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Croatian language
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{{short description|South Slavic language}}{{Redirect|Hrvatski|other uses|Hrvatski (disambiguation)}}{{pp|small=yes}}







factoids
Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia (Vojvodina), Montenegro, Romania (Caraș-Severin County), and Croatian diaspora>diaspora| region = | speakers = 5.6 million, including other dialects spoken by Croats| date = 1991–2006| ref = e18| familycolor = Indo-EuropeanBalto-Slavic languages>Balto-SlavicSlavic languages>SlavicSouth Slavic languages>South Slavic| fam5 = WesternSerbo-CroatianHTTP://WWW.ETHNOLOGUE.COM/SHOW_LANGUAGE.ASP?CODE=HBS PUBLISHER=ETHNOLOGUE.COM ACCESSDATE=2010-04-24, The official language of Croatia is Croatian (Serbo-Croatian). [...] The same language is referred to by different names, Serbian (srpski), Serbo-Croat (in Croatia: hrvatsko-srpski), Bosnian (bosanski), based on political and ethnic grounds. [...] the language that used to be officially called Serbo-Croat has gotten several new ethnically and politically based names. Thus, the names Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian are politically determined and refer to the same language with possible slight variations. ("Croatia: Language Situation", in Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2 ed., 2006.)Shtokavian dialect>Shtokavian| fam8 = Neo-ShtokavianEastern Herzegovinian dialect>Eastern HerzegovinianLatin script>Latin (Gaj's alphabet)Yugoslav Braille| nation = {{HRV}}{{BIH}} (co-official){{SRB}} (in Vojvodina){{AUT}} (in Burgenland){{EU}} TRANS-TITLE=NATIONAL MINORITIES IN CZECH REPUBLIC AND THEIR LANGUAGE PAGE=2 LANGUAGE=CZECH, {{HUN}} (in Baranya County)HTTP://NET.JOGTAR.HU/JR/GEN/HJEGY_DOC.CGI?DOCID=A1100179.TV >TITLE=2011. éVI CLXXIX. TöRVéNY A NEMZETISéGEK JOGAIRóL PUBLISHER=GOVERNMENT OF HUNGARY LANGUAGE=HUNGARIAN, {{ITA}} (in Molise){{ROM}} (in Carașova, Lupac)| agency = Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics| iso1 = hr| iso2 = hrv| iso3 = hrv| lingua = part of 53-AAA-g| map = Croatian_dialects_in_RH_and_BiH.PNG| mapcaption = Traditional extent of Serbo-Croatian dialects in Croatia and in Bosnia and Herzegovina| notice = IPA| glotto = croa1245| glottorefname = Croatian Standard}}{{South Slavic languages sidebar}}Croatian ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Croatian.ogg|k|r|oʊ|ˈ|eɪ|ʃ|ən}}; {{IPA-sh|xř̩ʋaːtskiː|}}) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian languageDavid Dalby, Linguasphere (1999/2000, Linguasphere Observatory), pg. 445, 53-AAA-g, "Srpski+Hrvatski, Serbo-Croatian".Benjamin W. Fortson IV, Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, 2nd ed. (2010, Blackwell), pg. 431, "Because of their mutual intelligibility, Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian are usually thought of as constituting one language called Serbo-Croatian."Václav Blažek, "On the Internal Classification of Indo-European Languages: Survey" retrieved 20 Oct 2010, pp. 15–16. used by Croats,E.C. Hawkesworth, "Serbian-Croatian-Bosnian Linguistic Complex", in the Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd edition, 2006. principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina, and other neighboring countries. It is the official and literary standard of Croatia and one of the official languages of the European Union. Croatian is also one of the official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina and a recognized minority language in Serbia and neighboring countries.Standard Croatian is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Serbian, Bosnian, and Montenegrin. In the mid-18th century, the first attempts to provide a Croatian literary standard began on the basis of the Neo-Shtokavian dialect that served as a supraregional lingua franca pushing back regional Chakavian, Kajkavian, and Shtokavian vernaculars.{{harvcoltxt|Bičanić|Frančić|Hudeček|Mihaljević|2013|p=55}} The decisive role was played by Croatian Vukovians, who cemented the usage of Ijekavian Neo-Shtokavian as the literary standard in the late 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, in addition to designing a phonological orthography.{{harvcoltxt|Bičanić|Frančić|Hudeček|Mihaljević|2013|p=84}} Croatian is written in Gaj's Latin alphabet.WEB,weblink Croatia: Themes, Authors, Books, 2009-11-16, Yale University Library Slavic and East European Collection, 2010-10-27, Besides the Shtokavian dialect, on which Standard Croatian is based, there are two other main dialects spoken on the territory of Croatia, Chakavian and Kajkavian. These dialects, and the four national standards, are usually subsumed under the term "Serbo-Croatian" in English, though this term is controversial for native speakers,Radio Free Europe – Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Or Montenegrin? Or Just 'Our Language'? Živko Bjelanović: Similar, But Different, Feb 21, 2009, accessed Oct 8, 2010 and paraphrases such as "Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian" are therefore sometimes used instead, especially in diplomatic circles.

History

{{see also|Serbo-Croatian#Early development|l1=Early development of Serbo-Croatian}}

Modern language and standardization

In the late medieval period up to the 17th century, the majority of semi-autonomous Croatia was ruled by two domestic dynasties of princes (banovi), the Zrinski and the Frankopan, which were linked by inter-marriage.BOOK, A History of Croatia, Gazi, Stephen, 1973, Philosophical library, New York, 978-0-8022-2108-7, Toward the 17th century, both of them attempted to unify Croatia both culturally and linguistically, writing in a mixture of all three principal dialects (Chakavian, Kajkavian and Shtokavian), and calling it "Croatian", "Dalmatian", or "Slavonian".BOOK, When Ethnicity did not Matter in the Balkans, Van Antwerp Fine, John, 2006, University of Michigan Press, Michigan, USA, 978-0-472-11414-6, 377–379,weblink It is still used now in parts of Istria, which became a crossroads of various mixtures of Chakavian with Ekavian/Ijekavian/Ikavian dialects.JOURNAL, Kalsbeek, Janneke, 1998, The Čakavian dialect of Orbanići near Žminj in Istria, Studies in Slavic and General Linguistics, 25, The most standardized form (Kajkavian–Ikavian) became the cultivated language of administration and intellectuals from the Istrian peninsula along the Croatian coast, across central Croatia up into the northern valleys of the Drava and the Mura. The cultural apex of this 17th century idiom is represented by the editions of "Adrianskoga mora sirena" ("Siren of Adriatic Sea") by Petar Zrinski and "Putni tovaruš" ("Traveling escort") by Katarina Zrinska.WEB,weblink Dva brata i jedna Sirena, Ivana, Sabljak, Matica hrvatska, Croatian, Two Sisters and One Siren, 9 March 2012, WEB,weblink Matica Hrvatska - Putni tovaruš - izvornik (I.), 9 March 2012, However, this first linguistic renaissance in Croatia was halted by the political execution of Petar Zrinski and Fran Krsto Frankopan by the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I in Vienna in 1671.BOOK, Croatia: a Nation Forged in War, Tanner, Marcus, 1997, Yale University Press, New Haven, USA, 978-0-300-06933-4, 50,weblink Subsequently, the Croatian elite in the 18th century gradually abandoned this combined Croatian standard.BOOK, Dragica, Malić, Dragica Malić, 1997, Razvoj hrvatskog književnog jezika, 978-953-0-40010-8,weblink {{page needed|date=July 2014}}

Illyrian period

The Illyrian movement was a 19th-century pan-South Slavic political and cultural movement in Croatia that had the goal to standardize the regionally differentiated and orthographically inconsistent literary languages in Croatia, and finally merge them into a common South Slavic literary language. Specifically, three major groups of dialects were spoken on Croatian territory, and there had been several literary languages over four centuries. The leader of the Illyrian movement Ljudevit Gaj standardized the Latin alphabet in 1830–1850 and worked to bring about a standardized orthography. Although based in Kajkavian-speaking Zagreb, Gaj supported using the more populous Neo-Shtokavian – a version of Shtokavian that eventually became the predominant dialectal basis of both Croatian and Serbian literary language from the 19th century on.BOOK, The development of the Croatian nation: an historical and sociological analysis, Uzelac, Gordana, 2006, Edwin Mellen Press, New York, 978-0-7734-5791-1, 75,weblink Supported by various South Slavic proponents, Neo-Shtokavian was adopted after an Austrian initiative at the Vienna Literary Agreement of 1850, laying the foundation for the unified Serbo-Croatian literary language. The uniform Neo-Shtokavian then became common in the Croatian elite.In the 1860s, the Zagreb Philological School dominated the Croatian cultural life, drawing upon linguistic and ideological conceptions advocated by the members of the Illyrian movement.{{sfn|Bičanić|Frančić|Hudeček|Mihaljević|2013|p=77}} While it was dominant over the rival Rijeka Philological School and Zadar Philological Schools, its influence waned with the rise of the Croatian Vukovians (at the end of the 19th century).{{sfn|Bičanić|Frančić|Hudeček|Mihaljević|2013|p=78}}

Distinguishing features and differences between standards

{{see also|Serbo-Croatian phonology|Serbo-Croatian grammar}}Croatian is commonly characterized by the Ijekavian pronunciation (see an explanation of yat reflexes), the sole use of the Latin alphabet, and a number of lexical differences in common words that set it apart from standard Serbian.{{sfn|Corbett|Browne|2009|p=334}} Some differences are absolute, while some appear mainly in the frequency of use.{{sfn|Corbett|Browne|2009|p=334}}

Sociopolitical standpoints

Croatian, although technically a form of Serbo-Croatian, is sometimes considered a distinct language by itself.WEB, Cvetkovic, Ljudmila,weblink Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Or Montenegrin? Or Just 'Our Language'? – Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty © 2010, Rferl.org, 2010-11-01, Purely linguistic considerations of languages based on mutual intelligibility (abstand languages) are frequently incompatible with political conceptions of language so that varieties that are mutually intelligible can not be considered separate languages. Differences between various standard forms of Serbo-Croatian are often exaggerated for political reasons.Benjamin W. Fortson IV, Indo-European Language and Culture: An Introduction, 2nd ed. (2010, Blackwell), pg. 431. Most Croatian linguists regard Croatian as a separate language that is considered key to national identity.JOURNAL,weblink "Jezično" pristupanje Hrvatske Europskoj Uniji: prevođenje pravne stečevine i europsko nazivlje, The Accession of the Croatian Language to the European Union: Translation of the Acquis Communautaire and European Legal Terminology, Snježana Ramljak; Library of the Croatian Parliament, Zagreb, Croatia, Croatian Political Science Review, Serbo-Croatian, 0032-3241, 45, 1, June 2008, 2012-02-27, The issue is sensitive in Croatia as the notion of a separate language being the most important characteristic of a nation is widely accepted, stemming from the 19th-century history of Europe.{{sfn|Stokes|2008|p=348}} The 1967 Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Literary Language, in which a group of Croatian authors and linguists demanded greater autonomy for the Croatian language, is viewed in Croatia as a linguistic policy milestone that was also a general milestone in national politics.{{sfn|Šute|1999|p=317}} At the 50th anniversary of the Declaration, at the beginning of 2017, a two-day meeting of experts from Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro was organized in Zagreb, at which the text of the Declaration on the Common Language of Croats, Bosniaks, Serbs and Montenegrins was drafted.WEB, Derk, Denis, Donosi se Deklaracija o zajedničkom jeziku Hrvata, Srba, Bošnjaka i Crnogoraca, A Declaration on the Common Language of Croats, Serbs, Bosniaks and Montenegrins is About to Appear, Croatian,weblink Večernji list, 6–7, Zagreb, 0350-5006, 28 March 2017, 23 May 2017,weblink no, 9 June 2017, The new Declaration has received more than ten thousand signatures. It states that in Croatia, Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro a common polycentric standard language is used, consisting of several standard varieties, such as German, English or Spanish.WEB, Trudgill, Peter, Peter Trudgill, 30 November 2017, 46, Time to Make Four Into One,weblink The New European, 3 October 2018, The aim of the new Declaration is to stimulate discussion on language without the nationalistic baggageNEWS, J., T., 10 April 2017, Is Serbo-Croatian a Language?,weblink The Economist, 10 April 2017,weblink no, London, 0013-0613, 6 January 2019, and to counter nationalistic divisions.WEB, Sven, Milekić, 30 March 2017, Post-Yugoslav 'Common Language' Declaration Challenges Nationalism,weblink Balkan Insight, 23 May 2017,weblink no, London, 4 July 2018, The terms "Serbo-Croatian" or "Serbo-Croat" are still used as a cover term for all these forms by foreign scholars, even though the speakers themselves largely do not use it.{{sfn|Corbett|Browne|2009|p=334}} Within ex-Yugoslavia, the term has largely been replaced by the ethnic terms Serbian, Croatian, and Bosnian.David Crystal "Language Death", Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp. 11, 12The use of the name "Croatian" for a language names has been historically attested to, though not always distinctively; the Croatian–Hungarian Agreement, for example, designated "Croatian" as one of its official languagesweblink and Croatian became an official EU language upon accession of Croatia to the EU on 1 July 2013.WEB,weblink Vandoren: EU membership – challenge and chance for Croatia – Daily – tportal.hr, Daily.tportal.hr, 2010-09-30, 2010-10-27,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101115051444weblink">weblink 2010-11-15, yes, WEB,weblink Applications for Croatian linguists, EU careers, 2012-06-21, 2012-09-10, In 2013, the EU started publishing a Croatian language version of its official gazette.WEB,weblink Službeni list Europske unije, Serbo-Croatian, Official Gazette of the European Union, European Union, 29 January 2013,

Official status

(File:Serbo croatian languages2006 02.png|thumb|upright=1.15|Areas with an ethnic Croatian majority (as of 2006))Standard Croatian is the official language of the Republic of CroatiaWEB,weblink Croatia, Cia.gov, 2010-12-21, and, along with Standard Bosnian and Standard Serbian, one of three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina.WEB,weblink Ethnologue report for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ethnologue.com, 2010-12-21, It is also official in the regions of Burgenland (Austria),JOURNAL, Andrea Zorka, Kinda-Berlakovich,weblink Hrvatski nastavni jezik u Gradišću u školsko-političkome kontekstu, Croatian as the Language of Instruction and Language Policy in Burgenland from 1921 onwards, LAHOR, 1, 1, 2006, 27–35, 1846-2197, Molise (Italy)WEB,weblink Endangered languages in Europe: report, Helsinki.fi, 2010-10-27, and Vojvodina (Serbia).WEB,weblink Official Use of Languages and Scripts in the AP Vojvodina, puma.vojvodina.gov.rs, 2010-12-21, Additionally, it has co-official status alongside Romanian in the communes of CarașovaWEB,weblink Structura Etno-demografică a României, Edrc.ro, 2010-10-27, and Lupac,WEB,weblink Structura Etno-demografică a României, Edrc.ro, 2010-10-27, WEB,weblink Structura Etno-demografică a României, Edrc.ro, 2010-12-21, Romania. In these localities, Croats or Krashovani make up the majority of the population, and education, signage and access to public administration and the justice system are provided in Croatian, alongside Romanian.Croatian is officially used and taught at all the universities in Croatia, and at the University of Mostar in Bosnia and Herzegovina.There is no regulatory body that determines the proper usage of Croatian. The current standard language is generally laid out in the grammar books and dictionaries used in education, such as the school curriculum prescribed by the Ministry of Education and the university programmes of the Faculty of Philosophy at the four main universities.{{Citation needed|date=December 2010}}{{update after|2014|8}} In 2013, a Hrvatski pravopis by the Institute of Croatian Language and Linguistics received an official sole seal of approval from the Ministry of Education.Attempts are being made to revive Croatian literature in Italy.WEB,weblink From Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.), 2005. Ethnologue: Languages of the World, Fifteenth edition. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International, Ethnologue.com, 2010-01-26, {{Failed verification|date=August 2014}}The most prominent recent editions describing the Croatian standard language are: Also notable are the recommendations of Matica hrvatska, the national publisher and promoter of Croatian heritage, and the Lexicographical institute Miroslav Krleža, as well as the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts.Numerous representative Croatian linguistic works were published since the independence of Croatia, among them three voluminous monolingual dictionaries of contemporary Croatian.

See also

References

{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}

Sources

  • {{citation |title=Pregled povijesti, gramatike i pravopisa hrvatskog jezika |year=2013 |publisher=Croatica |first=Ante |last=Bičanić |author2-first=AnÄ‘ela |author2-last=Frančić |author3-first=Lana |author3-last=Hudeček |author4-first=Milica |author4-last=Mihaljević |language=Serbo-Croatian}}
  • BOOK, harv, The World's Major Languages, Serbo-Croat - Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, Serbian, Greville, Corbett, Wayles, Browne, Wayles Browne, Bernard, Comrie, Bernard Comrie, Routledge, 2009, 9781134261567,weblink
  • BOOK, harv, Yugoslavia: Oblique Insights and Observations, Gale, Stokes, University of Pittsburgh Pre, 2008, 9780822973492,weblink
  • JOURNAL, harv, Radovi Zavoda za hrvatsku povijest, 31, 1, 0353-295X, 317–318, Deklaracija o nazivu i položaju hrvatskog književnog jezika – GraÄ‘a za povijest Deklaracije, Zagreb, 1997, str. 225, Declaration on the Status and Name of the Croatian Standard Language – Declaration History Articles, Zagreb, 1997, p. 225, Serbo-Croatian, Ivica, Å ute, April 1999,weblink 5 July 2014,
  • NEWS, SOS ili tek alibi za nasilje nad jezikom, SOS, or nothing but an alibi for violence against language,weblink Serbo-Croatian, Zagreb, Forum, 16 March 2012, 38–39, 1848-204X, 7 July 2012, no,weblink 9 April 2015,

Further reading

  • {{citation |title=Pregled povijesti, gramatike i pravopisa hrvatskog jezika |year=2013 |publisher=Croatica |first=Ante |last=Bičanić |first2=AnÄ‘ela |last2=Frančić |author3-first=Lana |author3-last=Hudeček |author4-first=Milica |author4-last=Mihaljević |language=Serbo-Croatian}}
  • Banac, Ivo: Main Trends in the Croatian Language Question, YUP 1984
  • BOOK, Blum, Daniel, 2002, German, Sprache und Politik : Sprachpolitik und Sprachnationalismus in der Republik Indien und dem sozialistischen Jugoslawien (1945-1991), Language and Policy: Language Policy and Linguistic Nationalism in the Republic of India and the Socialist Yugoslavia (1945-1991), Beiträge zur Südasienforschung ; vol. 192, Würzburg, Ergon, 200, 978-3-89913-253-3, 51961066,weblink (CROLIB).
  • Franolić, Branko: A Historical Survey of Literary Croatian, Nouvelles Editions Latines, 1984
  • BOOK, Franolić, Branko, 2, 1985, A Bibliography of Croatian Dictionaries, Nouvelles Editions Latines, Paris, 139,
  • BOOK, Franolić, Branko, 2, 1988, Language Policy in Yugoslavia with special reference to Croatian, Nouvelles Editions Latines, Paris,
  • BOOK, Franolić, Branko, 2, Žagar, Mateo, 2008, A Historical Outline of Literary Croatian & The Glagolitic Heritage of Croatian Culture, Erasmus & CSYPN, London & Zagreb, 978-953-6132-80-5,weblink
  • BOOK, Greenberg, Robert David, Language and identity in the Balkans: Serbo-Croatian and its disintegration, 2004, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-925815-4,weblink (reprinted in 2008 as {{ISBN|978-0-19-920875-3}})
  • BOOK, Gröschel, Bernhard, Bernhard Gröschel, 2009, German, Das Serbokroatische zwischen Linguistik und Politik: mit einer Bibliographie zum postjugoslavischen Sprachenstreit, Serbo-Croatian Between Linguistics and Politics: With a Bibliography of the Post-Yugoslav Language Dispute, Lincom Studies in Slavic Linguistics ; vol 34, Munich, Lincom Europa, 451, 978-3-929075-79-3, 428012015, 2009473660, 15295665W, Inhaltsverzeichnis.
  • Kačić, Miro: Croatian and Serbian: Delusions and Distortions, Novi Most, Zagreb 1997
  • BOOK, Kordić, Snježana, Snježana Kordić, 2010, Serbo-Croatian, Jezik i nacionalizam, Language and Nationalism,weblink no, Rotulus Universitas, Zagreb, Durieux, 430, 978-953-188-311-5, 2011520778, 729837512, 15270636W, 8 July 2012,weblink 7 March 2013,
  • MoguÅ¡, Milan: A History of the Croatian Language, NZ Globus, 1995
  • Težak, Stjepko: "Hrvatski naÅ¡ (ne)zaboravljeni" [Croatian, our (un)forgotten language], 301 p., knjižnica Hrvatski naÅ¡ svagdaÅ¡nji (knj. 1), Tipex, Zagreb, 1999, {{ISBN|953-6022-35-4}} (Croatian)
  • BOOK, Zanelli, Aldo, 2018, Eine Analyse der Metaphern in der kroatischen Linguistikfachzeitschrift Jezik von 1991 bis 1997, Analysis of Metaphors in Croatian Linguistic Journal Language from 1991 to 1997, German, Studien zur Slavistik ; 41, Hamburg, Dr. Kovač, 142, 978-3-8300-9773-0, 1023608613, (NSK). (FFZG)

External links

{{InterWiki|code=hr}}{{Commons category|Croatian language}}{{Wikivoyage|Croatian phrasebook|Croatian|a phrasebook}}{{Wiktionary category}}

Language history

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