 years.NEWS, 24 January 2008, Buenos Aires sees rare snowfall,weblink BBC News, 10 July 2007, NEWS, 24 January 2008, Buenos Aires gets first snow since 1918,weblink USA Today, 9 July 2007, Spring and autumn are characterized by changeable weather conditions.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Buenos Aires, Encyclopædia Britannica, 3 January 2016, Cold air from the south can bring cooler temperatures while hot humid air from the north bring hot temperatures.{{sfn|Blouet|2010|p=391}}The city receives {{convert|1236.3|mm|0|abbr=on}} of precipitation per year. Because of its geomorphology along with an inadequate drainage network, the city is highly vulnerable to flooding during periods of heavy rainfall.WEB, Barros, Vicente, Menéndez, Angel, Natenzon, Claudia, Kokot, Roberto, Codignotto, Jorge, Re, Mariano, Bronstein, Pablo, Camilloni, Inés, 2006,weblink Vulnerability to floods in the metropolitan region of Buenos Aires under future climate change, AIACC Working Paper No. 26, Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change (AIACC), 13 March 2016, {{sfn|Kreimer|2000|p=28-29}}{{sfn|Kreimer|2000|p=32}}{{sfn|Kreimer|2000|p=36}}{{Clear}}{{Weather box|location = Buenos Aires Central Observatory, located in Villa Ortúzar (1981–2010)|metric first = yes|single line = yes|Jan record high C = 43.3|Feb record high C = 38.7|Mar record high C = 37.9|Apr record high C = 36.0|May record high C = 31.6|Jun record high C = 28.5|Jul record high C = 30.2|Aug record high C = 34.4|Sep record high C = 35.3|Oct record high C = 35.6|Nov record high C = 36.8|Dec record high C = 40.5|year record high C = 43.3|Jan high C = 30.1|Feb high C = 28.7|Mar high C = 26.8|Apr high C = 22.9|May high C = 19.3|Jun high C = 16.0|Jul high C = 15.3|Aug high C = 17.7|Sep high C = 19.3|Oct high C = 22.7|Nov high C = 25.6|Dec high C = 28.5|year high C = 22.7|Jan mean C = 24.9|Feb mean C = 23.6|Mar mean C = 21.9|Apr mean C = 17.9|May mean C = 14.6|Jun mean C = 11.6|Jul mean C = 11.0|Aug mean C = 12.8|Sep mean C = 14.6|Oct mean C = 17.9|Nov mean C = 20.6|Dec mean C = 23.3|year mean C = 17.9|Jan low C = 20.1|Feb low C = 19.2|Mar low C = 17.7|Apr low C = 13.8|May low C = 10.7|Jun low C = 8.1|Jul low C = 7.4|Aug low C = 8.8|Sep low C = 10.3|Oct low C = 13.3|Nov low C = 15.9|Dec low C = 18.4|year low C = 13.6|Jan record low C = 5.9|Feb record low C = 4.2|Mar record low C = 2.8|Apr record low C = −2.3|May record low C = −4.0|Jun record low C = −5.3|Jul record low C = −5.4|Aug record low C = −4.0|Sep record low C = −2.4|Oct record low C = −2.0|Nov record low C = 1.6|Dec record low C = 3.7|year record low C = −5.4|precipitation colour = green|Jan precipitation mm = 138.8|Feb precipitation mm = 127.1|Mar precipitation mm = 140.1|Apr precipitation mm = 119.0|May precipitation mm = 92.3|Jun precipitation mm = 58.8|Jul precipitation mm = 60.6|Aug precipitation mm = 64.2|Sep precipitation mm = 72.0|Oct precipitation mm = 127.2|Nov precipitation mm = 117.3|Dec precipitation mm = 118.9|year precipitation mm = 1236.3|unit precipitation days = 0.1 mm|Jan precipitation days = 9.0|Feb precipitation days = 8.0|Mar precipitation days = 8.8|Apr precipitation days = 9.1|May precipitation days = 7.1|Jun precipitation days = 7.1|Jul precipitation days = 7.2|Aug precipitation days = 6.8|Sep precipitation days = 7.4|Oct precipitation days = 10.2|Nov precipitation days = 9.8|Dec precipitation days = 9.2|year precipitation days = 99.7|Jan humidity = 64.7|Feb humidity = 69.7|Mar humidity = 72.6|Apr humidity = 76.3|May humidity = 77.5|Jun humidity = 78.7|Jul humidity = 77.4|Aug humidity = 73.2|Sep humidity = 70.1|Oct humidity = 69.1|Nov humidity = 66.7|Dec humidity = 63.6|year humidity = 71.6|Jan sun = 279.0|Feb sun = 240.8|Mar sun = 229.0|Apr sun = 220.0|May sun = 173.6|Jun sun = 132.0|Jul sun = 142.6|Aug sun = 173.6|Sep sun = 189.0|Oct sun = 227.0|Nov sun = 252.0|Dec sun = 266.6|year sun = 2525.2| Jan uv = 12| Feb uv = 11| Mar uv = 9| Apr uv = 6| May uv = 3| Jun uv = 2| Jul uv = 2| Aug uv = 4| Sep uv = 6| Oct uv = 8| Nov uv = 10| Dec uv = 12| year uv =|source 1 = Servicio Meteorológico NacionalWEB,weblink Estadísticas Climatológicas Normales – período 1981–2010, Servicio Meteorológico Nacional, Spanish, 23 February 2018, |source 2 = Deutscher Wetterdienst (sun, 1961–1990),WEB,weblink Station 87585 Buenos Aires Observatorio, Global station data 1961–1990—Sunshine Duration, Deutscher Wetterdienstgroup=noteThe World Meteorological Organization Station ID for Buenos Aires Observatorio is 87585 Use this station ID to locate the sunshine duration}} Weather Atlas (UV)HTTPS://WWW.WEATHER-ARG.COM/EN/ARGENTINA/BUENOS-AIRES-CLIMATE >TITLE=BUENOS AIRES, ARGENTINA – MONTHLY WEATHER FORECAST AND CLIMATE DATA ACCESS-DATE=7 FEBRUARY 2019, }}{|style="width:100%;text-align:center;line-height:1.2em;margin-left:auto;margin-right:auto" class="wikitable mw-collapsible"!Colspan=14|Climate data for Buenos Aires!Month!Jan!Feb!Mar!Apr!May!Jun!Jul!Aug!Sep!Oct!Nov!Dec!style="border-left-width:medium"|Year!Average sea temperature °C (°F)25.0(77.0)23.6(74.5)22.7(72.9)19.2(66.6)16.1(61.0)13.2(55.8)11.9(53.4)12.7(54.9)14.2(57.6)18.0(64.4)20.7(69.3)22.6(72.7)18.3(65.0)!Mean daily daylight hours14.!Colspan=14 style="background:#f8f9fa;font-weight:normal;font-size:95%;"|Source: Weather Atlas

Government and politics

Government structure

File:Argentine National Congress.JPG|thumb|right|The Palace of the National Congress of ArgentinaNational Congress of ArgentinaThe Executive is held by the Chief of Government (), elected for a four-year term together with a Deputy Chief of Government, who presides over the 60-member Buenos Aires City Legislature. Each member of the Legislature is elected for a four-year term; half of the legislature is renewed every two years. Elections use the D'Hondt method of proportional representation. The Judicial branch is composed of the Supreme Court of Justice (Tribunal Superior de Justicia), the Magistrate's Council (Consejo de la Magistratura), the Public Ministry, and other City Courts. Article 61 of the 1996 Constitution of the City of Buenos Aires states that "Suffrage is free, equal, secret, universal, compulsory and non-accumulative. Resident aliens enjoy this same right, with its corresponding obligations, on equal terms with Argentine citizens registered in the district, under the terms established by law."WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 22 January 2008, Constitución de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Spanish, 1 October 1996, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 13 December 2007, Legally, the city has less autonomy than the Provinces. In June 1996, shortly before the City's first Executive elections were held, the Argentine National Congress issued the National Law 24.588 (known as Ley Cafiero, after the Senator who advanced the projemacct) by which the authority over the 25,000-strong Argentine Federal Police and the responsibility over the federal institutions residing at the City (e.g., National Supreme Court of Justice buildings) would not be transferred from the National Government to the Autonomous City Government until a new consensus could be reached at the National Congress. Furthermore, it declared that the Port of Buenos Aires, along with some other places, would remain under constituted federal authorities.WEB,weblink Infobae: Qué dice la Ley Cafiero, Spanish,, 30 January 2011, 2 May 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 28 March 2012, {{As of|2011}}, the deployment of the Metropolitan Police of Buenos Aires is ongoing.WEB,weblink : Policía Metropolitana,, 15 September 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 September 2011, Beginning in 2007, the city has embarked on a new decentralization scheme, creating new Communes (comunas) which are to be managed by elected committees of seven members each. Buenos Aires is represented in the Argentine Senate by three senators ({{As of|2017|lc=y}}, Federico Pinedo, Marta Varela and Pino Solanas).Senate of the Nation. Retrieved 5 July 2017. The people of Buenos Aires also elect 25 national deputies to the Argentine Chamber of Deputies.File:Panorama Casa Gobierno Argentina.JPG|Casa Rosada, workplace of the President of Argentina is in the Monserrat neighbourhoodFile:Palacio de justicia.JPG|The Palace of Justice of the Argentine Nation is in the San Nicolás, Buenos Aires neighbourhoodFile:Buenos Aires City Hall (5463295642).jpg|The Buenos Aires City Hall in the right corner of entrance to the Avenida de Mayo


{{See also|Demographics of Argentina}}

Census data

{{Historical populations|1950|5,166,140|1960|6,761,837|1970|8,416,170|1980|9,919,781|1990|11,147,566|2000|12,503,871|2010|14,245,871|2019|15,057,273|align=right|footnote=for Buenos Aires Agglomeration:Buenos Aires population}}File:High-rises of Puerto Madero (40022145164).jpg|thumb|270px|(Puerto Madero]] currently represents the largest urban renewal project in the city of Buenos Aires. Having undergone an impressive revival in merely a decade, it is one of the most successful recent waterfront renewal projects in the world.Ann Breen and Dick Rigby, The New Waterfront: A Worldwide Urban Success Story – McGraw-Hill Professional)In the census of 2010 there were 2,891,082 people residing in the city.WEB,weblink Censo 2010, 20 October 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 September 2015, dmy-all, The population of Greater Buenos Aires was 13,147,638 according to 2010 census data.WEB, Censo 2010 Argentina,weblink, 20 October 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 October 2015, dmy-all, The population density in Buenos Aires proper was 13,680 inhabitants per square kilometer (34,800 per mi2), but only about 2,400 per km2 (6,100 per mi2) in the suburbs.WEB,weblink Buenos Aires Population 2018 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs),, 5 October 2018, The population of Buenos Aires proper has hovered around 3 million since 1947, due to low birth rates and a slow migration to the suburbs. The surrounding districts have, however, expanded over fivefold (to around 10 million) since then.The 2001 census showed a relatively aged population: with 17% under the age of fifteen and 22% over sixty, the people of Buenos Aires have an age structure similar to those in most European cities. They are older than Argentines as a whole (of whom 28% were under 15, and 14% over 60).WEB,weblink Indec:Instituto Nacional De Estadistica Y Censos De La Republica Argentina,, 1 June 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 September 2016, Two-thirds of the city's residents live in apartment buildings and 30% in single-family homes; 4% live in sub-standard housing.WEB,weblink 2001 Census, 9 August 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 November 2009, Measured in terms of income, the city's poverty rate was 8.4% in 2007 and, including the metro area, 20.6%.WEB,weblink Buenos Aires Statistical Monthly, June 2008,, 9 August 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 September 2009, Other studies estimate that 4 million people in the metropolitan Buenos Aires area live in poverty.WEB,weblink Four million live in poverty in metropolitan Buenos Aires,, 9 August 2009, The city's resident labor force of 1.2 million in 2001 was mostly employed in the services sector, particularly social services (25%), commerce and tourism (20%) and business and financial services (17%); despite the city's role as Argentina's capital, public administration employed only 6%. Manufacturing still employed 10%.Largest groups of foreign born people :{||+|79,295|75,948|59,389|29,754|24,578|21,216|8,831|7,181


The city is divided into barrios (neighborhoods) for administrative purposes, a division originally based on Catholic parroquias (parishes).Government of Buenos Aires. Retrieved 7 August 2006. A common expression is that of the Cien barrios porteños ("One hundred porteño neighborhoods"), referring to a composition made popular in the 1940s by tango singer Alberto Castillo; however, Buenos Aires only consists of 48 official barrios. There are a several subdivisions of these districts, some with a long history and others that are the product of a real estate invention. A notable example is Palermo – the city's largest district – which has been subdivided into various barrios, including Palermo Soho, Palermo Hollywood, Las Cañitas and Palermo viejo, among others. A newer scheme has divided the city into 15 comunas (communes).WEB,weblink Buenos Aires con quince comunas, Pedro Lipcovich, Página/12, 2 September 2005, 7 August 2006, Spanish, {||{{Buenos Aires Labelled Map|float=right}}400px)

Population origin

{{See also|Immigration in Argentina}}File:Hotel Inmigrantes Buenos Aires.jpg|thumb|The Immigrants' Hotel, constructed in 1906, received and assisted the thousands of immigrants arriving to the city. The hotel is now a National Museum.]]The majority of porteños have European origins, mostly from the Calabrian, Ligurian, Piedmont, Lombardy, Sicily and Campania regions of Italy and from the Andalusian, Galician, Asturian, and Basque regions of Spain.Enrique Oteiza y Susana Novick sostienen que "la Argentina desde el siglo XIX, al igual que Australia, Canadá o Estados Unidos, se convierte en un país de inmigración, entendiendo por esto una sociedad que ha sido conformada por un fenómeno inmigratorio masivo, a partir de una población local muy pequeña." (Oteiza, Enrique; Novick, Susana. Inmigración y derechos humanos. Política y discursos en el tramo final del menemismo. in línea]. Buenos Aires: Instituto de Investigaciones Gino Germani, Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 2000 (IIGG Documentos de Trabajo, N° 14):weblink {{webarchive|url= |date=31 May 2011 }}; Ribeiro, Darcy. Las Américas y la Civilización (1985). Buenos Aires:EUDEBA, pp. 449 ss.; José Luis Romero (Romero, José Luis. "Indicación sobre la situación de las masas en Argentina (1951)", in La experiencia argentina y otros ensayos, Buenos Aires: Universidad de Belgrano, 1980, p. 64)WEB,weblink Buenos Aires Introduction,, 9 August 2009, Unrestricted waves of European immigrants to Argentina starting in the mid-19th century significantly increased the country's population, even causing the number of porteños to triple between 1887 and 1915 from 500,000 to 1.5 million.JOURNAL, Solberg, Carl, May 1969, Immigration and Urban Social Problems in Argentina and Chile, 1890–1914, The Hispanic American Historical Review, Duke University Press, 49, 2, 215–232, 10.2307/2510818, 2510818, Other significant European origins include German, Irish, Norwegian, Polish, French, Portuguese, Swedish, Greek, Czech, Albanian, Croatian, Dutch, Russian, Serbian, English, Hungarian and Bulgarian. In the 1980s and 1990s, there was a small wave of immigration from Romania and Ukraine.WEB,weblink European Emigration to Argentina,, 17 July 2009, 9 August 2009, There is a minority of criollo citizens, dating back to the Spanish colonial days. The Criollo and Spanish-aboriginal (mestizo) population in the city has increased mostly as a result of immigration from the inner provinces and from other countries such as neighboring Bolivia, Paraguay, Chile and Peru, since the second half of the 20th century. {{Citation needed|date=June 2016}}The Jewish community in Greater Buenos Aires numbers around 250,000, and is the largest in Latin America. The city is also eighth largest in the world in terms of Jewish population.WEB, The Jewish Community of Buenos Aires,weblink The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot, Most are of Northern, Western, Central, and Eastern European Ashkenazi origin, primarily Swedish, Dutch, Polish, German, and Russian Jews, with a significant Sephardic minority, mostly made up of Syrian Jews and Lebanese Jews.WEB, The Virtual Jewish History Tour – Argentina, Weiner, Rebecca,weblink 9 January 2008, Important Lebanese, Georgian, Syrian and Armenian communities have had a significant presence in commerce and civic life since the beginning of the 20th century.Most East Asian immigration in Buenos Aires comes from China. Chinese immigration is the fourth largest in Argentina, with the vast majority of them living in Buenos Aires and its metropolitan area.WEB,weblink Colectividad China y Taiwanesa, Spanish, Government of the City of Buenos Aires, 2 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 September 2015, In the 1980s, most of them were from Taiwan, but since the 1990s the majority of Chinese immigrants come from the continental province of Fujian. The mainland Chinese who came from Fujian mainly installed supermarkets throughout the city and the suburbs; these supermarkets are so common that, in average, there is one every two and a half blocks and are simply referred to as el chino ("the Chinese").WEB,weblink El secreto de los negocios chinos, Spanish, 6 March 2006, Rodiño, Silvia, Clarín (Argentine newspaper), Clarín. Clarín Group, 2 April 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 5 January 2016, dead, Japanese immigrants are mostly from the Okinawa Prefecture. They started the dry cleaning business in Argentina, an activity that is considered idiosyncratic to the Japanese immigrants in Buenos Aires.WEB,weblink Colectividad Japonesa, Spanish, Government of the City of Buenos Aires, 2 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 28 October 2014, Korean Immigration occurred after the division of Korea; they mainly settled in Flores and Once.WEB,weblink Colectividad Coreana, Spanish, Government of the City of Buenos Aires, 2 April 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 28 March 2015, In the {{census-ar|2010}}, 2.1% of the population or 61,876 persons declared to be Amerindian or first-generation descendants of Amerindians in Buenos Aires (not including the 24 adjacent Partidos that make up Greater Buenos Aires).WEB,weblink Censo Nacional de Población, Hogares y Viviendas 2010: Pueblos Originarios: Región Metropolitana: Serie D No 6, Spanish, 5 December 2015, INDEC, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2015, Amongst the 61,876 persons who are of indigenous origin, 15.9% are Quechua people, 15.9% are Guaraní, 15.5% are Aymara and 11% are Mapuche. Within the 24 adjacent Partidos, 186,640 persons or 1.9% of the total population declared themselves to be Amerindian. Amongst the 186,640 persons who are of indigenous origin, 21.2% are Guaraní, 19% are Toba, 11.3% are Mapuche, 10.5% are Quechua and 7.6% are Diaguita.In the city, 15,764 people identified themselves as Afro-Argentine in the 2010 Census.WEB,weblink Cuadro P42-P. Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires. Población afrodescendiente en viviendas particulares por sexo, según grupo de edad. Año 2010, Spanish, 5 December 2015, INDEC, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2015,


According to a 2008 CONICET survey on creeds, Christianity is the most prevalently practiced religion in Buenos Aires (79.6%), and most inhabitants are Roman Catholic (70%),{{es}} weblink" title="">Los ateos siguen en alza y ya son la segunda ‘religión’ – Diario Perfil – Domingo 14 de diciembre de 2008 though studies in recent decades found that fewer than 20% are practicing.WEB,weblink Presentación de PowerPoint, 9 August 2009, Buenos Aires is the seat of a Roman Catholic metropolitan archbishop (the Catholic primate of Argentina), currently Archbishop Mario Poli. His predecessor, Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio, was elected to the Papacy as Pope Francis on 13 March 2013. There are Protestant, Orthodox Christian, Muslim, Jewish, Jehovah's Witnesses, Mormon, and Buddhist minorities. The city is home to the largest mosque in South America.NEWS, Largest Mosque in Latin America Opens,weblink Beliefnet, 12 February 2016, Also, irreligion in Buenos Aires is higher than in other parts of the country, with about an 18.0% of the porteños declaring themselves as either atheist or agnostic.{{clear}}File:Buenos Aires Metropolitan Cathedral (5463291506).jpg|The Metropolitan Cathedral is the main Catholic church in the city.File:Mezquita Centro Cultural Islámico Rey Fahd Buenos Aires 01.JPG|King Fahd Islamic Cultural Centre is the largest mosque in Latin America.File:Sinagoga israelita.JPG|Templo Libertad is a Jewish house of prayer. Argentina's Jewish population is the largest in Latin America.WEB, Margolin, Dovid, Day School Gets High Marks for Turning the Jewish Educational Tide in Buenos Aires,weblink, Chabad-Lubavitch Media Centre, Buenos Aires, 29 June 2015, {{failed verification|date=October 2018}}File:Catedral San Juan Bautista (Buenos Aires).JPG|Anglican Cathedral of St. John the Baptist, is the oldest non-Catholic church building in Latin America.File:OrtodoxaRusa001.JPG|Russian Orthodox church in San Telmo.File:CatedralOrtodoxaAntioquenaSanJorge-Argentina.JPG|St. George Antiochian Orthodox Cathedral.

Urban problems

Villas miserias range from small groups of precarious houses to larger, more organised communities with thousands of residents.Van Gelder, J.L., Cravino, M. C., & Ostuni, F. (2016). Housing informality in Buenos Aires: Past, present and future? Urban Studies, 53(9), 1958–1975. {{doi|10.1177/0042098015581801}} In rural areas, the houses in the villas miserias might be made of mud and wood. Villas miseria are found around and inside the large cities of Buenos Aires, Rosario, Córdoba and Mendoza, among othersBuenos Aires has below {{convert|2|m²|0|abbr=on}} of green space per person, which is 90% less than New York, 85% less than Madrid and 80% less than Paris. The World Health Organization (WHO), in its concern for public health, produced a document stating that every city should have a minimum of {{convert|9|m²|0|abbr=on}} of green space per person. An optimal amount would sit between 10 and {{convert|15|m²|0|abbr=on}} per person.WEB,weblink How much green space does your city have?, sustainablecitiesnetwork, 13 July 2011,, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 1 May 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 22 May 2014,


File:Microcentro, Buenos Aires (39921080405).jpg|thumb|right|200x200px|The Catalinas Norte is an important business complex composed of nineteen commercial office buildings and occupied by numerous leading Argentine companies, foreign subsidiaries and diplomatic offices. It is located in the Retiro and San Nicolás neighborhoods.]]Buenos Aires is the financial, industrial, and commercial hub of Argentina. The economy in the city proper alone, measured by Gross Geographic Product (adjusted for purchasing power), totaled US$84.7 billion (US$34,200 per capita) in 2011JOURNAL,weblink Economía, Spanish, 22 January 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 March 2009, and amounts to nearly a quarter of Argentina's as a whole.JOURNAL,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 13 March 2008, Distribution of Gross Value Added by jurisdiction and economic activity, Producto Bruto Geografico, Spanish, 22 January 2010, Metro Buenos Aires, according to one well-quoted study, constitutes the 13th largest economy among the world's cities.WEB,weblink City Mayors reviews the richest cities in the world in 2005,, 11 March 2007, 5 May 2009, The Buenos Aires Human Development Index (0.923 in 1998) is likewise high by international standards.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 9 October 2007, Informe Argentino Sobre Desarrollo Humano, 9 October 2007, 9 August 2009,


The port of Buenos Aires is one of the busiest in South America; navigable rivers by way of the Rio de la Plata connect the port to north-east Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay. As a result, it serves as the distribution hub for a vast area of the south-eastern region of the continent. The Port of Buenos Aires handles over 11 million revenue tons annually,WEB,weblink Puerto Buenos Aires: Estadísticas, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 July 2011, and Dock Sud, just south of the city proper, handles another 17 million metric tons.WEB,weblink Dock Sud, World Port Source, 2 May 2012, Tax collection related to the port has caused many political problems in the past, including a conflict in 2008 that led to protests and a strike in the agricultural sector after the government raised export tariffs.NEWS, Argentina ends grain tax hike, Los Angeles Times, 19 July 2008,weblink Patrick J., McDonnell, 19 July 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 3 August 2008, live, {{See also|Economy of Argentina}}{{Multiple image|align =right|direction=vertical|upright=scaling factor|width =|image1= Banco Nación (1416501960) Buenos Aires, Argentina.jpgBanco de la Nación Argentina>National Bank of Argentina, the national bank and the largest in the country's banking sector.|image2= Buenos Aires - Bolsa de Comercio.jpg|caption2=The Buenos Aires Stock Exchange, the main stock exchange and financial center of Argentina.}}


The city's services sector is diversified and well-developed by international standards, and accounts for 76% of its economy (compared to 59% for all of Argentina's).WEB,weblink City of Buenos Aires Statistical Annual (2008),, 9 August 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 September 2009, Advertising, in particular, plays a prominent role in the export of services at home and abroad. The financial and real-estate services sector is the largest, however, and contributes to 31% of the city's economy. Finance (about a third of this) in Buenos Aires is especially important to Argentina's banking system, accounting for nearly half the nation's bank deposits and lending. Nearly 300 hotels and another 300 hostels and bed & breakfasts are licensed for tourism, and nearly half the rooms available were in four-star establishments or higher.WEB,weblink abril 2008 para pdf.indd, 9 August 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 October 2012,


Manufacturing is, nevertheless, still prominent in the city's economy (16%) and, concentrated mainly in the southern part of the city. It benefits as much from high local purchasing power and a large local supply of skilled labor as it does from its relationship to massive agriculture and industry just outside the city limits. Construction activity in Buenos Aires has historically been among the most accurate indicators of national economic fortunes, and since 2006 around {{convert|3|e6m2|e6ft2|abbr=off}} of construction has been authorized annually. Meat, dairy, grain, tobacco, wool and leather products are processed or manufactured in the Buenos Aires metro area. Other leading industries are automobile manufacturing, oil refining, metalworking, machine building and the production of textiles, chemicals, clothing and beverages.

Government finances

The city's budget, per Mayor Macri's 2011 proposal, included US$6 billion in revenues and US$6.3 billion in expenditures. The city relies on local income and capital gains taxes for 61% of its revenues, while federal revenue sharing contributes 11%, property taxes, 9%, and vehicle taxes, 6%. Other revenues include user fees, fines and gambling duties. The city devotes 26% of its budget to education, 22% for health, 17% for public services and infrastructure, 16% for social welfare and culture, 12% in administrative costs and 4% for law enforcement. Buenos Aires maintains low debt levels and its service requires less than 3% of the budget.WEB,weblink Presupuesto 2011, 25 February 2011,


{{See also|Culture of Argentina}}File:Centro Cultural Kirchner 2016.jpg|thumb|The Kirchner Cultural CentreKirchner Cultural CentreStrongly influenced by European culture, Buenos Aires is sometimes referred to as the "Paris of South America".'Paris of the South' {{webarchive|url= |date=23 July 2012 }} by Kenneth Bagnell, Canoe travel, 7 March 2005. The city has the busiest live theatre industry in Latin America, with scores of theaters and productions.Entertainment boom hits Buenos Aires by Charles Newbery, Posted: Sat., 25 June 2011, 4:00 am PT In fact, every weekend, there are about 300 active theatres with plays, a number that places the city as 1st worldwide, more than either London, New York or Paris, cultural Meccas in themselves. The number of cultural festivals with more than 10 sites and 5 years of existence also places the city as 2nd worldwide, after Edinburgh.weblink La Nacion, 2014. The Kirchner Cultural Centre located in Buenos Aires, is the largest of Latin America,"Cristina inaugura el Centro Cultural Néstor Kirchner", Perfil, 21 May 2015"Las impactantes fotos del Centro Cultural Néstor Kirchner", Ambito Financiero, 20 May 2015 and the third worldwide."La obra faraónica del legado cultural K", Los Andes, 31 May 2015Buenos Aires is the home of the Teatro Colón, an internationally rated opera house.Time Out Guide: Buenos Aires, Cathy Runciman & Leticia Saharrea (eds), Penguin Books, London, 2001. {{ISBN|0-14-029398-1}} There are several symphony orchestras and choral societies. The city has numerous museums related to history, fine arts, modern arts, decorative arts, popular arts, sacred art, arts and crafts, theatre and popular music, as well as the preserved homes of noted art collectors, writers, composers and artists. The city is home to hundreds of bookstores, public libraries and cultural associations (it is sometimes called "the city of books"), as well as the largest concentration of active theatres in Latin America. It has a world-famous zoo and botanical garden, a large number of landscaped parks and squares, as well as churches and places of worship of many denominations, many of which are architecturally noteworthy.The city has been a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network after it was named "City of Design" in 2005.WEB,weblink Buenos Aires City of Design – Unesco,,

Porteño identity

{{See also|Argentines}}File:Homenaje a Buenos Aires.jpg|thumb|Homage to Buenos Aires, a mural located at the Carlos Gardel station of the Buenos Aires Underground. It represents a typical scene from the city and several of its icons, such as singer Carlos Gardel, the Obelisco, the port, tango dancing and the Abasto marketAbasto marketThe identity of porteños has a rich and complex history, and has been the subject of much analysis and scrutiny.WEB,weblink, Top 5 Ways to Blend in as a Porteño, Beioley, Kate, 22 August 2012, The Argentina Independent, 12 December 2016, 8 January 2018, dead, The great European immigration wave of the early 20th century was integral to "the growing primacy of Buenos Aires and the accompanying urban identity", and established the division between urban and rural Argentina more deeply.Lewis Nouwen, 2013. p.121 Immigrants "brought new traditions and cultural markers to the city," which were "then reimagined in the porteño context, with new layers of meanings because of the new location."Lewis Nouwen, 2013. p.122 The heads of state's attempt to populate the country and reframe the national identity resulted in the concentration of immigrants in the city and its suburbs, who generated a culture that is a "product of their conflicts of integration, their difficulties to live and their communication puzzles."Rojas-Mix, 1991. p. 57 In response to the immigration wave, during the 1920s and 1930s a nationalist trend within the Argentine intellectual elite glorified the gaucho figure as an exemplary archetype of Argentine culture; its synthesis with the European traditions conformed the new urban identity of Buenos Aires.Rojas-Mix, 1991. p. 60 The complexity of Buenos Aires' integration and identity formation issues increased when immigrants realized that their European culture could help them gain a greater social status.Rojas-Mix, 1991. p. 61 As the rural population moved to the industrialized city from the 1930s onwards, they reaffirmed their European roots,WEB,weblink Identidad y migraciones: Entrevista a Alejandro Grimson, Pablos, Gustavo, Goethe-Institut, Spanish, 12 December 2016, adopting endogamy and founding private schools, newspapers in foreign languages, and associations that promoted adherence to their countries of origin.Porteños are generally characterized as night owls, cultured, talkative, uninhibited, sensitive, nostalgic, observative and arrogant. Argentines outside Buenos Aires often stereotype its inhabitants as egotist people, a feature that people from the Americas and westerners in general commonly attribute to the entire Argentine population and use as the subject of numerous jokes.WEB,weblink ¿Por qué los latinoamericanos hacen tantos chistes sobre los argentinos?, Smink, Veronica, 20 October 2015, Spanish, BBC Mundo, 12 December 2016, Writing for BBC Mundo Cristina Pérez felt that "the idea of the [Argentines'] vastly developed ego finds strong evidence in lunfardo dictionaries," in words such as "engrupido" (meaning "vain" or "conceited") and "compadrito" (meaning both "brave" and "braggart"), the latter being an archetypal figure of tango.WEB,weblink "El problema de los argentinos es que tenemos un enorme complejo de inferioridad" (no el ego), Pérez, Cristina, 26 April 2016, Spanish, BBC Mundo, 12 December 2016, Paradoxically, porteños are also described as highly self-critical, something that has been called "the other side of the ego coin." Writers consider that these behaviours are the consequence of the European immigration and prosperity the city experienced during the early 20th century, which generated a feeling of superiority in parts of the population.


{{See also|Argentine painting|Category:Museums in Buenos Aires|l2=Museums in Buenos Aires}}File:FachadaModerno.jpg|thumb|right|230x230px|Buenos Aires Museum of Modern ArtBuenos Aires Museum of Modern ArtBuenos Aires has a thriving arts culture,WEB,weblink Best Art in Buenos Aires, Bredow, Susan, 20 June 2015, Herald Sun, The Herald and Weekly Times, 3 February 2016, with "a huge inventory of museums, ranging from obscure to world-class."BOOK, Bernhardson, Wayne, 14 October 2008, Moon Buenos Aires,weblink Avalon Travel, 136, 978-1566919913, The barrios of Palermo and Recoleta are the city's traditional bastions in the diffusion of art, although in recent years there has been a tendency of appearance of exhibition venues in other districts such as Puerto Madero or La Boca; renowned venues include MALBA, the National Museum of Fine Arts, Fundación Proa, Faena Arts Center, and the Usina del Arte.WEB,weblink Best Art in Buenos Airespast, Chesterton, Matt, August 2014, Travel + Leisure, Time Inc., 3 February 2016, Other popular institutions are the Buenos Aires Museum of Modern Art, the Quinquela Martín Museum, the Evita Museum, the Fernández Blanco Museum, the José Hernández Museum, and the Palais de Glace, among others.WEB,weblink Museos de la ciudad, Spanish, Government of the City of Buenos Aires, 3 February 2016, A traditional event that occurs once a year is La Noche de los Museos ("Night of the Museums"), when the city's museums, universities, and artistic spaces open their doors for free until early morning; it usually takes place in November.WEB,weblink La Noche de los Museos, Spanish, Government of the City of Buenos Aires, 3 February 2016, MAGAZINE,weblink Free Things to Do in Buenos Aires, National Geographic, 3 February 2016, The first major artistic movements in Argentina coincided with the first signs of political liberty in the country, such as the 1913 sanction of the secret ballot and universal male suffrage, the first president to be popularly elected (1916), and the cultural revolution that involved the University Reform of 1918. In this context, in which there continued to be influence from the Paris School (Modigliani, Chagall, Soutine, Klee), three main groups arose.Buenos Aires has been the birthplace of several artists and movements of national and international relevance, and has become a central motif in Argentine artistic production, specially since the 20th century.WEB,weblink La ciudad: arte y utopías, Battistozzi, Ana María, August 2005, Spanish, Centro Virtual de Arte Argentino, 18 November 2016, Examples include: the Paris Group – so named for being influenced by the School of Paris – constituted by Antonio Berni, Aquiles Badi, Lino Enea Spilimbergo, Raquel Forner and Alfredo Bigatti, among others; andWEB,weblink El grupo de París, Babino, Malena, September 2007, Spanish, Centro Virtual de Arte Argentino, 18 November 2016, the La Boca artists – including Benito Quinquela Martín and Alfredo Lazzari, among others – who mostly came from Italy or were of Italian descent, and usually painted scenes from this working-class port neighbourhood.WEB,weblink La Boca Artists, Battiti, Florencia, Mezza, Cintia, August 2006, Centro Virtual de Arte Argentino, 18 November 2016, During the 1960s, the Torcuato di Tella Institute – located in Florida Street – became a leading local center for pop art, performance art, installation art, experimental theatre, and conceptual art; this generation of artists included Marta Minujín, Dalila Puzzovio, David Lamelas and Clorindo Testa.Buenos Aires has also become a prominent center of contemporary street art; its welcoming attitude has made it one of the world's top capitals of such expression. The city's turbulent modern political history has "bred an intense sense of expression in porteños," and urban art has been used to depict these stories and as a means of protest.WEB,weblink The street art of Buenos Aires, McFarlane, Nyree, 28 April 2015,, 3 February 2016, However, not all of its street art concerns politics, it is also used as a symbol of democracy and freedom of expression. Murals and graffiti are so common that they are considered "an everyday occurrence," and have become part of the urban landscape of barrios such as Palermo, Villa Urquiza, Coghlan and San Telmo.WEB,weblink El arte callejero se expande por la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Gorski, Alana, 24 January 2016, Infobae, 3 February 2016, This has to do with the legality of such activities —provided that the building owner has consented—, and the receptiveness of local authorities, who even subsidize various works.WEB,weblink Argentina Welcomes Street Art, Buenos Aires Is Canvass For International Artists, Muralists, Calatrava, Almudena, 5 June 2013, The Huffington Post,, Inc., 3 February 2016, The abundance of places for urban artists to create their work, and the relatively lax rules for street art, have attracted international artists such as Blu, Jef Aérosol, Aryz, ROA, and Ron English. Guided tours to see murals and graffiti around the city have been growing steadily.WEB,weblink El street art de Buenos Aires seduce al mundo, 21 June 2013, Clarín, Clarín Group, 3 February 2016, File:Malba - Milla Museos.jpg|MALBAFile:Centro Cultural Recoleta-Recoleta Cultural Center.jpg|Recoleta Cultural CenterFile:ID 208 Palacio Errazuriz 0858.jpg|Museum of Decorative ArtsFile:Faena Arts Center in Puerto Madero.jpg|Faena Arts Center


{{See also|Argentine literature}}File:Jorge Luis Borges (crop).jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.9|Jorge Luis BorgesJorge Luis BorgesDespite its short urban history, Buenos Aires has an abundant literary production; its mythical-literary network "has grown at the same rate at which the streets of the city earned its shores to the pampas and buildings stretched its shadow on the curb."MAGAZINE, Komi Kallinikos, Christina, 2003, La ciudad literaria, portador material e inmaterial de memoria,weblink Spanish, Revista del Centro de Letras Hispanoamericanas, 12, 15, Mar del Plata, Argentina, National University of Mar del Plata, 5 February 2016, The city has at least 734 bookstores, more per person than any other city in the world.WEB,weblink A novel oasis: why Argentina is the bookshop capital of the world, Goñi, Uki, 20 June 2015, The Guardian, Guardian News and Media Limited, 2 February 2016, Gabriela Adamo, former president of the city's annual book fair, relates the popularity of reading among its inhabitants to the wave of mass immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which created "a multicultural environment in which culture and the arts thrived." Publishing experts have also linked it to the city's obsession with psychoanalysis. The city also ranks third in terms of secondhand bookshops per inhabitant, most of them congregated in Corrientes Avenue. Arguably the most famous bookstore is El Ateneo Grand Splendid, a reformed theatre. The Guardian ranked it second in its list of "The world's 10 best bookshops" in 2008.WEB,weblink Top shelves, 11 January 2008, Guardian News and Media Limited, 3 February 2016, The Guardian, Argentine literature began around 1550 with the work of Matías Rojas de Oquendo and Pedro González de Prado (from Santiago del Estero, the first important urban settlement in Argentina), who wrote prose and poetry. They were partly inspired by oral aboriginal poetry—in particular, according to Carlos Abregú Virreyra, by the lules, juríes, diaguitas and tonocotés. A symbiosis emerged between the aboriginal and Spanish traditions, creating a distinct literature, geographically limited (well into the 18th century) to the Argentine north and central regions, with the province of Córdoba as its center, due to the foundation of the National University of Córdoba. Two names stand out from this period: Gaspar Juárez Baviano, and Antonia de la Paz y Figueroa, also known as "Beata Antula".Gradually, with the economic prosperity of the port, the cultural axis moved eastward. The letters of the colonial age (Viceroyalty-neoclassicism, baroque and epic) grew under the protection of the independentist fervor: Vicente López y Planes, Pantaleón Rivarola and Esteban de Luca.File:El Ateneo Grand Splendid bookstore - Buenos Aires, Argentina - 5 Jan. 2015.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|El Ateneo Grand SplendidEl Ateneo Grand SplendidThe literary history of the country is linked to Buenos Aires' cafés; some of the old ones still exist, like Café Tortoni, Café La Biela, Esquina Homero Manzi, Confitería Las Violetas, Confitería London City and Confitería Hotel Castelar. The city hosts the National Library of the Argentine Republic, the largest library in the country. Every April, the Buenos Aires International Book Fair takes place, which describes itself as "the most important annual literary event in the Spanish speaking world."WEB,weblink Buenos Aires Book Fair, Fundación El Libro, 3 February 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 March 2016, Every year, it gathers more than one million visitors, and usually features the presence of prestigious international authors.Today, Buenos Aires has more bookshops per person than any other cities in the world.WEB,weblink A novel oasis: why Argentina is the bookshop capital of the world, Uki, Goñi, 19 June 2015, the Guardian, 5 October 2018, WEB,weblink Number of bookshops per 100.000 population,, 5 October 2018,


{{See also|Belgranodeutsch|cocoliche}}Known as Rioplatense Spanish, Buenos Aires' Spanish (as that of other cities like Rosario and Montevideo, Uruguay) is characterised by voseo, yeísmo and aspiration of s in various contexts. It is heavily influenced by the dialects of Spanish spoken in Andalusia and Murcia.In the early 20th century, Argentina absorbed millions of immigrants, many of them Italians, who spoke mostly in their local dialects (mainly Neapolitan, Sicilian and Genoese). Their adoption of Spanish was gradual, creating a pidgin of Italian dialects and Spanish that was called cocoliche. Its usage declined around the 1950s. A phonetic study conducted by the Laboratory for Sensory Investigations of CONICET and the University of Toronto showed that the prosody of porteño is closer to the Neapolitan language of Italy than to any other spoken language.WEB,weblink Napolitanos y porteños, unidos por el acento,, 13 September 2013, Many Spanish immigrants were from Galicia, and Spaniards are still generically referred to in Argentina as gallegos (Galicians). Galician language, cuisine and culture had a major presence in the city for most of the 20th century. In recent years, descendants of Galician immigrants have led a mini-boom in Celtic music (which also highlighted the Welsh traditions of Patagonia).Yiddish was commonly heard in Buenos Aires, especially in the Balvanera garment district and in Villa Crespo until the 1960s. Most of the newer immigrants learn Spanish quickly and assimilate into city life.The Lunfardo argot originated within the prison population, and in time spread to all porteños. Lunfardo uses words from Italian dialects, from Brazilian Portuguese, from African and Caribbean languages and even from English. Lunfardo employs humorous tricks such as inverting the syllables within a word (vesre). Today, Lunfardo is mostly heard in tango lyrics;WEB,weblink A sense of where you were,, 5 October 2018, the slang of the younger generations has been evolving away from it.Buenos Aires was also the first city to host a Mundo Lingo event on 7 July 2011, which have been after replicated in up to 15 cities in 13 countries.WEB,weblink History of Mundo Lingo, 2017,, 5 November 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 13 November 2017, dead, dmy-all,


{{See also|Music of Argentina|Argentine tango|Argentine rock}}File:Buenos Aires Festival y Mundial de Tango.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|left|Tango dancers during the World tango dance tournamentWorld tango dance tournamentAccording to the Harvard Dictionary of Music, "Argentina has one of the richest art music traditions and perhaps the most active contemporary musical life" in South America.BOOK, 28 November 2003, The Harvard Dictionary of Music,weblink Belknap Press, 53–54, 978-0674011632, Buenos Aires boasts of several professional orchestras, including the Argentine National Symphony Orchestra, the Ensamble Musical de Buenos Aires and the Camerata Bariloche; as well as various conservatories that offer professional music education, like the Conservatorio Nacional Superior de Música. As a result of the growth and commercial prosperity of the city in the late 18th century, the theatre became a vital force in Argentine musical life, offering Italian and French operas and Spanish zarzuelas. Italian music was very influential during the 19th century and the early 20th century, in part because of immigration, but operas and salon music were also composed by Argentines, including Francisco Hargreaves and Juan Gutiérrez. A nationalist trend that drew from Argentine traditions, literature and folk music was an important force during the 19th century, including composers Alberto Williams, Julián Aguirre, Arturo Berutti and Felipe Boero. In the 1930s, composers such as Juan Carlos Paz and Alberto Ginastera "began to espouse a cosmopolitan and modernist style, influenced by twelve-tone techniques and serialism"; while avant-garde music thrived by the 1960s, with the Rockefeller Foundation financing the Centro Interamericano de Altos Estudios Musicales, which brought internationally famous composers to work and teach in Buenos Aires, also establishing an electronic music studio.File:Orquesta Estudiantil de Buenos Aires (7983428800).jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|The Buenos Aires PhilharmonicBuenos Aires PhilharmonicThe Río de la Plata is known for being the birthplace of tango, which is considered an emblem of Buenos Aires.WEB,weblink Tanguerías, milongas y clases de tango, Spanish, Government of the City of Buenos Aires, 8 February 2016, The city considers itself the Tango World Capital, and as such hosts many related events, the most important being an annual festival and world tournament. The most important exponent of the genre is Carlos Gardel, followed by Aníbal Troilo; other important composers include Alfredo Gobbi, Ástor Piazzolla, Osvaldo Pugliese, Mariano Mores, Juan D'Arienzo and Juan Carlos Cobián.WEB,weblink Compositores, Spanish, Government of the City of Buenos Aires, 8 February 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 February 2016, Tango music experienced a period of splendor during the 1940s, while in the 1960s and 1970s nuevo tango appeared, incorporating elements of classical and jazz music. A contemporary trend is neotango (also known as electrotango), with exponents such as Bajofondo and Gotan Project. On 30 September 2009, UNESCO's Intergovernmental Committee of Intangible Heritage declared tango part of the world's cultural heritage, making Argentina eligible to receive financial assistance in safeguarding tango for future generations.WEB,weblink Tango on UNESCO world heritage list, Huffington Post, 30 September 2009, 1 June 2011, The city hosts several music festivals every year. A popular genre is electronic dance music, with festivals including Creamfields BA, SAMC, Moonpark, and a local edition of Ultra Music Festival. Other well-known events include the Buenos Aires Jazz Festival, Personal Fest, Quilmes Rock and Pepsi Music. Some music festivals are held in Greater Buenos Aires, like Lollapalooza, which takes place at the Hipódromo de San Isidro in San Isidro.


File:Gaumont Cinema.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.05|(:es:Cine Gaumont|Gaumont Cinema) opened in 1912.]]Argentine cinema history began in Buenos Aires with the first film exhibition on 18 July 1896 at the Teatro Odeón.WEB,weblink Historia del Cine Argentino (1896–1945)first1=Paranáaccess-date=29 February 2016PUBLISHER=PRESIDENCY OF THE ARGENTINE NATIONLANGUAGE=SPANISHARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160306162448/HTTP://WWW.ARGENTINA.GOB.AR/INFORMACION/CULTURA/105-CINE.PHPLa bandera Argentina, Eugène Py became one of the first filmmakers of the country; the film features a waving Argentine flag located at Plaza de Mayo. In the early 20th century, the first cinema theatres of the country opened in Buenos Aires, and newsreels appeared, most notably El Viaje de Campos Salles a Buenos Aires. The real industry emerged with the advent of sound films, the first one being Muñequitas porteñas (1931). The newly founded Argentina Sono Film released ¡Tango! in 1933, the first integral sound production in the country. During the 1930s and the 1940s (commonly referred as the "Golden Age" of Argentine ciema), many films revolved around the city of Buenos Aires and tango culture, reflected in titles such as La vida es un tango, El alma del bandoneón, Goodbye Buenos Aires>Adiós Buenos Aires, El Cantor de Buenos Aires and ''Buenos Aires Sings''. Cinema of Argentina>Argentine films were exported across Latin America, specially Libertad Lamarque's melodramas, and the comedies of Luis Sandrini and Niní Marshall. The popularity of local cinema in the Spanish-speaking world played a key role in the massification of tango music. Carlos Gardel, an iconic figure of tango and Buenos Aires, became an international star by starring in several films during that era.File:La Ciudad al Aire Libre.jpg|thumb|upright=1.1|A screening at Parque Centenario, as part of the 2011 edition of BAFICI ]]In response to large studio productions, the "Generation of the 60s" appeared, a group of filmmakers that produced the first modernist films in Argentina during that early years of that decade. These included Manuel Antín, Lautaro Murúa and René Mugica, among others.WEB,weblink El Cine Argentino (1945–1995), Sendrós, Paraná, El Sur del Sur, 29 February 2016, Spanish, During the second half of the decade, films of social protest were presented in clandestine exhibitions, the work of Grupo Cine Liberación and Grupo Cine de la Base, who advocated what they called "Third Cinema". At that time, the country was under a military dictatorship after the coup d'état known as Argentine Revolution. One of the most notable films of these movement is La hora de los hornos (1968) by Fernando Solanas. During the period of democracy between 1973 and 1975, the local cinema experienced critical and commercial success, with titles including Juan Moreira (1973), La Patagonia rebelde (1974), La Raulito (1975), and La tregua (1974) – which became the first Argentine film nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. However, because of censorship and a new military government, Argentine cinema stalled until the return of democracy in the 1980s. This generation – known as "Argentine Cinema in Liberty and Democracy" – were mostly young or postponed filmmakers, and gained international notoriety. Camila (1984) by María Luisa Bemberg was nominated for the Best Foreign Film at the Academy Awards, and Luis Puenzo's La historia oficial (1985) was the first Argentine film to receive the award.Located in Buenos Aires is the Pablo Ducrós Hicken Museum of Cinema, the only one in the country dedicated to Argentine cinema and a pioneer of its kind in Latin America.WEB,weblink Museo del Cine: Historia, Government of the City of Buenos Aires, 29 February 2016, Spanish, Every year, the city hosts the Buenos Aires International Festival of Independent Cinema (BAFICI), which, in its 2015 edition, featured 412 films from 37 countries, and an attendance of 380 thousand people.WEB,weblink Un festival en constante crecimiento, Government of the City of Buenos Aires, 29 February 2016, Spanish, Buenos Aires also hosts various other festivals and film cycles, like the Buenos Aires Rojo Sangre, devoted to horror.


Buenos Aires is home to five Argentine television networks: America, Television Pública Argentina, El Nueve, Telefe, and El Trece. Four of them are located in Buenos Aires, and the studios of America is located in La Plata.


File:BAFWEEK planetario.jpg|thumb|upright=1.05|A fashion show at the Planetarium in 2013, as part of BAFWEEKBAFWEEKBuenos Aires' inhabitants have been historically characterized as "fashion-conscious".BOOK, Espsäter, María M., 8 August 2014, Uruguay Focus: Includes Montevideo, Punta del Este, Colonia del Sacramento,weblink Footprint Travel Guides, 92, 978-1909268722, BOOK, Davies, Catherine, Owen, Hilary, Brewster, Claire, 3 January 2007, South American Independence: Gender, Politics, Text,weblink Oxford University Press, 266, 978-1846316845, BOOK, Greenberg, Arnold, Tristan, Linda, 1999, Buenos Aires and the Best of Argentina Alive!,weblink Hunter Publishing, 1992, 978-1556508813, National designers display their collections annually at the Buenos Aires Fashion Week (BAFWEEK) and related events.WEB,weblink BAFWeek cumple 10 años,, 2 May 2012, Inevitably being a season behind, it fails to receive much international attention.WEB,weblink Top 5 Argentine Fashion Designers, Roberts, Mhairi, 6 July 2011, The Argentina Independent, 1 September 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 11 September 2016, dead, Nevertheless, the city remains an important regional fashion capital. According to Global Language Monitor, {{As of|2017|lc=y}} the city is the 20th leading fashion capital in the world, ranking second in Latin America after Rio de Janeiro.WEB,weblink New York Bests Paris for 2017 Top Global Fashion Capital Title, September 2017, 26 April 2018, Global Language Monitor, Austin, Texas, In 2005, Buenos Aires was appointed as the first UNESCO City of Design,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 17 July 2012, Buenos Aires, Argentina appointed UNESCO City of Design,, 2 May 2012, and received this title once again in 2007.WEB,weblink Buenos Aires: UNESCO City of Design, 2 May 2012, Since 2015, the Buenos Aires International Fashion Film Festival Buenos Aires (BAIFFF) takes place, sponsored by the city and Mercedes-Benz.WEB,weblink Llega BAIFFF, el Primer Festival de Fashion Films de la Argentina, 7 April 2015, Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 1 September 2016, The government of the city also organizes La Ciudad de Moda ("The City of Fashion"), an annual event that serves as a platform for emerging creators and attempts to boost the sector by providing management tools.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 16 February 2016, La Ciudad de MODA, March 2016, Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 1 September 2016, The neighbourhood of Palermo, particularly the area known as Soho, is where the latest fashion and design trends are presented. The "sub-barrio" of Palermo Viejo is also a popular port of call for fashion in the city. An increasing number of young, independent designers are also setting up their own shops in the bohemian neighbourhood of San Telmo, known for its wide variety of markets and antique shops. Recoleta, on the other hand, is the quintessential neighbourhood for exclusive and upscale fashion houses.WEB,weblink Barrios, distritos y eventos, Autonomous City of Buenos Aires, 18 August 2015, In particular, Avenida Alvear is home to the most exclusive representatives of haute couture in the city.BOOK, Froggatt, Charles, 21 June 2007, A Hedonist's Guide to Buenos Aires,weblink HG2, 175, 978-1905428083,


{{Panorama|image =File:Buenos Aires Panorama.jpg|fullwidth=|fullheight=Buenos Aires CBD>downtown. On the left is the Congressional Plaza and the river and skyscrapers are far in the back of the panorama.|alt =daytime skyline of a city|height =250px}}


{{See also|Architecture of Argentina}}File:Cabildo de Buenos Aires, calle Bolivar.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|View of Bolívar Street facing the Cabildo and Diagonal Norte, on Buenos Aires' historical center. The city's characteristic convergence of diverse architectural styles can be seen, including Spanish Colonial, Beaux-Arts and modernist architecturemodernist architectureBuenos Aires architecture is characterized by its eclectic nature, with elements resembling Paris and Madrid. There is a mix, due to immigration, of Colonial, Art Deco, Art Nouveau, Neo-Gothic, and French Bourbon styles.Portal Oficial de Turismo de Buenos Aires: Arquitectura {{webarchive |url= |date=27 September 2011 }} (Spanish) Italian and French influences increased after the declaration of independence at the beginning of the 19th century, though the academic style persisted until the first decades of the 20th century.Attempts at renovation took place during the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, when European influences penetrated into the country, reflected by several buildings of Buenos Aires such as the Iglesia Santa Felicitas by Ernesto Bunge; the Palace of Justice, the National Congress, all of them by Vittorio Meano, and the Teatro Colón, by Francesco Tamburini and Vittorio Meano.The simplicity of the Rioplatense baroque style can be clearly seen in Buenos Aires through the works of Italian architects such as André Blanqui and Antonio Masella, in the churches of San Ignacio, Nuestra Señora del Pilar, the Cathedral and the Cabildo.In 1912, the Basilica del Santisimo Sacramento was opened to the public. Totally built by the generous donation of Mrs. Mercedes Castellanos de Anchorena, Argentina's most prominent family, the church is an excellent example of French neo-classicism. With extremely high-grade decorations in its interior, the magnificent Mutin-Cavaillé coll organ (the biggest ever installed in an Argentine church with more than four-thousand tubes and four manuals) presided the nave. The altar is full of marble, and was the biggest ever built in South America at that time.Clarí "Celebran hoy los 100 años de la cripta del Santísimo Sacramento" 23 June 2011In 1919, the construction of Palacio Barolo began. This was South America's tallest building at the time, and was the first Argentine skyscraper built with concrete (1919–1923).WEB,weblink Palacio Barolo,, 15 September 2011, The building was equipped with 9 elevators, plus a 20-metre high lobby hall with paintings in the ceiling and Latin phrases embossed in golden bronze letters. A 300,000-candela beacon was installed at the top (110 m), making the building visible even from Uruguay. In 2009, the Barolo Palace went under an exhaustive restoration, and the beacon was made operational again.In 1936, the Kavanagh building was inaugurated, with {{convert|120|m|ft|abbr=off}} height, 12 elevators (provided by Otis) and the world's first central air-conditioning system (provided by north-American company "Carrier"), is still an architectural landmark in Buenos Aires.Clarí "Vivir en el Kavanagh, un lujo para vecinos de perfil bajo" 24 July 2011The architecture of the second half of the 20th century continued to reproduce French neoclassic models, such as the headquarters of the Banco de la Nación Argentina built by Alejandro Bustillo, and the Museo Hispanoamericano de Buenos Aires of Martín Noel. However, since the 1930s, the influence of Le Corbusier and European rationalism consolidated in a group of young architects from the University of Tucumán, among whom Amancio Williams stands out. The construction of skyscrapers proliferated in Buenos Aires until the 1950s. Newer modern high-technology buildings by Argentine architects in the last years of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st include the Le Parc Tower by Mario Álvarez, the Torre Fortabat by Sánchez Elía and the Repsol-YPF tower by César Pelli.


{{See also|Education in Argentina}}

Primary education

Primary education comprise grades 1–7. Most primary schools in the city still adhere to the traditional seven-year primary school, but kids can do grades 1–6 if their high schools lasts 6 years, such as ORT Argentina.

Secondary education

File:Colegio Nacional Buenos Aires.jpg|thumb|right|Colegio Nacional de Buenos AiresColegio Nacional de Buenos AiresFile:UBA-Facultad-Derecho.jpg|thumb|right|University of Buenos Aires' Law School in Recoleta ]]Secondary education in Argentina is called Polimodal ("polymodal", that is, having multiple modes), since it allows the student to choose their orientation. Polimodal is usually 3 years of schooling, although some schools have a fourth year. Before entering the first year of polimodal, students choose an orientation, among these five: Humanities and Social Sciences, Economics and Management of Organizations, Art and Design, Health and Sport and Biology and Natural Sciences.Nevertheless, in Buenos Aires, secondary education consists of 5 years, called from 1st year to 5th year, as opposed to primary education's 1st to 7th grade. Most schools don't require students to choose their orientation, as they study the basic such as maths, biology, art, history and technology, but there are schools that do, whether they are orientated to a certain profession or they have orientations to choose from when they reach a specific year.Some high schools depend on the University of Buenos Aires, and these require an admission course when students are taking the last year of high school. These high schools are ILSE, CNBA, Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini and Escuela de Educación Técnica Profesional en Producción Agropecuaria y Agroalimentaria (School of Professional Technique Education in Agricultural and Agri-food Production). The last two do have a specific orientation.In December 2006 the Chamber of Deputies of the Argentine Congress passed a new National Education Law restoring the old system of primary followed by secondary education, making secondary education obligatory and a right, and increasing the length of compulsory education to 13 years. The government vowed to put the law in effect gradually, starting in 2007.WEB,weblink Clarín article,, 14 December 2006, 9 August 2009,

University education

{{See also|University Revolution|List of Argentine universities}}There are many public universities in Argentina, as well as a number of private universities. The University of Buenos Aires, one of the top learning institutions in South America, has produced five Nobel Prize winners and provides taxpayer-funded education for students from all around the globe.WEB,weblink Intercambio con universidades extranjeras | Facultad de Derecho – Universidad de Buenos Aires,, 13 September 2013, WEB,weblink Facultad de Ingeniería – Universidad de Buenos Aires,, 13 September 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 September 2013, WEB,weblink La UBA apuesta al intercambio académico,, 13 September 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 9 April 2014, dead, dmy-all, Buenos Aires is a major center for psychoanalysis, particularly the Lacanian school. Buenos Aires is home to several private universities of different quality, such as: Universidad Argentina de la Empresa, Buenos Aires Institute of Technology, CEMA University, Favaloro University, Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina, University of Belgrano, University of Palermo, University of Salvador, Universidad Abierta Interamericana, Universidad John F. Kennedy, Universidad de Ciencias Empresariales y Sociales, Universidad del Museo Social Argentino, Universidad Austral, Universidad CAECE and Torcuato di Tella University.


(File:Buenos Aires Tour Bus.jpg|thumb|left|Buenos Aires Bus, the city's tourist bus service. The official estimate is that the bus carries between 700 and 800 passengers per day, and has carried half a million passengers since its opening.WEB,weblink Medio millón de pasajeros ya viajó en el Bus Turístico, Spanish, 21 July 2011,, 13 September 2013, )According to the World Travel & Tourism Council,WEB,weblink Wttc Travel,, 13 September 2013, tourism has been growing in the Argentine capital since 2002. In a survey by the travel and tourism publication Travel + Leisure Magazine in 2008, travellers voted Buenos Aires the second most desirable city to visit after Florence, Italy.Buenos Aires was also voted world's best South American city of fashion Travel + Leisure Magazine worldsbest/2008 Retrieved on 9 July 2008 {{webarchive |url= |date=27 July 2009 }} In 2008, an estimated 2.5 million visitors visited the city.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2 February 2013, Buenos Aires: a City's Power and Promise, Smithsonian Magazine, 2 May 2012, Visitors have many options such as going to a tango show, an estancia in the Province of Buenos Aires, or enjoying the traditional asado. New tourist circuits have recently evolved, devoted to famous Argentines such as Carlos Gardel, Eva Perón or Jorge Luis Borges. Before 2011, due to the favourable exchange rate, its shopping centres such as Alto Palermo, Paseo Alcorta, Patio Bullrich, Abasto de Buenos Aires and Galerías Pacífico were frequently visited by tourists. The exchange rate today has hampered tourism and shopping in particular. Notable consumer brands such as Burberry and Louis Vuitton have abandoned the country due to the exchange rate and import restrictions. The city also plays host to musical festivals, some of the largest of which are Quilmes Rock, Creamfields BA, Ultra Music Festival (Buenos Aires) and the Buenos Aires Jazz Festival.The most popular tourist sites are found in the historic core of the city, in the Montserrat and San Telmo neighborhoods. Buenos Aires was conceived around the Plaza de Mayo, the colony's administrative center. To the east of the square is the Casa Rosada, the official seat of the executive branch of the government of Argentina. To the north, the Catedral Metropolitana which has stood in the same location since colonial times, and the Banco de la Nación Argentina building, a parcel of land originally owned by Juan de Garay. Other important colonial institutions were Cabildo, to the west, which was renovated during the construction of Avenida de Mayo and Julio A. Roca. To the south is the Congreso de la Nación (National Congress), which currently houses the Academia Nacional de la Historia (National Academy of History). Lastly, to the northwest, is City Hall.


File:ID 229 Jardín Japones 5449.jpg|thumb|Buenos Aires Japanese GardensBuenos Aires Japanese GardensBuenos Aires has over 250 parks and green spaces, the largest concentration of which are on the city's eastern side in the Puerto Madero, Recoleta, Palermo and Belgrano neighbourhoods. Some of the most important are:
  • Parque Tres de Febrero, designed by urbanist Jordán Czeslaw Wysocki and architect Julio Dormal, the park was inaugurated on 11 November 1875. The dramatic economic growth of Buenos Aires afterwards helped to lead to its transfer to the municipal domain in 1888, whereby French Argentine urbanist Carlos Thays was commissioned to expand and further beautify the park, between 1892 and 1912. Thays designed the Zoological Gardens, the Botanical Gardens, the adjoining Plaza Italia and the Rose Garden.
  • Botanical Gardens, designed by French architect and landscape designer Carlos Thays, the garden was inaugurated on 7 September 1898. Thays and his family lived in an English style mansion, located within the gardens, between 1892 and 1898, when he served as director of parks and walks in the city. The mansion, built in 1881, is currently the main building of the complex.
  • Buenos Aires Japanese Gardens Is the largest of its type in the World, outside Japan. Completed in 1967, the gardens were inaugurated on occasion of a State visit to Argentina by Crown Prince Akihito and Princess Michiko of Japan.
  • Plaza de Mayo Since being the scene of 25 May 1810 revolution that led to independence, the plaza has been a hub of political life in Argentina.
  • Plaza San Martín is a park located in the Retiro neighbourhood of the city. Situated at the northern end of pedestrianized Florida Street, the park is bounded by Libertador Ave. (N), Maipú St. (W), Santa Fe Avenue (S), and Leandro Alem Av. (E).
File:Plaza Congreso summer.jpg|Congressional PlazaFile:Buenos Aires Botanical Gardens, 15th. Jan. 2011 - Flickr - PhillipC (1).jpg|Buenos Aires Botanical GardenFile:Plaza de Mayo en Primavera.jpg|Plaza de MayoFile:Lago del rosedal palermo chico.jpg|Parque Tres de Febrero


Buenos Aires has over 280 theatres, more than any other city in the world.WEB,weblink La ciudad con más teatros del mundo, 26 November 2008,, 5 October 2018, Because of this, Buenos Aires is declared "World's capital of theater".WEB,weblink ABCD,, 5 October 2018, The city's theatres show everything from musicals to ballet, comedy to circuses.WEB,weblink A city of theatre, film, literature and music, Official English Website for the City of Buenos Aires, 5 October 2018, Some of them are:File:Panorámica interior del Teatro Colón (cropped).jpg|thumb|Teatro ColónTeatro Colón
  • Teatro Colón is ranked the third best opera house in the world by National Geographic,"Top 10: Opera Houses" on Retrieved 14 April 2014 and is acoustically considered to be amongst the five best concert venues in the world. The theatre is bounded by the wide 9 de Julio Avenue (technically Cerrito Street), Libertad Street (the main entrance), Arturo Toscanini Street, and Tucumán Street.History of the Colón Theatre (in English) {{webarchive|url= |date=17 May 2008 }} It is in the heart of the city on a site once occupied by Ferrocarril Oeste's Plaza Parque station.
  • Cervantes Theatre, located on Córdoba Avenue and two blocks north of Buenos Aires' renowned opera house, the Colón Theatre, the Cervantes houses three performance halls. The María Guerrero Salon is the theatre's main hall. Its 456 m2 (4,900 ft2) stage features a 12 m (39 ft) rotating circular platform and can be extended by a further 2.7 m (9 ft). The Guerrero Salon can seat 860 spectators, including 512 in the galleries. A secondary hall, the Orestes Caviglia Salon, can seat 150 and is mostly reserved for chamber music concerts. The Luisa Vehíl Salon is a multipurpose room known for its extensive gold leaf decor.
  • Teatro Gran Rex is an Art Deco style theatre which opened on 8 July 1937, as the largest cinema in South America.
  • Avenida Theatre was inaugurated on Buenos Aires' central Avenida de Mayo in 1908 with a production of Spanish dramatist Lope de Vega's Justice Without Revenge. The production was directed by María Guerrero, a Spanish Argentine theatre director who popularized classical drama in Argentina during the late 19th century and would establish the important Cervantes Theatre in 1921.

Gay tourism

Buenos Aires has become a recipient of LGBT tourism,WEB,weblink Q&A: Gay-Friendly Spots in Buenos Aires, Haljuci, Rusha, 24 August 2010, The New York Times, The New York Times Company, 29 December 2015, WEB,weblink Buenos Aires, nueva capital del turismo gay de Sudamérica, Santagati, Adriana, 1 November 2003, Clarín (Argentine newspaper), Clarín, Clarín Group, 29 December 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 5 January 2016, dead, due to the existence of some gay-friendly sites and the legalising of same-sex marriage on 15 July 2010, making it the first country in Latin America, the second in the Americas, and the tenth in the world to do so. Its Gender Identity Law, passed in 2012, made Argentina the "only country that allows people to change their gender identities without facing barriers such as hormone therapy, surgery or psychiatric diagnosis that labels them as having an abnormality". In 2015, the World Health Organization cited Argentina as an exemplary country for providing transgender rights. Despite these legal advances, however, homophobia continues to be a hotly contested social issue in the city and the country.WEB,weblink Activists hold collective kiss in Buenos Aires to protest homophobia, 6 February 2018,, 5 October 2018,


Buenos Aires has various types of accommodations, from luxurious five star to quality budget located in neighborhoods that are further from the city centre, although the transportation system allows easy and inexpensive access to the city.There were, {{as of|2008|February|lc=y}}, 23 five-star, 61 four-star, 59 three-star and 87 two or one-star hotels, as well as 25 boutique hotels and 39 apart-hotels; another 298 hostels, bed & breakfasts, vacation rentals and other non-hotel establishments were registered in the city. In all, nearly 27,000 rooms were available for tourism in Buenos Aires, of which about 12,000 belonged to four-star, five-star, or boutique hotels. Establishments of a higher category typically enjoy the city's highest occupation rates.Buenos Aires Statistical Monthly, April 2008 {{webarchive|url= |date=24 October 2012 }} The majority of the hotels are located in the central part of the city, within close proximity to most main tourist attractions.


File:WLM 2013 - Monumento de los Españoles 4.jpg|thumb|Monument to the Carta Magna and Four Regions of Argentina in the Palermo neighbourhood.]]
  • Cabildo was used as the government house during the colonial times of the Viceroyalty of the River Plate. The original building was finished in 1610 but was soon found to be too small and had to be expanded. Over the years many changes have been made. In 1940, the architect Mario Buschiazzo reconstructed the colonial features of the Cabildo using various original documents.
  • Kavanagh building is located at 1065 Florida St. in the barrio of Retiro, overlooking Plaza San Martín. It was constructed in the 1930s in the Rationalist style, by the architects Gregorio Sánchez, Ernesto Lagos and Luis María de la Torre and was finished in 1936. The building is characterised by the austerity of its lines, the lack of external ornamentation and its large prismatic volumes. It was declared a national historical monument in 1999,'El Kavanagh, entre los protegidos', Clarín, 23 April 1999 {{es icon}} and is one of the most impressive architectural masterpieces of Buenos Aires. Standing at a height of 120 m, it still retains its impact against the modern skyline of the city. In 1939 its façade received an award from the American Institute of Architects.Edificio Kavanagh{{dead link|date=July 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}
  • Metropolitan Cathedral is the main Catholic church in Buenos Aires. It is located in the city centre, overlooking Plaza de Mayo, on the corner of San Martín and Rivadavia streets, in the San Nicolás neighbourhood. It is the mother church of the Archdiocese of Buenos Aires.
  • National Library is the largest library in Argentina and one of the most important in the Americas.
  • The Obelisk was built in May 1936 to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the first founding of the city. It is located in the center of the Plaza de la República (Republic Square), the spot where the Argentine flag was flown for the first time in Buenos Aires, at the intersection of Nueve de Julio and Corrientes avenues. Its total height is {{convert|67|m|ft|abbr=off|sp=us}} and its base area is {{convert|49|m2|ft2|abbr=off|sp=us}}. It was designed by architect Alberto Prebisch, and its construction took barely four weeks.
  • The Water Company Palace (perhaps the world's most ornate water pumping station)
File:Buenos Aires - Las Nereidas.jpg|Las Nereidas font by Lola MoraFile:Kavanagh building.jpg|Kavanagh buildingFile:Buenos Aires - Recoleta - Entrada Cementerio.jpg|La Recoleta CemeteryFile:Aguas Corrientes-2011-TM.jpg|The Water Company Palace



File:199 - Buenos Aires - Aéroport international Ezeiza - Janvier 2010.jpg|thumb|Pistarini International Airport terminal]]The Ministro Pistarini International Airport, commonly known as Ezeiza Airport, is located in the suburb of Ezeiza approximately 22 km south of the city. This airport handles most international air traffic to and from Argentina as well as some domestic flights.The Aeroparque Jorge Newbery airport, located in the Palermo district of the city next to the riverbank, serves primarily domestic traffic within Argentina and some regional flights to neighboring South American countries. The El Palomar Airport in the suburb of El Palomar is 18 km west of the city and also handles some scheduled domestic flights to a number of destinations in Argentina. A smaller San Fernando Airport serves only general aviation.

Local roads and personal transport

Buenos Aires is based on a square, rectangular grid pattern, save for natural barriers or the relatively rare developments explicitly designed otherwise (notably, the neighbourhood of Parque Chas). The rectangular grid provides for square blocks named manzanas, with a length of roughly {{convert|110|m|ft|0|abbr=off}}. Pedestrian zones in the city centre, like Florida Street are partially car-free and always bustling, access provided by bus and the Underground (subte) Line C. Buenos Aires, for the most part, is a very walkable city and the majority of residents in Buenos Aires use public transport.Two diagonal avenues in the city centre alleviate traffic and provide better access to Plaza de Mayo. Most avenues running into and out of the city centre are one-way and feature six or more lanes, with computer-controlled green waves to speed up traffic outside of peak times.The city's principal avenues include the {{convert|140|m|ft|0|adj=on}}-wide July 9 Avenue, the over-{{convert|35|km|mi|0|abbr=on|adj=on}}-long Rivadavia Avenue,'Avenida Rivadavia:Un largo recorrido de contrastes' by Nora Sánchez, Clarín, 26 February 2006 and Corrientes Avenue, the main thoroughfare of culture and entertainment.In the 1940s and 1950s the General Paz Avenue beltway that surrounds the city along its border with Buenos Aires Province, and the freeways leading to the new international airport and to the northern suburbs, heralded a new era for Buenos Aires traffic. Encouraged by pro-automaker policies that were pursued towards the end of the Perón (1955) and Frondizi administrations (1958–62) in particular, auto sales nationally grew from an average of 30,000 during the 1920–57 era to around 250,000 in the 1970s and over 600,000 in 2008.WEB, IntermediaSP. 2007,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 25 January 1999, ADEFA, ADEFA, 9 August 2009, Today, over 1.8 million vehicles (nearly one-fifth of Argentina's total) are registered in Buenos Aires.DNRPA {{webarchive |url= |date=3 June 2009 }}Toll motorways opened in the late 1970s by mayor Osvaldo Cacciatore provided fast access to the city centre and are today used by over a million vehicles daily.WEB,weblink'1.10, SS PP'!A1, 9 August 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 September 2009, Cacciatore likewise had financial district streets (roughly one square km in area) closed to private cars during daytime. Most major avenues are, however, gridlocked at peak hours. Following the economic mini-boom of the 1990s, record numbers started commuting by car and congestion increased, as did the time-honored Argentine custom of taking weekends off in the countryside.

Local public transport

Commuter rail

{{See also|Rail transport in Argentina}}File:J31 576 Bf Retiro Mitre, S-Bahn-Triebzug.jpg|thumb|A Mitre Line Trenes Argentinos train in Retiro railway stationRetiro railway station(File:GREATER BA RAIL NETWORK-b.png|thumb|right|Map of the Greater Buenos Aires Commuter Rail Network)The Buenos Aires commuter rail system has seven lines:{{div col|colwidth=30em}} {{div col end}}The Buenos Aires commuter network system is very extensive: every day more than 1.3 million people commute to the Argentine capital. These suburban trains operate between 4 am and 1 am. The Buenos Aires commuter rail network also connects the city with long-distance rail services to Rosario and Córdoba, among other metropolitan areas. There are four principal terminals for both long-distance and local passenger services in the city centre: Constitucion, Retiro, Federico Lacroze and Once, while Buenos Aires station is a minor terminus.Commuter rail in the city is mostly operated by the state-owned Trenes Argentinos, though the Urquiza Line and Belgrano Norte Line are operated by private companies Metrovías and Ferrovías respectively.Operacion {{Webarchive|url= |date=21 July 2015 }} – SOFSENuestra Historia – FerroviasFerrocarriles – Metrovias All services had been operated by Ferrocarriles Argentinos until the company's privatisation in 1993, and were then operated by a series of private companies until the lines were put back under state control following a series of high-profile accidents.NEWS,weblink 10 June 2013, ALL concessions revoked, Railway Gazette International, "Nueva empresa estatal para el Belgrano Cargas", Página/12, 23 May 2013Since 2013, there has been a series of large investments on the network, with all lines (with the exception of the Urquiza Line) receiving new rolling stock, along with widespread infrastructure improvements, track replacement, electrification work, refurbishments of stations and building entirely new stations.En agosto comenzarán a funcionar nuevos trenes en la línea Belgrano Sur – La Nacion, 29 July 2015.Por obras de modernización, los trenes de la línea Mitre no se detendrán en algunas estaciones – Telam, 24 July 2015.Suspenden la construcción de una estación de tren junto al Aeroparque – La Nacion, 14 July 2015. Similarly, almost all level crossings have been replaced by underpasses and overpasses in the city, with plans to replace all of them in the near future.La Ciudad construye dos nuevos pasos bajo nivel – Buenos Aires Ciudad, 29 April 2014. One of the most major projects under way is the electrification of the remaining segments of the Roca Line – the most widely used in the network – and also moving the entire section of the Sarmiento Line which runs through the centre of the city underground to allow for better frequencies on the line and reduce congestion above ground.Avanza la obra de electrificación del Roca – EnElSubte, 18 June 2015.Con crédito de Brasil avanza soterramiento del Sarmiento {{webarchive|url= |date=23 September 2015 }} – Diario BAE, 20 January 2015.There are also three other major projects on the table. The first would elevate a large segment of the San Martín Line which runs through the centre of the city and electrify the line, while the second would see the electrification and extension of the Belgrano Sur Line to Constitucion station in the centre of the city.El BID podría otorgar créditos para electrificar el San Martín y el Belgrano Sur – EnElSubte, 10 August 2015.Elevarán las trazas del ferrocarril San Martín y del Belgrano Sur – InfoBAE, 16 December 2014. If these two projects are completed, then the Belgrano Norte Line would be the only diesel line to run through the city. The third and most ambitious is to build a series of underground tunnels between three of the city's railway terminals with a large underground central station underneath the Obelisk, connecting all the commuter railway lines in a network dubbed the Red de Expresos Regionales.Detalles del proyecto para conectar todos los ferrocarriles urbanos debajo del Obelisco – Buenos Aires Ciudad, 12 May 2015.


File:EcoBici 2.jpg|thumb|EcoBici.]]In December 2010, the city government launched a bicycle sharing program with bicycles free for hire upon registration. Located in mostly central areas, there are 31 rental stations throughout the city providing over 850 bicycles to be picked up and dropped off at any station within an hour.WEB, Name,weblink Tag Archive | mejor en bici, The Argentina Independent, 5 October 2011, 2 May 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 28 November 2011, dead, {{As of|2013}}, the city has constructed {{convert|110|km|2|abbr=on}} of protected bicycle lanes and has plans to construct another {{convert|100|km|2|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink ecobici,, 2 May 2012, In 2015, the stations were automated and the service became 24 hours through use of a smart card or mobile phone application.


File:200 Series at San José de Flores.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.1|200 Series rolling stock at San José de Flores station, Buenos Aires UndergroundBuenos Aires UndergroundThe Buenos Aires Underground (locally known as subte, from "subterráneo" meaning underground or subway), is a high-yield{{clarify|date=January 2019}} system providing access to various parts of the city. Opened in 1913, it is the oldest underground system in the Southern Hemisphere and oldest in the Spanish-speaking world. The system has six underground lines and one overground line, named by letters (A to E, and H) and there are 100 stations, and {{convert|58.8|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} of route, including the Premetro line.WEB,weblink Nuestra compañía – ¿Qué hacemos?, Metrovias, Spanish, Our Company – What We Do, 29 July 2015, An expansion program is underway to extend existing lines into the outer neighborhoods and add a new north-south line. Route length is expected to reach {{convert|89|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} by 2011.Line A is the oldest one (service opened to public in 1913) and stations kept the "belle-époque" decoration, while the original rolling stock from 1913, affectionately known as Las Brujas were retired from the line in 2013. Daily ridership on weekdays is 1.7 million and on the increase.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 7 July 2007, Cuadros de Pasajeros, 1 June 2011, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 7 July 2007, Metrovías en Números, 1 June 2011, Fares remain relatively cheap, although the city government raised fares by over 125% in January 2012. A single journey, with unlimited interchanges between lines, now costs AR$7.50, which is roughly US$0.45.WEB, Desde mañana, el boleto de subte costará $2,50,weblink, TN, 15 March 2012, File:Subtes-2015.svg|thumb|Buenos Aires UndergroundBuenos Aires UndergroundThe most recent expansions to the network were the addition of numerous stations to the network in 2013: San José de Flores and San Pedrito to Line A, Echeverría and Juan Manuel de Rosas to Line B and Hospitales to Line H. Current works include the completion of Line H northwards and addition of three new stations to Line E in the centre of the city.WEB,weblink Retorna la actividad en la línea E a Retiro,, 13 April 2009, 25 March 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 July 2011, WEB,weblink Un nuevo subte unirá Pompeya con Retiro.,, 25 March 2010, The construction of Line F is due to commence in 2015,Piccardo anuncia la construcción de la línea F – EnElSubte, 27 April 2015 while two other lines are planned for construction in the future.


Buenos Aires had an extensive street railway (tram) system with over {{convert|857|km|abbr=on}} of track, which was dismantled during the 1960s in favour of bus transportation, but surface rail transport has made a small comeback in some parts of the city. The PreMetro or Line E2 is a {{convert|7.4|km|abbr=on}} light rail line that connects with Underground Line E at Plaza de los Virreyes station and runs to General Savio and Centro Cívico. It is operated by Metrovías. The official inauguration took place on 27 August 1987.A {{convert|2|km|abbr=on}} modern tramway, the Tranvía del Este, opened in 2007 in the Puerto Madero district, using two tramcars on temporary loan. However, plans to extend the line and acquire a fleet of trams did not come to fruition, and declining patronage led to the line's closure in October 2012.Tramways & Urban Transit, January 2013, p. 29. UK: LRTA Publishing. A heritage streetcar maintained by tram fans operates on weekends, near the Primera Junta line A Underground station in the Caballito neighbourhood.


File:GCBA - Metrobus del Bajo (18).jpg|thumb|Metrobus, Paseo del Bajo.]]There are over 150 city bus lines called Colectivos, each one managed by an individual company. These compete with each other, and attract exceptionally high use with virtually no public financial support.WEB,weblink Transportation Research Board, Buenos Aires Colectivo Buses and Experience with Privatization,, 15 January 2007, 9 August 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 July 2012, Their frequency makes them equal to the underground systems of other cities, but buses cover a far wider area than the underground system. Colectivos in Buenos Aires do not have a fixed timetable, but run from four to several per hour, depending on the bus line and time of the day. With inexpensive tickets and extensive routes, usually no further than four blocks from commuters' residences, the colectivo is the most popular mode of transport around the city.Buenos Aires has recently opened a bus rapid transit system, the Metrobus. The system uses modular median stations that serve both directions of travel, which enable pre-paid, multiple-door, level boarding. The first line, opened on 31 May 2011, runs across the Juan B. Justo Ave has 21 stations.WEB,weblink El Metrobús ya une Palermo con Liniers, 1 June 2011,, 5 October 2018, The system now has 4 lines with 113 stations on its {{convert|43.5|km|abbr=on}} network, while numerous other lines are under construction and planned.¿Por qué Metrobus? – Buenos Aires Ciudad


File:Colonia del Sacramento 2016 042.jpg|thumb|Buquebus high-speed ferries connect Buenos Aires to UruguayUruguayA fleet of 40,000 black-and-yellow taxis ply the (:Category:Streets in Buenos Aires|street)s at all hours. License controls are not enforced rigorously.{{citation needed|date=August 2015}} There have been reports of organized crime controlling the access of taxis to the city airports and other major destinations.{{citation needed|date=August 2015}} Taxi drivers are known for trying to take advantage of tourists.WEB,weblink La Nacion article, La Nacion article, 9 August 2009, Radio-link companies provide reliable and safe service; many such companies provide incentives for frequent users. Low-fare limo services, known as remises, have become popular in recent years.WEB,weblink Argentina Handbook Transportation,, 25 March 2010, WEB,weblink Radiotaxis & Remises de Argentina,, 22 February 2007, 25 March 2010,


Buenos Aires is also served by a ferry system operated by the company Buquebus that connects the port of Buenos Aires with the main cities of Uruguay, (Colonia del Sacramento, Montevideo and Punta del Este). More than 2.2 million people per year travel between Argentina and Uruguay with Buquebus. One of these ships is a catamaran, which can reach a top speed of about {{convert|80|km/h|abbr=on}}.WEB,weblink Buquebus, Buquebus, 9 August 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 June 2009,

Public Transportation statistics

According to data released by Moovit in July 2017, the average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Buenos Aires, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 79 min. 23% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 14 min, while 20% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 8.9 km, while 21% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.WEB, Buenos Aires Public Transportation Statistics, Global Public Transit Index by Moovit,weblink 19 June 2017, (File:CC-BY icon.svg|50px) Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


File:Personal de la Policia Metropolitana 02.jpg|thumb|right|Metropolitan Police of Buenos Aires City ]]The Guardia Urbana de Buenos Aires (Buenos Aires Urban Guard) was a specialized civilian force of the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina, that used to deal with different urban conflicts with the objective of developing actions of prevention, dissuasion and mediation, promoting effective behaviors that guarantee the security and the integrity of public order and social coexistence. The unit continuously assisted the personnel of the Argentine Federal Police, especially in emergency situations, events of massive concurrence, and protection of tourist establishments.Urban Guard officials did not carry any weapons in the performing of their duties. Their basic tools were a HT radio transmitter and a whistle.{{as of|2008|March}}, the Guardia Urbana was removed.The Buenos Aires Metropolitan Police was the police force under the authority of the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires. The force was created in 2010 and was composed of 1,850 officers.In 2016, the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Police and part of the Argentine Federal Police were merged to create the new Buenos Aires City Police force.The Buenos Aires City Police force began operations on 1 January 2017. Security in the city is now the responsibility of the Buenos Aires City Police.WEB,weblink Entró en funciones la nueva Policía de la Ciudad,, 2 February 2017, The police is headed by the Chief of Police who is appointed by the head of the executive branch of the city of Buenos Aires.There are four major departments:
  • Public Security
  • Investigations and Research
  • Scientific and Technical
  • Administration
Geographically, the force is divided into 56 stations throughout the city. All police station employees are civilians.The Buenos Aires City Police force is composed of over 25,000 officers.


Football is a passion for Argentines. Buenos Aires has the highest concentration of football teams of any city in the world (featuring no fewer than 24 professional football teams),50 sporting things you must do before you die, The ObserverRoyal Madrid, 4 April 2004 with many of its teams playing in the major league. The best-known rivalry is the one between Boca Juniors and River Plate, the match is better known as Superclásico. Watching a match between these two teams was deemed one of the "50 sporting things you must do before you die" by The Observer. Other major clubs include San Lorenzo de Almagro, Club Atlético Huracán, Vélez Sársfield, Chacarita Juniors, Club Ferro Carril Oeste, Nueva Chicago and Asociación Atlética Argentinos Juniors.Diego Maradona, born in Lanús Partido (county) south of Buenos Aires, is widely hailed as one of the greatest football players of all time. Maradona started his career with Argentinos Juniors, later playing for Boca Juniors, the Argentina national football team and others (most notably FC Barcelona in Spain and SSC Napoli in Italy).Complete list here on the left {{webarchive |url= |date=2 March 2010 }}Argentina has been the home of world champions in professional boxing. Carlos Monzon was a hall of fame World Middleweight champion, and the current undisputed linear Middleweight champion Sergio Martinez hails from Argentina. Omar Narvaez, Lucas Matthysse, Carolina Duer, and Marcos Maidana are five modern-day world champions as well.{{multiple image| align = center| direction = horizontal| width = 200| image1 = Luna Park 2014.jpg| width1 = 190Luna Park (Buenos Aires)>Luna Park| image2 = La Catedral del Polo.jpg| width2 = 290| caption2 = Campo Argentino de Polo, home of the Argentine Open Polo Championship, the most important global event of this discipline| image3 = Court central Buenos Aires Lawn Tennis Club.jpg| width3 = 210| caption3 = Buenos Aires Lawn Tennis Club}}Buenos Aires has been a candidate city for the Summer Olympic Games on three occasions: for the 1956 Games, which were lost by a single vote to Melbourne; for the 1968 Summer Olympics, held in Mexico City; and in 2004, when the games were awarded to Athens. However, Buenos Aires hosted the first Pan American Games (1951) and was also host city to several World Championship events: the 1950 and 1990 Basketball World Championships, the 1982 and 2002 Men's Volleyball World Championships and, most remembered, the 1978 FIFA World Cup, won by Argentina on 25 June 1978, when it defeated the Netherlands at the Estadio Monumental 3–1. In September 2013, the city hosted the 125th IOC Session, Tokyo was elected the host city of the 2020 Summer Olympics and Thomas Bach was new IOC President. Buenos Aires bid to host the 2018 Summer Youth Olympics.WEB, Buenos Aires, Argentina to bid for 2018 Youth Olympic Games,weblink 30 August 2011, Games Bids Inc., 30 August 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 January 2012, On 4 July 2013, the IOC elected Buenos Aires as the host city. Buenos Aires hosted the 2006 South American Games too.Juan Manuel Fangio won five Formula One World Driver's Championships, and was only outstripped by Michael Schumacher, with seven Championships. The Buenos Aires Oscar Gálvez car-racing track hosted 20 Formula One events as the Argentine Grand Prix, between 1953 and 1998; it was discontinued on financial grounds. The track features various local categories on most weekends.The 2009, 2010, 2011, 2015 Dakar Rally started and ended in the city.The first rugby union match in Argentina was played in 1873 in the Buenos Aires Cricket Club Ground, located in Palermo neighbourhood, where the Galileo Galilei planetarium is located today.Rugby enjoys widespread popularity in Buenos Aires, most especially in the north of the city, which boasts more than eighty rugby clubs. The city is home to the Argentine Super Rugby franchise, the Jaguares. The Argentina national rugby union team competes in Buenos Aires in international matches such as the Rugby Championship.Argentines' love for horses can be experienced in several ways: horse racing at the Hipódromo Argentino de Palermo racetrack, polo in the Campo Argentino de Polo (located just across Libertador Avenue from the Hipódromo), and pato, a kind of basketball played on horseback that was declared the national game in 1953. Polo was brought to the country in the second half of the 19th century by English immigrants.WEB,weblink A brief History of Polo in Argentina - Argentina Polo Day, Argentina Polo, Day, 26 January 2018, Buenos Aires native Guillermo Vilas (who was raised in Mar del Plata) and Gabriela Sabatini were great tennis players of the 1970s and 1980s and popularized tennis Nationwide in Argentina. Vilas won the ATP Buenos Aires numerous times in the 1970s. Other popular sports in Buenos Aires are golf, basketball, rugby and field hockey.{{wide image|River Monumental Panoramic.jpg|1000px|align-cap=center| The Estadio Monumental Antonio Vespucio Liberti is one of the most important Olympic stadiums on the continent. Known as "El Monumental", it hosted the final game of the FIFA World Cup Championship in 1978. }}

Notable people

Notable people originally from Buenos Aires:File:Norma_Aleandro.jpg|Norma Aleandro, actress, screenwriter, theatre directorBOOK, Gallina, Mario, De Gardel a Norma Aleandro: Diccionario sobre figuras del cine argentino en el exterior, 1999, Corregidor, Buenos Aires, 978-950-05-1250-3, 29, File:Martha argerich photo.jpg|Martha Argerich, classical concert pianist.File:Foto - Daniel Barenboim en el Colon.jpg|Daniel Barenboim, pianist and conductorBOOK, Grove Dictionary of American Music, 2013, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-531428-1,weblink 5 August 2018, 10.1093/acref/9780195314281.001.0001, File:Jorge Luis Borges.jpg|Jorge Luis Borges, writerFile:Fernando Caldeiro.jpg|Fernando Caldeiro, Argentine NASA astronautFile:Di_stefano_argentina.jpg|Alfredo Di Stéfano, football player and coachFile:Franciscus in 2015.jpg|Pope FrancisFile:Gardel.jpg|Carlos Gardel, singer-songwriter (born in France; immigrated to Buenos Aires as a child)File:QueenMaximaCaribbeanTour..jpg|Queen Máxima of the NetherlandsLalo Schifrin, musician and composerLARKIN TITLE=ENCYCLOPEDIA OF POPULAR MUSIC PUBLISHER=OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS URL=HTTP://WWW.OXFORDREFERENCE.COM/VIEW/10.1093/ACREF/9780195313734.001.0001/ACREF-9780195313734-E-39766 DOI=10.1093/ACREF/9780195313734.001.0001, File:Luis Scola by Brenda Staples Photography.jpg|Luis Scola, basketball player

Honorary citizens

People awarded the honorary citizenship of Buenos Aires are:{| class="wikitable" border="1" width="75%" cellpadding="1" cellspacing="0" style="font-size: 85%; border: gray solid 1px; border-collapse: collapse; text-align: middle;"! style="text-align: left;background:#B0C4DE"|Date! width="240" style="text-align: left;background:#B0C4DE"|Name! style="text-align: left;background:#B0C4DE"|Notes 12 March 2018Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović (1968–present) President of Croatia.HTTPS://WWW.TOTAL-CROATIA-NEWS.COM/POLITICS/26577-PRESIDENT-NAMED-HONORARY-CITIZEN-OF-BUENOS-AIRES>TITLE=PRESIDENT NAMED HONORARY CITIZEN OF BUENOS AIRESACCESSDATE=5 OCTOBER 2018,

International relations

World rankings

Buenos Aires is classified as an Alpha World City, according to the Loughborough University group's (GaWC) 2008 The World According to GaWC 2008 – Retrieved on 6 July 2009 It is ranked 22nd in the 2010 ranking of global cities by the American journal Foreign Policy, in conjunction with consulting firm A.T. Kearney and the Chicago Council on Global Affairs. (See "Global city" for the top 30 in the list).

Twin towns and sister cities

{{See also|List of twin towns and sister cities in Argentina}}{{More citations needed section|date=March 2015}}Buenos Aires is twinned with the following cities:WEB,weblink Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina – City, Town and Village of the world,, 10 August 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 6 April 2016, dead, WEB,weblink" title="">weblink 23 September 2018,weblink Convenios Internacionales – Hermanamientos, Convenios de Cooperación y Actas de Intención, Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, Spanish, 22 September 2018, {{div col|colwidth=22em}}
  • Athens, Greece (since 1992)
  • Beijing, China (since 1993)WEB,weblink Sister Cities, Beijing Municipal Government, 23 June 2009,
  • Belgrade, Serbia (since 1990)
  • Berlin, Germany (since 19 May 1994)WEB,weblink Berlin – City Partnerships, 17 September 2013, Der Regierende Bürgermeister Berlin,weblink" title="">weblink 21 May 2013, WEB,weblink Berlin's international city relations, Berlin Mayor's Office, 1 July 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 22 August 2008,
  • Bilbao, Spain (since 1992)WEB,weblink Hermanamiento de Bilbao, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • Brasília, Brazil (since 1986)WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 28 February 2014, Brasília Global Partners, ASSESSORIA INTERNACIONAL DO GOVERNO DO DISTRITO FEDERAL, Portuguese, 1 April 2016,
  • Cairo, Egypt (since 1992)WEB,weblink Listado de ciudades hermanas, 26 October 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 July 2011, WEB,weblink Hermanamiento de El Cairo, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • Cádiz, Spain (since 1975)WEB,weblink Hermanamiento de Cadiz, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • Calabria, Italy (region) (since 1987)WEB,weblink Hermanamiento de Región de Calabria, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • Guadix, Spain (since 1987)WEB,weblink Hermanamiento de Guadix, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • Kiev, Ukraine (since 1993)WEB,weblink Hermanamiento de Kiev, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • Miami, Florida, United States (since 1978)WEB,weblink Hermanamiento de Miami, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • Moscow, Russia (since 1990)WEB,weblink Hermanamiento de Moscú, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • Naples, Italy (since 1990)
  • Osaka, Japan (since 1990)WEB,weblink Hermanamiento de Osaka, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • Oviedo, Spain (since 1983)WEB,weblink Hermanamiento de Oviedo, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • Prague, Czech Republic (since 1992)WEB,weblink Hermanamiento de Praga, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • Rotterdam, Netherlands (since 1990)WEB,weblink Hermanamiento de Rotterdam, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • São Paulo, Brazil (since 2007)WEB,weblink Pesquisa de Legislação Municipal – No 14471, 23 August 2013, Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo [Municipality of the City of São Paulo], Portuguese, Research Municipal Legislation – No 14471,weblink" title="">weblink 18 October 2011, Lei Municipal de São Paulo 14471 de 2007 WikiSource {{pt icon}}
  • Seoul, South Korea (since 1992)WEB,weblink Hermanamiento de Seúl, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • Seville, Spain (since 1974)Hermanamientos con Latinoamérica {{webarchive|url= |date=13 March 2016 }} (102,91 kB). [29-9-2008]
  • Tel Aviv, Israel (since 1976)
  • Toulouse, France (since 1990)WEB,weblink Hermanamiento de Toulouse, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • Vigo, Spain (since 1992)WEB,weblink Hermanamiento de Vigo, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • Warsaw, Poland (since 1992)WEB,weblink Hermanamiento de Varsovia, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • Yerevan, Armenia (since 2000)WEB,weblink Yerevan – Twin Towns & Sister Cities, 4 November 2013, Yerevan Municipality Official Website, 2005—2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 November 2013,
  • Zagreb, Croatia (since 1998)WEB,weblink Intercity and International Cooperation of the City of Zagreb, 2006–2009 City of Zagreb, 23 June 2009,
{{div col end}}

Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities

Buenos Aires is part of the Union of Ibero-American Capital CitiesWEB,weblink Declaración de Hermanamiento múltiple y solidario de todas las Capitales de Iberoamérica (12–10–82), 12 October 1982, 12 March 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 May 2013, from 12 October 1982 establishing brotherly relations with the following cities:{{div col|colwidth=22em}} {{div col end}}

Partner city

  • Beirut, LebanonWEB,weblink Convenio de Cooperación, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • Budapest, HungaryWEB,weblink Convenio Marco de Cooperación entre la Municipalidad de la Ciudad de Budapest y el Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires,weblink 14 May 2019, Spanish,
  • Hanoi, VietnamWEB,weblink Acuerdo de Amistad, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • Lisbon, PortugalWEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 31 October 2013, Sítio da Câmara Municipal de Lisboa: Relações Internacionais, 31 October 2013,
  • Lugano, SwitzerlandWEB,weblink Convenio Marco de Cooperación entre la Municipalidad de la Ciudad de Lugano y el Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires,weblink 14 May 2019, Spanish,
  • Paris, FranceWEB,weblink Mairie de Paris, Les pactes d'amitié et de coopération, 14 October 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 October 2007,
  • Rome, ItalyWEB,weblink Convenio de Amistad y Colaboración, 21 September 2018,weblink 20 September 2018,
  • Saint Petersburg, RussiaWEB,weblink Convenio Marco de Cooperación, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,
  • Santiago de Compostela, SpainWEB,weblink Convenio de Cooperación, 15 May 2019,weblink 14 May 2019,

See also






  • {{Es icon}} Patricia Moglia, Fabián Sislián and Mónica Alabart, Pensar la historia Argentina desde una historia de América Latina, Buenos Aires:Plus Ultra
  • BOOK, Blouet, Brian, Blouet, Olwyn, Latin America and the Caribbean: A Systematic and Regional Survey,weblink John Wiley & Sons, 2010, 385–415, Chapter 13: Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay, 978-0-470-38773-3, {{sfnRef, Blouet, 2010, }}
  • BOOK, Kreimer, Alcira, Arnold, Margaret, Managing Disaster Risk in Emerging Economies, Disaster Risk Management Series No. 2,weblink Washington D.C, World Bank, 2000, 978-0-8213-4726-3, {{sfnRef, Kreimer, 2000, }}
  • BOOK, Lewis Nouwen, Mollie, 15 September 2013, Oy, My Buenos Aires: Jewish Immigrants and the Creation of Argentine National Identity,weblink UNM Press, 978-0826353504,
  • BOOK, Rojas-Mix, Miguel, 1991, Los cien nombres de América: eso que descubrió Colón,weblink Spanish, Lumen, 57, 978-8426412096, 12 December 2016,

Further reading

{{See also|Timeline of Buenos Aires#Bibliography|l1=Bibliography of the history of Buenos Aires}}
  • Adelman, Jeremy. Republic of capital: Buenos Aires and the legal transformation of the Atlantic world (Stanford University Press, 1999)
  • Baily, Samuel L. "The Adjustment of Italian Immigrants in Buenos Aires and New York, 1870–1914." American Historical Review (1983): 281–305. in JSTOR
  • Bao, Sandra, and Bridget Gleeson. Lonely Planet Buenos Aires (Travel Guide) (2011)
  • Benson, Andrew. The Rough Guide to Buenos Aires (2011)
  • Buenos Aires Travel Guide 2014: Essential Tourist Information, Maps & Photos (2014)
  • Emerson, Charles. 1913: In Search of the World Before the Great War (2013) compares Buenos Aires to 20 major world cities; pp 252–66.
  • Keeling, David J. Buenos Aires: Global dreams, local crises (Wiley, 1996)
  • Moya, Jose C. Cousins and strangers: Spanish immigrants in Buenos Aires, 1850–1930 (University of California Press, 1998)
  • Mulhall, Michael George, and Edward T. Mulhall. Handbook of the River Plate: Comprising Buenos Ayres, the Upper Provinces, Banda Oriental, Paraguay (2 vol. 1869) online
  • Scobie, James R. Buenos Aires: plaza to suburb, 1870–1910 (Oxford University Press, 1974)
  • Socolow, Susan Migden. The Merchants of Buenos Aires, 1778–1810: Family and Commerce (Cambridge University Press, 1978)
  • Sofer, Eugene F. From Pale to Pampa: A social history of the Jews of Buenos Aires (Holmes & Meier, 1982)

External links

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