Scottish people

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Scottish people
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{{short description|ethnic inhabitants of Scotland}}{{Redirect2|Scot|Scotsman|the newspaper|The Scotsman|the automobile|Studebaker Scotsman|other uses of ″Scot″|Scot (disambiguation)}}{{About|the Scottish people as an ethnic group|residents or nationals of Scotland|Demographics of Scotland}}{{Use dmy dates|date=September 2013}}{{Use Scottish English|date=September 2013}}

'''{{smallsup>A}}WEB,weblink The Scottish Diaspora and Diaspora Strategy: Insights and Lessons from Ireland, Scottish Government, May 2009, 17 March 2015, | regions = {{flagcountry|Scotland}}{{spaces|3}}4,446,000 (2011)(Scottish descent only)WEB,weblink Statistical Bulletin: Ethnicity,, 16−17, 2014, 13 December 2016, United States}}{{smallsup|B}}PUBLISHER=STATISTICAL ATLAS(Scottish Americans)}}3,056,848{{small>Scotch-Irish descent)}}Canada}}{{smallsup|C}}| pop2 = 4,799,005PUBLISHER=STATISTICS CANADA, 2 December 2018, Australia}}| pop3 = 2,023,474 | ref3 =WEB,weblink ABS Ancestry, 2016, England}}{{smallsup|D}}| pop4 = 795,000| ref4 = BOOK, Carr, Julie,weblink Scotland's diaspora and overseas-born population, Scottish Government Social Research, Edinburgh, 2009, 16 July 2016, 978-0-7559-7657-7, 10,weblink" title="">weblink 2017-04-09, no, UK}} Northern Ireland {{smallsup|E}}| pop5 = 760,620 date=December 2016}}Argentina}}date=December 2016}}| ref6 =Chile}}date=December 2016}}| ref7 =Brazil}}date=December 2016}}| ref8 =France}}date=December 2016}}| ref9 =Poland}}date=December 2016}}| ref10 =New Zealand}}| pop11 = 14,412| ref11 = HTTP://WWW.STATS.GOVT.NZ/CENSUS/2013-CENSUS/PROFILE-AND-SUMMARY-REPORTS/ETHNIC-PROFILES.ASPX?REQUEST_VALUE=24658&PARENT_ID=24650&TABNAME=#24658 >TITLE=2013 CENSUS ETHNIC GROUP PROFILES: SCOTTISH ACCESSDATE=10 DECEMBER 2016, WEB,weblink Ethnic group (total responses) by age group and sex, for the census usually resident population count, 2001, 2006, and 2013 Censuses (RC, TA) Information on table.accessdate=10 December 2016, South Africa}}| pop12 = 11,160 (estimate)10}}Isle of Man}}| pop13 = 2,403| ref13 =WEB,weblink Isle of Man Census Report 2006 date=2006, 20, 10 December 2016, Hong Kong}}{{smallsup|G}}| pop14 = 1,459| ref14 = BOOK, PDF,weblinkwork=GOV.UK Home Officeyear=2014, 11 July 2016, 978-0-10-187262-1, 70, Office, Great Britain: Home, BOOK, Carr, Julie,weblink Scotland's diaspora and overseas-born population, Scottish Government Social Research, Edinburgh, 2009, 16 July 2016, 978-0-7559-7657-7, 13,weblink" title="">weblink 2017-04-09, no, English language>English (Scottish English)Scottish GaelicScotsPresbyterianism, Roman Catholicism, Scottish Episcopal Church>Episcopalianism; other minority groupsA}} These figures are estimates based on census data of populations and official surveys of identity.JOURNAL,weblink Genealogy, Scotland Now -, 1, March 2006, unfit,weblink" title="">weblink 15 May 2006, The Ancestral Scotland website states the following: "Scotland is a land of 5.1 million people. A proud people, passionate about their country and her rich, noble heritage. For every single Scot in their native land, there are thought to be at least five more overseas who can claim Scottish ancestry; that's many millions spread throughout the globe."{{reliable|date=December 2016}}WEB, Duncan, Macniven,weblink Find your ancestors in the click of a mouse,, March 2004, unfit,weblink" title="">weblink 2 May 2007, {{failed verification|date=December 2016}}WEB,weblink Media Office News: It's in the genes,, 26 October 2007, unfit,weblink" title="">weblink 21 December 2007, }}The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk; Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich) or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation.In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word ScotiBede used a Latin form of the word Scots as the name of the Gaels of Dál Riata.BOOK
, Roger Collins
, Judith McClure
, Beda el Venerable, Bede
, The Ecclesiastical History of the English People: The Greater Chronicle; Bede's Letter to Egbert
, Oxford University Press
, 1999
, 386
, ISBN, originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland.
, Anthony Richard (TRN) Birley
, Cornelius Tacitus
, Cayo Cornelio Tácito
, Agricola and Germany
, Oxford University Press
, ISBN, Considered archaic or pejorative,
WEB,weblink Scotch,, 3 October 2012, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland.WEB,weblink Scotch: Definition, Synonyms from,, 3 October 2012, John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century.People of Scottish descent live in many countries. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States.BOOK
, Landsman
, Ned C.
, Nation and Province in the First British Empire: Scotland and the Americas
, Bucknell University Press
, 1 October 2001
Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.

Ethnic groups of Scotland

{{Further|Genetic history of the British Isles|Prehistoric Scotland|Scandinavian Scotland}}In the Early Middle Ages, Scotland saw several ethnic or cultural groups mentioned in contemporary sources, namely the Picts, the Gaels, the Britons, and the Angles, with the latter settling in the southeast of the country. Culturally, these peoples are grouped according to language. Most of Scotland until the 13th century spoke Celtic languages and these included, at least initially, the Britons, as well as the Gaels and the Picts.Jackson, "The Language of the Picts", discussed by Forsyth, Language in Pictland. Germanic peoples included the Angles of Northumbria, who settled in south-eastern Scotland in the region between the Firth of Forth to the north and the River Tweed to the south. They also occupied the south-west of Scotland up to and including the Plain of Kyle and their language, Old English, was the earliest form of the language which eventually became known as Scots.Use of the Gaelic language spread throughout nearly the whole of Scotland by the 9th century,WEB, Clancy, Thomas Owen, Thomas Owen Clancy,weblink Gaelic Scotland: a brief history,, 13 July 2006, 21 September 2007, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 11 September 2007, reaching a peak in the 11th to 13th centuries, but was never the language of the south-east of the country. King Edgar divided the Kingdom of Northumbria between Scotland and England; at least, most medieval historians now accept the 'gift' by Edgar, in any case, after the later Battle of Carham the Scottish kingdom encompassed many English people, with even more quite possibly arriving after the Norman invasion of England in 1066. South-east of the Firth of Forth, then in Lothian and the Borders ((Old English language|OE:) Loðene), a northern variety of Old English, also known as Early Scots, was spoken.File:St-Kildans.jpg|thumb|right|St. Kildans sitting on the village street, 1886]]As a result of David I, King of Scots' return from exile in England in 1113, ultimately to assume the throne in 1124 with the help of Norman military force, David invited Norman families from France and England to settle in lands he granted them to spread a ruling class loyal to him.Barrow, "The Balance of New and Old", p. 13. This Davidian Revolution, as many historians call it, brought a European style of feudalism to Scotland along with an influx of people of Norman descent - by invitation, unlike England where it was by conquest. To this day, many of the common family names of Scotland can trace ancestry to Normans from this period, such as the Stewarts, the Bruces, the Hamiltons, the Wallaces, the Melvilles, some Browns and many others.{{citation needed|date=December 2016}}The Northern Isles and some parts of Caithness were Norn-speaking (the west of Caithness was Gaelic-speaking into the 20th century, as were some small communities in parts of the Central Highlands). From 1200 to 1500 the Early Scots language spread across the lowland parts of Scotland between Galloway and the Highland line, being used by Barbour in his historical epic The Brus in the late 14th century in Aberdeen.From 1500 on, Scotland was commonly divided by language into two groups of people, Gaelic-speaking "Highlanders" (the language formerly called Scottis by English speakers and known by many Lowlanders in the 18th century as "Irish") and the Inglis-speaking "Lowlanders" (a language later to be called Scots). Today, immigrants have brought other languages, but almost every adult throughout Scotland is fluent in the English language.

Scottish diaspora

{| class="wikitable sortable" font-size:80%;" style="float:right;! colspan="4"|Number of the Scottish diaspora! Census Year! Population! colspan="4"|% of the local population {{flagiconCensus in Australia>AustraliaHTTP://WWW.ABS.GOV.AU/WEBSITEDBS/CENSUSHOME.NSF/HOME/CO-62>TITLE=2011 CENSUS DATA SHOWS MORE THAN 300 ANCESTRIES REPORTED IN AUSTRALIADATE=21 JUNE 2012PUBLISHER=DEPARTMENT OF IMMIGRATION AND BORDER PROTECTIONYEAR=2014ISBN=978-1-920996-23-9DEADURL=YESARCHIVEDATE=29 MAY 2014|1,792,622 '''{{bartable|background:darkblue}} {{flagiconUK Census>England2011 Census: KS202EW National identity, local authorities in England and Wales, Accessed 22 December 2012 708,872 '''{{bartable|background:darkblue}} {{flagiconUnited States Census>United States American Community SurveyTOTAL ANCESTRY CATEGORIES TALLIED FOR PEOPLE WITH ONE OR MORE ANCESTRY CATEGORIES REPORTED 2010 AMERICAN COMMUNITY SURVEY 1-YEAR ESTIMATESPUBLISHER=UNITED STATES CENSUS BUREAU|5,460,679 '''{{bartable|background:darkblue}} {{flagicon|3,257,161 '''{{bartable|background:darkblue}} {{flagiconCanada Census>CanadaHTTP://WWW12.STATCAN.GC.CA/NHS-ENM/2011/DP-PD/DT-TD/RP-ENG.CFM?LANG=E&APATH=3&DETAIL=0&DIM=0&FL=A&FREE=0&GC=0&GID=0&GK=0&GRP=1&PID=105396&PRID=0&PTYPE=105277&S=0&SHOWALL=0&SUB=0&TEMPORAL=2013&THEME=95&VID=0&VNAMEE&VNAMEF>TITLE=2011 NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY: DATA TABLESDATE=2013-05-08|4,714,965 '''{{bartable|background:darkblue}}Today, Scotland has a population of just over five million people,WEB
, Office of the Chief Statistician, Analysis of Ethnicity in the 2001 Census – Summary Report,weblink
, the majority of whom consider themselves Scottish.WEB
, David McCrone, Professor of Sociology, University of Edinburgh
, Scottish Affairs, No. 24, Summer 1998; Opinion Polls in Scotland: July 1997 – June 1998
, yes
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 21 December 2013
, dmy-all
, During 1997–1998 two polls were undertaken. During the first when asked about their national identity 59 percent of the people polled stated they were Scottish or more Scottish than British, 28 percent stated they were equally Scottish and British, while 10 percent stated they were British or more British than Scottish. In the second poll 59 percent of the people polled stated they were Scottish or more Scottish than British, 26 percent stated they were equally Scottish and British, while 12 percent stated they were British or more British than Scottish.WEB
, The Scottish Government, One Scotland Many Cultures 2005/06 – Waves 6 and 7 Campaign Evaluation,weblink 2006-09-21
, When asked what ethnic group they belonged over five surveys, in the 2005/2006 period, people reporting that they were Scottish rose from 75 percent to 84 percent, while those reporting that they were British dropped from 39 percent to 22 percent. "a number of respondents selected more than one option, usually both Scottish and British, hence percentages adding to more than 100% ... This indicates a continued erosion of perceived Britishness among respondents..." In addition, there are many more people with Scots ancestry living abroad than the total population of Scotland.{{citation needed|date=December 2016}}

United States

File:Andrew Carnegie, three-quarter length portrait, seated, facing slightly left, 1913.jpg|thumb|upright=0.75|Scottish-born American industrialist and philanthropist Andrew CarnegieAndrew CarnegieIn the 2013 American Community Survey 5,310,285 identified as Scottish and 2,976,878 as of Scots-Irish descent.Americans of Scottish descent outnumber the population of Scotland, where 4,459,071 or 88.09% of people identified as ethnic Scottish in the 2001 Census.WEB,weblink QT-P13. Ancestry: 2000,, 10 December 2016, WEB,weblink Table 1.1: Scottish population by ethnic group - All People, Scottish Government, 4 April 2006, 10 December 2016, The number of Americans who have a Scottish ancestor is estimated to between 9 and 25 millionJames McCarthy and Euan Hague, 'Race, Nation, and Nature: The Cultural Politics of "Celtic" Identification in the American West', Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Volume 94 Issue 2 (5 Nov 2004), p. 392, citing J. Hewitson, Tam Blake and Co.: The Story of the Scots in America (Edinburgh: Canongate Books, 1993). Tartan Day 2007, scotlandnow, Issue 7 (March 2007). Accessed 7 September 2008.
{{dead link|date=December 2016}}
,weblink" title="">weblink
, yes
, 21 April 2005
, Scottish Parliament: Official Report, 11 September 2002, Col. 13525
, 2012-08-25
, dmy-all
,weblink" title="">weblink
, yes
, 18 May 2005
, Scottish Parliament: European and External Relations Committee Agenda, 20th Meeting 2004 (Session 2), 30 November 2004, EU/S2/04/20/1
, 2011-08-14
, 2012-08-25
, dmy-all
, (up to 8.3% of the total US population), and Scotch-Irish, 27 to 30 millionBOOK, Webb, James H., Jim Webb, Born Fighting: How the Scots-Irish Shaped America,weblink 15 July 2016, 2004, Broadway Books, 978-0-7679-1688-2, Front flap, "More than 27 million Americans today can trace their lineage to the Scots...", NEWS,weblink James, Webb, Secret GOP Weapon: The Scots Irish Vote, Wall Street Journal, 19 October 2004, 10 December 2016, (up to 10% of the total US population),{{citation needed|date=December 2016}} the subgroups overlapping and not always distinguishable because of their shared ancestral surnames.{{clarify|date=December 2016}}The majority of Scotch-Irish originally came from Lowland Scotland and Northern England{{citation needed|date=December 2016}} before migrating to the province of Ulster{{citation needed|date=December 2016}} in Ireland (see Plantation of Ulster) and thence, beginning about five generations later, to North America in large numbers during the eighteenth century.{{citation needed|date=December 2016}}


As the third-largest ethnic group in Canada and amongst the first Europeans to settle in the country, Scottish people have made a large impact on Canadian culture since colonial times. According to the 2011 Census of Canada, the number of Canadians claiming full or partial Scottish descent is 4,714,970,WEB,weblink Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data, Statistics Canada, 6 October 2010, 12 July 2016, or 15.10% of the nation's total population.Many respondents may have misunderstood the question and the numerous responses for "Canadian" does not give an accurate figure for numerous groups, particularly those of British Isles origins. Scottish-Canadians are the 3rd biggest ethnic group in Canada. Scottish culture has particularly thrived in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"). There, in Cape Breton, where both lowland and highland Scots settled in large numbers, Canadian Gaelic is still spoken by a small number of residents. Cape Breton is the home of the Gaelic College of Celtic Arts and Crafts. Glengarry County in present-day Eastern Ontario is a historic county that was set up as a settlement for Highland Scots, where many from the Highlands settled to preserve their culture in result of the Highland Clearances. Gaelic was the native language of the community since its settlement in the 18th century although the number of speakers decreased since as a result of English migration{{clarify|date=December 2016}}. As of the modern 21st century, there are still a few Gaelic speakers in the community.


File:Thomasbrisbane.jpg|upright=0.75|right|thumb|The Australian city of Brisbane is named after Scotsman Thomas BrisbaneThomas BrisbaneBy 1830, 15.11% of the colonies' total non-Aboriginal population were Scots, which increased by the middle of the century to 25,000, or 20-25% of the non-Aboriginal population. The Australian Gold Rush of the 1850s provided a further impetus for Scottish migration: in the 1850s 90,000 Scots immigrated to Australia, far more than other British or Irish populations at the time.The Australian People: An Encyclopedia of the Nation, Its People and Their Origins. (2001) James Jupp p650 Cambridge University Press. Literacy rates of the Scottish immigrants ran at 90-95%. By 1860, Scots made up 50% of the ethnic composition of Western Victoria, Adelaide, Penola and Naracoorte. Other settlements in New South Wales included New England, the Hunter Valley and the Illawarra.Much settlement followed the Highland Potato Famine, Highland Clearances and the Lowland Clearances of the mid-19th century.In the 1840s, Scots-born immigrants constituted 12% of the non-Aboriginal population. Out of the 1.3 million migrants from Britain to Australia in the period from 1861–1914, 13.5% were Scots. Just 5.3% of the convicts transported to Eastern Australia between 1789 and 1852 were Scots.WEB, Angus, Innes, Angus Innes,weblink Scots, Multicultural Queensland 2001; Queensland Migration Heritage Hub, 2001, unfit,weblink 4 May 2013, A steady rate of Scottish immigration continued into the 20th century and substantial numbers of Scots continued to arrive after 1945.The Scots in Australia (2008) M. Prentis UNSW Press. From 1900 until the 1950s, Scots favoured New South Wales, as well as Western Australia and Southern Australia.{{citation needed|date=April 2015}} A strong cultural Scottish presence is evident in the Highland Games, dance, Tartan Day celebrations, clan and Gaelic-speaking societies found throughout modern Australia.According to the 2011 Australian census, 130,204 Australian residents were born in Scotland,WEB,weblink 20680-Country of Birth of Person (full classification list) by Sex â€” Australia, Microsoft Excel download, Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006 Census, 2008-11-02, while 1,792,600 claimed Scottish ancestry, either alone or in combination with another ancestry. This is the fourth most commonly nominated ancestry and represents over 8.9% of the total population of Australia.

New Zealand

File:William Allsworth - The emigrants - Google Art Project.jpg|thumb|Scottish Highland family migrating to New ZealandNew ZealandSignificant numbers of Scottish people also settled in New Zealand. Approximately 20 percent of the original European settler population of New Zealand came from Scotland, and Scottish influence is still visible around the country.Linguistic Archaeology: The Scottish Input to New Zealand English PhonologyTrudgill et al. Journal of English Linguistics.2003; 31: 103–124 The South Island city of Dunedin, in particular, is known for its Scottish heritage and was named as a tribute to Edinburgh by the city's Scottish founders.Scottish migration to New Zealand dates back to the earliest period of European colonisation, with a large proportion of Pākehā New Zealanders being of Scottish descent.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 2013-01-29, New Zealand,, However, identification as "British" or "European" New Zealanders can sometimes obscure their origin. Many Scottish New Zealanders also have Māori or other non-European ancestry.The majority of Scottish immigrants settled in the South Island. All over New Zealand, the Scots developed different means to bridge the old homeland and the new. Many Caledonian societies were formed, well over 100 by the early twentieth century, who helped maintain Scottish culture and traditions. From the 1860s, these societies organised annual Caledonian Games throughout New Zealand. The Games were sports meets that brought together Scottish settlers and the wider New Zealand public. In so doing, the Games gave Scots a path to cultural integration as Scottish New Zealanders.Tanja Bueltmann, "'No Colonists are more Imbued with their National Sympathies than Scotchmen,'" New Zealand Journal of History (2009) 43#2 pp 169–181 online In the 1961 census there were 47,078 people living in New Zealand who were born in Scotland; in the 2013 census there were 25,953 in this category.WEB,weblink 2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity: Birthplace and people born overseas,, 10 December 2016,

United Kingdom

{{multiple image| align = | direction = | width = | image1 = Carol Ann Duffy (cropped).jpg| width1 = 130Carol Ann Duffy, the first woman and the first Scottish person to be appointed the Poet Laureate of the United KingdomHTTP://NEWS.BBC.CO.UK/1/HI/ENTERTAINMENT/8029388.STMPUBLISHER=BBC NEWSACCESSDATE=8 JUNE 2016, | image2 = Jackie Kay3.JPG| width2 = 130Jackie Kay, Scotland's makar, or national poetHTTPS://WWW.THEGUARDIAN.COM/BOOKS/2016/MAR/15/JACKIE-KAY-BECOMES-THE-NEW-MAKAR-SCOTLANDS-NATIONAL-POETWORK=THE GUARDIANLAST=BROOKSACCESSDATE=8 JUNE 2016, }}Many people of Scottish descent live in other parts of the United Kingdom. In Ulster particularly the colonial policies of James VI, known as the plantation of Ulster, resulted in a Presbyterian and Scottish society, which formed the Ulster-Scots community.BOOK, 20,weblink Anti-Catholicism in Northern Ireland: The Mote and the Beam, J. Brewer, G. Higgins, Springer, 1998, 978-0333995020, The Protestant Ascendancy did not however benefit them much, as the English espoused the Anglican Church. The number of people of Scottish descent in England and Wales is difficult to quantify due to the many complex migrations on the island,{{citation needed|date=December 2016}} and ancient migration patterns due to wars, famine and conquest.{{citation needed|date=December 2016}} The 2011 Census recorded 708,872 people born in Scotland resident in England, 24,346 resident in Wales{{2011CensusEngWalCoB|accessdate=7 December 2016}} and 15,455 resident in Northern Ireland.{{2011CensusNICoB|accessdate=7 December 2016}}{{failed verification|date=December 2016}} Northamptonshire town Corby became a centre for Scottish migration in the 1930s. In 1961 a third of residents were born in Scotland, and in 2011 the figure was 12.7%.NEWS,weblink Is Corby the most Scottish place in England?, BBC News, 2014-07-11, Barford, Vanessa,

Rest of Europe

Other European countries have had their share of Scots immigrants. The Scots have emigrated to mainland Europe for centuries as merchants and soldiers.See David Armitage, "The Scottish Diaspora", particularly pp. 272–278, in Jenny Wormald (ed.), Scotland: A History. Oxford UP, Oxford, 2005. ISBN Many emigrated to France, Poland,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 9 February 2006, | The Official Gateway to Scotland,, 3 October 2012, dmy-all, Italy, Germany, Scandinavia, and the Netherlands.WEB,weblink History – Scottish History, BBC, 3 October 2012, Recently some scholars suggested that up to 250,000 Russian nationals may have Scottish ancestry.NEWS, Jeremy, Watson, Marcus, Kernohan,weblink Scot to bring DNA from Russia with Lermontov, Scotland on Sunday, 30 September 2007, 10 December 2016,


File:The German Spring Offensive, March-july 1918 Q8594.jpg|thumb|210px|Troops of the South African Scottish regimentScottish regimentFile:Guy Scott.png|thumbnail|upright=0.65|Guy Scott, the 12th vice-president and acting president of ZambiaZambiaA number of Scottish people settled in South Africa in the 1800s and were known for their road-building expertise, their farming experience, and architectural skills.WEB,weblink Scottish history in South Africa, South African Tourism, 25 October 2015,

Latin America

The largest population of Scots in Latin America is found in Argentina,WEB,weblink Scots in Argentina and Patagonia Austral,, 3 October 2012, {{failed verification|date=December 2016}} followed by Chile,WEB,weblink Archibald Cochrane,, 3 October 2012, {{failed verification|date=December 2016}} Brazil and Mexico.

Scots in mainland Europe


It is said{{by whom|date=September 2013}} that the first people from the Low Countries to settle in Scotland came in the wake of Maud's marriage to the Scottish king, David I, during the Middle Ages. {{when|date=December 2016}} Craftsmen and tradesmen followed courtiers and in later centuries a brisk trade grew up between the two nations: Scotland's primary goods (wool, hides, salmon and then coal) in exchange for the luxuries obtainable in the Netherlands, one of the major hubs of European trade.By 1600, trading colonies had grown up on either side of the well-travelled shipping routes: the Dutch settled along the eastern seaboard of Scotland; the Scots congregating first in Campvere—where they were allowed to land their goods duty-free and run their own affairs—and then in Rotterdam, where Scottish and Dutch Calvinism coexisted comfortably. Besides the thousands (or, according to one estimate, over 1 million){{citation needed|date=December 2016}} of local descendants with Scots ancestry, both ports still show signs of these early alliances. Now a museum, 'The Scots House' in the town of Veere was the only place outwith Scotland where Scots Law was practised. In Rotterdam, meanwhile, the doors of the Scots International Church have remained open since 1643.WEB,weblink Scotland and The Netherlands, Trade, Business & Economy – Official Online Gateway to Scotland,, 19 March 2009,


File:FotoGordon.jpg|thumb|upright=0.7|Patrick Gordon was a Russian General originally from Scotland and a friend of Peter the GreatPeter the GreatThe first Scots to be mentioned in Russia's history were the Scottish soldiers in Muscovy referred to as early as in the 14th century.Paul Dukes, Scottish soldiers in Moscovy in The Caledonian Phalanx, 1987 Among the 'soldiers of fortune' was the ancestor to famous Russian poet Mikhail Lermontov, called George Learmonth. A number of Scots gained wealth and fame in the times of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great.A.G. Cross, Scoto-Russian contacts in the reign of Catherine the great (1762–1796), in The Caledonian Phalanx, 1987 These include Patrick Gordon, Paul Menzies, Samuel Greig, Charles Baird, Charles Cameron, Adam Menelaws and William Hastie. Several doctors to the Russian court were from Scotland,John H. Appleby, Through the looking-glass: Scottish doctors in Russia (1704–1854), in The Caledonian Phalanx, 1987 the best known being James Wylie.The next wave of migration established commercial links with Russia.John R. Bowles, From the banks of the Neva to the shores of Lake Baikal: some enterprising Scots in Russia, in The Caledonian Phalanx, 1987The 19th century witnessed the immense literary cross-references between Scotland and Russia.{{clarify|date=December 2012}}A Russian scholar, Maria Koroleva, distinguishes between 'the Russian Scots' (properly assimilated) and 'Scots in Russia', who remained thoroughly Scottish.M.V. Koroleva, A.L. Sinitsa. Gelskoe naselenie Shotlandii, ot istokov k sovremennosti, in Demographic studies, Moscow, 2010, pp. 163–191.There are several societies in contemporary Russia to unite{{clarify|date=December 2012}} the Scots. The Russian census lists does not distinguish Scots from other British people, so it is hard to establish reliable figures for the number of Scots living and working in modern Russia.


From as far back as the mid-16th century there were Scots trading and settling in Poland.NEWS,weblink Scotland and Poland - a 500 year relationship, The Scotsman, 24 March 2016, 10 December 2016, A "Scotch Pedlar's Pack in Poland" became a proverbial expression. It usually consisted of cloths, woollen goods and linen kerchiefs (head coverings). Itinerants also sold tin utensils and ironware such as scissors and knives. Along with the protection offered by King Stephen in the Royal Grant of 1576, a district in Kraków was assigned to Scottish immigrants.Records from 1592 mention Scots settlers granted citizenship of Kraków, and give their employment as trader or merchant. Fees for citizenship ranged from 12 Polish florins to a musket and gunpowder, or an undertaking to marry within a year and a day of acquiring a holding.By the 17th century, an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 Scots lived in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.Eric Richards (2004). "Britannia's children: emigration from England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland". Continuum International Publishing Group. p.53. {{ISBN|1-85285-441-3}} Many came from Dundee and Aberdeen.{{citation needed|date=December 2016}} Scots could be found in Polish towns on the banks of the Vistula as far south as Kraków. Settlers from Aberdeenshire were mainly Episcopalians or Catholics, but there were also large numbers of Calvinists. As well as Scottish traders, there were also many Scottish soldiers in Poland. In 1656, a number of Scottish highlanders who were disenchanted with Oliver Cromwell's rule went to Poland to join the service of the King of Sweden in his war against it.{{citation needed|date=December 2016}} James Murray created the Polish navy WEB,weblink Bitwa na Redzie Gdańskiej 1627 r. - niedocenione zwycięstwo, {{not in citation given|date=October 2018}} and participated in the Battle of Oliwa. A series of four Polish novels include him as Captain Mora or Flying Scotsman. The writer Jerzy Bogdan Rychliński was supported by navy historian Jerzy Pertek.weblink Scots integrated well and many acquired great wealth. They contributed to many charitable institutions in the host country, but did not forget their homeland; for example, in 1701 when collections were made for the restoration fund of the Marischal College, Aberdeen, Scottish settlers in Poland gave generously.{{citation needed|date=December 2016}}Many royal grants and privileges were granted to Scottish merchants until the 18th century, at which time the settlers began to merge more and more into the native population. "Bonnie Prince Charlie" was half Polish, since he was the son of James Stuart, the "Old Pretender", and Clementina Sobieska, granddaughter of Jan Sobieski, King of Poland.BOOK,weblink Polish Roots – Rosemary A. Chorzempa – Google Books, 3 October 2012, 9780806313788, Chorzempa, Rosemary A., 1993, {{page needed|date=December 2016}}WEB
, Scotland and Poland
, 19 March 2009
,weblink" title="">weblink
, 3 March 2009
, yes
, dmy-all
, {{failed verification|date=December 2016}}WEB,weblink Legacies – Immigration and Emigration – Scotland – North-East Scotland – Aberdeen's Baltic Adventure – Article Page 1, BBC, 5 October 2003, 19 March 2009,
In 1691, the City of Warsaw elected the Scottish immigrant Aleksander Czamer (Alexander Chalmers) as its mayor.WEB,weblink's_Scottish_Mayor_Remembered, Warsaw | Warsaw's Scottish Mayor Remembered,, 19 March 2009,
Novelist Henryk Sienkiewicz created a fictitious character, Hassling-Ketling of Elgin, played by Jan Nowicki in the film Colonel Wolodyjowski.


{{See also|Italian Scots}}By 1592, the Scottish community in Rome was big enough to merit the building of Sant'Andrea degli Scozzesi (St Andrew of the Scots). It was constructed for the Scottish expatriate community in Rome, especially for those intended for priesthood. The adjoining hospice was a shelter for Catholic Scots who fled their country because of religious persecution. In 1615, Pope Paul V gave the hospice and the nearby Scottish Seminar to the Jesuits. It was rebuilt in 1645. The church and facilities became more important when James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender, set up residence in Rome in 1717, but were abandoned during the French occupation of Rome in the late 18th century. In 1820, although religious activity was resumed, it was no longer led by the Jesuits. Sant'Andrea degli Scozzesi was reconstructed in 1869 by Luigi Poletti. The church was deconsecrated in 1962 and incorporated into a bank (Cassa di Risparmio delle Province Lombarde). The Scottish Seminar also moved away. The Feast of St Andrew is still celebrated there on 30 November.WEB,weblink Saint Andrew, Apostle and Patron of Scotland, Vatican Radio, 29 November 2016, 10 December 2016, Gurro in Italy is said to be populated by the descendants of Scottish soldiers. According to local legend, Scottish soldiers fleeing the Battle of Pavia who arrived in the area were stopped by severe blizzards that forced many, if not all, to give up their travels and settle in the town. To this day, the town of Gurro is still proud of its Scottish links. Many of the residents claim that their surnames are Italian translations of Scottish surnames.NEWS,weblink Scottish village in Italian Alps where residents wear kilts and play bagpipes, Hardeep, Matharu, The Independent, 3 March 2016, 10 December 2016, The town also has a Scottish museum.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 29 November 2007, strathspey Archive,, 19 March 2009, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Scottish Celts in Italy – Bonnie Prince Charlie in Bologna, Delicious Italy, 19 March 2009, {{failed verification|date=December 2016}}


{{See also|Culture of Scotland}}{{multiple image|align=right|direction=vertical|width=150|image1=Mallaig sign.jpg|caption1=Scottish Gaelic and English are both used on road signs – such as this one in the village of Mallaig – throughout the Highlands and Islands of Scotland|image2=Geographic distribution of native Scottish languages.png|caption2=Geographic distribution of speakers of the two native Scottish languages, namely Scots and Scottish Gaelic}}{{multiple image|align=right|direction=vertical|width=150|image1=Robert burns.jpg|caption1=Robert Burns, considered by many to be the Scottish national poet|image2=Sir Henry Raeburn - Portrait of Sir Walter Scott.jpg|caption2=Walter Scott, whose Waverley Novels helped define Scottish identity in the 19th century|image3=SeanConnery88.jpg|caption3=Scottish actor Sean Connery has been polled as "The Greatest Living Scot"NEWS,weblinkweblink yes, 11 September 2016, Would The Greatest Living Scot Please Stand Up?; Here they are, 25 January 2004, Susan, Flockhart, Sunday Herald, HighBeam Research, and "Scotland's Greatest Living National Treasure".NEWS, Sir Sean Connery named Scotland's greatest living treasure,weblink STV News, 25 November 2011, |image4=Watt James von Breda.jpg|caption4=James Watt, a Scottish mechanical engineer whose improvements in steam engine technology drove the Industrial Revolution.}}


{{See also|Language in Scotland}}Historically, Scottish people have spoken many different languages and dialects. The Pictish language, Norse, Norman-French and Brythonic languages have been spoken by forebears of Scottish people. However, none of these are in use today. The remaining three major languages of the Scottish people are English, Scots (various dialects) and Gaelic{{Citation needed|date=February 2013}}. Of these three, English is the most common form as a first language. There are some other minority languages of the Scottish people, such as Spanish, used by the population of Scots in Argentina.The Norn language was spoken in the Northern Isles into the early modern period – the current dialects of Shetlandic and Orcadian are heavily influenced by it, to this day.There is still debate whether Scots is a dialect or a language in its own right, as there is no clear line to define the two. Scots is usually regarded as a midway between the two, as it is highly mutually intelligible with English, particularly the dialects spoken in the North of England as well as those spoken in Scotland, but is treated as a language in some laws.

Scottish English

After the Union of Crowns in 1603, the Scottish Court moved with James VI & I to London and English vocabulary began to be used by the Scottish upper classes. With the introduction of the printing press, spellings became standardised. Scottish English, a Scottish variation of southern English English, began to replace the Scots language. Scottish English soon became the dominant language. By the end of the 17th century, Scots had practically ceased to exist, at least in literary form.BOOK
, Barber
, Charles Laurence
, The English Language: A Historical Introduction
, Cambridge University Press
, 1 August 2000
, 147
, ISBN, While Scots remained a common spoken language, the southern Scottish English dialect was the preferred language for publications from the 18th century to the present day. Today most Scottish people speak Scottish English, which has some distinctive vocabulary and may be influenced to varying degrees by Scots.


{{See also|Ulster Scots dialects }}Lowland Scots, also known as Lallans or Doric, is a language of Germanic origin. It has its roots in Northern Middle English. After the wars of independence, the English used by Lowland Scots speakers evolved in a different direction from that of Modern English. Since 1424, this language, known to its speakers as Inglis, was used by the Scottish Parliament in its statutes.BOOK
, Crystal
, David
, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language
, Cambridge University Press
, 25 August 2003
, ISBN, By the middle of the 15th century, the language's name had changed from Inglis to Scottis. The reformation, from 1560 onwards, saw the beginning of a decline in the use of Scots forms. With the establishment of the Protestant Presbyterian religion, and lacking a Scots translation of the Bible, they used the Geneva Edition.BOOK
, MacMahon
, April M. S.
, McMahon
, Lexical Phonology and the History of English
, Cambridge University Press
, 13 April 2000
, 142
From that point on, God spoke English, not Scots.BOOK
, Murphy
, Michael (EDT)
, Harry White
, Musical Constructions of Nationalism
, Cork University Press
, 1 October 2001
, 216
, ISBN, Scots continued to be used in official legal and court documents throughout the 18th century. However, due to the adoption of the southern standard by officialdom and the Education system the use of written Scots declined. Lowland Scots is still a popular spoken language with over 1.5 million Scots speakers in Scotland.The General Register Office for Scotland (1996) Scots is used by about 30,000 Ulster ScotsNorthern Ireland Life and Times Survey, 1999 and is known in official circles as Ullans. In 1993, Ulster Scots was recognised, along with Scots, as a variety of the Scots language by the European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages.BOOK, O'Reilly, Camille, Neuheiser, Jörg, Stefan Wolff, Wolff, Stefan, Peace at Last?: The Impact of the Good Friday Agreement on Northern Ireland,weblink 12 July 2016, 2004, Berghahn Books, 978-1-57181-658-0, 182, The Politics of Culture in Northern Ireland,

Scottish Gaelic

{{See also|Canadian Gaelic}}Scottish Gaelic is a Celtic language with similarities to Irish. Scottish Gaelic comes from Old Irish. It was originally spoken by the Gaels of Dál Riata and the Rhinns of Galloway, later being adopted by the Pictish people of central and eastern Scotland. Gaelic (lingua Scottica, Scottis) became the de facto language of the whole Kingdom of Alba, giving its name to the country (Scotia, "Scotland"). Meanwhile, Gaelic independently spread from Galloway into Dumfriesshire. It is unclear if the Gaelic of 12th-century Clydesdale and Selkirkshire came from Galloway or Scotland-proper. The predominance of Gaelic began to decline in the 13th century, and by the end of the Middle Ages, Scotland was divided into two linguistic zones, the English/Scots-speaking Lowlands and the Gaelic-speaking Highlands and Galloway. Gaelic continued to be spoken widely throughout the Highlands until the 19th century. The Highland clearances actively discouraged the use of Gaelic, caused the numbers of Gaelic speakers to fall.BOOK
, Pagoeta
, Mikel Morris
, Europe Phrasebook
, Lonely Planet
, 2001
, 416
, 978-1741799736, Many Gaelic speakers emigrated to countries such as Canada or moved to the industrial cities of lowland Scotland. Communities where the language is still spoken natively are restricted to the west coast of Scotland; and especially the Hebrides. However, large proportions of Gaelic speakers also live in the cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh in Scotland. A report in 2005 by the Registrar General for Scotland based on the 2001 UK Census showed about 92,400 people or 1.9% of the population can speak Gaelic while the number of people able to read and write rose by 7.5% and 10% respectively.NEWS,weblink UK | Mixed report on Gaelic language, BBC News, 10 October 2005, 3 October 2012, Outwith Scotland, there are communities of Scottish Gaelic speakers such as the Canadian Gaelic community; though their numbers have also been declining rapidly. Gaelic language is recognised as a minority Language by the European Union. The Scottish parliament is also seeking to increase the use of Gaelic in Scotland through the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005. Gaelic is now used as a first language in some schools and is prominently seen in use on dual language road signs throughout the Gaelic speaking parts of Scotland. It is recognised as an official language of Scotland with "equal respect" to English.{{Citation needed|date=December 2007}}


{{See also|Religion in Scotland}}The modern people of Scotland remain a mix of different religions and no religion. Christianity is the largest faith in Scotland. In the 2011 census, 53.8% of the Scottish population identified as Christian.NEWS,weblink BBC Report - Most People in Scotland 'Not Religious', 2016-04-03,, 3 April 2016, BBC News, The Protestant and Catholic divisions still remain in the society. In Scotland the main Protestant body is the Church of Scotland which is Presbyterian. The high kirk for Presbyterians is St Giles' Cathedral. In the United States, people of Scottish and Scots-Irish descent are chiefly Protestant{{citation needed|date=December 2016}}, with many belonging to the Baptist or Methodist churches, or various Presbyterian denominations.According to the Social Scottish Attitudes research, 52% of Scottish people identified as having no religion in 2016.NEWS,weblink Most People in Scotland 'Not Religious', 2016-04-03, 17 March 2017, BBC News, As a result, Scotland has thus become a secular and majority non-religious country, unique to the other UK countries.


{{See also|Scottish literature}}


Science and engineering

File:Synthetic Production of Penicillin TR1468 crop.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.65|Alexander Fleming. His discovery of penicillin had changed the world of modern medicine by introducing the age of antibioticsantibiotics



{{See also|Sport in Scotland}}File:Massed bands.jpg|thumb|Massed pipebands at the Glengarry Highland Games, OntarioOntarioThe modern games of curling and golf originated in Scotland. Both sports are governed by bodies headquartered in Scotland, the World Curling Federation and the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews respectively. Scots helped to popularise and spread the sport of association football; the first official international match was played in Glasgow between Scotland and England in 1872.


{{See also|Scottish cuisine}}


{{See also|Tartan|Kilt}}File:Scottish clan map.png|thumb|Map of Scottish highland clans and lowland families.]]File:Mcicamp.jpg|thumb|upright=0.75|Campbell of Argyle. A romanticised Victorian-era illustration of a Clansman by R. R. McIanR. R. McIan


{{Original research|section|date=June 2010}}Many Scottish surnames have become anglicised over the centuries. This reflected the gradual spread of English, also known as Early Scots,{{citation needed|date=December 2016}} from around the 13th century onwards, through Scotland beyond its traditional area in the Lothians. It also reflected some deliberate political attempts{{citation needed|date=December 2016}} to promote the English language in the outlying regions of Scotland, including following the Union of the Crowns under King James VI of Scotland and I of England in 1603, and then the Acts of Union of 1707 and the subsequent defeat of rebellions.{{who|date=December 2016}}However, many Scottish surnames have remained predominantly Gaelic albeit written according to English orthographic practice (as with Irish surnames). Thus MacAoidh in Gaelic is Mackay in English, and MacGill-Eain in Gaelic is MacLean and so on. Mac (sometimes Mc) is common as, effectively, it means "son of". MacDonald, MacAulay, Gilmore, Gilmour, MacKinley, Macintosh, MacKenzie, MacNeill, MacPherson, MacLear, MacAra, Craig, Lauder, Menzies, Galloway and Duncan are just a few of many examples of traditional Scottish surnames. There are, of course, also the many surnames, like Wallace and Morton, stemming from parts of Scotland which were settled by peoples other than the (Gaelic) Scots. The most common surnames in Scotland are Smith and Brown,WEB,weblink 100 Most Common Surnames, National Records of Scotland, 25 September 2014, 11 July 2016, which come from several origins each – e.g. Smith can be a translation of Mac a' Ghobhainn (thence also e.g. MacGowan), and Brown can refer to the colour, or be akin to MacBrayne.{{Citation needed|date=June 2010}}Anglicisation is not restricted to language. In his Socialism: critical and constructive, published in 1921, future British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald wrote: "The Anglification of Scotland has been proceeding apace to the damage of its education, its music, its literature, its genius, and the generation that is growing up under this influence is uprooted from its past, and, beingdeprived of the inspiration of its nationality, is also deprived of its communal sense."BOOK, MacDonald, James Ramsay, Ramsay MacDonald, Socialism: Critical and Constructive,weblink 12 July 2016, 1921, Cassell and Company Ltd, 249, CHAPTER VI Political Construction: The Democratic State,


{{See also|Scotia}}Originally the Romans used Scotia to refer to the Gaels living in Ireland.BOOK, Lehane, Brendan, The Quest of Three Abbots: The Golden Age of Celtic Christianity,weblink 1994, SteinerBooks, 978-0-940262-65-2, 121, {{failed verification|date=December 2016}} The Venerable Bede (c. 672 or 673 – 27 May, 735) uses the word Scottorum for the nation from Ireland who settled part of the Pictish lands: "Scottorum nationem in Pictorum parte recipit." This we can infer to mean the arrival of the people, also known as the Gaels, in the Kingdom of Dál Riata, in the western edge of Scotland. It is of note that Bede used the word natio (nation) for the Scots, where he often refers to other peoples, such as the Picts, with the word gens (race).BOOK
, Harris
, Stephen J.
, Race and Ethnicity in Anglo-Saxon Literature
, Routledge (UK)
, 1 October 2003
, 72
, ISBN, In the 10th-century Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the word Scot is mentioned as a reference to the "Land of the Gaels". The word Scottorum was again used by an Irish king in 1005: Imperator Scottorum was the title given to Brian Bóruma by his notary, Mael Suthain, in the Book of Armagh.BOOK, Moody, Theodore William, Theodore William Moody, Martin, Francis X., F. X. Martin, Byrne, F. J., Francis John Byrne, Dáibhí Ó Cróinín, Ó Cróinín, Dáibhí, A New History of Ireland,weblink 12 July 2016, 2005, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-821737-4, 862, XXV Ireland and her neighbours, c.1014-c.1072, This style was subsequently copied by the Scottish kings. Basileus Scottorum appears on the great seal of King Edgar (1074–1107).BOOK
, Freer
, Allan
, The North British Review
, Edmonston & Douglas
, 1871
, 119
and BOOK
, Robertson
, Eben William
, Scotland Under Her Early Kings: a history of the kingdom to the close of the thirteenth century
, Edmonston and Douglas
, 1862
, 286
Alexander I (c. 1078–1124) used the words Rex Scottorum on his great seal, as did many of his successors up to and including James VI.BOOK, Pryde, E. B., Greenway, D. E., Handbook of British Chronology,weblink 12 July 2016, 3rd, 1996, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-56350-5, 55,
In modern times the words Scot and Scottish are applied mainly to inhabitants of Scotland. The possible ancient Irish connotations are largely forgotten. The language known as Ulster Scots, spoken in parts of northeastern Ireland, is the result of 17th- and 18th-century immigration to Ireland from Scotland.In the English language, the word Scotch is a term to describe a thing from Scotland, such as Scotch whisky. However, when referring to people, the preferred term is Scots. Many Scottish people find the term Scotch to be offensive when applied to people.The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language Scotch usage note, Encarta Dictionary usage note. The Oxford Dictionary describes Scotch as an old-fashioned term for "Scottish".WEB,weblink Definition of scotch,, 27 September 2012, 3 October 2012,

See also

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{{reflist|colwidth=30em}}{{Celts and Modern Celts sidebar}}


  • Ritchie, A. & Breeze, D.J. Invaders of Scotland HMSO. (?1991)
  • David Armitage, "The Scottish Diaspora" in Jenny Wormald (ed.), Scotland: A History. Oxford UP, Oxford, 2005.

Further reading

  • Spence, Rhoda, ed. The Scottish Companion: a Bedside Book of Delights. Edinburgh: R. Paterson, 1955. vi, 138 p. N.B.: Primarily concerns Scottish customs, character, and folkways.

External links

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