English-speaking world

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English-speaking world
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{{short description|Countries and regions where English is everyday language and people (or peoples) who speak English}}File:Countries with English as Official Language.png|thumb|upright=1.35|Nations in which English is an official language (de facto or de jure).Anglosphere countries are a subset of those where English is the main native language.{{legend|#00d921|#088a4b|Official as majority language}}{{legend|#16c46d|Official as minority language}}{{legend|#045fb4|Co-official as majority language}}{{legend|#5599ff|Co-official as minority language}}{{legend|#f1ff59|Unofficial{{clarify|date=July 2018}}}}{{legend|#ffc34a|Not official as majority language}}{{legend|#ffffff|Not official as minority language}} The term "majority language" is here defined as a language of which more than 50% of the population have some command. It does not mean that this command is native, nor that English is the most widely used language of the respective country.Over 2 billion people speak English,WEB,weblink Crystal, David. The language revolution. John Wiley & Sons, 2004., en-US, JOURNAL, Two thousand million?, English Today, 24, 3–6, en-US, 10.1017/S0266078408000023, 2008, Crystal, David, making English the largest language by number of speakers,WEB,weblink List of languages by total number of speakers, Ethnologue 2019, en-US, {{Circular reference|date=May 2019}} and the third largest language by number of native speakers. With 300 million native speakers, the United States of America is the largest English-speaking country. As pictured in the pie graph below, most native speakers of English are Americans.Additionally, there are 60 million native speakers in the United Kingdom, 29 million in Canada, 25.1 million in Australia,{{citation needed|date=February 2019}} 4.7 million in the Republic of Ireland, and 4.9 million in New Zealand.In the European Union, English is one of 24 official languages and is widely used by institutions, and by a majority of the population as the native language in the United Kingdom and Ireland and as a second language in other member states.Estimates that include second-language speakers vary greatly, from 470 million to more than 2 billion. David Crystal calculates that, as of 2003, non-native speakers outnumbered native speakers by a ratio of 3 to 1.BOOK, Crystal, David, David Crystal, English as a Global Language, 2nd, Cambridge University Press, 69, 2003,weblink 978-0-521-53032-3, When combining native and non-native speakers, English is the most widely spoken language worldwide.Besides the major varieties of English, such as American English, British English, Canadian English, Australian English, Irish English, New Zealand English and their sub-varieties, countries such as South Africa, India, Nigeria, the Philippines, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago also have millions of native speakers of dialect continua ranging from English-based creole languages to Standard English. Other countries such as Ghana and Uganda also use English as their primary official languages.As of 2012, India claims to be the world's second-largest English-speaking country. The most reliable estimate is around 10% of its population or 125 million people, second only to the US and expected to quadruple in the following decade.WEB, Masani, Zareer, English or Hinglish - which will India choose?,weblink BBC News, BBC, 12 November 2019,

Majority English-speaking countries

File:Countries where over 50% of the population are native English speakers.png|thumb|alt=Map highlighting countries where English is spoken natively by the majority of the population.|{{legend|#FF0000|The AnglosphereAnglosphereThere are six large countries with a majority of native English speakers that are sometimes grouped under the term Anglosphere. In numbers of English speakers they are: the United States of America (at least 231 million),{{sfn|Ryan|2013|loc=Table 1}} the United Kingdom (in England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland) (60 million),{{sfn|Office for National Statistics|2013|loc=Key Points}}{{sfn|National Records of Scotland|2013}}{{sfn|Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency|2012|loc=Table KS207NI: Main Language}} Canada (at least 20 million),{{sfn|Statistics Canada|2014}} Australia (at least 17 million),{{sfn|Australian Bureau of Statistics|2013}} Republic of Ireland (4.8 million) and New Zealand (4.8 million).{{sfn|Statistics New Zealand|2014}}{{Pie chart|caption = Pie chart showing the percentage of native English speakers living in "inner circle" English-speaking countries. Native speakers are now substantially outnumbered worldwide by second-language speakers of English (not counted in this chartData are from national censuses conducted in 2010 or 2011 in the reported countries.).|other = yes|value1 = {{#expr:231/361*100 round 1}}|label1 = United States|color1 = #BB133E|value2 = {{#expr:60/361*100 round 1}}|label2 = United Kingdom|color2 = #00247D|value3 = {{#expr:19/361*100 round 1}}|label3 = Canada|color3 = #CC0000|value4 = {{#expr:17/361*100 round 1}}|label4 = Australia|color4 = #002B7F|value5 = {{#expr:4.8/361*100 round 1}}|label5 = South Africa|color5 = #FCB514|value6 = {{#expr:4.8/361*100 round 1}}
Republic of Ireland>Ireland|color6 = #009A49|value7 = {{#expr:4.8/361*100 round 1}}|label7 = New Zealand|color7 = #000066}}English is also the primary natively spoken language in the countries and territories of Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, the British Indian Ocean Territory, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Dominica, the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Grenada, Guam, Guernsey, Guyana, the Isle of Man, Jamaica, Jersey, Montserrat, the Pitcairn Islands, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Trinidad and Tobago, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and the United States Virgin Islands.Another substantial community of native speakers is found in South Africa (4.8 million).{{sfn|Statistics South Africa|2012|loc=Table 2.5 Population by first language spoken and province (number)}}

Countries where English is an official language

In some countries where English is not the most spoken language, it is an official language. These countries include Botswana, Cameroon (co-official with French), Eswatini (Swaziland), Fiji, Ghana, India, Kenya, Kiribati, Lesotho, Liberia, Malta, the Marshall Islands, Mauritius, the Federated States of Micronesia, Namibia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Samoa, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, the Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Sudan, South Africa, South Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe. There also are countries where in a part of the territory English became a co-official language, in Colombia's San Andrés y Providencia, China's Hong Kong and Nicaragua's Mosquito Coast. This was a result of the influence of British colonization and American colonization in these areas.India has the largest number of second-language speakers of English (see Indian English); Crystal (2004) claims that combining native and non-native speakers, India has more people who speak or understand English than any other country in the world. However, most scholars and research that has been conducted dispute his assertions.{{sfn|Crystal|2004b}} Pakistan also has the English language (Pakistani English) as a second official language after the Urdu language as the result of British rule (Raj), making Pakistan the only Islamic country in which English is official. Sri Lanka and The Philippines use the English language, too, as the second and third official language after Sinhala, Tamil, and Filipino.English is one of the eleven official languages that are given equal status in South Africa (South African English). It is also the official language in current dependent territories of Australia (Norfolk Island, Christmas Island and Cocos Island) and of the United States of America (American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico (in Puerto Rico, English is co-official with Spanish) and the US Virgin Islands),BOOK,weblink
author=Nancy Morris publisher=Praeger/Greenwoodpage=62, and Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.Although the United States federal government has no official languages, English has been given official status by 32 of the 50 US state governments.WEB,weblink U.S. English, Inc, U.S. English, 21 April 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 January 2010, WEB,weblink U.S. English Chairman Applauds West Virginia Bill to Declare English the States Official Language, U.S. English, 23 March 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 April 2016, Furthermore, per United States nationality law, the process of becoming a naturalized citizen of the US entails a basic English proficiency test, which may be the most prominent example of the claim of the nation not having an official language being belied by policy realities.Although falling short of official status, English is also an important language in several former colonies and protectorates of the United Kingdom, such as Bahrain, Bangladesh, Brunei, Cyprus and the United Arab Emirates.

English as a global language

{{See also|English in computing|International English|World Englishes|World language|English as a second or foreign language}}File:Anglospeak.png|thumb|upright=1.8|{{Color box|#004288|border=darkgray}} States and territories in which English or an #79c1ff|border=darkgray}} States and territories in which English is an official, but not the majority language.Because English is so widely spoken, it has often been referred to as a "world language", the lingua franca of the modern era,WEB,weblink The Future of English?, 15 April 2007, 1997, David Graddol, The British Council, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 February 2007, David Graddol, and while it is not an official language in most countries, it is currently the language most often taught as a foreign language.BOOK, Crystal, David, English as a Global Language, David Crystal, 2nd, Cambridge University Press, 69, 2003a,weblink 4 February 2015, 978-0-521-53032-3,weblink Library of Congress (sample), 4 February 2015, harv, BOOK, Northrup, David, How English Became the Global Language, 20 March 2013, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-1-137-30306-6,weblink 25 March 2015,weblink 25 March 2015, harv, It is, by international treaty, the official language for aeronauticalWEB,weblink ICAO Promotes Aviation Safety by Endorsing English Language Testing, International Civil Aviation Organization, 13 October 2011, and maritimeWEB,weblink IMO Standard Marine Communication Phrases, International Maritime Organization,weblink" title="">weblink 27 December 2003, dead, communications. English is one of the official languages of the United Nations and many other international organizations, including the International Olympic Committee. It is also one of two co-official languages for astronauts (besides the Russian language) serving on board the International Space Station.{{citation needed|date=November 2017}}English is studied most often in the European Union, and the perception of the usefulness of foreign languages among Europeans is 67 percent in favour of English ahead of 17 percent for German and 16 percent for French ({{as of|2012|lc=y}}). Among some of the non-English-speaking EU countries, the following percentages of the adult population claimed to be able to converse in English in 2012: 90 percent in the Netherlands, 89 percent in Malta, 86 percent in Sweden and Denmark, 73 percent in Cyprus, Croatia, and Austria, 70 percent in Finland, and over 50 percent in Greece, Belgium, Luxembourg, Slovenia, and Germany. In 2012, excluding native speakers, 38 percent of Europeans consider that they can speak English.REPORT, European Commission, Special Eurobarometer 386: Europeans and Their Languages, June 2012, Eurobarometer Special Surveys,weblink 12 February 2015,weblink 27 March 2015, harv, Books, magazines, and newspapers written in English are available in many countries around the world, and English is the most commonly used language in the sciences with Science Citation Index reporting as early as 1997 that 95% of its articles were written in English, even though only half of them came from authors in English-speaking countries.In publishing, English literature predominates considerably with 28 percent of all books published in the world [leclerc 2011]{{Full citation needed|date=June 2014}} and 30 percent of web content in 2011 (down from 50 percent in 2000).{{sfn|Northrup|2013}}This increasing use of the English language globally has had a large impact on many other languages, leading to language shift and even language death,David Crystal (2000) Language Death, Preface; viii, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and to claims of linguistic imperialism. English itself has become more open to language shift as multiple regional varieties feed back into the language as a whole.JOURNAL, Jambor, Paul Z., English Language Imperialism: Points of View, Journal of English as an International Language, April 2007, 2, 103–123,weblink




WEB, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2011 Census QuickStats: Australia, 28 March 2013,weblink 25 March 2015, harv,
ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bao, Z., Variation in Nonnative Varieties of English, Encyclopedia of language & linguistics, Brown, Keith, 2006, Elsevier, 978-0-08-044299-0, 10.1016/B0-08-044854-2/04257-7, 377–380,weblink 6 February 2015, harv, {{Subscription or libraries|sentence|via=ScienceDirect}}
NEWS, Crystal, David, Subcontinent Raises Its Voice, 19 November 2004b,weblink 4 February 2015, The Guardian, harv,
BOOK, Crystal, David, Chapter 9: English worldwide, A History of the English language, Denison, David, Hogg, Richard M., Cambridge University Press, 2006, 978-0-511-16893-2, 420–439, harv,
WEB, National Records of Scotland, Census 2011: Release 2A, Scotland's Census 2011, 26 September 2013,weblink 25 March 2015, harv,
WEB, Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency, Census 2011: Key Statistics for Northern Ireland December 2012, Statistics Bulletin, 11 December 2012,weblink 16 December 2014, Table KS207NI: Main Language, harv,
WEB, Office for National Statistics, Language in England and Wales, 2011, 4 March 2013, 2011 Census Analysis,weblink 16 December 2014, harv,
WEB, Ryan, Camille, Language Use in the United States: 2011, American Community Survey Reports, August 2013, 1,weblink 16 December 2014, harv,weblink" title="">weblink 2016-02-05, dead,
WEB, Statistics Canada, Population by mother tongue and age groups (total), 2011 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, 22 August 2014,weblink 25 March 2015, harv,
WEB, Statistics New Zealand, 2013 QuickStats About Culture and Identity, April 2014,weblink 23, 25 March 2015, harv, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2015,
BOOK, Census 2011: Census in brief,weblink Statistics South Africa, Pretoria, 2012, 9780621413885,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2015, live, Table 2.5 Population by first language spoken and province (number), {{SfnRef, Statistics South Africa, 2012, }}

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