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India
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{{about|the Republic of India}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{pp-30-500|small=yes}}{{short description|Country in South Asia}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2019}}{{Use Indian English|date=June 2016}}







factoids
| image_flag = Flag of India.svg| alt_flag = Horizontal tricolor flag bearing, from top to bottom, deep saffron, white, and green horizontal bands. In the centre of the white band is a navy-blue wheel with 24 spokes.| image_coat = Emblem of India.svg| symbol_width = 60px| alt_coat = Three lions facing left, right, and toward viewer, atop a frieze containing a galloping horse, a 24-spoke wheel, and an elephant. Underneath is a motto: "सत्यमेव जयते".State Emblem of India>State emblemsaVande Mataram">italics=off}}{{small0.2em"[...] Jana Gana Mana is the National Anthem of India, subject to such alterations in the words as the Government may authorise as occasion arises; and the song Vande Mataram, which has played a historic part in the struggle for Indian freedom, shall be honoured equally with Jana Gana Mana and shall have equal status with it." {{harv1950}}.}}{{sfn2005}}}}| other_symbol_type = National songsaSatyameva Jayate">italics=off}}bnJana Gana Mana">italics=offPUBLISHER=INDIA.GOV.IN ACCESSDATE=1 MARCH 2017 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170204121208/HTTPS://INDIA.GOV.IN/INDIA-GLANCE/NATIONAL-SYMBOLS ACCESSDATE=7 JUNE 2019 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20190417194530/HTTPS://WWW.NEWS18.COM/NEWS/INDIA/NATIONAL-ANTHEM-OF-INDIA-A-BRIEF-ON-JANA-GANA-MANA-498576.HTML "Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People"}}{{lower{{sfn2003|p=1}}}}{{center|(File:Jana Gana Mana instrumental.ogg)}}| languages_type = National language| languages = None| image_map = India (orthographic projection).svg| map_width = 250px| alt_map = Image of a globe centred on India, with India highlighted.| map_caption = Area controlled by India shown in dark green;regions claimed but not controlled shown in light green| capital = New Delhi28507730type:city_region:IN}}Mumbai18307233|E}}}}HindiIndian English>English{{efnPart XVII of the Constitution of India, Standard Hindi>Hindi in the Devanagari script is the official language of the Union, along with Indian English as an additional official language.{{sfn>Ministry of Home Affairs 1960}}{{sfn2005}}HTTPS://INDIA.GOV.IN/INDIA-GLANCE/PROFILE >TITLE=PROFILE | NATIONAL PORTAL OF INDIA ACCESSDATE=23 AUGUST 2013 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130830064815/HTTP://INDIA.GOV.IN/INDIA-GLANCE/PROFILE States and union territories of India>States and union territories can have a different official language of their own other than Hindi or English.}}HTTP://RAJBHASHA.NIC.IN/UI/PAGECONTENT.ASPX?PC=MZU%3D >TITLE=CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS – OFFICIAL LANGUAGE RELATED PART-17 OF THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA WEBSITE=NATIONAL INFORMATICS CENTRE DEADURL=YES ARCHIVEDATE=8 NOVEMBER 2016, }}| regional_languages = {{collapsible list
|titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;font-size:100%;
|title = State level andEighth ScheduleWEB,weblink Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 50th report (July 2012 to June 2013), Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Ministry of Minority Affairs, Government of India, 26 December 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160708012438weblink">weblink 8 July 2016, | {{hlist
| Assamese
| Bengali
| Bodo
| Dogri
| Gujarati
| Kannada
| Kashmiri
| Kokborok
| Konkani
| Maithili
| Malayalam
| Manipuri
| Marathi
| Mizo
| Nepali
| Odia
| Punjabi
| Sanskrit
| Santali
| Sindhi
| Tamil
| Telugu
| Urdu
}}
}}Indian people>IndianUnited Nations>UN, World Trade Organization, BRICS, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation>SAARC, SCO, G8+5, G20, Commonwealth of NationsFederation>Federal parliamentary constitutional republicPresident of India>President| leader_name1 = Ram Nath KovindVice President of India>Vice President| leader_name2 = Venkaiah NaiduPrime Minister of India>Prime Ministerfrom=Q668}}Chief Justice of India>Chief Justice| leader_name4 = Ranjan Gogoi| leader_title5 = Speaker of the Lok Sabha| leader_name5 = Om BirlaParliament of India>Parliament| upper_house = Rajya Sabha| lower_house = Lok SabhaIndian independence movement>Independence| sovereignty_note = from the United KingdomDominion of India>Dominion| established_date1 = 15 August 1947| established_event2 = Republic| established_date2 = 26 January 1950| area_km2 = 3,287,263"The country's exact size is subject to debate because some borders are disputed. The Indian government lists the total area as {{convertkm2abbr=on}} and the total land area as {{convertkm2abbr=on}}; the United Nations lists the total area as {{convertkm2abbr=on}} and total land area as {{convertkm2abbr=on}}." {{harv2004}}.}}| area_rank = 7th| area_sq_mi = 1,269,346| percent_water = 9.6India}}{{UN Population|ref}}WORK=2011 CENSUS DATAACCESS-DATE=17 JUNE 2016ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160522213913/HTTP://WWW.CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN/2011CENSUS/POPULATION_ENUMERATION.HTMLWORK=2011 CENSUS DATAACCESS-DATE=17 JUNE 2016ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160430213141/HTTP://WWW.CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN/2011CENSUS/PCA/A-2_DATA_TABLES/00%20A%202-INDIA.PDF, 30 April 2016, Year}}| population_estimate_rank = 2nd| population_census_year = 2011| population_census_rank = 2nd{{Indian population clock}}km2prec=1}}{{Indian population clock}}sqmiprec=1}}| population_density_rank = 31stPUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND ACCESS-DATE=9 APRIL 2019, | GDP_PPP_year = 2019| GDP_PPP_rank = 3rd| GDP_PPP_per_capita = {{increase}} $8,484| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 119th| GDP_nominal = {{increase}} $2.972 trillion| GDP_nominal_year = 2019| GDP_nominal_rank = 5th| GDP_nominal_per_capita = {{increase}} $2,199| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 142nd| Gini = 33.9 | Gini_year = 2013| Gini_change = WEBSITE=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMDEADURL=NOARCHIVEDATE=10 JUNE 2010, | Gini_rank = 79th| HDI = 0.640 | HDI_year = 2017 | HDI_change = increase PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMEACCESSDATE=15 SEPTEMBER 2018, 130}}Indian rupee (Indian rupee sign>₹)| currency_code = INRIndian Standard Time>IST| utc_offset = +05:30| utc_offset_DST =Daylight saving time>DST is not observed| time_zone_DST =dd-mm-yyyy}}Right- and left-hand traffic#Left-hand traffic>leftTelephone numbers in India>+91.in (.in#Internationalized domain names and country codes>others)0.2emNational Informatics Centre|2005}}}}| religion = {{ubl
| 79.8% Hinduism
| 14.2% Islam
| 2.3% Christianity
| 1.7% Sikhism
| 0.7% Buddhism
| 0.4% Jainism
| 0.9% others{{efn|name=remaining religions}}
}} See Religion in India| official_website =
}}India (official name: the Republic of India;–{{citation|title=The Essential Desk Reference|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=yjcOAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA76|year=2002|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-512873-4|page=76}} "Official name: Republic of India.";–{{citation|author=John Da Graça|title=Heads of State and Government|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=M0YfDgAAQBAJ&pg=PA421|year=2017|publisher=Macmillian|location=London|isbn=978-1-349-65771-1|pages=421–}} "Official name: Republic of India; Bharat Ganarajya (Hindi)";–{{citation|author=Graham Rhind|title=Global Sourcebook of Address Data Management: A Guide to Address Formats and Data in 194 Countries|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=iGdQDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA302|year=2017|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-1-351-93326-1|pages=302–}} "Official name: Republic of India; Bharat.";–{{citation|last=Bradnock|first=Robert W.|title=The Routledge Atlas of South Asian Affairs|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=zzjbCgAAQBAJ&pg=PA108|year=2015|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-317-40511-5|pages=108–}} "Official name: English: Republic of India; Hindi:Bharat Ganarajya";–{{citation|title=Penguin Compact Atlas of the World|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=pLw-ReHIgvQC&pg=PA140|year=2012|publisher=Penguin|isbn=978-0-7566-9859-1|pages=140–}} "Official name: Republic of India";–{{citation|title=Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Co_VIPIJerIC&pg=PA515|year=1997|isbn=978-0-87779-546-9|edition=3rd|publisher=Merriam-Webster|pages=515–516}} "Officially, Republic of India";–{{citation|title=Complete Atlas of the World, 3rd Edition: The Definitive View of the Earth|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=O5moCwAAQBAJ&pg=PA54-IA10|year=2016|publisher=DK Publishing|isbn=978-1-4654-5528-4|pages=54–}} "Official name: Republic of India";–{{citation|title=Worldwide Government Directory with Intergovernmental Organizations 2013|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=CQWhAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA726|date=10 May 2013|publisher=CQ Press|isbn=978-1-4522-9937-2|pages=726–}} "India (Republic of India; Bharat Ganarajya)" Hindi: {{transl|hi|ISO|Bhārat Gaṇarājya}}) is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west;{{efn|1 = The Government of India also regards Afghanistan as a bordering country, as it considers all of Kashmir to be part of India. However, this is disputed, and the region bordering Afghanistan is administered by Pakistan. Source: WEB, Ministry of Home Affairs (Department of Border Management),weblink 1 September 2008, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150317182910weblink">weblink 17 March 2015, }} China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.Modern humans arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa no later than 55,000 years ago.(a) {{citationfirst=Timurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=3TRtDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA1publisher=Oxford University Presspage=1}}; (b) MICHAEL D. PETRAGLIA >AUTHOR2=BRIDGET ALLCHIN TITLE=THE EVOLUTION AND HISTORY OF HUMAN POPULATIONS IN SOUTH ASIA: INTER-DISCIPLINARY STUDIES IN ARCHAEOLOGY, BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY, LINGUISTICS AND GENETICS PUBLISHER=SPRINGER SCIENCE & BUSINESS MEDIA ISBN=978-1-4020-5562-1last=Fishertitle=An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Centuryyear=2018isbn=978-1-107-11162-2|page=23}}Their long occupation, initially in varying forms of isolation as hunter-gatherers, has made the region highly diverse, second only to Africa in human genetic diversity.{{citationfirst=Timurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=3TRtDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA28publisher=Oxford University Presspage=28}}
Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river basin 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into the Indus valley civilisation of the third millennium BCE.
(a) {{citationfirst=Timurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=3TRtDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA4publisher=Oxford University Presspage=4-5}}; (b) {{citationfirst=Michael H.url=https://books.google.com/books?id=kZVuDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA23publisher=Cambridge University Presspage=33}} By 1200 BCE, an archaic form of Sanskrit, an Indo-European language, had diffused into India from the northwest, unfolding as the language of the Vedas, and recording the dawning of Hinduism in India.(a) {{citationfirst=Timurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=3TRtDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA14publisher=Oxford University Presspages=14-15}}; (b) {{citationfirst=Peterurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=GQ-2VH1LO_EC&pg=PA46publisher=Macmillan pages=46–}}; (c) {{citationfirst=Davidurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=EbFHAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA19publisher=Oneworld Publicationspages=19}}
The Dravidian languages of India were supplanted in the northern regions.(a) {{citationfirst=Timurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=3TRtDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA25publisher=Oxford University Presspage=25}}; (b){{citationfirst=Timurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=3TRtDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA16publisher=Oxford University Presspage=16}}
By 400 BCE, stratification and exclusion by caste had emerged within Hinduism,{{citationfirst=Timurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=3TRtDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA16publisher=Oxford University Presspages=16}}
and Buddhism and Jainism had arisen, proclaiming social orders unlinked to heredity.{{citation|last=Fisher|first=Michael H.|title=An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=kZVuDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA59|year=2018|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-1-107-11162-2|pages=59–}}Early political consolidations gave rise to the loose-knit Maurya and Gupta empires based in the Ganges basin of north India,(a) {{citation|last=Dyson|first=Tim|title=A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=3TRtDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA16|year=2018|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-882905-8|page=16-17}}; (b) {{citation|last=Fisher|first=Michael H.|title=An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=kZVuDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA67|year=2018|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-1-107-11162-2|pages=67–}}; (c) {{citation|last=Robb|first=Peter|title=A History of India|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=GQ-2VH1LO_EC&pg=PA56|year=2011|publisher=Macmillan |isbn=978-0-230-34549-2|pages=56–57}}; (d) {{citation|last=Ludden|first=David|title=India and South Asia: A Short History|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=EbFHAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA29|year=2013|publisher=Oneworld Publications|isbn=978-1-78074-108-6|pages=29-30}} their collective era suffused with wide-ranging creativity,(a) {{citation|last=Luddentitle=India and South Asia: A Short Historyyear=2013isbn=978-1-78074-108-6author=Glenn Van Brummelen editor2=Steven Livesey title=Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopediayear=2014isbn=978-1-135-45932-1chapter=Arithmetic}}
but also marked by the declining status of women,(a) {{citationfirst=Timurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=3TRtDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA20publisher=Oxford University Presspages=20}}; (b) {{citationfirst=Burtonurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=QY4zdTDwMAQC&pg=PA90publisher=John Wiley & Sonspages=90–}}; (c) {{citationfirst=Barbara N.title=Women in Asia: Restoring Women to Historyyear=1999isbn=0-253-21267-7chapter=Women in South Asia}}
and the incorporation of untouchability into an organized system of belief.{{efn|" The Chinese pilgrim also recorded evidence of the caste system as he could observe it. According to this evidence the treatment meted out to untouchables such as the Chandalas was very similar to that which they experienced in later periods. This would contradict assertions that this rigid form of the caste system emerged in India only as a reaction to the Islamic conquest.{{sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|pp = 93}}}}{{sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|pp = 93}} In south India, the Middle kingdoms exported Dravidian-languages scripts and religious cultures to the kingdoms of southeast Asia.
{{citationfirst1=Catherine B.first2=Cynthiaurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=ZvaGuaJIJgoC&pg=PA17publisher=Cambridge University Presspage=17}}
In the early medieval era, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Christianity and Islam put down roots on India's southern and western coasts.(a) {{citation|last=Luddentitle=India and South Asia: A Short Historyyear=2013isbn=978-1-78074-108-6|pages=54}}; (b) {{citationfirst1=Catherine B.first2=Cynthiaurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=ZvaGuaJIJgoC&pg=PA78publisher=Cambridge University Presspage=78-79}}; (c) {{citationfirst=Michael H.url=https://books.google.com/books?id=kZVuDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA76publisher=Cambridge University Presspages=76–}}
Armies from Central Asia intermittently overran India's plains,(a) {{citation|last=Ludden|first=David|title=India and South Asia: A Short History|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=EbFHAQAAQBAJ&pg=PA68|year=2013|publisher=Oneworld Publications|isbn=978-1-78074-108-6|pages=68–70}}; (b) {{citation|last1=Asher|first1=Catherine B.|last2=Talbot|first2=Cynthia|title=India Before Europe|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ZvaGuaJIJgoC&pg=PA19|year=2006|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-80904-7|page=19, 24}}
eventually establishing the Delhi sultanate, and drawing northern India into the cosmopolitan networks of medieval Islam.(a) {{citation|last=Dysontitle=A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Daydate=20 September 2018isbn=978-0-19-256430-6|pages=48–}}; (b) {{citationfirst1=Catherine B.first2=Cynthiaurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=ZvaGuaJIJgoC&pg=PA53publisher=Cambridge University Presspage=52}}
In the 15th century, the Vijayanagara empire created a long-lasting composite Hindu culture in south India.{{citation|last1=Asherlast2=Talbottitle=India Before Europeyear=2006isbn=978-0-521-80904-7|page=74}}"In the Punjab, Sikhism emerged, rejecting institutionalized religion.{{citation|last1=Asherlast2=Talbottitle=India Before Europeyear=2006isbn=978-0-521-80904-7|page=267}} The Mughal empire, in 1525, ushered in two centuries of relative peace,{{citation|last1=Asherlast2=Talbottitle=India Before Europeyear=2006isbn=978-0-521-80904-7|page=152}} leaving a legacy of luminous architecture.{{efn|"Shah Jahan eventually sent her body 800 km (500 mi) to Agra for burial in the Rauza-i Munauwara (“Illuminated Tomb”) – a personal tribute and a stone manifestation of his imperial power. This tomb has been celebrated globally as the Taj Mahal."}}{{citationfirst=Michael H.url=https://books.google.com/books?id=kZVuDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA106publisher=Cambridge University Presspages=106–}}Gradually expanding rule of the British East India Company followed, turning India into a colonial economy, but also consolidating its sovereignty.(a) {{citation|last1=Asher|first1=Catherine B.|last2=Talbot|first2=Cynthia|title=India Before Europe|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ZvaGuaJIJgoC&pg=PA289|year=2006|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-80904-7|page=289}}; (b) {{citationfirst=Michael H.url=https://books.google.com/books?id=kZVuDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA120publisher=Cambridge University Presspages=120–}}British Crown rule began in 1858. The rights promised to Indians were granted slowly,{{citation|last=Taylor|first=Miles|editor=Aldrish, Robert |editor2=McCreery, Cindy |title=Crowns and Colonies: European Monarchies and Overseas Empires|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=iR3GDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA39|year=2016|publisher=Manchester University Press|isbn=978-1-5261-0088-7|pages=38–39|chapter=The British royal family and the colonial empire from the Georgians to Prince George}}; (b) {{citation|last=Peers|first=Douglas M.|title=India Under Colonial Rule: 1700–1885|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=dyQuAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA76|year=2013|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-317-88286-2|page=76}} but technological changes were introduced, and ideas of education, modernity and the public life took root.{{citationfirst1=Ainslie Thomasfirst2=Stephen N.first3=William Theodore Dechapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=XoMRuiSpBp4C&pg=PA85publisher=Columbia University Presspage=85|chapter=Nationalism Takes Root: The Moderates}}
A pioneering and influential nationalist movement emerged,{{citation|last=Marshall|first=P. J.|title=The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire|url={{Google books|S2EXN8JTwAEC|page=PA179|keywords=|text=|plainurl=yes}}|year=2001|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-00254-7|page=179}}
which was noted for nonviolent resistance and led India to its independence in 1947.India is a secular federal republic governed in a democratic parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic, multilingual and multi-ethnic society. India's population grew from 361 million in 1951 to 1 billion 211 million in 2011.{{citationfirst=Timurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=3TRtDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA219publisher=Oxford University Presspages=219,262}} During the same time, its nominal per capita income, increased from $64 annually to $2,041, and its literacy rate from 16.6% to 74%. From being a comparatively destitute country in 1951,{{citationfirst=Michael H.url=https://books.google.com/books?id=kZVuDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA8publisher=Cambridge University Presspages=8–}}
India has become a fast-growing major economy, a hub for information technology services, with an expanding middle class.{{citation|last1=Metcalflast2=Metcalftitle=A Concise History of Modern Indiayear=2012isbn=978-1-107-02649-0|pages=265–266}}
It has a space program which includes several planned or completed lunar missions. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture.
{{citation|last1=Metcalflast2=Metcalftitle=A Concise History of Modern Indiayear=2012isbn=978-1-107-02649-0|pages=266}} India has substantially reduced its rate of poverty, though at the cost of increasing economic inequality.{{citationfirst=Timurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=3TRtDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA216publisher=Oxford University Presspages=216}} India is a nuclear weapons state, which ranks high in military expenditure. It has disputes over Kashmir with its neighbors, Pakistan and China, unresolved since the mid-20th century.(a) {{citation|last1=Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannia|first1=|title=Kashmir, region Indian subcontinent|publisher=Encyclopaedia Britannica|url=https://www.britannica.com/place/Kashmir-region-Indian-subcontinent |accessdate=15 August 2019}} (subscription required) Quote: "Kashmir, region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent ... has been the subject of dispute between India and Pakistan since the partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947."; (b) {{citation|last1=Pletcher|first1=Kenneth|title=Aksai Chin, Plateau Region, Asia|publisher=Encyclopaedia Britannica|url=https://www.britannica.com/place/Aksai-Chin |accessdate=16 August 2019}} (subscription required) Quote: "Aksai Chin, Chinese (Pinyin) Aksayqin, portion of the Kashmir region, ... constitutes nearly all the territory of the Chinese-administered sector of Kashmir that is claimed by India"; (c) {{citation|chapter=Kashmir|title=Encyclopedia Americana|publisher=Scholastic Library Publishing|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=l_cWAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA328|year=2006|isbn=978-0-7172-0139-6|page=328}} C. E Bosworth, University of Manchester Quote: "KASHMIR, kash'mer, the northernmost region of the Indian subcontinent, administered partlv by India, partly by Pakistan, and partly by China. The region has been the subject of a bitter dispute between India and Pakistan since they became independent in 1947" Among the socioeconomic challenges India faces are gender inequality, child malnutrition,JOURNAL, Narayan, Jitendra, John, Denny, Ramadas, Nirupama, Malnutrition in India: status and government initiatives, Journal of Public Health Policy, 40, 1, 2018, 126–141, 0197-5897, 10.1057/s41271-018-0149-5,
and rising levels of air pollution.JOURNAL, Balakrishnan, Kalpana, Dey, Sagnik, The impact of air pollution on deaths, disease burden, and life expectancy across the states of India: the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017, The Lancet Planetary Health, 3, 1, 2019, e26–e39, etal, 25425196, 10.1016/S2542-5196(18)30261-4,
India's land is megadiverse, with four biodiversity hotspots.{{citation|title=India|publisher=International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)|url=https://www.iucn.org/asia/countries/india|year=2019}}
Its forest cover comprises 21.4% of its area.{{citationfirst=Raghbendraurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=9n9SDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA198publisher=Springerpages=198–}}
India's wildlife, which has traditionally been viewed with tolerance in India's culture,{{citation|last1=Karanth|first1=K. Ullas|last2=Gopal|first2=Rajesh |editor=Rosie Woodroffe |editor2=Simon Thirgood |editor3=Alan Rabinowitz |title=People and Wildlife, Conflict Or Co-existence?|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=6vNzRzcjntAC&pg=PA374|year=2005|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-0-521-53203-7|pages=374–|chapter=An ecology-based policy framework for human-tiger coexistence in India}} is supported among these forests, and elsewhere, in protected habitats.

Etymology

According to the Oxford English Dictionary (Third Edition 2009), the name India is derived from the Classical Latin India, a reference to South Asia and an uncertain region to its east; and in turn derived successively from: Hellenistic Greek India ( Ἰνδία); ancient Greek Indos ( Ἰνδός); Old Persian Hindush, an eastern province of the Achaemenid empire; and ultimately its cognate, the Sanskrit Sindhu, or "river," but especially the Indus river and, by implication, its well-settled southern basin.{{citation|title=India (noun)|publisher=Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd Edition|year=2009|url=https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/94384#eid677811}} (subscription required){{citation |last=Thieme |first=P. |chapter=Sanskrit sindu-/Sindhu- and Old Iranian hindu-/Hindu- |editor1=Mary Boyce |editor2=Ilya Gershevitch |title=W. B. Henning memorial volume |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=e3UBAAAAMAAJ |year=1970 |publisher=Lund Humphries |pp=447–450}} The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi ({{ISO 639-2|GRC|Ἰνδοί}}), which translates as "The people of the Indus".{{sfn|Kuiper|2010|p = 86}}The term Bharat ({{transl|hi|ISO|Bhārat}}; {{IPA-hns|ˈbʱaːɾət|pron|hi-Bharat.ogg}}), mentioned in both Indian epic poetry and the Constitution of India,{{sfn|Ministry of Law and Justice 2008}} is used in its variations by many Indian languages. A modern rendering of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which applied originally to a region of the Gangetic Valley,{{citation|last=Jha|first=Dwijendra Narayan|title=Rethinking Hindu Identity|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=dqDgBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA11|year=2014|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-317-49034-0|page=11}}{{citation|last=Singh|first=Upinder|title=Political Violence in Ancient India|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=dYM4DwAAQBAJ&pg=PA253|year=2017|publisher=Harvard University Press|isbn=978-0-674-98128-7|page=253}} Bharat gained increased currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India.JOURNAL, Clémentin-Ojha, Catherine, 'India, that is Bharat…': One Country, Two Names, South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal, 10, 2014,weblink no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150928035644weblink">weblink 28 September 2015, Hindustan ({{IPA-hns|ɦɪndʊˈstaːn||Hindustan.ogg}}) is a Middle Persian name for India, introduced during the Mughal Empire and used widely since. Its meaning has varied, referring to a region encompassing present-day northern India and Pakistan or to India in its near entirety.JOURNAL, Barrow, Ian J., From Hindustan to India: Naming change in changing names, South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 26, 37–49, 1, 2003, 10.1080/085640032000063977, {{sfn|Encyclopædia Britannica}}

History

Ancient India

{{multiple image|perrow=1/1|total_width=300|caption_align=center| align = left|image_style = border:none;|background color = #F7E7CE| image1 = 1500-1200 BCE Rigveda, manuscript page sample i, Mandala 1, Hymn 1 (Sukta 1), Adhyaya 1, lines 1.1.1 to 1.1.9, Sanskrit, Devanagari.jpg| image2 = Battle at Lanka, Ramayana, Udaipur, 1649-53.jpg| footer = (top) A pre-14th century manuscript of the Rigveda, orally composed and transmitted from 1500 BCE to 1200 BCE (bottom) The "Battle at Lanka," a scene from the Sanskrit epic Ramayana—composed between 700 BCE and 200 CE—was illustrated by Sahibdin, an artist of the 17th century.}} By 55,000 years ago, the first modern humans, or Homo sapiens., had arrived on the Indian subcontinent from Africa, where they had earlier evolved.{{citation|last=Dyson|first=Tim|title=A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=3TRtDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA1|year=2018|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-882905-8|page=1}} Quote: "Modern human beings—Homo sapiens—originated in Africa. Then, intermittently, sometime between 60,000 and 80,000 years ago, tiny groups of them began to enter the north-west of the Indian subcontinent. It seems likely that initially they came by way of the coast. ... it is virtually certain that there were Homo sapiens in the subcontinent 55,000 years ago, even though the earliest fossils that have been found of them date to only about 30,000 years before the present. (page 1)"BOOK, Michael D. Petraglia, Bridget Allchin, Bridget Allchin, The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia: Inter-disciplinary Studies in Archaeology, Biological Anthropology, Linguistics and Genetics,weblink Springer Science & Business Media, 6, 978-1-4020-5562-1, 22 May 2007, Quote: "Y-Chromosome and Mt-DNA data support the colonization of South Asia by modern humans originating in Africa. ... Coalescence dates for most non-European populations average to between 73–55 ka."{{citation|last=Fisher|first=Michael H.|title=An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=kZVuDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA23|year=2018|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-1-107-11162-2|page=23}} Quote: "Scholars estimate that the first successful expansion of the Homo sapiens range beyond Africa and across the Arabian Peninsula occurred from as early as 80,000 years ago to as late as 40,000 years ago, although there may have been prior unsuccessful emigrations. Some of their descendants extended the human range ever further in each generation, spreading into each habitable land they encountered. One human channel was along the warm and productive coastal lands of the Persian Gulf and northern Indian Ocean. Eventually, various bands entered India between 75,000 years ago and 35,000 years ago (page 23)"The earliest known modern human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago.{{sfn|Petraglia|Allchin||2007|p=6}} Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh.{{sfn|Singh|2009|pp = 89–93}} After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, and storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan.{{sfn|Coningham|Young|2015|pp = 104–105}} These gradually developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation,{{sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|pp = 21–23}}{{sfn|Coningham|Young|2015|pp = 104–105}} the first urban culture in South Asia,{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 181}} which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India.{{sfn|Possehl|2003|p = 2}} Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Dholavira, and Kalibangan, and relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade.{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 181}}During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones.{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 255}} The Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism,{{sfn|Singh|2009|pp = 186–187}} were composed during this period,{{sfn|Witzel|2003|pp = 68–69}} and historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 255}} Most historians also consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west.{{Sfn|Singh|2009|pp=186–187}} The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests, warriors, and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period.{{Sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|pp=41–43}} On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation.{{Sfn|Singh|2009|p=255}} In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period,{{Sfn|Singh|2009|pp=250–251}} as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, and craft traditions.{{Sfn|Singh|2009|pp=250–251}}File:{{multiple image|perrow=2|total_width=300|caption_align=center| align = right|image_style = border:none;|background color = #F7E7CE| image1 = India in 250 BCE Joppen.jpg| image2 = Dhamek Stupa, Sarnath.jpgupright=1.6|image3=Cave 26, Ajanta.jpg| footer = Clockwise from upper left: (a) A map of the rough extent of the empire of Ashoka, ca 250 BCE; (b) The Dhamek Stupa at Sarnath, 249 BCE, the site of the Buddha's first sermon two centuries earlier; (c) The map of India, ca 350 CE; (d) Cave 26 of the rock-cut Ajanta Caves, fifth century CE}}In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas.{{sfn|Singh|2009|pp = 260–265}}{{sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|pp = 53–54}} The emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of its exemplar, Mahavira.{{sfn|Singh|2009|pp = 312–313}} Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle class; chronicling the life of the Buddha was central to the beginnings of recorded history in India.{{sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|pp = 54–56}}{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 21}}{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 67–68}} In an age of increasing urban wealth, both religions held up renunciation as an ideal,{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 300}} and both established long-lasting monastic traditions. Politically, by the 3rd century BCE, the kingdom of Magadha had annexed or reduced other states to emerge as the Mauryan Empire.{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 319}} The empire was once thought to have controlled most of the subcontinent excepting the far south, but its core regions are now thought to have been separated by large autonomous areas.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 78–79}}{{sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|p = 70}} The Mauryan kings are known as much for their empire-building and determined management of public life as for Ashoka's renunciation of militarism and far-flung advocacy of the Buddhist dhamma.{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 367}}{{sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|p = 63}}The Sangam literature of the Tamil language reveals that, between 200 BCE and 200 CE, the southern peninsula was being ruled by the Cheras, the Cholas, and the Pandyas, dynasties that traded extensively with the Roman Empire and with West and South-East Asia.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 89–90}}{{sfn|Singh|2009|pp = 408–415}} In North India, Hinduism asserted patriarchal control within the family, leading to increased subordination of women.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 92–95}}{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 319}} By the 4th and 5th centuries, the Gupta Empire had created in the greater Ganges Plain a complex system of administration and taxation that became a model for later Indian kingdoms.{{sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|pp = 89–91}}{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 545}} Under the Guptas, a renewed Hinduism based on devotion rather than the management of ritual began to assert itself.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 98–99}} The renewal was reflected in a flowering of sculpture and architecture, which found patrons among an urban elite.{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 545}} Classical Sanskrit literature flowered as well, and Indian science, astronomy, medicine, and mathematics made significant advances.{{sfn|Singh|2009|p = 545}}

Medieval India

{{multiple image|perrow=2|total_width=230|caption_align=center| align = left|image_style = border:none;|background color = #F7E7CE| title = | image1 = India in 1022 Joppen.jpg| image2 = Gopuram Corner View of Thanjavur Brihadeeswara Temple..JPG| footer = (left) A map of India in 1022 CE; (right) Brihadeshwara temple, Thanjavur, completed in 1010 CE}}The Indian early medieval age, 600 CE to 1200 CE, is defined by regional kingdoms and cultural diversity.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 132}} When Harsha of Kannauj, who ruled much of the Indo-Gangetic Plain from 606 to 647 CE, attempted to expand southwards, he was defeated by the Chalukya ruler of the Deccan.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 119–120}} When his successor attempted to expand eastwards, he was defeated by the Pala king of Bengal.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 119–120}} When the Chalukyas attempted to expand southwards, they were defeated by the Pallavas from farther south, who in turn were opposed by the Pandyas and the Cholas from still farther south.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 119–120}} No ruler of this period was able to create an empire and consistently control lands much beyond his core region.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 132}} During this time, pastoral peoples whose land had been cleared to make way for the growing agricultural economy were accommodated within caste society, as were new non-traditional ruling classes.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 121–122}} The caste system consequently began to show regional differences.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 121–122}}In the 6th and 7th centuries, the first devotional hymns were created in the Tamil language.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 123}} They were imitated all over India and led to both the resurgence of Hinduism and the development of all modern languages of the subcontinent.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 123}} Indian royalty, big and small, and the temples they patronised drew citizens in great numbers to the capital cities, which became economic hubs as well.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 124}} Temple towns of various sizes began to appear everywhere as India underwent another urbanisation.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 124}} By the 8th and 9th centuries, the effects were felt in South-East Asia, as South Indian culture and political systems were exported to lands that became part of modern-day Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, and Java.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 127–128}} Indian merchants, scholars, and sometimes armies were involved in this transmission; South-East Asians took the initiative as well, with many sojourning in Indian seminaries and translating Buddhist and Hindu texts into their languages.{{sfn|Stein|1998|pp = 127–128}}{{multiple image|perrow=2|total_width=230|caption_align=center| align = right|image_style = border:none;|background color = #F7E7CE| title = | image1 = India in 1398 Joppen.jpg| image2 = Qutb minar ruins.jpgDelhi Sultanate (marked "Afghan empire" in the map); (b) The Qutub Minar {{convert>73ft|0}} tall completed by the Sultan of Delhi, Iltutmish}}After the 10th century, Muslim Central Asian nomadic clans, using swift-horse cavalry and raising vast armies united by ethnicity and religion, repeatedly overran South Asia's north-western plains, leading eventually to the establishment of the Islamic Delhi Sultanate in 1206.{{sfn|Ludden|2002|p = 68}} The sultanate was to control much of North India and to make many forays into South India. Although at first disruptive for the Indian elites, the sultanate largely left its vast non-Muslim subject population to its own laws and customs.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 47}}{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 6}} By repeatedly repulsing Mongol raiders in the 13th century, the sultanate saved India from the devastation visited on West and Central Asia, setting the scene for centuries of migration of fleeing soldiers, learned men, mystics, traders, artists, and artisans from that region into the subcontinent, thereby creating a syncretic Indo-Islamic culture in the north.{{sfn|Ludden|2002|p = 67}}{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|pp = 50–51}} The sultanate's raiding and weakening of the regional kingdoms of South India paved the way for the indigenous Vijayanagara Empire.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 53}} Embracing a strong Shaivite tradition and building upon the military technology of the sultanate, the empire came to control much of peninsular India,{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 12}} and was to influence South Indian society for long afterwards.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 53}}

Early modern India

{{multiple image|perrow=2/1|total_width=250|caption_align=center| align = left|image_style = border:none;|background color = #F7E7CE| image1 = India in 1525 Joppen Hi Def.jpg| image2 = India in1605 Joppen Hi Def.jpg| image3 = Agra Fort DistantTaj.JPGMughal Empire>Mughal rule; (b) India in 1605 during the rule of Akbar; (c) A distant view of the Taj Mahal from the Agra Fort}}In the early 16th century, northern India, being then under mainly Muslim rulers,{{sfn|Robb|2001|p = 80}} fell again to the superior mobility and firepower of a new generation of Central Asian warriors.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 164}} The resulting Mughal Empire did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 115}}{{sfn|Robb|2001|pp = 90–91}} and diverse and inclusive ruling elites,{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 17}} leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 152}} Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic identity, especially under Akbar, the Mughals united their far-flung realms through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to an emperor who had near-divine status.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 17}} The Mughal state's economic policies, deriving most revenues from agriculture{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 158}} and mandating that taxes be paid in the well-regulated silver currency,{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 169}} caused peasants and artisans to enter larger markets.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 152}} The relative peace maintained by the empire during much of the 17th century was a factor in India's economic expansion,{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 152}} resulting in greater patronage of painting, literary forms, textiles, and architecture.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 186}} Newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 23–24}} Expanding commerce during Mughal rule gave rise to new Indian commercial and political elites along the coasts of southern and eastern India.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 23–24}} As the empire disintegrated, many among these elites were able to seek and control their own affairs.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 256}}{{multiple image|perrow=2/1|total_width=250|caption_align=center | align = right|image_style = border:none;|background color = #F7E7CE| image1 = India in 1795 Joppen High Def.jpg| image2 = India in 1848 Joppen.jpg|image3=India 1835 2 Mohurs.jpgCompany rule in India>East India Company rule in 1795; (b) India in 1848; (c) A two mohur gold coin issued by the Company in 1835 with the bust of William IV of the United Kingdom on the obverse and reverse>obverse, and the face value in English and Persian, on the reverse }}By the early 18th century, with the lines between commercial and political dominance being increasingly blurred, a number of European trading companies, including the English East India Company, had established coastal outposts.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 286}}{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 44–49}} The East India Company's control of the seas, greater resources, and more advanced military training and technology led it to increasingly flex its military muscle and caused it to become attractive to a portion of the Indian elite; these factors were crucial in allowing the company to gain control over the Bengal region by 1765 and sideline the other European companies.{{sfn|Robb|2001|pp = 98–100}}{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 286}}{{sfn|Ludden|2002|pp = 128–132}}{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 51–55}} Its further access to the riches of Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of India by the 1820s.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 68–71}} India was then no longer exporting manufactured goods as it long had, but was instead supplying the British Empire with raw materials, and many historians consider this to be the onset of India's colonial period.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 286}} By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and effectively having been made an arm of British administration, the company began to more consciously enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture.{{sfn|Asher|Talbot|2008|p = 289}}

Modern India

{{multiple image|perrow=2/1|total_width=250|caption_align=center| align = left|image_style = border:none;|background color = #F7E7CE| image1 = British Indian Empire 1909 Imperial Gazetteer of India.jpg| image2 = India railways1909a.jpg| image3 = NewDelhiInaugurationSecondDayCancellation27Feb1931.jpg| footer = Clockwise from upper left: (a) 1909 Map of the British Indian Empire; (b) The railway network of India in 1909, fourth largest in the world; (c) New Delhi became the capital of India in 1931, its inauguration marked by six postage stamps. }}Historians consider India's modern age to have begun sometime between 1848 and 1885. The appointment in 1848 of Lord Dalhousie as Governor General of the East India Company set the stage for changes essential to a modern state. These included the consolidation and demarcation of sovereignty, the surveillance of the population, and the education of citizens. Technological changes—among them, railways, canals, and the telegraph—were introduced not long after their introduction in Europe.{{sfn|Robb|2001|pp = 151–152}}{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 94–99}}{{sfn|Brown|1994|p = 83}}{{sfn|Peers|2006|p = 50}} However, disaffection with the company also grew during this time, and set off the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Fed by diverse resentments and perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, and summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, the rebellion rocked many regions of northern and central India and shook the foundations of Company rule.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 100–103}}{{sfn|Brown|1994|pp = 85–86}} Although the rebellion was suppressed by 1858, it led to the dissolution of the East India Company and the direct administration of India by the British government. Proclaiming a unitary state and a gradual but limited British-style parliamentary system, the new rulers also protected princes and landed gentry as a feudal safeguard against future unrest.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 239}}{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 103–108}} In the decades following, public life gradually emerged all over India, leading eventually to the founding of the Indian National Congress in 1885.{{sfn|Robb|2001|p = 183}}{{sfn|Sarkar|1983|pp = 1–4}}{{sfn|Copland|2001|pp = ix–x}}{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 123}}The rush of technology and the commercialisation of agriculture in the second half of the 19th century was marked by economic setbacks—many small farmers became dependent on the whims of far-away markets.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 260}} There was an increase in the number of large-scale famines,{{sfn|Bose|Jalal|2011|p = 117}} and, despite the risks of infrastructure development borne by Indian taxpayers, little industrial employment was generated for Indians.{{sfn|Stein|1998|p = 258}} There were also salutary effects: commercial cropping, especially in the newly canalled Punjab, led to increased food production for internal consumption.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 126}} The railway network provided critical famine relief,{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 97}} notably reduced the cost of moving goods,{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 97}} and helped the nascent Indian-owned industry.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 126}}{{multiple image|perrow=1|total_width=220|caption_align=center|image_style = border:none;|background color = #F7E7CE | align = rightcaption1=Jawaharlal Nehru sharing a joke with Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, Mumbai, 6 July 1946 }}After World War I, in which approximately one million Indians served,{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 163}} a new period began. It was marked by British reforms but also repressive legislation, by more strident Indian calls for self-rule, and by the beginnings of a nonviolent movement of non-co-operation, of which Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi would become the leader and enduring symbol.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 167}} During the 1930s, slow legislative reform was enacted by the British; the Indian National Congress won victories in the resulting elections.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 195–197}} The next decade was beset with crises: Indian participation in World War II, the Congress's final push for non-co-operation, and an upsurge of Muslim nationalism. All were capped by the advent of independence in 1947, but tempered by the partition of India into two states: India and Pakistan.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 203}}Vital to India's self-image as an independent nation was its constitution, completed in 1950, which put in place a secular and democratic republic.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 231}} It has remained a democracy with civil liberties, an active Supreme Court, and a largely independent press.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 265–266}} Economic liberalisation, which was begun in the 1990s, has created a large urban middle class, transformed India into one of the world's fastest-growing economies,{{sfn|United States Department of Agriculture}} and increased its geopolitical clout. Indian movies, music, and spiritual teachings play an increasing role in global culture.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 265–266}} Yet, India is also shaped by seemingly unyielding poverty, both rural and urban;{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 265–266}} by religious and caste-related violence;{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 266–270}} by Maoist-inspired Naxalite insurgencies;{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 253}} and by separatism in Jammu and Kashmir and in Northeast India.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 274}} It has unresolved territorial disputes with China{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 247–248}} and with Pakistan.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 247–248}} The India–Pakistan nuclear rivalry came to a head in 1998.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|pp = 293–295}} India's sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world's newer nations; however, in spite of its recent economic successes, freedom from want for its disadvantaged population remains a goal yet to be achieved.{{sfn|Metcalf|Metcalf|2006|p = 304}}

Geography

{{multiple image|perrow=2/1|total_width=300|caption_align=center|image_style = border:none;|background color = #F7E7CEcaption3=Fishing boats are moored and lashed together during an approaching monsoon storm whose dark clouds can be seen overhead. The scene is a tidal creek in Anjarle, a coastal village in Maharashtracaption1=India's orographical features include the Ganges- and Indus plains, the Western Ghats- and Eastern Ghats, the Thar desert, the Aravalli hills, and Satpura Range>Satpura and Vindhya rangescaption2=The average onset dates and wind directions during India's southwest summer monsoon.}}India comprises the bulk of the Indian subcontinent, lying atop the Indian tectonic plate, a part of the Indo-Australian Plate.{{sfn|Ali|Aitchison|2005}} India's defining geological processes began 75 million years ago when the Indian plate, then part of the southern supercontinent Gondwana, began a north-eastward drift caused by seafloor spreading to its south-west, and later, south and south-east.{{sfn|Ali|Aitchison|2005}} Simultaneously, the vast Tethyn oceanic crust, to its northeast, began to subduct under the Eurasian plate.{{sfn|Ali|Aitchison|2005}} These dual processes, driven by convection in the Earth's mantle, both created the Indian Ocean and caused the Indian continental crust eventually to under-thrust Eurasia and to uplift the Himalayas.{{sfn|Ali|Aitchison|2005}} Immediately south of the emerging Himalayas, plate movement created a vast trough that rapidly filled with river-borne sediment{{sfn|Dikshit & Schwartzberg|p = 7}} and now constitutes the Indo-Gangetic Plain.{{sfn|Prakash et al.|2000}} Cut off from the plain by the ancient Aravalli Range lies the Thar Desert.{{sfn|Dikshit & Schwartzberg|p = 11}}The original Indian plate survives as peninsular India, the oldest and geologically most stable part of India. It extends as far north as the Satpura and Vindhya ranges in central India. These parallel chains run from the Arabian Sea coast in Gujarat in the west to the coal-rich Chota Nagpur Plateau in Jharkhand in the east.{{sfn|Dikshit & Schwartzberg|p = 8}} To the south, the remaining peninsular landmass, the Deccan Plateau, is flanked on the west and east by coastal ranges known as the Western and Eastern Ghats;{{sfn|Dikshit & Schwartzberg|pp = 9–10}} the plateau contains the country's oldest rock formations, some over one billion years old. Constituted in such fashion, India lies to the north of the equator between 6° 44' and 35° 30' north latitude{{efn|The northernmost point under Indian control is the disputed Siachen Glacier in Jammu and Kashmir; however, the Government of India regards the entire region of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, including the Gilgit-Baltistan administered by Pakistan, to be its territory. It therefore assigns the latitude 37° 6' to its northernmost point.}} and 68° 7' and 97° 25' east longitude.{{sfn|Ministry of Information and Broadcasting|2007|p = 1}}India's coastline measures {{Convert|7517|km|mi|-2}} in length; of this distance, {{Convert|5423|km|mi|-2}} belong to peninsular India and {{Convert|2094|km|mi|-2}} to the Andaman, Nicobar, and Lakshadweep island chains.{{sfn|Kumar|Pathak|Pednekar|Raju|2006}} According to the Indian naval hydrographic charts, the mainland coastline consists of the following: 43% sandy beaches; 11% rocky shores, including cliffs; and 46% mudflats or marshy shores.{{sfn|Kumar|Pathak|Pednekar|Raju|2006}}{{#switch: {{#expr: {{CURRENTDAYOFYEAR}} mod 8}}thumbThe Kedar range of the Greater Himalayas rises behind the Kedarnath Temple in the Indian state of Uttarakhand. Snow melt from the glaciers behind Kedarnath forms the Mandakini river, one of the River source of the Ganges river.{{citation>author=Sudipta Senurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=FOV8DwAAQBAJ&pg=PT47publisher=Yale University Presspages=47–}} Quote: "The confluence of rivers, especially of the Ganges and its tributaries, is one of the most significant geographical spaces for the pilgrim, ... A common name for such a place in Sanskrit ... is prayaga, ... such as Rudraprayag, situated at the meeting of two rivers: the Mandakini River, coming down from the steep glaciers beyond Kedarnath, and Alaknanda River, making its way from BadrinathBadrinaththumbThe Agasthiyamalai range, constituting the southern end of the Western Ghats, as seen from the rainshadow region of the southwest monsoon in Tirunelveli, (Tamil Nadu]].{{citationfirst=John F.url=https://books.google.com/books?id=V0WFszVK5lQC&pg=PA35publisher=University of California Presspages=35–}} Quote: "The Agastyamalai are the the most southerly portion of the Western Ghats. These wet and rugged hills are one of the last places in South India to support an extensive area of evergreen shola forest, and they are home to what may be the largest surviving population of lion-tailed macaques")thumbThe Kosi river, shown here during a flood, rises in Nepal, rushes down with great force through its narrow Himalayan valley, and debouches in a flat plain in (Bihar]], India, where the river bed has risen so much from deposited silt that the river attempts to find a new course.{{citationfirst1=Mahuafirst2=Xavier Savarimuthu,url=https://books.google.com/books?id=nXmLDgAAQBAJ&pg=PA78publisher=Cambridge University Presspages=78–}}) thumbA beach off the Arabian Sea in Puvar, Kerala. The Arabian Sea is the northwestern region of the Indian Ocean, bounded by the Arabian peninsula and Indian peninsula>IndianIndian peninsula>IndianthumbThe Thar desert, 85% of which lies in the Indian state of Rajasthan, spreads over an area of {{convertkm2abbr=on}}. It constitutes the northwestern limit of the (southwest monsoon]].{{citationfirst=Julie Jurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=wtAbzLLTcwcC&pg=PA30publisher=John Wiley & Sonspages=30–}})thumbFlowing near Hampi is the Tungabhadra river, the major right bank tributary of the Krishna river, a peninsular river, which empties into the Bay of Bengal. The (coracle]]s, made of wicker, are traditionally covered with hide, their circular shape preventing them from overturning in rivers with rocky outcrops.{{citationfirst1=Seanfirst2=Lucyfirst3=Ericurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=v1eBAgAAQBAJ&publisher=Routledgepage=257}}) thumbThe Andaman Islands, in the (Andaman Sea]], number over 200, and extend north by northeast to south by southwest. They rise up to {{convertft100cm}} of rain annually.{{citationfirst1=O.H.K.first2=A.T.A.url=https://books.google.com/books?id=SO-fDgAAQBAJ&pg=PT1153publisher=Routledgepages=1153–}})thumbThe Kanchenjunga massif, shows Mount Khangchendzonga Central, in the middle, the world's third highest mountain at {{convert>28169m}} located on the border of India's Sikkim state and (Nepal]].{{citationpublisher=UNESCO World Heritage Centreaccessdate=18 August 2019}})}}Major Himalayan-origin rivers that substantially flow through India include the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, both of which drain into the Bay of Bengal.{{sfn|Dikshit & Schwartzberg|p = 15}} Important tributaries of the Ganges include the Yamuna and the Kosi; the latter's extremely low gradient, caused by long-term silt deposition, leads to severe floods and course changes.{{sfn|Duff|1993|p = 353}}{{citation|last1=Basu|first1=Mahua|last2=SJ|first2=Xavier Savarimuthu,|title=Fundamentals of Environmental Studies|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=nXmLDgAAQBAJ&pg=PA78|date= 2017|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-1-316-87051-8|pages=78–}} Major peninsular rivers, whose steeper gradients prevent their waters from flooding, include the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Kaveri, and the Krishna, which also drain into the Bay of Bengal;{{sfn|Dikshit & Schwartzberg|p = 16}} and the Narmada and the Tapti, which drain into the Arabian Sea.{{sfn|Dikshit & Schwartzberg|p = 17}} Coastal features include the marshy Rann of Kutch of western India and the alluvial Sundarbans delta of eastern India; the latter is shared with Bangladesh.{{sfn|Dikshit & Schwartzberg|p = 12}} India has two archipelagos: the Lakshadweep, coral atolls off India's south-western coast; and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a volcanic chain in the Andaman Sea.{{sfn|Dikshit & Schwartzberg|p = 13}}The Indian climate is strongly influenced by the Himalayas and the Thar Desert, both of which drive the economically and culturally pivotal summer and winter monsoons.{{sfn|Chang|1967|pp = 391–394}} The Himalayas prevent cold Central Asian katabatic winds from blowing in, keeping the bulk of the Indian subcontinent warmer than most locations at similar latitudes.{{sfn|Posey|1994|p = 118}}{{sfn|Wolpert|2003|p = 4}} The Thar Desert plays a crucial role in attracting the moisture-laden south-west summer monsoon winds that, between June and October, provide the majority of India's rainfall.{{sfn|Chang|1967|pp = 391–394}} Four major climatic groupings predominate in India: tropical wet, tropical dry, subtropical humid, and montane.{{sfn|Heitzman|Worden|1996|p = 97}}

Biodiversity

{{multiple image|perrow=2/1|total_width=230|caption_align=centercaption3=India has the majority of the world's wild tigers, their numbers having increased to nearly 3,000 in 2019,{{citationpublisher=BBC Newstitle=India's tiger census shows rapid population growth}} but human-tiger conflict in India has also increased. The Bengal tiger is one of the IUCN-designated endangered animals.KITCHENER, A. C. >AUTHOR2=BREITENMOSER-WüRSTEN, C. AUTHOR4=GENTRY, A. AUTHOR6=WILTING, A. AUTHOR8=ABRAMOV, A. V. AUTHOR10=DRISCOLL, C. AUTHOR12=JOHNSON, W. AUTHOR14=MEIJAARD, E. AUTHOR16=SANDERSON, J. AUTHOR18=BRUFORD, M. AUTHOR20=HOFFMANN, M. AUTHOR22=TIMMONS, Z. YEAR=2017 JOURNAL=CAT NEWS PAGES=66–68, Shown here is Maya, a Bengal tigress of the Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve, Maharashtra. caption1=A 1909 map showing India's forests, bush and small wood, cultivated lands, steppe, and desert.caption2=A 2010 map shows India's forest cover averaged out for each state. }}India is a megadiverse country, a term employed for countries, numbering 17, that display high biological diversity and contain many species exclusively indigenous, or endemic, to them.{{citation|publisher=Biodiversity A–Z and UN Environment World Conservation Monitoring Centre|title=Megadiverse Countries}} India is a habitat for 8.6% of all mammal species, 13.7% of bird species, 7.9% of reptile species, 6% of amphibian species, 12.2% of fish species, and 6.0% of all flowering plant species.{{sfn|Zoological Survey of India|2012|p = 1}}{{sfn|Puri}} Fully third of Indian plant species are endemic.{{sfn|Basak|1983|p = 24}} India also contains four of the world's 34 biodiversity hotspots, or regions that display significant habitat loss in the presence of high endemism.{{efn|A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographical region which has more than 1,500 vascular plant species, but less than 30% of its primary habitat.}}{{citation|last1=Venkataraman|first1=K.|last2=Sivaperuman|first2=C. |editor=Sivaperuman, C. |editor2=Venkataraman, K. |title=Indian Hotspots: Vertebrate Faunal Diversity, Conservation and Management|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=8kFKDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA5|year=2018|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-981-10-6605-4|page=5|chapter=Biodiversity Hotspots in India}}India's forest cover is {{convert|701673|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}, which is 21.35% of the country's total land area, can be subdivided further into broad categories of canopy density, or the proportion of the area of a forest covered by its tree canopy. {{citation|last=Jha|first=Raghbendra|title=Facets of India's Economy and Her Society Volume II: Current State and Future Prospects|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=9n9SDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA198|year=2018|publisher=Springer|isbn=978-1-349-95342-4|pages=198–}} Very dense forest, whose canopy density is greater than 70%, occupies 2.61% of India's land area. It predominates in the tropical moist forest of the Andaman Islands, the Western Ghats, and Northeast India.{{sfn|Tritsch|2001}} Moderately dense forest, whose canopy density is between 40% and 70%, occupies 9.59% of India's land area, and predominates in the temperate coniferous forest of the Himalayas, the moist deciduous sal forest of eastern India, and the dry deciduous teak forest of central and southern India.{{sfn|Tritsch|2001}} Open forest, whose canopy density is between 10% and 40%, occupies 9.14% of India's land area, and predominates in the babul-dominated thorn forest of the central Deccan plateau and the western Gangetic plain.{{sfn|Tritsch|2001}}Among the notable trees that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent, are the astringent Azadirachta indica, or neem, which is widely used in rural Indian herbal medicine,{{citation|last=Goyal|first=Anupam|title=The WTO and International Environmental Law: Towards Conciliation|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=UTGQAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA295|year=2006|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-567710-2|page=295}} Quote: "The Indian government successfully argued that the medicinal neem tree is part of traditional Indian knowledge. (page 295)" and the luxuriant Ficus religiosa, or peepul,{{citation|last=Hughes|first=Julie E.|title=Animal Kingdoms|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=RL8qWNmpkc0C&pg=PT106|year=2013|publisher=Harvard University Press|isbn=978-0-674-07480-4|pages=106–|quote=At same time, the leafy pipal trees and comparative abundance that marked the Mewari landscape fostered refinements unattainable in other lands.}} which is displayed on the ancient seals of Mohenjo-daro,{{citation|last1=Ameri|first1=Marta|last2=Costello|first2=Sarah Kielt|last3=Jamison|first3=Gregg; Scott, Sarah Jarmer|title=Seals and Sealing in the Ancient World: Case Studies from the Near East, Egypt, the Aegean, and South Asia|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=SklVDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA156|year=2018|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=978-1-108-17351-3|pages=156–7}} Quote: ""The last of the centaurs has the long, wavy, horizontal horns of a markhor, a human face, a heavy-set body that appears bovine, and a goat tail ... This figure is often depicted by itself, but it is also consistently represented in scenes that seem to reflect the adoration of a figure in a pipal tree or arbor and which may be termed ritual. These include fully detailed scenes like that visible in the large "divine adoration" seal from Mohenjo-daro." and under which the Buddha is recorded in the Pali canon to have sought enlightenment,{{citation|author=Paul Gwynne|title=World Religions in Practice: A Comparative Introduction|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=tdsRKc_knZoC&pg=RA5-PT195|year=2011|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=978-1-4443-6005-9|page=358}} Quote: "The tree under which Sakyamuni became the Buddha is a peepal tree (Ficus religiosa). page 358"Many Indian species have descended from those of Gondwana, the southern supercontinent from which India separated more than 100 million years ago.{{sfn|Crame|Owen|2002|p = 142}} India's subsequent collision with Eurasia set off a mass exchange of species. However, volcanism and climatic changes later caused the extinction of many endemic Indian forms.{{sfn|Karanth|2006}} Still later, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical passes flanking the Himalaya.{{sfn|Tritsch|2001}} This had the effect of lowering endemism among India's mammals, which stands at 12.6%, contrasting with 45.8% among reptiles and 55.8% among amphibians.{{sfn|Puri}} Notable endemics are the vulnerableJOURNAL, Singh, M., Kumar, A., Molur, S., yes, Trachypithecus johnii, The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2008, e.T44694A10927987, 2008, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T44694A10927987.en, Hooded leaf monkeyWEB, Semnopithecus johnii,weblink ITIS, 2018-08-27, and the threatenedJOURNAL, S.D. Biju, Sushil Dutta, M.S. Ravichandran Karthikeyan Vasudevan, S.P. Vijayakumar, Chelmala Srinivasulu, Gajanan Dasaramji Bhuddhe, Duttaphrynus beddomii, The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 2004, e.T54584A86543952, IUCN, 2004, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T54584A11155448.en, Beddom's toadWEB,weblink Duttaphrynus beddomii (Günther, 1876), Frost, Darrel R., 2015, Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0, American Museum of Natural History, 13 September 2015, of the Western Ghats.{{#switch: {{#expr: {{CURRENTDAYOFYEAR}} mod 8}}thumbThe endangered Nilgiri tahr is endemic to the Western GhatsWestern GhatsthumbThe Ficus benghalensis, commonly known as the Indian banyan, or Indian fig, is indigenous to India, and is one of the largest trees by canopy coverage. It has (aerial roots]] which form new trunks once they reach the ground and propagate.{{citationfirst=E. J. H.url=https://books.google.com/books?id=V0VyqECPiuoC&pg=PA227publisher=University of Chicago Presspages=227–}})thumbThe vulnerable Malabar frogMalabar frogthumbThe bank mynabank mynathumbA NASA satellite image of North Sentinel Island, a part of India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands, which is covered by a very dense{{efnvery dense if more than 70% of its area is covered by its tree canopy.}} tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest>tropical moist foresttropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forest>tropical moist forest thumbIndian vultures, (Gyps indicus), in a nest on the tower of the Chaturbhuj Temple, Orchha, Madhya Pradesh. The vulture became nearly extinct in India in the 1990s from having ingested the carrion of diclofenacdiclofenacthumbThe Pahalgam valley in Jammu and Kashmir is covered with a temperate coniferous foresttemperate coniferous forestthumbA Chital (Axis axis) stag attempts to browse in the Nagarhole National Park in a region covered by a moderately dense{{efnmoderately dense if between 40% and 70% of its area is covered by its tree canopy.}} dry deciduous 2001}} }} India contains 172 IUCN-designated threatened animal species, or 2.9% of endangered forms.{{sfn|Mace|1994|p = 4}} These include the endangered Bengal tiger and the Ganges river dolphin and the critically endangered: Gharial, a crocodilian; the Great Indian bustard; and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which has become nearly extinct by having ingested the carrion of diclofenac-treated cattle.{{citation|last1=Lovette|first1=Irby J.|last2=Fitzpatrick|first2=John W.|title=Handbook of Bird Biology|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=OGyQDAAAQBAJ&pg=PA599|year=2016|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|isbn=978-1-118-29105-4|pages=599–}} The pervasive and ecologically devastating human encroachment of recent decades has critically endangered Indian wildlife. In response, the system of national parks and protected areas, first established in 1935, was substantially expanded. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act{{sfn|Ministry of Environments and Forests 1972}} and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial wilderness; the Forest Conservation Act was enacted in 1980 and amendments added in 1988.{{sfn|Department of Environment and Forests|1988}} India hosts more than five hundred wildlife sanctuaries and thirteen{{Nbsp}}biosphere reserves,{{sfn|Ministry of Environment and Forests}} four of which are part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves; twenty-five wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention.{{sfn|Secretariat of the Convention on Wetlands}}

Politics and government

Politics

File:Rajagopal speaking to 25,000 people, Janadesh 2007, India.jpg|thumb|left|Social movements have long been a part of democracy in India. The picture shows a section of 25,000 landless people in the state of Madhya Pradesh listening to Rajagopal P. V. before their 350 km march, Janadesh 2007, from Gwalior to New Delhi to publicize their demand for further (land reform in India]].{{citation|last=Johnston|first=Hank|title=Social Movements, Nonviolent Resistance, and the State|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=hSiFDwAAQBAJ&pg=PT83|year=2019|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-429-88566-2|pages=83–}} )India is the world's most populous democracy.{{sfn|United Nations Population Division}} A parliamentary republic with a multi-party system,{{sfn|Burnell|Calvert|1999|p = 125}} it has seven{{Nbsp}}recognised national parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), and more than 40{{Nbsp}}regional parties.{{sfn|Election Commission of India}} The Congress is considered centre-left in Indian political culture,JOURNAL, Saez, Lawrence, Sinha, Aseema, Political cycles, political institutions and public expenditure in India, 1980–2000, British Journal of Political Science, 40, 1, 2010, 91–113, 10.1017/s0007123409990226, and the BJP right-wing.{{sfn|Malik|Singh|1992|pp=318–336}}{{sfn|BBC|2012}}{{sfn|Banerjee|2005|p=3118}} For most of the period between 1950—when India first became a republic—and the late 1980s, the Congress held a majority in the parliament. Since then, however, it has increasingly shared the political stage with the BJP,{{sfn|Sarkar|2007|p = 84}} as well as with powerful regional parties which have often forced the creation of multi-party coalition governments at the centre.{{sfn|Chander|2004|p = 117}}In the Republic of India's first three general elections, in 1951, 1957, and 1962, the Jawaharlal Nehru-led Congress won easy victories. On Nehru's death in 1964, Lal Bahadur Shastri briefly became prime minister; he was succeeded, after his own unexpected death in 1966, by Indira Gandhi, who went on to lead the Congress to election victories in 1967 and 1971. Following public discontent with the state of emergency she declared in 1975, the Congress was voted out of power in 1977; the then-new Janata Party, which had opposed the emergency, was voted in. Its government lasted just over two years. Voted back into power in 1980, the Congress saw a change in leadership in 1984, when Indira Gandhi was assassinated; she was succeeded by her son Rajiv Gandhi, who won an easy victory in the general elections later that year. The Congress was voted out again in 1989 when a National Front coalition, led by the newly formed Janata Dal in alliance with the Left Front, won the elections; that government too proved relatively short-lived, lasting just under two years.{{sfn|Bhambhri|1992|pp = 118, 143}} Elections were held again in 1991; no party won an absolute majority. The Congress, as the largest single party, was able to form a minority government led by P. V. Narasimha Rao.NEWS, 24 December 2004, Narasimha Rao Passes Away, The Hindu,weblink 2 November 2008, File:Barack Obama at Parliament of India in New Delhi addressing Joint session of both houses 2010.jpg|thumb|US president Barack Obama at the Parliament of India in New Delhi addressing members of parliament of both houses, the lower, Lok Sabha, and the upper, Rajya SabhaRajya SabhaA two-year period of political turmoil followed the general election of 1996. Several short-lived alliances shared power at the centre. The BJP formed a government briefly in 1996; it was followed by two comparatively long-lasting United Front coalitions, which depended on external support. In 1998, the BJP was able to form a successful coalition, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA). Led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the NDA became the first non-Congress, coalition government to complete a five-year term.{{sfn|Dunleavy|Diwakar|Dunleavy|2007}} In the 2004 Indian general elections, again no party won an absolute majority, but the Congress emerged as the largest single party, forming another successful coalition: the United Progressive Alliance (UPA). It had the support of left-leaning parties and MPs who opposed the BJP. The UPA returned to power in the 2009 general election with increased numbers, and it no longer required external support from India's communist parties.{{sfn|Kulke|Rothermund|2004|p = 384}} That year, Manmohan Singh became the first prime minister since Jawaharlal Nehru in 1957 and 1962 to be re-elected to a consecutive five-year term.{{sfn|Business Standard|2009}} In the 2014 general election, the BJP became the first political party since 1984 to win a majority and govern without the support of other parties.NEWS, BJP first party since 1984 to win parliamentary majority on its own,weblink 20 May 2014, DNA, 16 May 2014, IANS, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140521032413weblink">weblink 21 May 2014, The incumbent Indian prime minister is Narendra Modi, a former chief minister of Gujarat. On 20 July 2017, Ram Nath Kovind was elected India's 14th president and took the oath of office on 25 July 2017.WEB,weblink Election commission, 21 July 2017, eci.nic.in, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170811012217weblink">weblink 11 August 2017, WEB,weblink Oath, India Today, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170721045522weblink">weblink 21 July 2017, NEWS, Highlights: Ram Nath Kovind takes oath as India's 14th President,weblink 25 July 2017, The Indian Express, 10 August 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170811010120weblink">weblink 11 August 2017,

Government

File:Rashtrapati Bhavan Wide New Delhi India.jpg|thumb|left|The official home of the President of India, the Rashtrapati Bhavan, was designed between 1911 and 1931 by British architects, Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker for the Viceroy of India during the (British Raj]].{{citation|last=Bremner|first=G. A.|title=Architecture and Urbanism in the British Empire|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=mjRADQAAQBAJ&pg=PA117|year=2016|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-102232-6|pages=117–}})India is a federation with a parliamentary system governed under the Constitution of India, which serves as the country's supreme legal document. It is a constitutional republic and representative democracy, in which "majority rule is tempered by minority rights protected by law". Federalism in India defines the power distribution between the union, or central, government and the states. The Constitution of India, which came into effect on {{Date|1950-01-26|dmy}},{{sfn|Pylee|2003|a|p = 4}} originally stated India to be a "sovereign, democratic republic;" this characterization was amended in 1971 to "a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic.{{sfn|Dutt|1998|p = 421}} India's form of government, traditionally described as "quasi-federal" with a strong centre and weak states,{{sfn|Wheare|1980|p = 28}} has grown increasingly federal since the late 1990s as a result of political, economic, and social changes.{{sfn|Echeverri-Gent|2002|pp = 19–20}}{{sfn|Sinha|2004|p = 25}}







factoids
| flag = Tiranga (Tricolour)Emblem of India>Sarnath Lion Capital| anthem = Jana Gana Mana| song = Vande MataramTITLE=THERE'S NO NATIONAL LANGUAGE IN INDIA: GUJARAT HIGH COURTACCESSDATE=5 MAY 2014DATE=25 JANUARY 2010ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20140318040319/HTTP://TIMESOFINDIA.INDIATIMES.COM/INDIA/THERES-NO-NATIONAL-LANGUAGE-IN-INDIA-GUJARAT-HIGH-COURT/ARTICLESHOW/5496231.CMSDEADURL=NOARCHIVEDATE=10 OCTOBER 2017, HTTP://WWW.THEHINDU.COM/NEWS/NATIONAL/HINDI-NOT-A-NATIONAL-LANGUAGE-COURT/ARTICLE94695.ECE>TITLE=HINDI, NOT A NATIONAL LANGUAGE: COURTAUTHOR=PRESS TRUST OF INDIADATE=25 JANUARY 2010DEADURL=NOARCHIVEDATE=4 JULY 2014, Indian rupee sign>₹ (Indian rupee)Indian national calendar>SakaTiger (land)South Asian river dolphin>River dolphin (aquatic)| bird = Indian peafowlNelumbo nucifera>Lotus| fruit = Mango| tree = Banyan| river = GangaACCESSDATE=4 AUGUST 2012ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120804001706/HTTP://WWW.DECCANHERALD.COM/CONTENT/268727/IN-RTI-REPLY-CENTRE-SAYS.HTMLDATE=2 AUGUST 2012, }}The Government of India comprises three branches:WEB,weblink The Constitution of India, 16 July 2016,
  • Executive: The President of India is the ceremonial head of state,{{sfn|Sharma|2007|p = 31}} who is elected indirectly for a five-year term by an electoral college comprising members of national and state legislatures.{{sfn|Sharma|2007|p = 138}}{{sfn|Gledhill|1970|p = 112}} The Prime Minister of India is the head of government and exercises most executive power.{{sfn|Sharma|1950}} Appointed by the president,{{sfn|Sharma|2007|p = 162}} the prime minister is by convention supported by the party or political alliance having a majority of seats in the lower house of parliament.{{sfn|Sharma|1950}} The executive of the Indian government consists of the president, the vice president, and the Union Council of Ministers—with the cabinet being its executive committee—headed by the prime minister. Any minister holding a portfolio must be a member of one of the houses of parliament.{{sfn|Sharma|2007|p = 31}} In the Indian parliamentary system, the executive is subordinate to the legislature; the prime minister and his or her council are directly responsible to the lower house of the parliament. The civil servants act as permanent executives and all decisions of the executive are implemented by them. {{sfn|Mathew|2003|p = 524}}
  • Legislature: The legislature of India is the bicameral parliament. Operating under a Westminster-style parliamentary system, it comprises an upper house called the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and a lower house called the Lok Sabha (House of the People).{{sfn|Gledhill|1970|p = 127}} The Rajya Sabha is a permanent body of 245{{Nbsp}}members who serve staggered six-year{{Nbsp}}terms.{{sfn|Sharma|2007|p = 161}} Most are elected indirectly by the state and union territorial legislatures in numbers proportional to their state's share of the national population.{{sfn|Sharma|2007|p = 162}} All but two of the Lok Sabha's 545{{Nbsp}}members are directly elected by popular vote; they represent single-member constituencies for five-year{{Nbsp}}terms.{{sfn|Sharma|2007|p = 143}} The remaining two{{Nbsp}}members are nominated by the president from among the Anglo-Indian community, in case the president decides that they are not adequately represented.{{sfn|Sharma|2007|p = 360}}
  • Judiciary: India has a three-tier{{Nbsp}}unitary independent judiciary{{sfn|Neuborne|2003|p = 478}} comprising the supreme court, headed by the Chief Justice of India, 24{{Nbsp}}high courts, and a large number of trial courts.{{sfn|Neuborne|2003|p = 478}} The supreme court has original jurisdiction over cases involving fundamental rights and over disputes between states and the centre and has appellate jurisdiction over the high courts.{{sfn|Sharma|2007|pp = 238, 255}} It has the power to both strike down union or state laws which contravene the constitution,{{sfn|Sripati|1998|pp = 423–424}} and invalidate any government action it deems unconstitutional.{{sfn|Pylee|2003|b|p = 314}}

Administrative divisions

{{See also|Political integration of India}}{{Indian states and territories image map|image-width=380}}{| class="wikitable sortable mw-collapsible floatleft" style="font-size:85%; text-align:center; margin:0 0 1.5em 1.5em;"|+ States (1–29) & Union territories (A-G)1. Andhra Pradesh19. Nagaland2. Arunachal Pradesh20. Odisha3. Assam21. Punjab4. Bihar22. Rajasthan5. Chhattisgarh23. Sikkim6. Goa24. Tamil Nadu7. Gujarat25. Telangana8. Haryana26. Tripura9. Himachal Pradesh27. Uttar Pradesh10. Jammu and Kashmir28. Uttarakhand11. Jharkhand29. West Bengal12. KarnatakaA. Andaman and Nicobar Islands13. KeralaB. Chandigarh14. Madhya PradeshC. Dadra and Nagar Haveli15. MaharashtraD. Daman and Diu16. ManipurE. Lakshadweep17. MeghalayaF. National Capital Territory of Delhi18. MizoramG. Puducherry{{clear}}India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories.{{sfn|Library of Congress|2004}} All states, as well in addition to the union territories of Puducherry and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, have elected legislatures and governments following on the Westminster system of governance. The remaining five union territories are directly ruled by the centre through appointed administrators. In 1956, under the States Reorganisation Act, states were reorganised on a linguistic basis.{{sfn|Sharma|2007|p = 49}} Since then, their structure has remained largely unchanged.{{cn|date=August 2019}} Each state or union territory is further divided into administrative districts. The districts are further divided into tehsils and ultimately into villages.{{cn|date=August 2019}}

Foreign, economic and strategic relations

File:Jawaharlal Nehru, Nasser and Tito at the Conference of Non-Aligned Nations held in Belgrade.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.2|During the 1950s and 60s, India played a pivotal role in the Non-aligned movement. Shown here are from left to right: Gamal Abdel Nasser of United Arab Republic (now Egypt), Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia and Jawaharlal NehruJawaharlal NehruSince its independence in 1947, India has maintained cordial relations with most nations. In the 1950s, it strongly supported decolonisation in Africa and Asia and played a lead role in the Non-Aligned Movement.{{sfn|Rothermund|2000|pp = 48, 227}} In the late 1980s, the Indian military twice intervened abroad at the invitation of neighbouring countries: a peace-keeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990; and an armed intervention to prevent a 1988 coup d'état attempt in the Maldives. India has tense relations with neighbouring Pakistan; the two nations have gone to war four times: in 1947, 1965, 1971, and 1999. Three of these wars were fought over the disputed territory of Kashmir, while the fourth, the 1971 war, followed from India's support for the independence of Bangladesh.{{sfn|Gilbert|2002|pp = 486–487}} After waging the 1962 Sino-Indian War and the 1965 war with Pakistan, India pursued close military and economic ties with the Soviet Union; by the late 1960s, the Soviet Union was its largest arms supplier.{{sfn|Sharma|1999|p = 56}}Aside from ongoing special relationship with Russia,NEWS,weblink No ties with Pakistan at India's cost, relations with New Delhi long-term: Russia {{!, India News|access-date=14 October 2018|language=en-GB}} India has wide-ranging defence relations with Israel and France. In recent years, it has played key roles in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the World Trade Organization. The nation has provided 100,000 military and police personnel to serve in 35 UN peacekeeping operations across four continents. It participates in the East Asia Summit, the G8+5, and other multilateral forums.{{sfn|Alford|2008}} India has close economic ties with South America,WEB,weblink The Other BRIC in Latin America: India, Jorge Heine, R. Viswanathan, Spring 2011, Americas Quarterly, 19 May 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170525115121weblink">weblink 25 May 2017, Asia, and Africa; it pursues a "Look East" policy that seeks to strengthen partnerships with the ASEAN nations, Japan, and South Korea that revolve around many issues, but especially those involving economic investment and regional security.{{sfn|Ghosh|2009|pp = 282–289}}{{sfn|Sisodia|Naidu|2005|pp = 1–8}}File:Indian Air Force contingent as a part of the Bastille Day Parade of France, in Paris on July 14, 2009.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.2|The Indian Air Force contingent marching at the 221st Bastille Day military parade in Paris, on July 14, 2009. The parade at which India was the foreign guest was led by the India's oldest regiment, the Maratha Light InfantryMaratha Light InfantryChina's nuclear test of 1964, as well as its repeated threats to intervene in support of Pakistan in the 1965 war, convinced India to develop nuclear weapons.{{sfn|Perkovich|2001|pp = 60–86, 106–125}} India conducted its first nuclear weapons test in 1974 and carried out further underground testing in 1998. Despite criticism and military sanctions, India has signed neither the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty nor the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, considering both to be flawed and discriminatory.{{sfn|Kumar|2010}} India maintains a "no first use" nuclear policy and is developing a nuclear triad capability as a part of its "Minimum Credible Deterrence" doctrine.{{sfn|Nair|2007}}{{sfn|Pandit|2009}} It is developing a ballistic missile defence shield and, in collaboration with Russia, a fifth-generation fighter jet. Other indigenous military projects involve the design and implementation of Vikrant-class aircraft carriers and Arihant-class nuclear submarines.NEWS, 5 October 2009, India, Russia Review Defence Ties, The Hindu,weblink 8 October 2011, Since the end of the Cold War, India has increased its economic, strategic, and military co-operation with the United States and the European Union.{{sfn|Europa 2008}} In 2008, a civilian nuclear agreement was signed between India and the United States. Although India possessed nuclear weapons at the time and was not party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, it received waivers from the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Suppliers Group, ending earlier restrictions on India's nuclear technology and commerce. As a consequence, India became the sixth de facto nuclear weapons state.{{sfn|The Times of India 2008}} India subsequently signed co-operation agreements involving civilian nuclear energy with Russia,{{sfn|British Broadcasting Corporation 2009}} France,{{sfn|Rediff 2008 a}} the United Kingdom,{{sfn|Reuters|2010}} and Canada.{{sfn|Curry|2010}}File:Modi Nieto Mexico June 2016.jpg|thumb|upright=1.2|left|Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India (left, background) in talks with President Enrique Peña NietoEnrique Peña NietoThe President of India is the supreme commander of the nation's armed forces; with 1.395 million active troops, they compose the world's second-largest military. It comprises the Indian Army, the Indian Navy, the Indian Air Force, and the Indian Coast Guard.{{sfn|Central Intelligence Agency}} The official Indian defence budget for 2011 was US$36.03 billion, or 1.83% of GDP.{{sfn|Behera|2011}} For the fiscal year spanning 2012–2013, US$40.44 billion was budgeted.{{sfn|Behera|2012}} According to a 2008 SIPRI report, India's annual military expenditure in terms of purchasing power stood at US$72.7 billion.{{sfn|Stockholm International Peace Research Institute 2008|p = 178}} In 2011, the annual defence budget increased by 11.6%,{{sfn|Miglani|2011}} although this does not include funds that reach the military through other branches of government.{{sfn|Shukla|2011}} {{As of|2012}}, India is the world's largest arms importer; between 2007 and 2011, it accounted for 10% of funds spent on international arms purchases.{{sfn|Stockholm International Peace Research Initiative 2012}} Much of the military expenditure was focused on defence against Pakistan and countering growing Chinese influence in the Indian Ocean.{{sfn|Miglani|2011}} In May 2017, the Indian Space Research Organisation launched the South Asia Satellite, a gift from India to its neighbouring SAARC countries.NEWS,weblink Isro-Saarc satellite to be a communication vehicle, Deccan Herald, Deccan Herald News Service, 12 January 2015, 22 April 2015, In October 2018, India signed a US$5.43 billion (over Rs 400 billion) agreement with Russia to procure four S-400 Triumf surface-to-air missile defence systems, Russia's most advanced long-range missile defence system.NEWS, India Russia S-400 missile deal: All you need to know,weblink 5 October 2018, The Times of India, 9 October 2018,

Economy

{{multiple image|perrow=1/2|total_width=300|caption_align=center| align = right|image_style = border:none;|background color = #F7E7CE| image1 = Plowing the land in India - modern and traditional.jpg| image2 = Women at work, Gujarat (cropped).jpg| image3 = ILRI, Stevie Mann - Villager and calf share milk from cow in Rajasthan, India.jpgKarnataka ploughs his field with a tractor even as another in a field beyond does the same with a pair of oxen In 2018, 44% of India's total workforce was employed in agriculture.{{citation>title=url=https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.ZS?most_recent_value_desc=false&view=map accessdate=22 August 2019Junagadh district in Gujarat. 57% of India's female workforce was employed in agriculture in 2018.{{citation>title=url=https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SL.AGR.EMPL.FE.ZS?most_recent_value_desc=false&view=map accessdate=22 August 2019date=August 2019}}}}According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Indian economy in 2017 was nominally worth US$2.611 trillion; it is the sixth-largest economy by market exchange rates, and is, at US$9.459 trillion, the third-largest by purchasing power parity, or PPP. With its average annual GDP growth rate of 5.8% over the past two decades, and reaching 6.1% during 2011–12,{{sfn|International Monetary Fund 2011|p = 2}} India is one of the world's fastest-growing economies.{{sfn|Nayak|Goldar|Agrawal|2010|p = xxv}} However, the country ranks 140th in the world in nominal GDP per capita and 129th in GDP per capita at PPP.{{sfn|International Monetary Fund}} Until 1991, all Indian governments followed protectionist policies that were influenced by socialist economics. Widespread state intervention and regulation largely walled the economy off from the outside world. An acute balance of payments crisis in 1991 forced the nation to liberalise its economy;{{sfn|Wolpert|2003|p = xiv}} since then it has slowly moved towards a free-market system{{sfn|Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2007}}{{sfn|Gargan|1992}} by emphasising both foreign trade and direct investment inflows.{{sfn|Alamgir|2008|pp = 23, 97}} India has been a member of WTO since 1 January 1995.{{sfn|WTO 1995}}The 513.7-million-worker Indian labour force is the world's second-largest, {{As of|2016|lc=y}}.{{sfn|Central Intelligence Agency}} The service sector makes up 55.6% of GDP, the industrial sector 26.3% and the agricultural sector 18.1%. India's foreign exchange remittances of US$70 billion in 2014, the largest in the world, contributed to its economy by 25 million Indians working in foreign countries.WEB,weblink Pakistan's remittances, Sakib Sherani, dawn.com, 17 December 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151216104527weblink">weblink 16 December 2015, 17 April 2015, Major agricultural products include rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, and potatoes.{{sfn|Library of Congress|2004}} Major industries include textiles, telecommunications, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, food processing, steel, transport equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, and software.{{sfn|Library of Congress|2004}} In 2006, the share of external trade in India's GDP stood at 24%, up from 6% in 1985.{{sfn|Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2007}} In 2008, India's share of world trade was 1.68%;{{citation|date=28 August 2009|title=Exporters Get Wider Market Reach|newspaper=The Times of India|url=http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/business/india-business/Exporters-get-wider-market-reach/articleshow/4942892.cms?referral=PM|accessdate=23 July 2011}} In 2011, India was the world's tenth-largest importer and the nineteenth-largest exporter.{{sfn|World Trade Organization 2010}} Major exports include petroleum products, textile goods, jewellery, software, engineering goods, chemicals, and leather manufactures.{{sfn|Library of Congress|2004}} Major imports include crude oil, machinery, gems, fertiliser, and chemicals.{{sfn|Library of Congress|2004}} Between 2001 and 2011, the contribution of petrochemical and engineering goods to total exports grew from 14% to 42%.{{sfn|Economist 2011}} India was the second largest textile exporter after China in the world in the calendar year 2013.WEB, India world's second largest textiles exporter,weblink TechCrunch, economictimes, 2 June 2014, UN Comtrade, 4 February 2015, Averaging an economic growth rate of 7.5% for several years prior to 2007,{{sfn|Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2007}} India has more than doubled its hourly wage rates during the first decade of the 21st century.{{sfn|Bonner|2010}} Some 431 million Indians have left poverty since 1985; India's middle classes are projected to number around 580 million by 2030.{{sfn|Farrell|Beinhocker|2007}} Though ranking 51st in global competitiveness, India ranks 17th in financial market sophistication, 24th in the banking sector, 44th in business sophistication, and 39th in innovation, ahead of several advanced economies, {{As of|2010|lc=y}}.{{sfn|Schwab|2010}} With 7 of the world's top 15 information technology outsourcing companies based in India, the country is viewed as the second-most favourable outsourcing destination after the United States, {{As of|2009|lc=y}}.{{sfn|Sheth|2009}} India's consumer market, the world's eleventh-largest, is expected to become fifth-largest by 2030.{{sfn|Farrell|Beinhocker|2007}} However, hardly 2% of Indians pay income taxes.WEB, How Many People in India Pay Income Tax? Hardly Anyone,weblink 6 June 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131231000615weblink">weblink 31 December 2013, Driven by growth, India's nominal GDP per capita has steadily increased from US$329 in 1991, when economic liberalisation began, to US$1,265 in 2010, to an estimated US$1,723 in 2016, and is expected to grow to US$2,358 by 2020; however, it has remained lower than those of other Asian developing countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand, and is expected to remain so in the near future. However, it is higher than Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan, Bangladesh and others.{{sfn|International Monetary Fund 2011}}File:Bangalore Panorama edit1.jpg|thumb|left|upright=2.2|A panorama of Bangalore, the center of India's software development economy. In the 1980s, when the first (multinational corporation]]s began to set up centers in India, they chose Bangalore because of the large pool of skilled graduates in the area, in turn due to the many science and engineering colleges in the surrounding region.{{citation|last1=Scott|first1=Allen J.|last2=Garofoli|first2=Gioacchino|title=Development on the Ground: Clusters, Networks and Regions in Emerging Economies|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=GUCUAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA208|year=2007|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-1-135-98422-9|pages=208–}})According to a 2011 PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) report, India's GDP at purchasing power parity could overtake that of the United States by 2045.{{sfn|Hawksworth|Tiwari|2011}} During the next four decades, Indian GDP is expected to grow at an annualised average of 8%, making it potentially the world's fastest-growing major economy until 2050.{{sfn|Hawksworth|Tiwari|2011}} The report highlights key growth factors: a young and rapidly growing working-age population; growth in the manufacturing sector because of rising education and engineering skill levels; and sustained growth of the consumer market driven by a rapidly growing middle-class.{{sfn|Hawksworth|Tiwari|2011}} The World Bank cautions that, for India to achieve its economic potential, it must continue to focus on public sector reform, transport infrastructure, agricultural and rural development, removal of labour regulations, education, energy security, and public health and nutrition.{{citation|date=September 2010|title=India Country Overview September 2010|publisher=World Bank|url=http://www.worldbank.org.in/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/INDIAEXTN/0,,contentMDK:20195738~menuPK:295591~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSitePK:295584,00.html|accessdate=23 July 2011|dead-url=yes|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110522115104weblink|archive-date=2011-05-22}}According to the Worldwide Cost of Living Report 2017 released by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) which was created by comparing more than 400 individual prices across 160 products and services, four of the cheapest cities were in India: Bangalore (3rd), Mumbai (5th), Chennai (5th) and New Delhi (8th).JOURNAL,weblink Measuring the cost of living worldwide, The Economist, 25 May 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170525140627weblink">weblink 25 May 2017, 21 March 2017,

Industries

{{#switch: {{#expr: {{CURRENTDAYOFYEAR}} mod 8}}thumbThe Bombay Stock Exchange is Asia's oldest and India's largest bourse by market capitalisationmarket capitalisationthumb|Infosys Leadership Institute in Mysuru built by India's information technology giant InfosysInfosysthumb|Coaches of the Delhi Metro Blue Line, manufactured by Bombardier TransportationBombardier TransportationthumbSalem, Tamil Nadu>Salem, Tamil Nadu. The Power loom accounts for more than 60% of textile production in India.]]thumb|A computer lab being conducted at St. Xavier's College, KolkataSt. Xavier's College, KolkatathumbTamil Nadu. Almost all the (Retailing in India>retail industry]] in India, which accounts for 10% of India's GDP, and 8% of its employment, belongs to the unorganized sector of individual and family-owned businesses.{{citationfirst1=Christopher A.first2=Paul W.url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QAxMDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA393publisher=Cambridge University Presspages=393–}})thumb|A small hydro-electric dam on the Ganges Canal at Nagla Kabir, UP. The electricity sector in India has an installed capacity of 205.34 Gigawatt (GW), the world's fifth largest. Coal-fired plants account for 56% of India's electricity capacity, renewal hydropowerhydropowerthumb|A feeder ship in Diamond Harbour, West Bengal. International tradeInternational trade}}India's telecommunication industry, the world's fastest-growing, added 227 million subscribers during the period 2010–11,{{sfn|Telecom Regulatory Authority 2011}} and after the third quarter of 2017, India surpassed the US to become the second largest smartphone market in the world after China.NEWS, Danish, Khan, Indian smartphone market grows 23% to overtake US in Q3; Samsung, Xiaomi drive shipments,weblink The Economic Times, 28 October 2017, 5 November 2017, no,weblink 31 October 2017, The Indian automotive industry, the world's second-fastest growing, increased domestic sales by 26% during 2009–10,{{sfn|Business Line 2010}} and exports by 36% during 2008–09.{{sfn|Express India 2009}} India's capacity to generate electrical power is 300 gigawatts, of which 42 gigawatts is renewable.WEB,weblink India's total power capacity crosses 300 gw mark, NDTV, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170616181350weblink">weblink 16 June 2017, At the end of 2011, the Indian IT industry employed 2.8 million professionals, generated revenues close to US$100 billion equalling 7.5% of Indian GDP and contributed 26% of India's merchandise exports.{{sfn|Nasscom 2011–2012}}The pharmaceutical industry in India is among the significant emerging markets for the global pharmaceutical industry. The Indian pharmaceutical market is expected to reach $48.5 billion by 2020. India's R & D spending constitutes 60% of the biopharmaceutical industry.NEWS, Vishal Dutta,weblink Indian biotech industry at critical juncture, global biotech stabilises: Report, Economic Times, 10 July 2012, 31 October 2012, NEWS,weblink Indian pharmaceutical industry – growth story to continue, Express Pharma, 15 January 2012, 31 October 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130116214756weblink">weblink 16 January 2013, India is among the top 12 biotech destinations in the world.Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Sector in India: sector briefing by the UK Trade and Investment 2011, utki.gov.uk{{sfn|Yep|2011}} The Indian biotech industry grew by 15.1% in 2012–13, increasing its revenues from 204.4 billion INR (Indian rupees) to 235.24 billion INR (3.94 B US$ – exchange rate June 2013: 1 US$ approx. 60 INR).WEB,weblink Differding Consulting Publi 6, Differding.com, 11 February 2014, 4 April 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140223203715weblink">weblink 23 February 2014,

Socio-economic challenges

{{multiple image|perrow=1|total_width=240|caption_align=center| align = left|image_style = border:none;|background color = #F7E7CE| image1 = Female health workers in India (34332433890).jpg| footer = Female health workers about to begin another day of immunization against infectious diseases in 2006. Eight years later, and three years after India's last case of polio, the World Health Organization on 11 February 2014 declared India to be polio-free.}}Despite economic growth during recent decades, India continues to face socio-economic challenges. In 2006, India contained the largest number of people living below the World Bank's international poverty line of US$1.25 per day,{{citation|date=29 May 2006|title=Inclusive Growth and Service Delivery: Building on India's Success|publisher=World Bank|url=http://siteresources.worldbank.org/SOUTHASIAEXT/Resources/DPR_FullReport.pdf|accessdate=7 May 2009|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120514143037weblink|archive-date=2012-05-14|dead-url=yes}} the proportion having decreased from 60% in 1981 to 42% in 2005;{{citation|title=New Global Poverty Estimates – What It Means for India|publisher=World Bank|url=http://www.worldbank.org.in/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/INDIAEXTN/0,,contentMDK:21880725~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSitePK:295584,00.html|accessdate=23 July 2011|dead-url=yes|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120506043711weblink|archive-date=2012-05-06}} under its later revised poverty line, it was 21% in 2011.{{efn|In 2015, the World Bank raised its international poverty line to $1.90 per day.WEB, Kenny, Charles, Sandefur, Justin, Why the World Bank is changing the definition of the word "poor",weblink Vox, 26 February 2017, 7 October 2015, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170114175442weblink">weblink 14 January 2017, }}WEB, Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population),weblink World Bank, 26 February 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170215021227weblink">weblink 15 February 2017, 30.7% of India's children under the age of five are underweight.WEB, India's rank improves to 55th position on global hunger index,weblink 13 October 2014, India times, According to a Food and Agriculture Organization report in 2015, 15% of the population is undernourished.NEWS,weblink India is home to 194 million hungry people: UN, Internet Desk, The Hindu, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161202044027weblink">weblink 2 December 2016, 28 May 2015, WEB,weblink India home to world's largest number of hungry people: report, dawn.com, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150529132938weblink">weblink 29 May 2015, 29 May 2015, The Mid-Day Meal Scheme attempts to lower these rates.{{sfn|Drèze|Goyal|2008|p = 46}}According to a Walk Free Foundation report in 2016, there were an estimated 18.3 million people in India, or 1.4% of the population, living in the forms of modern slavery, such as bonded labour, child labour, human trafficking, and forced begging, among others.NEWS,weblink India – Global Slavery Index 2016, 21 November 2017, Walk Free Foundation, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170503143524weblink">weblink 3 May 2017, WEB,weblink Bonded labourers, sex workers, forced beggars: India leads world in slavery, 31 May 2016, 21 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171001212900weblink">weblink 1 October 2017, NEWS, India ranks fourth in global slavery survey,weblink 1 June 2016, 21 November 2017, Times of India, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171001170950weblink">weblink 1 October 2017, According to the 2011 census, there were 10.1 million child labourers in the country, a decline of 2.6 million from 12.6 million child labourers in 2001.WEB,weblink Child labour in India – ILO, International Labour Organization, 21 November 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171201030715weblink">weblink 1 December 2017, Since 1991, economic inequality between India's states has consistently grown: the per-capita net state domestic product of the richest states in 2007 was 3.2 times that of the poorest.{{sfn|Pal|Ghosh|2007}} Corruption in India is perceived to have decreased. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, India ranked 78th out of 180 countries in 2018 with a score of 41 out of 100, an improvement from 85th in 2014.WEB,weblink India improves its ranking on corruption index, 27 January 2016, The Hindu, 21 November 2017, WEB,weblink Corruption Perceptions Index 2018, Transparency International, transparency.org, 15 July 2019,

Demographics, languages, and religion

{{multiple image|perrow=2|total_width=320|caption_align=center|background color = | align = right| title = India by population density, religion, languagecaption1=The population density of India by natural divisions, based on the Indian census of 1901caption2=Population density of India by each state, based on the Indian census of 2011.caption3=The prevailing religions of South Asia based on district-wise majorities in the 1901 censuscaption4=The language families of South Asia| footer = }}With 1,210,193,422 residents reported in the 2011 provisional census report,{{sfn|Provisional Population Totals Paper 1 of 2011 India|p=160}} India is the world's second-most populous country. Its population grew by 17.64% during 2001–2011,{{sfn|Provisional Population Totals Paper 1 of 2011 India|p=165}} compared to 21.54% growth in the previous decade (1991–2001).{{sfn|Provisional Population Totals Paper 1 of 2011 India|p=165}} The human sex ratio, according to the 2011 census, is 940 females per 1,000 males.{{sfn|Provisional Population Totals Paper 1 of 2011 India|p=160}} The median age was 27.6 {{as of|2016|lc=on}}.{{sfn|Central Intelligence Agency}} The first post-colonial census, conducted in 1951, counted 361.1 million people.WEB,weblink Census Population, Census of India, Ministry of Finance India, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110812042806weblink">weblink 12 August 2011, 13 February 2013, Medical advances made in the last 50 years as well as increased agricultural productivity brought about by the "Green Revolution" have caused India's population to grow rapidly.{{sfn|Rorabacher|2010|pp = 35–39}} India continues to face several public health-related challenges.{{sfn|World Health Organization 2006}}{{sfn|Boston Analytics|2009}}Life expectancy in India is at 68 years, with life expectancy for women being 69.6 years and for men being 67.3.NEWS,weblink Life expectancy in India, Times of India, PDF, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140921151041weblink">weblink 21 September 2014, There are around 50 physicians per 100,000 Indians.{{sfn|Dev|Rao|2009|p = 329}} Migration from rural to urban areas has been an important dynamic in the recent history of India. The number of Indians living in urban areas grew by 31.2% between 1991 and 2001.{{sfn|Garg|2005}} Yet, in 2001, over 70% still lived in rural areas.{{sfn|Dyson|Visaria|2005|pp = 115–129}}{{sfn|Ratna|2007|pp = 271–272}} The level of urbanisation increased further from 27.81% in the 2001 Census to 31.16% in the 2011 Census. The slowing down of the overall growth rate of population was due to the sharp decline in the growth rate in rural areas since 1991.{{sfn|Chandramouli|2011}} According to the 2011 census, there are 53 million-plus urban agglomerations in India; among them Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Ahmedabad, in decreasing order by population.WEB,weblink Urban Agglomerations/Cities having population 1 lakh and above, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, 12 May 2014, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131017153124weblink">weblink 17 October 2013, dmy-all, The literacy rate in 2011 was 74.04%: 65.46% among females and 82.14% among males.{{sfn|Provisional Population Totals Paper 1 of 2011 India|p=163}} The rural-urban literacy gap, which was 21.2 percentage points in 2001, dropped to 16.1 percentage points in 2011. The improvement in literacy rate in rural area is two times that in urban areas.{{sfn|Chandramouli|2011}} Kerala is the most literate state with 93.91% literacy; while Bihar the least with 63.82%.{{sfn|Provisional Population Totals Paper 1 of 2011 India|p=163}}{{#switch: {{#expr: {{CURRENTDAYOFYEAR}} mod 8}}thumbleftA coal miner in Bachra colliery township in Jharkhand state. The (disability adjusted life yearLAST2=DEYLAST3=GUPTALAST4=DHALIWALLAST5=BRAUERLAST6=COHENLAST7=STANAWAYLAST8=BEIGLAST9=JOSHILAST10=AGGARWALLAST11=SABDELAST12=SADHULAST13=FROSTADLAST14=CAUSEYLAST15=GODWINLAST16=SHUKLALAST17=KUMARLAST18=VARGHESELAST19=MURALEEDHARANLAST20=AGRAWALLAST21=ANJANALAST22=BHANSALILAST23=BHARDWAJLAST24=BURKARTLAST25=CERCYLAST26=CHAKMALAST27=CHOWDHURYLAST28=CHRISTOPHERLAST29=DUTTALAST30=FURTADOLAST31=GHOSHLAST32=GHOSHALLAST33=GLENNLAST34=GULERIALAST35=GUPTALAST36=JEEMONLAST37=KANTLAST38=KANTLAST39=KAURLAST40=KOULLAST41=KRISHLAST42=KRISHNALAST43=LARSONLAST44=MADHIPATLALAST45=MAHESHLAST46=MOHANLAST47=MUKHOPADHYAYLAST48=MUTREJALAST49=NAIKLAST50=NAIRLAST51=NGUYENLAST52=ODELLLAST53=PANDIANLAST54=PRABHAKARANLAST55=PRABHAKARANLAST56=ROYLAST57=SALVILAST58=SAMBANDAMLAST59=SARAFLAST60=SHARMALAST61=SHRIVASTAVALAST62=SINGHLAST63=TANDONLAST64=THOMASLAST65=TORRELAST66=XAVIERLAST67=YADAVLAST68=SINGHLAST69=SHEKHARLAST70=VOSLAST71=DANDONALAST72=REDDYLAST73=LIMLAST74=MURRAYLAST75=VENKATESHLAST76=DANDONADISPLAY-AUTHORS=5JOURNAL=THE LANCET PLANETARY HEALTHISSUE=1PAGES=E26–E39DOI=10.1016/S2542-5196(18)30261-4, adding to India's public health burden.)thumbleftTripuri people>Tripuri children prepare for a dance in India's northeastern Tripura state. The Tripuri, an ethnic group which speaks a (Tibeto-Burman languagesTITLE=PROBLEMS OF ETHNICITY IN THE NORTH-EAST INDIAACCESSDATE=11 JULY 2012PUBLISHER=CONCEPT PUBLISHING COMPANYPAGES=68–9ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130514231036/HTTP://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=QTCJTIBHJHEC, 14 May 2013, )thumbleftKargil town in Jammu and Kashmir, India's only state with a majority Muslim population. Islam is followed by 68.3%,HTTP://INDIANEXPRESS.COM/ARTICLE/EXPLAINED/SHARE-OF-MUSLIMS-AND-HINDUS-IN-JK-POPULATION-SAME-IN-1961-2011-CENSUSES/DATE=29 DECEMBER 2016ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20161230105841/HTTP://INDIANEXPRESS.COM/ARTICLE/EXPLAINED/SHARE-OF-MUSLIMS-AND-HINDUS-IN-JK-POPULATION-SAME-IN-1961-2011-CENSUSES/DEAD-URL=NO, Hinduism by 28.4%, Sikhism by 1.9%, and BuddhismBuddhism thumbleftHindi is the official language of India, Telugu language>Telugu is the official language of the state of Telangana, with Urdu its second official language.HTTP://INDIANEXPRESS.COM/ARTICLE/INDIA/URDU-IS-TELANGANAS-SECOND-OFFICIAL-LANGUAGE-4940595/>TITLE=URDU IS TELANGANA'S SECOND OFFICIAL LANGUAGEWORK=THE INDIAN EXPRESSLANGUAGE=EN-USARCHIVE-DATE=27 FEBRUARY 2018, no, Shown here is a handicraft seller in HyderabadHyderabadthumbleftBonda people>Bondo woman walks to a weekly market in Chhattisgarh. The Bondo, among the Adivasi, or the indigenous peoples of India, speak a Munda languages within the family of (Austroasiatic languages]].{{citation>last=Bergertitle=Feeding, Sharing, and Devouring: Ritual and Society in Highland Odisha, Indiadate=17 February 2015isbn=978-1-61451-975-1|pages=25–}})thumbleftThiruputkuzhi, (Tamil Nadu]] state. The overall female literacy rate in the state in 2011 was 73.44%.{{citation>title=Tamil Nadu population 2011–2018url=last=Sparytitle=Gender, Development, and the State in Indiayear=2019isbn=978-0-429-66344-4|pages=196–}})thumbleftBundi district in p=160}}thumbupright=1.2Hindu ascetic in Varanasi, (Uttar Pradesh]]. Uttar Pradesh has the highest numbers of both Hindus and Muslims among all states.HTTP://WWW.DECCANHERALD.COM/CONTENT/497347/MUSLIM-POPULATION-GREW-FASTER-CENSUS.HTMLDEADURL=NOARCHIVEDATE=27 AUGUST 2015, The population by religion in 2011 was Hindus 79.73%, Muslims 19.26%, others 1.01%.HTTP://WWW.CENSUSINDIA.GOV.IN/2011CENSUS/C-01/DDW09C-01%20MDDS.XLS>TITLE=C1 – POPULATION BY RELIGIOUS COMMUNITY, UTTAR PRADESHPUBLISHER=OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR GENERAL & CENSUS COMMISSIONER, INDIAARCHIVE-DATE=27 SEPTEMBER 2015, 10 September 2011, )}}India is home to two major language families: Indo-Aryan (spoken by about 74% of the population) and Dravidian (spoken by 24% of the population). Other languages spoken in India come from the Austroasiatic and Sino-Tibetan language families. India has no national language.{{sfn|Dharwadker|2010|pp = 168–194, 186}} Hindi, with the largest number of speakers, is the official language of the government.{{sfn|Ottenheimer|2008|p = 303}}{{sfn|Mallikarjun|2004}} English is used extensively in business and administration and has the status of a "subsidiary official language";{{sfn|Ministry of Home Affairs 1960}} it is important in education, especially as a medium of higher education. Each state and union territory has one or more official languages, and the constitution recognises in particular 22 "scheduled languages".The 2011 census reported that the religion in India with the largest number of followers was Hinduism (79.80% of the population), followed by Islam (14.23%); the remaining were Christianity (2.30%), Sikhism (1.72%), Buddhism (0.70%), Jainism (0.36%) and others{{efn|name=remaining religions}} (0.9%).WEB,weblink C −1 Population by religious community – 2011, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, 25 August 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150825155850weblink">weblink 25 August 2015, India has the world's largest Hindu, Sikh, Jain, Zoroastrian, and Bahá'í populations, and has the third-largest Muslim population—the largest for a non-Muslim majority country.NEWS,weblink Global Muslim population estimated at 1.57 billion, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130601012428weblink">weblink 1 June 2013, The Hindu, 8 October 2009, WEB,weblink India Chapter Summary 2012, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140407100620weblink">weblink 7 April 2014,

Culture

{{#switch: {{#expr: {{CURRENTDAYOFYEAR}} mod 7}}thumbWarli tribal painting by Jivya Soma Mashe from Thane district>ThaneThane district>ThanethumbA sculpture fashioned in the Gandharan tradition depicting Gautama Buddha, founder of Buddhism, at the Tokyo National Museum]]thumbThe Awadhi Hindi poet Tulsidas composed the Ramcharitmanas, which is one of the best-known vernacular versions of the RamayanaRamayanathumbHampiHampithumbThe Mahabodhi Temple in Bodh GayaBodh GayathumbA Chola bronze depicting Nataraja, who is seen as a cosmic "Lord of the Dance" and representative of ShivaShivathumbToda people>Toda tribal hut exemplifies Indian vernacular architectureIndian vernacular architecture}}Indian cultural history spans more than 4,500{{Nbsp}}years.{{sfn|Kuiper|2010|p = 15}} During the Vedic period ({{Circa|1700|500{{nbsp}}BCE}}), the foundations of Hindu philosophy, mythology, theology and literature were laid, and many beliefs and practices which still exist today, such as dhárma, kárma, yóga, and mokṣa, were established.{{sfn|Kuiper|2010|p = 86}} India is notable for its religious diversity, with Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Islam, Christianity, and Jainism among the nation's major religions.{{sfn|Heehs|2002|pp = 2–5}} The predominant religion, Hinduism, has been shaped by various historical schools of thought, including those of the Upanishads,{{sfn|Deutsch|1969|pp = 3, 78}} the Yoga Sutras, the Bhakti movement,{{sfn|Heehs|2002|pp = 2–5}} and by Buddhist philosophy.{{sfn|Nakamura|1999}}

Art, architecture and literature

Much of Indian architecture, including the Taj Mahal, other works of Mughal architecture, and South Indian architecture, blends ancient local traditions with imported styles.{{sfn|Kuiper|2010|pp = 296–329}} Vernacular architecture is also highly regional in it flavours. Vastu shastra, literally "science of construction" or "architecture" and ascribed to Mamuni Mayan,{{sfn|Silverman|2007|p = 20}} explores how the laws of nature affect human dwellings;{{sfn|Kumar|2000|p = 5}} it employs precise geometry and directional alignments to reflect perceived cosmic constructs.{{sfn|Roberts|2004|p = 73}} As applied in Hindu temple architecture, it is influenced by the Shilpa Shastras, a series of foundational texts whose basic mythological form is the Vastu-Purusha mandala, a square that embodied the "absolute".{{sfn|Lang|Moleski|2010|pp = 151–152}} The Taj Mahal, built in Agra between 1631 and 1648 by orders of Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife, has been described in the UNESCO World Heritage List as "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage".{{sfn|United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation}} Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, developed by the British in the late 19th century, drew on Indo-Islamic architecture.{{sfn|Chopra|2011|p = 46}}The earliest literature in India, composed between 1500 BCE and 1200 CE, was in the Sanskrit language.{{sfn|Hoiberg|Ramchandani|2000}} Major works of Sanskrit literature include the Rigveda (c. 1500 BCE–1200 BCE), the epics:Mahābhārata (c. 400 BCE–400 CE) and the Ramayana (c. 300 BCE and later); Abhijñānaśākuntalam (The Recognition of Śakuntalā, and other dramas of Kālidāsa (c. 5th century CE) and Mahākāvya poetry.{{sfn|Johnson|2008}}{{sfn|MacDonell|2004|pp = 1–40}}{{sfn|Kālidāsa|Johnson|2001}} In Tamil literature, Sangam Literature (c 600 BCE–300 BCE) consisting of 2,381 poems, composed by 473 poets, is the earliest work.{{sfn|Zvelebil|1997|p = 12}}{{sfn|Hart|1975}}{{sfn|Encyclopædia Britannica|2008}}{{sfn|Ramanujan|1985|pp = ix–x}} From the 14th to the 18th centuries, India's literary traditions went through a period of drastic change because of the emergence of devotional poets such as Kabīr, Tulsīdās, and Guru Nānak. This period was characterised by a varied and wide spectrum of thought and expression; as a consequence, medieval Indian literary works differed significantly from classical traditions.{{sfn|Das|2005}} In the 19th century, Indian writers took a new interest in social questions and psychological descriptions. In the 20th century, Indian literature was influenced by the works of Bengali poet and novelist Rabindranath Tagore,{{sfn|Datta|2006}} who was a recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature.

Performing arts, and media

{{multiple image|perrow=2/2/2/2|total_width=200|caption_align=center| align = right|image_style = border:none;|background color = #F7E7CE| image1 = Bharata Natyam Performance DS.jpg| image2 = Kathak Rounds (10)2.jpg| image3 = Rekha Raju DS 2.jpg| image4 = Sattriya Dancer Krishnakshi Kashyap2.jpgSangeet Natak Akademi, India's national academy of performance arts, has designated eight Indian dance styles to be Classical. Among them are from top left to bottom right. (a) Bharatanatyam, (b) a Kathak dancer performing in the vicinity of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh (c) Mohiniyattam, and (d) Sattriya; Not shown here are: Manipuri dance>Manipuri, Odissi, Kathakali, and Kuchipudi}}Indian music ranges over various traditions and regional styles. Classical music encompasses two genres and their various folk offshoots: the northern Hindustani and southern Carnatic schools.{{sfn|Massey|Massey|1998}} Regionalised popular forms include filmi and folk music; the syncretic tradition of the bauls is a well-known form of the latter. Indian dance also features diverse folk and classical forms. Among the better-known folk dances are the bhangra of Punjab, the bihu of Assam, the Jhumair and chhau of Jharkhand, Odisha and West Bengal, garba and dandiya of Gujarat, ghoomar of Rajasthan, and the lavani of Maharashtra. Eight dance forms, many with narrative forms and mythological elements, have been accorded classical dance status by India's National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama. These are: bharatanatyam of the state of Tamil Nadu, kathak of Uttar Pradesh, kathakali and mohiniyattam of Kerala, kuchipudi of Andhra Pradesh, manipuri of Manipur, odissi of Odisha, and the sattriya of Assam.{{sfn|Encyclopædia Britannica b}} Theatre in India melds music, dance, and improvised or written dialogue.{{sfn|Lal|2004|pp = 23, 30, 235}} Often based on Hindu mythology, but also borrowing from medieval romances or social and political events, Indian theatre includes the bhavai of Gujarat, the jatra of West Bengal, the nautanki and ramlila of North India, tamasha of Maharashtra, burrakatha of Andhra Pradesh, terukkuttu of Tamil Nadu, and the yakshagana of Karnataka.{{sfn|Karanth|2002|p = 26}} India has a theatre training institute NSD that is situated at New Delhi It is an autonomous organisation under the Ministry of Culture, Government of India.WEB,weblink The Sunday Tribune – Spectrum, www.tribuneindia.com, 4 October 2017, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171010083957weblink">weblink 10 October 2017, {{#switch: {{#expr: {{CURRENTDAYOFYEAR}} mod 5}}thumbSarodSarodthumbupright=1.55Carnatic music>Carnatic) musical performance. From left to right: Guruvayur Dorai, mridangam Ravi Balasubramanian, ghatam Ravikiran, electric chitraveena, and Akkarai S. Subhalakshmi, violinviolin thumbActors at the avante-gard theatre Koothu-P-Pattarai in Chennai apply make up to each other in preparation for a performance.SANTHANAM > FIRST =KAUSALYA NEWSPAPER =(THE HINDU]] ACCESSDATE = 2009-02-01, 2005-09-21, )thumbleft|Three plucked string instruments of Indian music, L to R, Sarod, Sitar, which are used in North Indian classical music and the Iktara, lit. "one string instrument," commonly used in Indian folk musicIndian folk musicthumbleftSatyajit Ray (left) and sitar maestro Ravi Shankar discussing the musical score of the movie Pather Panchali, which was to win Ray the Best Human Document award at the Cannes Film Festival in 1956,{{citation>last=Coopertitle=The Cinema of Satyajit Ray: Between Tradition and Modernityyear=2000isbn=978-0-521-62980-5last=Gangulytitle=Cinema, Emergence, and the Films of Satyajit Rayyear=2010isbn=978-0-520-26216-4|pages=26–}} )}}The Indian film industry produces the world's most-watched cinema.{{sfn|Dissanayake|Gokulsing|2004}} Established regional cinematic traditions exist in the Assamese, Bengali, Bhojpuri, Hindi, Kannada, Malayalam, Punjabi, Gujarati, Marathi, Odia, Tamil, and Telugu languages.{{sfn|Rajadhyaksha|Willemen|1999|page = 652}} South Indian cinema attracts more than 75% of national film revenue.{{sfn|The Economic Times}}Television broadcasting began in India in 1959 as a state-run medium of communication and had slow expansion for more than two decades.Sunetra Sen Narayan, Globalization and Television: A Study of the Indian Experience, 1990–2010 (Oxford University Press, 2015); 307 pages{{sfn|Kaminsky|Long|2011|pp = 684–692}} The state monopoly on television broadcast ended in the 1990s and, since then, satellite channels have increasingly shaped the popular culture of Indian society.{{sfn|Mehta|2008|pp = 1–10}} Today, television is the most penetrative media in India; industry estimates indicate that {{As of|2012|lc=y}} there are over 554 million TV consumers, 462 million with satellite and/or cable connections, compared to other forms of mass media such as press (350 million), radio (156 million) or internet (37 million).{{sfn|Media Research Users Council 2012}}

Society, clothing, and cuisine

{{multiple image|perrow=2/2/2|total_width=300|caption_align=center| align = right|image_style = border:none;|background color = #F7E7CE| image5 = Indian Spices Cropped.jpg| image3 = Tandoorimumbai.jpg| image2 = Goan Mackerel Fish Curry Plate.jpg| image4 = South Indian Thali Cropped.jpg| image1 = Daba-Tiffin wallah lunches.jpgtiffin wallah; (b) Goan mackerel fish curry plate; (c) Tandoori chicken served in Mumbai (d) South Indian vegetarian thali style dinner; (e) Some spices used in Indian cooking: top row: Clove, Mace (spice)>mace, cumin seed, chili powder, fenugreek seed; middle row: Anise, black pepper, cardamom (in pod), turmeric powder, nutmeg; bottom row: Chili pepper, coriander seeds, pomegranate seeds, cinnamon, and star anise }}Traditional Indian society is sometimes defined by social hierarchy. The Indian caste system embodies much of the social stratification and many of the social restrictions found in the Indian subcontinent. Social classes are defined by thousands of endogamous hereditary groups, often termed as jātis, or "castes".{{sfn|Schwartzberg|2011}} India declared untouchability to be illegal"Spiritual Terrorism: Spiritual Abuse from the Womb to the Tomb", p. 391, by Boyd C. Purcell in 1947 and has since enacted other anti-discriminatory laws and social welfare initiatives. At the workplace in urban India and in international or leading Indian companies, the caste related identification has pretty much lost its importance.{{sfn|Messner|2009|p = 51-53}}{{sfn|Messner|2012|p = 27-28}}Family values are important in the Indian tradition, and multi-generational patriarchal joint families have been the norm in India, though nuclear families are becoming common in urban areas.{{sfn|Makar|2007}} An overwhelming majority of Indians, with their consent, have their marriages arranged by their parents or other elders in the family.{{sfn|Medora|2003}} Marriage is thought to be for life,{{sfn|Medora|2003}} and the divorce rate is extremely low.{{sfn|Jones|Ramdas|2005|p = 111}} {{As of|2001}}, just 1.6 percent of Indian women were divorced, but this figure was rising due to their education and economic independence.{{sfn|Jones|Ramdas|2005|p = 111}} Child marriages are common, especially in rural areas; many women wed before reaching 18, which is their legal marriageable age.{{sfn|Cullen-Dupont|2009|p = 96}} Female infanticide and female foeticide in the country have caused a discrepancy in the sex ratio, {{As of|2005|lc=y}} it was estimated that there were 50 million more males than females in the nation.{{sfn|Bunting|2011}}{{sfn|Agnivesh|2005}} However, a report from 2011 has shown improvement in the gender ratio.WEB,weblink 2011 Census Data, Gender Composition, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131113224513weblink">weblink 13 November 2013, The payment of dowry, although illegal, remains widespread across class lines.NEWS,weblink Woman killed over dowry 'every hour' in India, telegraph.com, 10 February 2014, 2 September 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140323074436weblink">weblink 23 March 2014, Deaths resulting from dowry, mostly from bride burning, are on the rise, despite stringent anti-dowry laws.NEWS,weblink Rising number of dowry deaths in India:NCRB, The Hindu, 10 February 2014, Ignatius Pereira, 7 August 2013, no,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140207050439weblink">weblink 7 February 2014, {{multiple image|perrow=2|total_width=200|caption_align=center| align = left|image_style = border:none;|background color = #F7E7CE| image1 = Making Khameeri Roti in Tandoor in Turkman Gate Old Delhi.webm| footer = L to R: (a) A tandoor chef in the Turkman Gate area of Old Delhi makes Khameeri Roti (a Muslim style of bread made with a sourdough starter), while his assistants help with the prep work.}}Many Indian festivals are religious in origin. The best known include Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Thai Pongal, Holi, Durga Puja, Eid ul-Fitr, Bakr-Id, Christmas, and Vaisakhi.{{Citation|url=https://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/Culture/Festivals/Festiv.html|title=Indian Festivals|accessdate=14 May 2016|deadurl=no|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20160714094326weblink|archivedate=14 July 2016}}{{Citation
|url =weblink
|title = Popular India Festivals
|accessdate = 23 December 2007
|deadurl = no
|archiveurl =weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110728120656weblink">weblink
|archivedate = 28 July 2011
|df = dmy-all
}}Cotton was domesticated in India by 4000 BCE. Traditional Indian dress varies in colour and style across regions and depends on various factors, including climate and faith. Popular styles of dress include draped garments such as the sari for women and the dhoti or lungi for men. Stitched clothes, such as the shalwar kameez for women and kurta–pyjama combinations or European-style trousers and shirts for men, are also popular.{{sfn|Tarlo|1996|pp = xii, xii, 11, 15, 28, 46}} Use of delicate jewellery, modelled on real flowers worn in ancient India, is part of a tradition dating back some 5,000 years; gemstones are also worn in India as talismans.{{sfn|Eraly|2008|p = 160}}Indian cuisine encompasses a wide variety of regional and traditional cuisines, often depending on a particular state (such as Maharashtrian cuisine). Staple foods of Indian cuisine include pearl millet (ISO: {{transl|hi|ISO|bājra}}), rice, whole-wheat flour (aṭṭa), and a variety of lentils, such as masoor (most often red lentils), toor (pigeon peas), urad (black gram), and mong (mung beans). Lentils may be used whole, dehusked—for example, dhuli moong or dhuli urad—or split. Split lentils, or dal, are used extensively.BOOK, Johnston, Bruce F., The Staple Food Economies of Western Tropical Africa,weblink 2 June 2012, 1958, Stanford University Press, 978-0-8047-0537-0, 14, no,weblink 28 May 2013, The spice trade between India and Europe is often cited by historians as the primary catalyst for Europe's Age of Discovery.WEB,weblink The History of the Spice Trade in India, Louise Marie M., Cornillez, Spring 1999, 18 February 2018,

Sports and recreation

File:Sachin Tendulkar about to score 14000th run in test cricket.jpg|thumb|upright=2.0|During a twenty four-year career, Sachin Tendulkar has set many batting records in cricket. The picture shows him about to score a record 14,000 runs in test cricket while playing Australia in BangaloreBangaloreIn India, several traditional indigenous sports remain fairly popular, such as kabaddi, kho kho, pehlwani and gilli-danda. Some of the earliest forms of Asian martial arts, such as kalarippayattu, musti yuddha, silambam, and marma adi, originated in India. Chess, commonly held to have originated in India as chaturaṅga, is regaining widespread popularity with the rise in the number of Indian grandmasters.{{sfn|Wolpert|2003|p = 2}}{{sfn|Rediff 2008 b}} Pachisi, from which parcheesi derives, was played on a giant marble court by Akbar.{{sfn|Binmore|2007|p = 98}}The improved results garnered by the Indian Davis Cup team and other (:Category:Indian tennis players|Indian tennis players) in the early 2010s have made tennis increasingly popular in the country.{{sfn|The Wall Street Journal 2009}} India has a (:Category:Indian sport shooters|comparatively strong presence) in shooting sports, and has won several medals at the Olympics, the World Shooting Championships, and the Commonwealth Games.{{sfn|British Broadcasting Corporation 2010 b}}{{sfn|The Times of India 2010}} Other sports in which Indians have succeeded internationally include badminton{{sfn|British Broadcasting Corporation 2010 a}} (Saina Nehwal and P V Sindhu are two of the top-ranked female badminton players in the world), boxing,{{sfn|Mint 2010}} and wrestling.{{sfn|Xavier|2010}} Football is popular in West Bengal, Goa, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and the north-eastern states.{{sfn|Majumdar|Bandyopadhyay|2006|pp = 1–5}}{{#switch: {{#expr: {{CURRENTDAYOFYEAR}} mod 7}}thumbGirls play hopscotch in (Juara]], Madhya Pradesh. Hopscotch has been commonly played by girls in rural India.{{citationfirst1=Radhikafirst2=Lesliefirst3=Hui Huiurl=https://books.google.com/books?id=zoVby4OJWhYC&pg=PA109publisher=Times Books Internationalpage=109}} Quote:"Girls in India usually play jump rope, or hopscotch, and five stones, tossing the stones up in the air and catching them in many different ways ... the coconut-plucking contests, groundnut-eating races, ... of rural India.")thumbIndian hockey team, captained by Dhyan Chand (standing second from left), after winning the finals at the 1936 Summer Olympics1936 Summer OlympicsthumbA street-corner game of pachisi in PushkarPushkarthumbA game of kabaddi in BagepalliBagepallithumb|Boys playing football in Manipur.)thumbCricket is the most popular sport in India.{{citationfirst1=Fanfirst2=J.A.url=https://books.google.com/books?id=C0iQAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA306publisher=Routledgepages=306–}} Shown here is an example of street cricketstreet cricketthumbIndian chess grandmaster and former world champion Vishwanathan AnandVishwanathan Anand}}Cricket is the most popular sport in India.{{citation|last=Shores|first=Lori|title=Teens in India|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=CPQmbyiS-iEC|accessdate=24 July 2011|date=15 February 2007|publisher=Compass Point Books|isbn=978-0-7565-2063-2|page=78}} Major domestic competitions include the Indian Premier League, which is the most-watched cricket league in the world and ranks sixth among all sports leagues.WEB,weblink Top 10 most watched sports leagues in the world, 2016-01-11, www.sportskeeda.com, en, 2019-05-14, India has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events: the 1951 and 1982 Asian Games; the 1987, 1996, and 2011 Cricket World Cup tournaments; the 2003 Afro-Asian Games; the 2006 ICC Champions Trophy; the 2010 Hockey World Cup; the 2010 Commonwealth Games; and the 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup. Major international sporting events held annually in India include the Chennai Open, the Mumbai Marathon, the Delhi Half Marathon, and the Indian Masters. The first Formula 1 Indian Grand Prix featured in late 2011 but has been discontinued from the F1 season calendar since 2014.{{sfn|Dehejia|2011}} India has traditionally been the dominant country at the South Asian Games. An example of this dominance is the basketball competition where the Indian team won three out of four tournaments to date.WEB,weblink Basketball team named for 11th South Asian Games, Nation.com.pk, 2 January 2010, 8 March 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121202035448weblink">weblink 2 December 2012,

See also

Notes

{{notes|refs={{efn|name=remaining religions|Besides specific religions, the last two categories in the 2011 Census were "Other religions and persuasions" (0.65%) and "Religion not stated" (0.23%).}}|33em}}

References

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  • {{citation|last1=Dunleavy|first1=P.|last2=Diwakar|first2=R.|last3=Dunleavy|first3=C.|year=2007|title=The Effective Space of Party Competition|issue=5|publisher=London School of Economics and Political Science|url=http://www2.lse.ac.uk/government/research/resgroups/PSPE/pdf/PSPE_WP5_07.pdf|accessdate=27 September 2011}}
  • {{citation|last=Dutt|first=S.|year=1998|title=Identities and the Indian State: An Overview|journal=Third World Quarterly|volume=19|issue=3|pages=411–434|doi=10.1080/01436599814325}}
  • {{citation|last=Echeverri-Gent|first=J.|editor-last=Ayres|editor-first=A.|editor2-last=Oldenburg|editor2-first=P.|date=January 2002|title=Quickening the Pace of Change|chapter=Politics in India's Decentred Polity|series=India Briefing|publisher=M. E. Sharpe|place=London|pages=19–53|isbn=978-0-7656-0812-3}}
  • {{citation|date=14 March 2009|title=Current Recognised Parties|work=Election Commission of India|url=http://eci.nic.in/eci_main/ElectoralLaws/OrdersNotifications/Symbols_Sep_2009.pdf|accessdate=5 July 2010|ref={{sfnRef|Election Commission of India}}}}
  • {{citation|last=Gledhill|first=A.|date=30 March 1970|title=The Republic of India: The Development of its Laws and Constitution|publisher=Greenwood|isbn=978-0-8371-2813-9|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=cHAjPQAACAAJ|accessdate=21 July 2011}}
  • NEWS, Samar, Halarnkar, Narendra Modi makes his move, BBC News, 13 June 2012,weblink The right-wing Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), India's primary opposition party, {{harvid, BBC, 2012, }}
  • JOURNAL, harv, Malik, Yogendra K., Singh, V.B., Bharatiya Janata Party: An Alternative to the Congress (I)?, Asian Survey, April 1992, 32, 4, 318–336, 2645149, 10.2307/2645149,
  • {{citation|last=Mathew|first=K. M.|date=1 January 2003|title=Manorama Yearbook|publisher=Malayala Manorama|isbn=978-81-900461-8-3|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=jDaLQwAACAAJ|accessdate=21 July 2011}}
  • {{citation|title=National Symbols of India|work=Know India|publisher=National Informatics Centre, Government of India|url=http://archive.india.gov.in/knowindia/national_symbols.php|accessdate=27 September 2009|ref={{sfnRef|National Informatics Centre|2005}}}}
  • {{citation|last=Neuborne|first=B.|year=2003|title=The Supreme Court of India|journal=International Journal of Constitutional Law|volume=1|issue=3|pages=476–510|doi=10.1093/icon/1.3.476}}
  • {{citation|last=Pylee|first=M. V.|year=2003|title=Constitutional Government in India|chapter=The Longest Constitutional Document|edition=2nd|publisher=S. Chand|isbn=978-81-219-2203-6|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/?id=veDUJCjr5U4C|ref={{sfnRef|Pylee|2003|a}}}}
  • {{citation|last=Pylee|first=M. V.|year=2003|title=Constitutional Government in India|chapter=The Union Judiciary: The Supreme Court|edition=2nd|publisher=S. Chand|isbn=978-81-219-2203-6|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/?id=veDUJCjr5U4C&pg=PA314|accessdate=2 November 2007|ref={{sfnRef|Pylee|2003|b}}}}
  • {{citation|last=Sarkar|first=N. I.|title=Sonia Gandhi: Tryst with India|date=1 January 2007|publisher=Atlantic|isbn=978-81-269-0744-1|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=26flsWUf8fkC|accessdate=20 July 2011}}
  • {{citation|last=Sharma|first=R.|year=1950|title=Cabinet Government in India|journal=Parliamentary Affairs|volume=4|issue=1|pages=116–126|doi=10.1093/oxfordjournals.pa.a052755}}
  • {{citation|last=Sharma|first=B. K.|date=August 2007|title=Introduction to the Constitution of India|edition=4th|publisher=Prentice Hall|isbn=978-81-203-3246-1|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=srDytmFE3KMC&pg=PA161}}
  • {{citation|last=Sinha|first=A.|year=2004|title=The Changing Political Economy of Federalism in India|journal=India Review|volume=3|issue=1|pages=25–63|doi=10.1080/14736480490443085}}
  • {{citation|title=World's Largest Democracy to Reach One Billion Persons on Independence Day|publisher=United Nations Population Division|url=https://www.un.org/esa/population/pubsarchive/india/ind1bil.htm|accessdate=5 October 2011|ref={{sfnRef|United Nations Population Division}}}}
  • {{citation|last=Wheare|first=K. C.|date=June 1980|title=Federal Government|edition=4th|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-313-22702-8|url=https://archive.org/details/federalgovernmen00whearich}}
Foreign relations and military
  • {{citation|last=Alford|first=P.|date=7 July 2008|title=G8 Plus 5 Equals Power Shift|publisher=The Australian|url=http://www.theaustralian.com.au/news/g8-plus-5-equals-power-shift/story-e6frg6t6-1111116838759|accessdate=21 November 2009|ref={{sfnRef|Alford|2008}}}}
  • {{citation|last=Behera|first=L. K.|date=7 March 2011|title=Budgeting for India's Defence: An Analysis of Defence Budget 2011–2012|publisher=Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses|url=http://www.idsa.in/idsacomments/BudgetingforIndiasDefence2010-11_lkbehera_030310.html |accessdate=4 April 2011}}
  • {{citation|last=Behera|first=L. K.|date=20 March 2012|title=India's Defence Budget 2012–13|publisher=Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses|url=http://www.defencereviewasia.com/articles/169/India-s-Defence-Budget-2012-13|accessdate=26 March 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121215014403weblink|archive-date=15 December 2012|dead-url=yes}}
  • {{citation|date=11 February 2009|title=Russia Agrees India Nuclear Deal|work=BBC News|publisher=British Broadcasting Corporation|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7883223.stm|accessdate=22 August 2010|ref={{sfnRef|British Broadcasting Corporation 2009}}}}
  • {{citation|last=Curry|first=B.|date=27 June 2010|title=Canada Signs Nuclear Deal with India|publisher=The Globe and Mail|url=https://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/world/g8-g20/news/canada-signs-nuclear-deal-with-india/article1620801/|accessdate=13 May 2011}}
  • {{citation|date=8 April 2008|title=India, Europe Strategic Relations|work=Europa: Summaries of EU Legislation|publisher=European Union|url=http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/external_relations/relations_with_third_countries/asia/r14100_en.htm|accessdate=14 January 2011|ref={{sfnRef|Europa 2008}}}}
  • {{citation|last=Ghosh|first=A.|title=India's Foreign Policy|date=1 September 2009|publisher=Pearson|isbn=978-81-317-1025-8|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Y32u4JMroQgC}}
  • {{citation|last=Gilbert|first=M.|date=17 December 2002|title=A History of the Twentieth Century|publisher=William Morrow|isbn=978-0-06-050594-3|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=jhwY1j8Ao3kC&pg=PA486|accessdate=22 July 2011}}
  • {{citation|last=Kumar|first=A. V.|date=1 May 2010|title=Reforming the NPT to Include India|work=Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists|url=http://thebulletin.org/reforming-npt-include-india|accessdate=1 November 2010}}
  • {{citation|last=Miglani|first=S.|date=28 February 2011|title=With An Eye on China, India Steps Up Defence Spending|newspaper=Reuters|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/28/india-budget-military-idUSSGE71R02Y20110228|accessdate=6 July 2011}}
  • {{citation|last=Nair|first=V. K.|year=2007|title=No More Ambiguity: India's Nuclear Policy|url=http://www.afsa.org/fsj/oct02/nair.pdf|accessdate=7 June 2007|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070927041401weblink|archivedate=27 September 2007}}
  • {{citation|last=Pandit|first=R.|date=27 July 2009|title=N-Submarine to Give India Crucial Third Leg of Nuke Triad|publisher=The Times of India|url=http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2009-07-27/india/28212143_1_nuclear-powered-submarine-ins-arihant-nuclear-submarine|accessdate=10 March 2010}}
  • {{citation|last=Perkovich|first=G.|date=5 November 2001|title=India's Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation|publisher=University of California Press|isbn=978-0-520-23210-5|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=UDA9dUryS8EC|accessdate=22 July 2011}}
  • {{citation|date=25 January 2008|title=India, France Agree on Civil Nuclear Cooperation|publisher=Rediff|url=http://www.rediff.com/news/2008/jan/25france.htm|accessdate=22 August 2010|ref={{sfnRef|Rediff 2008 a}}}}
  • {{citation|date=13 February 2010|title=UK, India Sign Civil Nuclear Accord|newspaper=Reuters|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/2010/02/13/us-india-britain-nuclear-idUSTRE61C21E20100213?type=politicsNews|accessdate=22 August 2010|ref={{sfnRef|Reuters|2010}}}}
  • {{citation|last1=Ripsman|first1=N. M.|last2=Paul|first2=T. V.|date=18 March 2010|title=Globalization and the National Security State|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-539390-3|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=7P87HIh9ajMC&pg=PA130|accessdate=22 July 2011}}
  • {{citation|last=Rothermund|first=D.|date=17 October 2000|title=The Routledge Companion to Decolonization|edition=1st|series=Routledge Companions to History|publisher=Routledge|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=ez37H0UPt_YC|isbn=978-0-415-35632-9}}
  • {{citation|date=10 January 2011|title=India Gets Its First Homegrown Fighter Jet|publisher=RIA Novosti|url=http://en.rian.ru/world/20110110/162090932.html|accessdate=1 April 2009|ref={{sfnRef|Russian International News Agency 2011}}}}
  • {{citation|last=Sharma|first=S. R.|date=1 January 1999|title=India–USSR Relations 1947–1971: From Ambivalence to Steadfastness|volume=1|publisher=Discovery|isbn=978-81-7141-486-4|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=vTEge1JWK8oC}}
  • {{citation|last=Shukla|first=A.|date=5 March 2011|title=China Matches India's Expansion in Military Spending|publisher=Business Standard|url=http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/china-matches-india%5Cs-expansion-in-military-spending/427365/|accessdate=6 July 2011|newspaper=Business Standard India}}
  • {{citation|last1=Sisodia|first1=N. S.|last2=Naidu|first2=G. V. C.|year=2005|title=Changing Security Dynamic in Eastern Asia: Focus on Japan|publisher=Promilla|isbn=978-81-86019-52-8|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=jSgfLG3Ib9wC}}
  • {{citation|date=8 August 2008|title=SIPRI Yearbook 2008: Armaments, Disarmament, and International Security|work=Stockholm International Peace Research Institute|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-954895-8|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=EAyQ9KCJE2gC&pg=PA178|accessdate=22 July 2011|ref={{sfnRef|Stockholm International Peace Research Institute 2008}}}}
  • {{citation|date=19 March 2012|title=Rise in international arms transfers is driven by Asian demand, says SIPRI|work=Stockholm International Peace Research Initiative|url=http://www.sipri.org/media/pressreleases/2012/rise-in-international-arms-transfers-is-driven-by-asian-demand-says-sipri|accessdate=5 April 2016
Stockholm International Peace Research Initiative 2012}}}}
  • {{citation|date=11 October 2008|title=India, US Sign 123 Agreement|publisher=The Times of India|url=http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2008-10-11/india/27905286_1_indian-nuclear-market-sign-landmark-civil-nuclear-field|accessdate=21 July 2011|ref={{sfnRef|The Times of India 2008}}}}
Economy
  • {{citation|last=Alamgir|first=J.|date=24 December 2008|title=India's Open-Economy Policy: Globalism, Rivalry, Continuity|publisher=Taylor & Francis|isbn=978-0-415-77684-4|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=JL7QfWJ5Yk0C|accessdate=23 July 2011}}
  • {{citation|last=Bonner|first=B|date=20 March 2010|title=Make Way, World. India Is on the Move|journal=Christian Science Monitor|url=http://www.csmonitor.com/Business/The-Daily-Reckoning/2010/0320/Make-way-world.-India-is-on-the-move|accessdate=23 July 2011|ref={{sfnRef|Bonner|2010}}}}
  • {{citation|year=2013|title=An Uncertain Glory: India and Its Contradictions|last1=Drèze|first1=Jean|last2=Sen|first2=Amartya|publisher=Allen Lane}}
  • {{citation|last1=Farrell|first1=D.|last2=Beinhocker|first2=E.|date=19 May 2007|title=Next Big Spenders: India's Middle Class|publisher=McKinsey & Company|url=http://www.mckinsey.com/Insights/MGI/In_the_news/Next_big_spenders_Indian_middle_class|accessdate=17 September 2011}}
  • {{citation|last=Gargan|first=E. A.|date=15 August 1992|title=India Stumbles in Rush to a Free Market Economy|newspaper=The New York Times|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1992/08/15/world/india-stumbles-in-rush-to-a-free-market-economy.html|accessdate=22 July 2011}}
  • {{citation|date=January 2011|title=The World in 2050: The Accelerating Shift of Global Economic Power: Challenges and Opportunities|first=John|last=Hawksworth|first2=Anmol|last2=Tiwari|publisher=PricewaterhouseCoopers|url=http://www.pwc.com/en_GX/gx/psrc/pdf/world_in_2050_jan2011.pdf|accessdate=23 July 2011}}
  • {{citation|last1=Nayak|first1=P. B.|last2=Goldar|first2=B.|last3=Agrawal|first3=P.|date=10 November 2010|title=India's Economy and Growth: Essays in Honour of V. K. R. V. Rao|publisher=SAGE Publications|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=N1Ho2SGXUHwC|isbn=978-81-321-0452-0}}
  • {{citation|last1=Pal|first1=P.|last2=Ghosh|first2=J|title=Inequality in India: A Survey of Recent Trends|work=Economic and Social Affairs: DESA Working Paper No. 45|date=July 2007|publisher=United Nations|url=https://www.un.org/esa/desa/papers/2007/wp45_2007.pdf|accessdate=23 July 2011}}
  • {{citation|last=Schwab|first=K.|year=2010|title=The Global Competitiveness Report 2010–2011|publisher=World Economic Forum|url=http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GlobalCompetitivenessReport_2010-11.pdf|accessdate=10 May 2011}}
  • {{citation|last=Sheth|first=N.|date=28 May 2009|title=Outlook for Outsourcing Spending Brightens|work=The Wall Street Journal|url=https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB124344190542659025articleTabs_comments%3D%26articleTabs%3Darticle|accessdate=3 October 2010}}
  • {{citation|last=Srivastava|first=V.C.|editor= V.C. Srivastava|editor2= Lallanji Gopal|others=General Editor: D.P. Chattopadhyaya|title=History of Agriculture in India (up to c.1200 AD)|series= History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization|volume= Volume V Part 1|chapter-url=weblink|year=2008|publisher=Concept Publishing Co|isbn=978-81-8069-521-6|chapter=Introduction}}
  • {{citation|last=Yep|first=E.|date=27 September 2011|title=ReNew Wind Power Gets $201 Million Goldman Investment|publisher=The Wall Street Journal|url=https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052970204422404576595972728958728|accessdate=27 September 2011|newspaper=Wall Street Journal}}
  • {{citation|date=18 November 2010|title=India Lost $462bn in Illegal Capital Flows, Says Report|work=BBC News|publisher=British Broadcasting Corporation|url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-11782795|accessdate=23 July 2011|ref={{sfnRef|British Broadcasting Corporation 2010 c}}}}
  • {{citation|date=9 April 2010|title=India Second Fastest Growing Auto Market After China|work=Business Line|url=http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/todays-paper/article988689.ece|accessdate=23 July 2011|ref={{sfnRef|Business Line 2010}}}}
  • {{citation|date=8 October 2011|title=India's Economy: Not Just Rubies and Polyester Shirts|journal=The Economist|url=http://www.economist.com/node/21531527|accessdate=9 October 2011|ref={{sfnRef|Economist 2011}}}}
  • {{citation|date=13 October 2009|title=Indian Car Exports Surge 36%|work=Express India|url=http://expressindia.indianexpress.com/karnatakapoll08/story_page.php?id=528633|accessdate=5 April 2016|ref={{sfnRef|Express India 2009}}}}
  • {{citation|date=October 2007 |title=Economic Survey of India 2007: Policy Brief |publisher=Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development |url=http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/17/52/39452196.pdf |accessdate=22 July 2011 |ref={{sfnRef|Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 2007}} |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110606112149weblink |archivedate=6 June 2011 }}
  • {{citation|date=April 2011|title=Report for Selected Countries and Subjects: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand|publisher=International Monetary Fund|url=http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=25&pr.y=15&sy=1991&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=512%2C558%2C513%2C564%2C566%2C524%2C534%2C578%2C536%2C548&s=NGDPDPC&grp=0&a=|accessdate=23 July 2011|ref={{sfnRef|International Monetary Fund 2011}}}}
  • {{citation|date=6 April 2011 |title=Information Note to the Press (Press Release No.29 /2011) |publisher=Telecom Regulatory Authority of India |url=http://www.trai.gov.in/WriteReadData/trai/upload/PressReleases/816/Press_release_feb%20-11.pdf |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20110516025431weblink |archivedate=16 May 2011 |accessdate=23 July 2011 |ref={{sfnRef|Telecom Regulatory Authority 2011}} |deadurl=yes }}
  • {{citation|date=26 October 2011|title=Corruption Perception Index 2010 – India Continues to be Corrupt|publisher=Transparency International|url=http://transparencyindia.org/resource/press_release/Corruption%20Perception%20Index%20(CPI)%202010.pdf|accessdate=23 July 2011|ref={{sfnRef|Transparency International 2010}}|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110728123451weblink|archive-date=28 July 2011|dead-url=yes}}
  • {{citation|title=India: Undernourished Children – A Call for Reform and Action|publisher=World Bank|url=http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/0,,contentMDK:20916955~pagePK:146736~piPK:146830~theSitePK:223547,00.html|accessdate=23 July 2011|dead-url=yes|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120507071806weblink|archive-date=2012-05-07}}
  • {{citation|date=26 March 2010|title=Trade to Expand by 9.5% in 2010 After a Dismal 2009, WTO Reports|publisher=World Trade Organization|url=http://www.wto.org/english/news_e/pres10_e/pr598_e.htm|accessdate=23 July 2011|ref={{sfnRef|World Trade Organization 2010}}}}
  • {{citation|year=2011–2012|title=Indian IT-BPO Industry|publisher=NASSCOM|url=http://www.nasscom.org/indian-itbpo-industry|accessdate=22 June 2012|ref={{sfnRef|Nasscom 2011–2012}}|deadurl=yes|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20120509061653weblink|archivedate=9 May 2012}}
  • {{citation|year=1995 |title=UNDERSTANDING THE WTO: THE ORGANIZATION Members and Observers |publisher=WTO |url=http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/org6_e.htm |accessdate=23 June 2012 |ref={{sfnRef|WTO 1995}} |deadurl=no |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20091229021759weblink |archivedate=29 December 2009 }}
  • {{citation|date=June 2011|title=World Economic Outlook Update|publisher=International Monetary Fund|url=http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2009&ey=2016&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=512%2C548%2C558%2C564%2C566%2C524%2C578%2C534%2C536&s=NGDPDPC&grp=0&a=&pr.x=60&pr.y=17|accessdate=22 July 2011|format=PDF|ref={{sfnRef|International Monetary Fund 2011}}}}
Demographics
  • {{citation|last=Bonner|first=A.|year=1990|title=Averting the Apocalypse: Social Movements in India Today|publisher=Duke University Press|isbn=978-0-8223-1048-8|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=uxJlAgRemHgC|accessdate=24 July 2011}}
  • {{citation|last=Chandramouli|first=C.|date=15 July 2011|title=Rural Urban Distribution of Population|publisher=Ministry of Home Affairs (India)|url=http://censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/paper2/data_files/india/Rural_Urban_2011.pdf|accessdate=24 January 2015}}
  • {{citation|last1=Dev|first1=S. M.|last2=Rao|first2=N. C.|year=2009|title=India: Perspectives on Equitable Development|publisher=Academic Foundation|isbn=978-81-7188-685-2|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=adhKjRoTjcIC}}
  • {{citation|last=Dharwadker|first=A.|editor1-last=Canning|editor1-first=C. M.|editor2-last=Postlewait|editor2-first=T.|date=28 October 2010|title=Representing the Past: Essays in Performance Historiography|chapter=Representing India's Pasts: Time, Culture, and Problems of Performance Historiography|publisher=University of Iowa Press|isbn=978-1-58729-905-6|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=Rgf0gbml2ocC|accessdate=24 July 2011}}
  • {{citation|last1=Drèze|first1=J.|last2=Goyal|first2=A.|editor-last=Baru|editor-first=R. V.|date=9 February 2009|title=School Health Services in India: The Social and Economic Contexts|chapter=The Future of Mid-Day Meals|publisher=SAGE Publications|isbn=978-81-7829-873-3|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=aQ39RO9OET4C&pg=PA46|ref={{sfnRef|Drèze|Goyal|2008}}}}
  • {{citation|last1=Dyson|first1=T.|last2=Visaria|first2=P.|editor-last=Dyson|editor-first=T.|editor2-last=Casses|editor2-first=R.|editor3-last=Visaria|editor3-first=L.|date=7 July 2005|title=Twenty-First Century India: Population, Economy, Human Development, and the Environment|chapter=Migration and Urbanisation: Retrospect and Prospects|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-928382-8|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=bqU9T5c0wlYC}}
  • {{citation|last=Garg|first=S. C.|date=19 April 2005|title=Mobilizing Urban Infrastructure Finance in India|publisher=World Bank|url=http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTMF/Resources/339747-1105651852282/Garg.pdf|accessdate=27 January 2010|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20090824063911weblink|archive-date=24 August 2009|dead-url=yes}}
  • {{citation|last=Mallikarjun|first=B|date=November 2004|title=Fifty Years of Language Planning for Modern Hindi – The Official Language of India|journal=Language in India|volume=4|issue=11|issn=1930-2940|url=http://www.languageinindia.com/nov2004/mallikarjunmalaysiapaper1.html|accessdate=24 July 2011}}
  • {{citation|last=Ottenheimer|first=H. J.|year=2008|title=The Anthropology of Language: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology|publisher=Cengage|isbn=978-0-495-50884-7|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=d4QHsORbZs4C}}
  • {{citation|last=Ratna|first=U.|editor-last=Dutt|editor-first=A. K.|editor2-last=Thakur|editor2-first=B|year=2007|title=City, Society, and Planning|chapter=Interface Between Urban and Rural Development in India|volume=1|publisher=Concept|isbn=978-81-8069-459-2|chapter-url=https://books.google.com/books?id=QDmZeW1H37IC}}
  • {{citation|last=Robinson|first=S.|date=1 May 2008|title=India's Medical Emergency|work=Time|url=http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1736516,00.html|accessdate=23 July 2011|ref={{sfnRef|Robinson|2008}}}}
  • {{citation|last=Rorabacher|first=J. A.|year=2010|title=Hunger and Poverty in South Asia|publisher=Gyan|isbn=978-81-212-1027-0|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=u6hriMcSsE4C}}
  • {{citation|date=November 2006|title=Country Cooperation Strategy: India|publisher=World Health Organization|url=http://www.who.int/countryfocus/cooperation_strategy/ccsbrief_ind_en.pdf|accessdate=23 July 2011|ref={{sfnRef|World Health Organization 2006}}}}
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Culture
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