Irish people

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Irish people
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{{short description|Ethnic group with Celtic and other roots, native to the island of Ireland, with shared history and culture}}{{About|the Irish as an ethnic group and nation|information on Ireland's population|Demographics of the Republic of Ireland|and|Demographics of Northern Ireland}}{{Redirect|Irishman|pages titled "The Irishman"|The Irishman (disambiguation){{!}}The Irishman|"The Irish People" newspapers|The Irish People}}{{pp-move-indef|small=yes}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2011}}

–80 million worldwideHTTP://WWW.SCOTLAND.GOV.UK/PUBLICATIONS/2009/05/28141101/6FIRST=SCOTTISH GOVERNMENT, ST. ANDREW'S HOUSE, REGENT ROAD, EDINBURGH EH1 3DG TEL:0131 556 8400DATE=29 MAY 2009,, Republic of Ireland}}{{spaces|3}}4,581,269 (2011)Demographics of the Republic of Ireland
Northern Ireland{{spaces|3}}1,810,863 (2011)Demography of Northern Ireland(Irish descent only)
United States}}| pop1 = 40,000,000+TITLE=U.S. CENSUS BUREAU, 2007 ACCESSDATE=2010-05-30 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20100410054142/HTTP://FACTFINDER.CENSUS.GOV/SERVLET/ADPTABLE?_BM=Y&-GEO_ID=01000US&-PARSED=TRUE&-DS_NAME=ACS_2007_1YR_G00_&-_LANG=EN&-_CALLER=GEOSELECT&-FORMAT=, 10 April 2010, United Kingdom}}*| pop2 = 14,000,000PUBLISHER=BBC NEWS ACCESSDATE=2010-03-28, Australia}}| pop3 = 7,000,000DATE=28 JULY 2013DEADURL=BOT: UNKNOWNARCHIVEDATE=28 JULY 2013, dmy-all, Canada}}| pop4 = 4,544,870PUBLISHER=STATISTICS CANADA, 2011, Argentina}}| pop5 = 1,000,000WEBSITE=WWW.IRISHABROAD.COM, Mexico}}| pop6 = 600,000WEBSITE=THEWILDGEESE.IRISH, New Zealand}}| pop7 = 600,000WEBSITE=WWW.EASTONBH.AC.NZ, France}}| pop8 = 15,000WEBSITE=FRANCE DIPLOMATIE : : MINISTèRE DE L'EUROPE ET DES AFFAIRES éTRANGèRES, Irish by Country>Other Regions| pop9 = | ref9 = Irish language>Irish, English language (Hiberno-English dialects), Scots language>Scots (Ulster Scots dialects), SheltaChristianity(majority Roman Catholicism in Ireland>Roman Catholicism; minority Protestantism in Ireland, especially Presbyterian Church in Ireland>Presbyterianism, Church of Ireland, Methodist Church in Ireland>Methodism)see also: Religion in IrelandIrish Travellers, Gaels, Anglo-Irish people>Anglo-Irish, Breton people, Cornish people>Cornish, English people, Icelanders,HELGASON DISPLAY-AUTHORS=ETAL TITLE = ESTIMATING SCANDINAVIAN AND GAELIC ANCESTRY IN THE MALE SETTLERS OF ICELAND JOURNAL = THE AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN GENETICS ISSUE = 3 DOI=10.1086/303046Manx people>Manx, Vikings, Scottish people>Scots, Ulster Scots people, Welsh people>WelshWORK=THE GUARDIAN DATE= 2006-09-13 FIRST=OWEN, Bowcott, }}{{Irish people}}{{Culture of Ireland}}{{Celts and Modern Celts sidebar}}The Irish ( or Na hÉireannaigh) are a CelticBOOK, Minahan, James, One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups,weblink 2000, Greenwood Publishing Group, 179, 978-0313309847, The Cornish people, Cornish are related to the other Celtic peoples of Europe, the Bretons,* Irish,* Scottish people, Scots,* Manx people, Manx,* Welsh people, Welsh,* and the Galicians* of northwestern Spain, BOOK, Minahan, James, One Europe, Many Nations: A Historical Dictionary of European National Groups,weblink 2000, Greenwood Publishing Group, 766, 978-0313309847, Celts, 257, 278, 523, 533, 555, 643; Bretons, 129-33; Cornish people, Cornish, 178-81; Galicians, Gali- cians, 277-80; Irish, 330-37; Manx people, Manx, 452-55; Scottish people, Scots, 607-12; Welsh people, Welsh, nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 12,500 years according to archaeological studies (see Prehistoric Ireland). For most of Ireland's recorded history, the Irish have been primarily a Gaelic people (see Gaelic Ireland). Viking invasions of Ireland during the 8th to 11th centurieweblink{{Circular reference|date=May 2019}} established the cities of Dublin, Wexford, Waterford, Cork and Limerick. Anglo-Normans conquered parts of Ireland in the 12th century, while England's 16th/17th-century (re)conquest and colonisation of Ireland brought a large number of English and Lowland Scots people to parts of the island, especially the north. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of Ireland (an independent state) and the smaller Northern Ireland (a part of the United Kingdom). The people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities including British, Irish, Northern Irish or some combination thereof.The Irish have their own customs, language, music, dance, sports, cuisine and mythology. Although Irish (Gaelic/Gaeilge) was their main language in the past, today most Irish people speak English as their first language. Historically, the Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, and the Irish also had their own religion, law code, alphabet and style of dress.There have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Ireland's conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, and the Irish came to be seen as a nation of "saints and scholars". The 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the "fathers of Europe",WEB,weblink Pope Calls Irish Monk a Father of Europe, 2007-07-15, 2007-07-11, Zenit News Agency, Zenit, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 15 June 2008, dmy-all, followed by saints Cillian and Fergal. The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the "father of chemistry", and Robert Mallet one of the "fathers of seismology". Famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker, James Joyce, C.S. Lewis and Seamus Heaney. Notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Sir Robert McClure, Sir Alexander Armstrong, Sir Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides.Smiley, p 630 Many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry.The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, making the Irish diaspora one of the largest of any nation. Historically, emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict, famine and economic issues. People of Irish descent are found mainly in English-speaking countries, especially Great Britain, the United States, Canada and Australia. There are also significant numbers in Argentina, Mexico and New Zealand. The United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country outside Ireland.WEB,weblink Dáil Éireann – 29/Apr/1987 Ceisteanna — Questions. Oral Answers. – Australian Bicentenary,, 1987-04-29, 2014-03-01, Many Icelanders have Irish and Scottish Gaelic forebears.Ann C. Humphrey. "They Accuse Us of Being Descended from Slaves". Settlement History, Cultural Syncretism, and the Foundation of Medieval Icelandic Identity. Rutgers University, 2009.

Origins and antecedents

Prehistoric and legendary ancestors

File:Carrowmore tomb, Ireland.jpg|thumb|CarrowmoreCarrowmoreDuring the past 12,500 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores. The ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields and Newgrange—are almost unknown. Neither their languages nor the terms they used to describe themselves have survived. As late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves.Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders, Iouerne and Hiverne to the Greeks, and Hibernia to the Romans.Scotland takes its name from Scota, who in Irish mythology, Scottish mythology, and pseudohistory, is the name given to two different mythological daughters of two different Egyptian Pharaohs to whom the Gaels traced their ancestry, allegedly explaining the name Scoti, applied by the Romans to Irish raiders, and later to the Irish invaders of Argyll and Caledonia which became known as Scotland. Other Latin names for people from Ireland in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti and Gael. This last word, derived from the Welsh gwyddel "raiders", was eventually adopted by the Irish for themselves. However, as a term it is on a par with Viking, as it describes an activity (raiding, piracy) and its proponents, not their actual ethnic affiliations.The terms Irish and Ireland are probably derived from the goddess Ériu.EB1911, Erin, 9, 744, A variety of historical ethnic groups have inhabited the island, including the Airgialla, Fir Ol nEchmacht, Delbhna, Fir Bolg, Érainn, Eóganachta, Mairtine, Conmaicne, Soghain, and Ulaid. In the cases of the Conmaicne, Delbhna, and perhaps Érainn, it can be demonstrated that the tribe took their name from their chief deity, or in the case of the Ciannachta, Eóganachta, and possibly the Soghain, a deified ancestor. This practice is paralleled by the Anglo-Saxon dynasties' claims of descent from Woden, via his sons Wecta, Baeldaeg, Casere and Wihtlaeg.The Greek mythographer Euhemerus originated the concept of Euhemerism, which treats mythological accounts as a reflection of actual historical events shaped by retelling and traditional mores. In the 12th century, Icelandic bard and historian Snorri Sturluson proposed that the Norse gods were originally historical war leaders and kings, who later became cult figures, eventually set into society as gods. This view is in agreement with Irish historians such as T. F. O'Rahilly and Francis John Byrne; the early chapters of their respective books, Early Irish history and mythology (reprinted 2004) and Irish Kings and High-Kings (3rd revised edition, 2001), deal in depth with the origins and status of many Irish ancestral deities.One legend states that the Irish were descended from one Míl Espáine, whose sons supposedly conquered Ireland around 1000 BC or later.Mac Manus, p 1 & 7 The character is almost certainly a mere personification of a supposed migration by a group or groups from Iberia to Ireland. It is from this that the Irish were, as late as the 1800s, popularly known as "Milesian".MacManus, p 1 Medieval Irish historians, over the course of several centuries, created the genealogical dogma that all Irish were descendants of Míl, ignoring the fact that their own works demonstrated inhabitants in Ireland prior to his supposed arrival.This doctrine was adapted between the 10th and 12th centuries, as demonstrated in the works of Eochaidh Ua Floinn (936–1004); Flann Mainistrech (died 25 November 1056); Tanaide (died c. 1075) and Gilla Cómáin mac Gilla Samthainde (fl. 1072). Many of their compositions were incorporated into the compendium Lebor Gabála Érenn.This tradition was enhanced and embedded in the tradition by successive historians such as Dubsúilech Ó Maolconaire (died 1270); Seán Mór Ó Dubhagáin (d.1372); Giolla Íosa Mór Mac Fir Bhisigh (fl. 1390–1418); Pilip Ballach Ó Duibhgeannáin (fl. 1579–1590) and Flann Mac Aodhagáin (alive 1640). The first Irish historian who questioned the reliability of such accounts was Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh (murdered 1671).


{{See also|Genetic history of Europe|Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of Europe|Genetic history of the British Isles}}Genetic research shows a strong similarity between the Y chromosome haplotypes of Irish men with Gaelic surnames and males from the area of Spain and Portugal, especially Galicia, Asturias, and Cantabria (and perhaps former Basque country).JOURNAL, 15309688, Brian McEvoy, et al., "The Longue Durée of Genetic Ancestry: Multiple Genetic Marker Systems and Celtic Origins on the Atlantic Facade of Europe, American Journal of Human Genetics, October 2004, 10.1086/424697, 75, 4, 1182057, 693–702, McEvoy, B, Richards, M, Forster, P, Bradley, DG, The incidence of the R1b haplogroup is 70% or more in Celtic regions – Cumbria and Cornwall in England, the Celtic Northern region in Portugal (Douro Litoral, Minho and Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro), northern Spain (Celtic Galicia, Asturias, León, Cantabria and Basque Country), western France (Béarn, Gascony, Guyenne, Saintonge, Angoumois, Aunis, Poitou, Touraine, Anjou and the Celtic Brittany), and Celtic Countries – Wales and Scotland in Britain. R1b's incidence declines gradually with distance from these areas but it is still common across the central areas of Europe. R1b is the most frequent haplogroup in Germany and in the Low Countries, and is common in southern Scandinavia and in northern and central Italy. This led writers, such as Stephen Oppenheimer and Bryan Sykes, to conclude that the majority of Irish people primarily descend from an "Iberian refugium" population bottleneck dating back to the last ice age.Stephen Oppenheimer, The Origins of the British – A Genetic Detective Story, 2006, Constable and Robinson, {{ISBN|1-84529-158-1}}BOOK, Bryan Sykes, Bryan, Sykes, Blood of the Isles: Exploring the Genetic Roots of Our Tribal History, 2006, Bantam, 978-0-593-05652-3, However, this haplogroup is now believed by some to have originated over 12,000 years more recently than previously thought.WEB,weblink ISOGG 2009,, 2010-03-28, It thus follows that Irish and many other R1b subclades would be considerably younger than the maximum age of 18,000 years. The previous estimates, based on inaccurate dating methods (30,000+ years BP), made R1b and its subclades seem to be more useful indicators of the paleolithic era populations of western Europe than they actually are. According to recent 2009 studies by Bramanti et al. and Malmström et al. on mtDNA,JOURNAL, Genetic Discontinuity Between Local Hunter-Gatherers and Central Europe''s First Farmers, 10.1126/science.1176869, 19729620, 326, 5949, Science, 137–140, 2009, Bramanti, B., Thomas, M. G., Haak, W., Unterlaender, M., Jores, P., Tambets, K., Antanaitis-Jacobs, I., Haidle, M. N., Jankauskas, R., Kind, C.-J., Lueth, F., Terberger, T., Hiller, J., Matsumura, S., Forster, P., Burger, J., JOURNAL,weblink Ancient DNA Reveals Lack of Continuity between Neolithic Hunter-Gatherers and Contemporary Scandinavians, 10.1016/j.cub.2009.09.017, 19781941, 2010-03-28, 19, 20, Current Biology, 1758–1762, 2009, Malmström, Helena, Gilbert, M. Thomas P., Thomas, Mark G., Brandström, Mikael, Storå, Jan, Molnar, Petra, Andersen, Pernille K., Bendixen, Christian, Holmlund, Gunilla, Götherström, Anders, Willerslev, Eske, related western European populations appear to be largely from the neolithic and not paleolithic era, as previously thought. There was discontinuity between mesolithic central Europe and modern European populations mainly due to an extremely high frequency of haplogroup U (particularly U5) types in mesolithic central European sites.The existence of an especially strong genetic association between the Irish and the Basques, one even closer than the relationship between other west Europeans, was first challenged in 2005,JOURNAL, 10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201482, Alonso, Flores, C, 2005, Cabrera, V, Alonso, A, Martín, P, Albarrán, C, Izagirre, N, De La Rúa, C, García, O, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape, European Journal of Human Genetics, 13, 12, 1293–1302, 16094307, 1, Santos, and in 2007 scientists began looking at the possibility of a more recent Mesolithic- or even Neolithic-era entrance of R1b into Europe.BOOK, B. Arredi, E. S. Poloni and C. Tyler-Smith, The peopling of Europe, Crawford, Michael H., Anthropological genetics: theory, methods and applications, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2007, 394, 978-0-521-54697-3, A new study published in 2010 by Balaresque et al. implies either a Mesolithic- or Neolithic- (not Paleolithic-) era entrance of R1b into Europe.JOURNAL, Balaresque, 2010, A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for European Paternal Lineages, PLOS Biology, 8, 1, 2799514, 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000285, David, Teteliutina, FK, Serebrennikova, GK, Starostin, Penny, SV, Churshin, AD, 119–122, Rosser, Zoë H., Goodwin, Jane, Moisan, Jean-Paul, Richard, Christelle, 20087410, 1, However, all these genetic studies agree that the Irish and Basque (along with the Welsh) share the highest percentage of R1b populations.A recent whole genome analysis of 1 neolithic and 3 Bronze Age skeletal remains in Ireland suggested that the original farming population was mostly similar to present-day Sardinians, and the 3 Bronze Age remains had a Steppe component to their genetics showing links with Eastern Europe. Most modern Irish share more DNA with the 3 Bronze Age men from Rathlin than with the earlier Ballynahatty neolithic woman.NEWS, Tim, Radford,weblink Irish DNA originated in Middle East and eastern Europe, The Guardian, 28 December 2015, WEB, Lara M. Cassidy, Rui Martiniano, etal,weblink Neolithic and Bronze Age migration to Ireland and establishment of the insular Atlantic genome, PNAS, 28 December 2015, A recent genetic study done on the Irish show that they have two main ancestral sources: a French component (mostly northwestern French) and West Norwegian from the Viking era.JOURNAL, The Irish DNA Atlas: Revealing Fine-Scale Population Structure and History within Ireland, Edmund, Gilbert, Seamus, O’Reilly, Michael, Merrigan, Darren, McGettigan, Anne M., Molloy, Lawrence C., Brody, Walter, Bodmer, Katarzyna, Hutnik, Sean, Ennis, Daniel J., Lawson, James F., Wilson, Gianpiero L., Cavalleri, 8 December 2017, Scientific Reports, 7, 1, 17199, 10.1038/s41598-017-17124-4, 29222464, 5722868, WEB,weblink Celtic Population Structure,,

Black Irish{{anchor|TermBlackIrish}}

{{redirect|Black Irish|Irish people of black African descent|Black people in Ireland}}Black Irish is an ambiguous term sometimes used (mainly outside Ireland) as a reference to a dark-haired phenotype appearing in people of Irish origin.Who were the Black Irish? What is the origin of the Irish with swarthy dark features? A subject of historical discussion, the subject is almost never referred to in Ireland. Staff Writers, 26-03-2013. Retrieved 06-08-2013. However, dark hair in people of Irish descent is common, although darker skin complexions appear less frequently.JOURNAL, Rees, J.L., 1999, Pigmentation, melanocortins and red hair. 'Do freckles and red hair help Irishmen catch leprechauns?',weblink Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 92, 3, 125–131, 10.1093/qjmed/92.3.125, 10326071, One popular speculation suggests the Black Irish are descendants of survivors of the Spanish Armada, despite research discrediting such claims.thomas p. kunesh, 1981. "The myth of the Black Irish: Spanish syntagonism and prethetical salvation." Published online at: Retrieved 05-25-2013. Filmmaker Bob Quinn, in the documentary series Atlantean, hypothesises the existence of an ancient sea-trading route linking North Africa and Iberia to regions such as Connemara. With this hypothesis, Quinn explains phenotypical similarities between the "Atlantean Irish" and the populations of Iberia and the Berbers.Bob Quinn (2005). The Atlantean Irish: Ireland's oriental and maritime heritage. The Lilliput Press. Quinn's Atlantean thesis has not been accepted by the Irish academic establishment, who have criticised it is as non-scholarly and lacking hard evidence to back his theories.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2012-03-20, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-02-13, Afro-Caribbean people descended from Irish settlers in the Caribbean, especially those on Barbados and Montserrat,WEB,weblink How Irish is Montserrat (The Black Irish) by Brian McGinn, are referred to as "Black Irish". The people concerned often have Irish surnames, speak a form of Caribbean English influenced by the Irish vernacular and, in some cases, sing Irish songs.WEB,weblink A RTÉ Radharc video report from 1976 about the Black Irish of Montserrat.,


Early expansion and the coming of Christianity

{{See also|Early history of Ireland}}File:Clonard RC Church St Finian 07 Detail 2007 08 26.jpg|thumb|Finnian of Clonard imparting his blessing to the "Twelve Apostles of IrelandTwelve Apostles of IrelandOne Roman historian records that the Irish people were divided into "sixteen different nations" or tribes.MacManus, p 86 Traditional histories assert that the Romans never attempted to conquer Ireland, although it may have been considered. The Irish were not, however, cut off from Europe; they frequently raided the Roman territories, and also maintained trade links.MacManus, p 87Among the most famous people of ancient Irish history are the High Kings of Ireland, such as Cormac mac Airt and Niall of the Nine Hostages, and the semi-legendary Fianna. The 20th-century writer Seumas MacManus wrote that even if the Fianna and the Fenian Cycle were purely fictional, it would still be representative of the character of the Irish people:{{blockquote|...such beautiful fictions of such beautiful ideals, by themselves presume and prove beautiful-souled people, capable of appreciating lofty ideals.MacManus, p67}}The introduction of Christianity to the Irish people during the 5th century brought a radical change to the Irish people's foreign relations.MacManus, p 89 The only military raid abroad recorded after that century is a presumed invasion of Wales, which according to a Welsh manuscript may have taken place around the 7th century. In the words of Seumas MacManus:{{blockquote|If we compare the history of Ireland in the 6th century, after Christianity was received, with that of the 4th century, before the coming of Christianity, the wonderful change and contrast is probably more striking than any other such change in any other nation known to history.}}Following the conversion of the Irish to Christianity, Irish secular laws and social institutions remained in place.

Migration and invasion in the Middle Ages

{{See also|Early Medieval Ireland 800–1166|Norman invasion of Ireland}}File:Dalriada.png|thumb|The approximate area of the Dál RiataDál RiataThe 'traditional' view is that, in the 4th or 5th century, Gaelic language and culture was brought to Scotland by settlers from Ireland, who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast.BOOK, Jones, Charles, The Edinburgh history of the Scots language, Edinburgh University Press, 1997, 551, 978-0-7486-0754-9, BOOK, Nora Kershaw Chadwick, Myles Dyllon, The Celtic Realms, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1972, 66, 978-0-7607-4284-6, This is based mostly on medieval writings from the 9th and 10th centuries. The archaeologist Ewan Campbell argues against this view, saying that there is no archeological or placename evidence for a migration or a takeover by a small group of elites. He states that "the Irish migration hypothesis seems to be a classic case of long-held historical beliefs influencing not only the interpretation of documentary sources themselves, but the subsequent invasion paradigm being accepted uncritically in the related disciplines of archaeology and linguistics."Campbell, Ewan. "Were the Scots Irish?" in Antiquity #75 (2001). Dál Riata and the territory of the neighbouring Picts merged to form the Kingdom of Alba, and Gaelic language and culture became dominant there. The country came to be called Scotland, after the Roman name for the Gaels: Scoti. The Isle of Man and the Manx people also came under massive Gaelic influence in their history.Irish missionaries such as Saint Columba brought Christianity to Pictish Scotland. The Irishmen of this time were also "aware of the cultural unity of Europe", and it was the 6th-century Irish monk Columbanus who is regarded as "one of the fathers of Europe". Another Irish saint, Aidan of Lindisfarne, has been proposed as a possible patron saint of the United Kingdom,NEWS, Home-grown holy man: Cry God for Harry, Britain and... St Aidan, The Independent, London, 2008-04-23, 2008-07-21,weblink while Saints Kilian and Vergilius became the patron saints of Würzburg in Germany and Salzburg in Austria, respectively.Irish missionaries founded monasteries outside Ireland, such as Iona Abbey, the Abbey of St Gall in Switzerland, and Bobbio Abbey in Italy.Common to both the monastic and the secular bardic schools were Irish and Latin. With Latin, the early Irish scholars "show almost a like familiarity that they do with their own Gaelic".MacManus, p 221 There is evidence also that Hebrew and Greek were studied, the latter probably being taught at Iona.MacManus, p 221-222{{blockquote|"The knowledge of Greek", says Professor Sandys in his History of Classical Scholarship, "which had almost vanished in the west was so widely dispersed in the schools of Ireland that if anyone knew Greek it was assumed he must have come from that country."'MacManus, p 215}}Since the time of Charlemagne, Irish scholars had a considerable presence in the Frankish court, where they were renowned for their learning.WEB, John Scottus Eriugena,weblink Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University, 2004-10-17, 2008-07-21, The most significant Irish intellectual of the early monastic period was the 9th century Johannes Scotus Eriugena, an outstanding philosopher in terms of originality. He was the earliest of the founders of scholasticism, the dominant school of medieval philosophy.Toman, p 10: "Abelard himself was... together with John Scotus Erigena (9th century), and Lanfranc and Anselm of Canterbury (both 11th century), one of the founders of scholasticism." He had considerable familiarity with the Greek language, and translated many works into Latin, affording access to the Cappadocian Fathers and the Greek theological tradition, previously almost unknown in the Latin West.The influx of Viking raiders and traders in the 9th and 10th centuries resulted in the founding of many of Ireland's most important towns, including Cork, Dublin, Limerick, and Waterford (earlier Gaelic settlements on these sites did not approach the urban nature of the subsequent Norse trading ports). The Vikings left little impact on Ireland other than towns and certain words added to the Irish language, but many Irish taken as slaves inter-married with the Scandinavians, hence forming a close link with the Icelandic people. In the Icelandic Laxdœla saga, for example, "even slaves are highborn, descended from the kings of Ireland."Smiley, p 274 The first name of Njáll Þorgeirsson, the chief protagonist of Njáls saga, is a variation of the Irish name Neil. According to Eirik the Red's Saga, the first European couple to have a child born in North America was descended from the Viking Queen of Dublin, Aud the Deep-minded, and a Gaelic slave brought to Iceland.File:16th-century-Irish.jpg|thumb|Irish GaelsGaelsThe arrival of the Anglo-Normans brought also the Welsh, Flemish, Anglo-Saxons, and Bretons. Most of these were assimilated into Irish culture and polity by the 15th century, with the exception of some of the walled towns and the Pale areas. The Late Middle Ages also saw the settlement of Scottish gallowglass families of mixed Gaelic-Norse -Pict descent, mainly in the north; due to similarities of language and culture they too were assimilated.


{{Further|Celtic onomastics}}{{Refimprove section|date=February 2010}}The Irish were among the first people in Europe to use surnames as we know them today.BOOK, Woulfe, Patrick, Sloinnte Gaedheal is Gall: Irish names and surnames, M. H. Gill & son, 1923, xx,weblink 2010-02-20, It is very common for people of Gaelic origin to have the English versions of their surnames beginning with 'Ó' or 'Mac' (Over time however many have been shortened to 'O' or Mc). 'O' comes from the Gaelic Ó which in turn came from Ua, which means "grandson", or "descendant" of a named person. Mac is the Gaeilge for son.Names that begin with "O'" include Ó Bánion (O'Banion), Ó Briain (O'Brien), Ó Cheallaigh (O'Kelly), Ó Conchobhair (O'Connor, O'Conor), Ó Chonaill (O'Connell), O'Coiligh (Cox), Ó Cuilinn (Cullen), Ó Domhnaill (O'Donnell), Ó hAnnracháin, (Hanrahan), Ó Máille (O'Malley), Ó Mathghamhna (O'Mahony), Ó Néill (O'Neill), Ó Sé (O'Shea), Ó Súilleabháin (O'Sullivan), and Ó Tuathail (O'Toole).WEB,weblink Cox family pedigree,, Names that begin with Mac or Mc include Mac Cárthaigh (MacCarthy), Mac Diarmada (MacDermott), Mac Domhnaill (MacDonnell), and Mac Mathghamhna (MacMahon) Mag Uidhir (Maguire). Mac is commonly anglicised Mc. However, "Mac" and "Mc" are not mutually exclusive, so, for example, both "MacCarthy" and "McCarthy" are used. While both "Mac" and "Ó'" prefixes are Gaelic in origin, "Mac" is more common in Scotland and in Ulster than in the rest of Ireland; furthermore, "Ó" is far less common in Scotland than it is in Ireland. The proper surname for a woman in Irish uses the feminine prefix nic (meaning daughter) in place of mac. Thus a boy may be called Mac Domhnaill whereas his sister would be called Nic Dhomhnaill or Ní Dhomhnaill – the insertion of 'h' follows the female prefix in the case of most consonants (bar H, L, N, R, & T).A son has the same surname as his father. A female's surname replaces Ó with Ní (reduced from Iníon Uí – "daughter of the grandson of") and Mac with Nic (reduced from Iníon Mhic – "daughter of the son of"); in both cases the following name undergoes lenition. However, if the second part of the surname begins with the letter C or G, it is not lenited after Nic.{{citation needed|date=July 2012}} Thus the daughter of a man named Ó Maolagáin has the surname Ní Mhaolagáin and the daughter of a man named Mac Gearailt has the surname Nic Gearailt. When anglicised, the name can remain O' or Mac, regardless of gender.There are a number of Irish surnames derived from Norse personal names, including Mac Suibhne (Sweeney) from Swein and McAuliffe from "Olaf". The name Cotter, local to County Cork, derives from the Norse personal name Ottir. The name Reynolds is an Anglicization of the Gaelic Mac Raghnaill, itself originating from the Norse names Randal or Reginald. Though these names were of Viking derivation some of the families who bear them appear to have had Gaelic origins."Fitz" is an old Norman French variant of the Old French word fils (variant spellings filz, fiuz, fiz, etc.), used by the Normans, meaning son. The Normans themselves were descendants of Vikings, who had settled in Normandy and thoroughly adopted the French language and culture.WEB, The Normans,weblink Richard Hooker, Washington State University, 2008-07-12, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 14 June 2008, With the exception of the Gaelic-Irish Fitzpatrick (Mac Giolla Phádraig) surname, all names that begin with Fitz – including FitzGerald (Mac Gearailt), Fitzsimons (Mac Síomóin/Mac an Ridire) and FitzHenry (Mac Anraí) – are descended from the initial Norman settlers. A small number of Irish families of Gaelic origin came to use a Norman form of their original surname—so that Mac Giolla Phádraig became Fitzpatrick—while some assimilated so well that the Gaelic name was dropped in favor of a new, Hiberno-Norman form. Another common Irish surname of Norman Irish origin is the 'de' habitational prefix, meaning 'of' and originally signifying prestige and land ownership. Examples include de Búrca (Burke), de Brún, de Barra (Barry), de Stac (Stack), de Tiúit, de Faoite (White), de Londras (Landers), de Paor (Power). The Irish surname "Walsh" (in Gaelic Breathnach) was routinely given to settlers of Welsh origin, who had come during and after the Norman invasion. The Joyce and Griffin/Griffith (Gruffydd) families are also of Welsh origin.The Mac Lochlainn, Ó Maol Seachlainn, Ó Maol Seachnaill, Ó Conchobhair, Mac Loughlin and Mac Diarmada families, all distinct, are now all subsumed together as MacLoughlin. The full surname usually indicated which family was in question, something that has been diminished with the loss of prefixes such as Ó and Mac. Different branches of a family with the same surname sometimes used distinguishing epithets, which sometimes became surnames in their own right. Hence the chief of the clan Ó Cearnaigh (Kearney) was referred to as An Sionnach (Fox), which his descendants use to this day. Similar surnames are often found in Scotland for many reasons, such as the use of a common language and mass Irish migration to Scotland in the late 19th and early to mid-20th centuries.

Late Medieval and Tudor Ireland

{{See also|Gaelic Ireland|Lordship of Ireland}}File:Galloglass-circa-1521.jpg|thumb|Gaelic Irish soldiers in the Low Countries, from a drawing of 1521 by Albrecht DürerAlbrecht DürerThe Irish people of the Late Middle Ages were active as traders on the European continent.MacManus, p 343 They were distinguished from the English (who only used their own language or French) in that they only used Latin abroad—a language "spoken by all educated people throughout Gaeldom".MacManus, p 340 According to the writer Seumas MacManus, the explorer Christopher Columbus visited Ireland to gather information about the lands to the west,MacManus, p 343–344 a number of Irish names are recorded on Columbus' crew roster preserved in the archives of Madrid and it was an Irishman named Patrick Maguire who was the first to set foot in the Americas in 1492; however, according to Morison and Miss Gould{{clarify|date=January 2018}}, who made a detailed study of the crew list of 1492, no Irish or English sailors were involved in the voyage.BOOK, Paolo Emilio Taviani, Paolo Emilio, Taviani, Christopher Columbus, 376, 978-0-85613-922-2, 1985, An English report of 1515 states that the Irish people were divided into over sixty Gaelic lordships and thirty Anglo-Irish lordships.Nicholls The English term for these lordships was "nation" or "country". The Irish term "oireacht" referred to both the territory and the people ruled by the lord. Literally, it meant an "assembly", where the Brehons would hold their courts upon hills to arbitrate the matters of the lordship. Indeed, the Tudor lawyer John Davies described the Irish people with respect to their laws:{{blockquote|There is no people under the sun that doth love equal and indifferent (impartial) justice better than the Irish, or will rest better satisfied with the execution thereof, although it be against themselves, as they may have the protection and benefit of the law upon which just cause they do desire it.}}Another English commentator records that the assemblies were attended by "all the scum of the country"—the labouring population as well as the landowners. While the distinction between "free" and "unfree" elements of the Irish people was unreal in legal terms, it was a social and economic reality. Social mobility was usually downwards, due to social and economic pressures. The ruling clan's "expansion from the top downwards" was constantly displacing commoners and forcing them into the margins of society.As a clan-based society, genealogy was all important. Ireland 'was justly styled a "Nation of Annalists"'.MacManus, p 352 The various branches of Irish learning—including law, poetry, history and genealogy, and medicine—were associated with hereditary learned families.WEB,weblink Culture and Religion in Tudor Ireland, 1494–1558, Jefferies, Dr. Henry A, University College Cork, 2008-06-23, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 16 April 2008, The poetic families included the Uí Dhálaigh (Daly) and the MacGrath. Irish physicians, such as the O'Briens in Munster or the MacCailim Mor in the Western Isles, were renowned in the courts of England, Spain, Portugal and the Low Countries.MacManus, p 348 Learning was not exclusive to the hereditary learned families, however; one such example is Cathal Mac Manus, the 15th century diocesan priest who wrote the Annals of Ulster. Other learned families included the Mic Aodhagáin and Clann Fhir Bhisigh. It was this latter family which produced Dubhaltach Mac Fhirbhisigh, the 17th century genealogist and compiler of the Leabhar na nGenealach. (see also Irish medical families).


{{See also|Plantations of Ireland|Ulster-Scots}}File:Robert Boyle 0001.jpg|thumb|Robert Boyle, Anglo-Irish scientist and father of chemistry, whose family obtained land in the plantations]]After Ireland was subdued by England, the English—under James I of England ({{reign}} 1603–1625), the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell (1653–1658), William III of England ({{reign}} 1689–1702) and their British successors—began the settling of Protestant Scottish and English colonists into Ireland, where they settled most heavily in the northern province of Ulster. The Plantations of Ireland, and in particular the Plantation of Ulster in the 17th century, introduced great numbers of Scottish, English as well as French Huguenots as colonists.Many Gaelic Irish were displaced during the 17th century plantations. Only in the major part of Ulster did the plantations of mostly Scottish prove long-lived; the other three provinces (Connacht, Leinster, and Munster) remained heavily Gaelic Irish. Eventually, the Anglo-Irish and Protestant populations of those three provinces decreased drastically as a result of the political developments in the early 20th century in Ireland, as well as the Catholic Church's Ne Temere decree for mixed marriages, which obliged the non-Catholic partner to have the children raised as Catholics{{Citation needed|date=December 2008}}.

Enlightenment Ireland

{{See also|United Irishmen|Nicholas Callan|Protestant Ascendancy}}{{Expand section|date=February 2010}}There have been notable Irish scientists. The Anglo-Irish scientist Robert Boyle (1627–1691) is considered the father of chemistry for his book The Sceptical Chymist, written in 1661.Boyle on Atheism by J.J. MacIntosh (University of Toronto Press {{ISBN|978-0-8020-9018-8}}), page 6 Boyle was an atomist, and is best known for Boyle's Law. The hydrographer Rear Admiral Francis Beaufort (1774–1857), an Irish naval officer of Huguenot descent, was the creator of the Beaufort scale for indicating wind force. George Boole (1815–1864), the mathematician who invented Boolean algebra, spent the latter part of his life in Cork. The 19th century physicist George Stoney introduced the idea and the name of the electron. He was the uncle of another notable physicist, George FitzGerald.(File:Jonathan swift.jpg|thumb|Jonathan Swift, one of the foremost prose satirists in the English language)The Irish bardic system, along with the Gaelic culture and learned classes, were upset by the plantations, and went into decline. Among the last of the true bardic poets were Brian Mac Giolla Phádraig (c. 1580–1652) and Dáibhí Ó Bruadair (1625–1698). The Irish poets of the late 17th and 18th centuries moved toward more modern dialects. Among the most prominent of this period were Séamas Dall Mac Cuarta, Peadar Ó Doirnín, Art Mac Cumhaigh, Cathal Buí Mac Giolla Ghunna, and Seán Clárach Mac Domhnaill. Irish Catholics continued to receive an education in secret "hedgeschools", in spite of the Penal laws.MacManus, p 461 A knowledge of Latin was common among the poor Irish mountaineers in the 17th century, who spoke it on special occasions, while cattle were bought and sold in Greek in the mountain market-places of Kerry.MacManus, p 461-462For a comparatively small population of about 6 million people, Ireland made an enormous contribution to literature. Irish literature encompasses the Irish and English languages. Notable Irish writers, playwrights and poets include Jonathan Swift, Laurence Sterne, Oscar Wilde, Oliver Goldsmith, James Joyce, George Bernard Shaw, Samuel Beckett, Bram Stoker, W.B Yeats, Séamus Heaney and Brendan Behan.

19th century

{{Expand section|date=March 2010}}

The Great Famine / An Górta Mór

Known as An Górta Mór (The great hunger) in Gaeilge, millions of Irish people died and emigrated during Ireland's largest famine. The famine lasted from 1845 - 1849, it was worst during 1847 which was known as Black '47. The famine occurred due to the extremely impoverished Irish population's staple food the potato being infected with Blight, and English forces appropriating all other crops and livestock to feed her armies abroad.BOOK, David R. Montgomery, Dirt: The Erosion of Civilizations,weblink 14 May 2007, University of California Press, 978-0-520-93316-3, This meant the crop failed and turned black. Starving people who tried to eat them would only vomit it back up soon afterwards. Soup kitchens were set up but made little difference. The English government produced little aid, only sending raw corn known as 'Peel's Brimstone' to Ireland. It was known by this name after the British PM at the time and the fact that native Irish weren't aware on how to cook corn. This led to little or no improvement. The British government set up workhouses which were disease ridden (with cholera, TB and others) but they also failed as little food was available and many died on arrival as they were overworked. Some English political figures at the time saw the famine as a purge from God to exterminate the majority of the native Irish population.File:An gorta Mor.jpg|thumb|right|260px|Ireland's Holocaust mural on the Ballymurphy Road, BelfastBelfastIrish people emigrated to escape the famine journeying predominantly to the east coast of the US especially Boston and New York, Liverpool in England, Australia, Canada and New Zealand. Many records show the majority of emigrants to Australia were in fact prisoners sent to assist in the construction of English colonies there. A substantial proportion of these committed crimes in hopes of being extradited to Australia, favouring it to the persecution and hardships they endured in their homeland. Emigrants travelled on 'Coffin Ships' they were called this as there were high mortality rates on board. Many died of disease or starved. Conditions on board were abysmal - tickets were expensive so stowaways were common, little food stuff was given to passengers who were simply viewed as cargo in the eyes of the ship workers. Famous coffin ships include the Jeanie Johnston and the Dunbrody.There are many statues and memorials in Dublin, New York and other cities in memory of the famine. The fields of Athenry is a famous song about the great famine and is often sung at national team sporting events in memory and homage to those affected by the famine.The Great famine is one of the biggest events in Irish history and is ingrained in the identity on the nation to this day. It was a major in factor in Irish Nationalism and Ireland's fight for Independence during subsequent rebellions. As many Irish people felt a stronger need to regain Independence from English rule.{{Expand section|date=February 2010}}

20th century

{{See also|Partition of Ireland|Irish Free State|Northern Ireland|Republic of Ireland}}After the Irish War of Independence (1919–1921) the Anglo-Irish Treaty was signed which led to the formation of the semi-independent Irish Free State (now the independent Republic of Ireland) which consisted of 26 counties in the south and Donegal in the North-West. The remaining six counties in the northeast remained in the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland. It is predominately religion, historical, and political differences that divide the two communities of (nationalism and unionism). Four polls taken between 1989 and 1994 revealed that when asked to state their national identity, over 79% of Northern Irish Protestants replied "British" or "Ulster" with 3% or less replying "Irish", while over 60% of Northern Irish Catholics replied "Irish" with 13% or less replying "British" or "Ulster".WEB,weblink in, Social Attitudes in Northern Ireland: The Fifth Report,, 2010-03-28, A survey in 1999 showed that 72% of Northern Irish Protestants considered themselves "British" and 2% "Irish", with 68% of Northern Irish Catholics considering themselves "Irish" and 9% "British".WEB,weblink Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey,, 2003-05-09, 2010-03-28, The survey also revealed that 78% of Protestants and 48% of all respondents felt "Strongly British", while 77% of Catholics and 35% of all respondents felt "Strongly Irish". 51% of Protestants and 33% of all respondents felt "Not at all Irish", while 62% of Catholics and 28% of all respondents felt "Not at all British".WEB,weblink Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey,, 2003-05-12, 2010-03-28, WEB,weblink Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey,, 2003-05-09, 2010-03-28, {{Citation needed|date=February 2010}}

Recent history

{{See also|Demographics of the Republic of Ireland|Demography of Northern Ireland}}

Religions in Ireland

File:Group of men, Corpus Christi procession, Cahir, Co. Tipperary (21890973583).jpg|thumb|Corpus Christi procession in Tipperary in 1963]]In the Republic of Ireland, as of 2011, 3,861,335 people or about 84.16% of the population are Roman Catholic.WEB,weblink Population classified by religion for relevant censuses from 1881 to 2006 Summary, Central Statistics Office (Ireland), Central Statistics Office, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 5 October 2008, dmy-all, In Northern Ireland about 41.6% of the population are Protestant (19.1% Presbyterian, 13.7% Church of Ireland, 3.0% Methodist, 5.8% Other Christian) whilst approximately 40.8% are Catholic as of 2011.The 31st International Eucharistic Congress was held in Dublin in 1932, that year being the supposed 1,500th anniversary of Saint Patrick's arrival. Ireland was then home to 3,171,697 Catholics, about a third of whom attended the Congress.NEWS,weblink In Dublin, Time Magazine, 1932-06-20, 2008-06-23, WEB,weblink The 31st International Eucharistic Congress, Dublin, 1932, John Paul McCarthy, Tomás O'Riordan, University College Cork, Newspapers and contemporaries estimated that close to a million souls had converged on the Phoenix Park for the climax of the Congress, 2008-06-23, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 16 April 2008, dmy-all, It was noted in Time Magazine that the Congress' special theme would be "the Faith of the Irish". The massive crowds were repeated at Pope John Paul II's Mass in Phoenix Park in 1979.The figure 1,250,000 is mentioned on the commemorative stone at the Papal Cross in the Phoenix Park, Dublin; a quarter of the population of the island of Ireland, or a third of the population of Republic of Ireland The idea of faith has affected the question of Irish identity even in relatively recent times, apparently more so for Catholics and Irish-Americans. Today the majority of Irish people in the Republic of Ireland identify as Catholic, although church attendance have significantly dropped in recent decades. In Northern Ireland, where almost 50% of the population is Protestant, there has also been a decline in attendances.{{blockquote|What defines an Irishman? His faith, his place of birth? What of the Irish-Americans? Are they Irish? Who is more Irish, a Catholic Irishman such as James Joyce who is trying to escape from his Catholicism and from his Irishness, or a Protestant Irishman like Oscar Wilde who is eventually becoming Catholic? Who is more Irish... someone like C.S. Lewis, an Ulster Protestant, who is walking towards it, even though he never ultimately crosses the threshold?JOURNAL, Pearce, Joseph, Joseph Pearce, Editorial: The Celtic Enigma, St. Austin Review, 7, March–April 2007, 2, 1, Sapientia Press, Ave Maria University, Naples, Florida, }}This has been a matter of concern over the last century for the followers of nationalist ideologists such as DP Moran.

Irish identity

File:St. Patricks Day Parade (2013) In Dublin Was Excellent But The Weather And The Turnout Was Disappointing (8566201364).jpg|thumb|A St Patrick's DaySt Patrick's DayThomas Davis, a prominent Protestant Irish nationalist who founded the Young Ireland movement, identified the Irish as a Celtic nation.WEB, Thomas Davis,weblink Our National Language,, 2013-02-28, 2016-10-18, He estimated that ethnically, 5/6ths of the nation were either of Gaelic Irish-origin, descended from returned Scottish Gaels (including much of the Ulster Scots) and some Celtic Welsh (such as his own ancestors and those carrying surnames such as Walsh and Griffiths). As part of this he was a staunch supporter of the Irish language as the "national language". In regards to the Germanic minority in Ireland (of Norman and Anglo-Saxon origin) he believed that they could be assimilated into Irishness if they had a "willingness to be part of the Irish Nation".WEB, Thomas Davis – Dame Street,weblink 90,000 Photographs By William Murphy – 90,000 Photographs By William Murphy,, 2012-03-17, 2014-03-01, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 27 March 2014, dmy-all,


The Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom joined the European Community in 1973, and Irish citizens became additionally Citizens of the European Union with the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. This brought a further question for the future of Irish identity; whether Ireland was "closer to Boston than to Berlin:"{{blockquote|History and geography have placed Ireland in a very special location between America and Europe... As Irish people our relationships with the United States and the European Union are complex. Geographically we are closer to Berlin than Boston. Spiritually we are probably a lot closer to Boston than Berlin. – Mary Harney, Tánaiste, 2000Aldous, p 185}}

Irish diaspora

{{See also|Irish American|Irish Argentine|Irish Chilean|Irish Australian|Irish Brazilian|Irish Canadian|Irish Mexicans|Irish people in Jamaica|Irish community in Britain|Scots-Irish American|Montserrat}}File:Leopoldo ODonnell.jpg|thumb|left|General The 1st Duke of Tetuan, Grandee of Spain and President of the Council of Ministers of Spain ]]The Irish diaspora consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, Great Britain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, and nations of the Caribbean such as Jamaica and Barbados. These countries all have large minorities of Irish descent, who in addition form the core of the Catholic Church in those countries.Many famous and influential figures have claimed Irish ancestry such as Che Guvara, Walt Disney, Barack Obama, JFK, Muhammad Ali and Maréchal The 1st Duke of Magenta, the second President of the Third Republic.Many Irish people were also transported to the island of Montserrat, to work as indentured servants, exiled prisoners or slaves. Unlike African chattel slaves, the majority of Irish labourers who were sent to Montserrat did so by personal choice although they were tricked into doing so by the promise of payment and land of which they did not receive.WEB,weblink The Irish in the Anglo-Caribbean: servants or slaves? - History Ireland, 29 February 2016, Some were exiled by the English Oliver Cromwell due to the large Irish population and their attempted rebellion on 17 March 1768. To this day, the Island celebrates St. Patrick's Day as a public holiday to commemorate the event.BOOK, Gallery Montserrat: some prominent people in our history, Fergus, Howard A, 1996, Canoe Press University of West Indies, 978-976-8125-25-5, 83,weblink People of Irish descent also feature strongly in Latin America, especially in Argentina and important minorities in Brazil, Chile, and Mexico. In 1995, President Mary Robinson reached out to the "70 million people worldwide who can claim Irish descent".WEB,weblink Ireland's Diaspora,, 2010-03-28, Today the diaspora is believed to contain an estimated 80 million people.The island history, discoverireland.comFile:PatriceMacMahon.jpg|thumb|Maréchal The 1st Duke of Magenta, military commander and, later, President of the French RepublicPresident of the French RepublicThere are also large Irish communities in some mainland European countries, notably in Spain, France and Germany. Between 1585 and 1818, over half a million Irish departed Ireland to serve in the wars on the Continent, in a constant emigration romantically styled the "Flight of the Wild Geese" and, before that, in the 'Flight of the Earls', just before the Plantation of Ulster.WEB,weblink The Wild Geese, Men-at-Arms 102, Osprey Publishing, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 8 December 2008, dmy-all, In the early years of the English Civil War, a French traveller remarked that the Irish "are better soldiers abroad than at home".McLaughlin, p4 Later, Irish brigades in France and Spain fought in the Wars of the Spanish and Austrian Succession and the Napoleonic Wars. In the words of Field Marshal The 1st Duke of Wellington, the Irish-born 'Iron Duke', a notable representative of the Irish military diaspora, "Ireland was an inexhaustible nursery for the finest soldiers".Davies, p 832The British Legion were units that fought under Simón Bolívar against Spain for the independence of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Peru. Venezuelans called them the Albion Legion. They were composed of over seven thousand volunteers, mainly Napoleonic War veterans from Great Britain and Ireland. Volunteers in the British Legion were motivated by a combination of both genuine political and mercenary motives.BOOK, Brown, Matthew, Adventuring through Spanish Colonies: Simón Bolívar, Foreign Mercenaries and the Birth of New Nations, Liverpool University Press, 2006, 210,weblink 9781846310447, The most famous cause of emigration was the Great Famine of the late 1840s. A million are thought to have emigrated to Liverpool as a result of the famine.David Ross, Ireland: History of a Nation, New Lanark: Geddes & Grosset, 2002, p. 226. {{ISBN|1-84205-164-4}} For both the Irish in Ireland and those in the resulting diaspora, the famine entered folk memoryThe Famine that affected Ireland from 1845 to 1852 has become an integral part of folk legend. Kenealy, This Great Calamity, p. 342. and became a rallying point for various nationalist movements.File:John Carroll Gilbert Stuart.jpg|thumb|left|John Carroll, first Roman Catholic bishop and archbishop in the United States]]People of Irish descent are the second largest self-reported ethnic group in the United States, after German Americans. Nine of the signatories of the American Declaration of Independence were of Irish origin.WEB,weblink Irish-American History Month, 1995,, 2008-06-25, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 9 May 2008, Among them was the sole Catholic signatory, Charles Carroll of Carrollton, whose family were the descendants of Ely O'Carroll, an Irish prince who had suffered under Cromwell.Maryland Traces Its Irish Roots, Maryland Office of TourismAt least twenty-five presidents of the United States have some Irish ancestral origins, including George Washington.WEB,weblink Presidents of the United States with "Irish Roots",, 2008-06-25, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 29 September 2008, WEB, John T, Marck,weblink William H. Taft,, 2008-06-25, WEB,weblink Warren Gamaliel Harding,, 2008-06-25, WEB, John T, Marck,weblink Harry S. Truman,, 2008-06-25, Since John F. Kennedy took office in 1961, every American President (with the exception of Gerald Ford and Donald Trump) has had some Irish blood.WEB,weblink American Presidents with Irish Ancestors, Directory of Irish Genealogy, 2008-06-25, WEB,weblink The Man Who Made Trump Who He Is, Politico, 2017-01-24, WEB,weblink Donald Trump's Scottish roots: How a tiny island could shape a President, CNN, 2017-01-24, An Irish-American, James Hoban, was the designer of the White House. Commodore John Barry, who was born in County Wexford, was the father of the United States Navy.WEB,weblink Commodore Barry, 2007-06-25, John Barry Kelly, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 5 August 2013, File:JFK-John Barry Memorial.jpg|thumb|John F. Kennedy visiting the John Barry Memorial in WexfordWexfordIn the mid-19th century, large numbers of Irish immigrants were conscripted into Irish regiments of the United States Army at the time of the Mexican–American War. The vast majority of the 4,811 Irish-born soldiers served in the U.S. Army, but some defected to the Mexican Army, primarily to escape mistreatment by Anglo-Protestant officers and the strong anti-Catholic discrimination in America.WEB, Beneath an Emerald Green Flag, The Story of Irish Soldiers in Mexico,weblink Michael G. Connaughton, The Society for Irish Latin American Studies, September 2005, 2008-07-12, These were the San Patricios, or Saint Patrick's Battalion—a group of Irish led by Galway-born John O'Riley, with some German, Scottish and American Catholics. They fought until their surrender at the decisive Battle of Churubusco, and were executed outside Mexico City by the American government on 13 September 1847. The battalion is commemorated in Mexico each year on 12 September.WEB, The San Patricios: Mexico's Fighting Irish,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 2000-03-03, Mark R. Day, 2008-07-12, During the 18th and 19th centuries, 300,000 free emigrants and 45,000 convicts left Ireland to settle in Australia.WEB,weblink Botany Bay 1791–1867, Ryan, Sean, 2006, Wild Geese Heritage Museum and Library Portumna, Co. Galway, 2009-05-27, Today, Australians of Irish descent are one of the largest self-reported ethnic groups in Australia, after English and Australian. In the 2006 Census, 1,803,741 residents identified themselves as having Irish ancestry either alone or in combination with another ancestry.{{Census 2006 AUS | id = 0 | name = Australia | quick = on | accessdate=2007-07-25}} However this figure does not include Australians with an Irish background who chose to nominate themselves as 'Australian' or other ancestries. The Australian embassy in Dublin states that up to 30 percent of the population claim some degree of Irish ancestry.WEB,weblink Australia- Ireland relationship – Australian Embassy,, 2010-03-28, It is believed that as many as 30,000 Irish people emigrated to Argentina between the 1830s and the 1890s. This was encouraged by the clergy, as they considered a Catholic country, Argentina, preferable to a Protestant United States. This flow of emigrants dropped sharply when assisted passage to Australia was introduced at which point the Argentine government responded with their own scheme and wrote to Irish bishops, seeking their support. However, there was little or no planning for the arrival of a large number of immigrants, no housing, no food.NEWS, Cole, Patrick, Irish Emigrants to the Argentine Republic,weblink 29 November 2015, Western Daily Press, 29 March 1889, British Newspaper Archive, subscription, It is a sad and pitiable sight to see Irish mothers with, in some cases, their dying babes in their arms ... ... in many cases mothers sold their clothing from their backs to procure food for their starving children, Many died, others made their way to the United States and other destinations, some returned to Ireland, a few remained and prospered. Thomas Croke Archbishop of Cashel, said: "I most solemnly conjure my poorer countrymen, as they value their happiness hereafter, never to set foot on the Argentine Republic however tempted to do so they may be by offers of a passage or an assurance of comfortable homes."WEB,weblink The Irish in Argentina, Wander Argentina, 29 November 2015, Some famous Argentines of Irish descent include Che Guevara, former president Edelmiro Julián Farrell, and admiral William Brown. There are people of Irish descent all over South America, such as the Chilean liberator Bernardo O'Higgins and the Peruvian photographer Mario Testino. Although some Irish retained their surnames intact, others were assimilated into the Spanish vernacular. The last name O'Brien, for example, became Obregón.People of Irish descent are also one of the largest self-reported ethnic groups in Canada, after English, French and Scottish Canadians. As of 2006, Irish Canadians number around 4,354,155.{{div col|colwidth=20em}} {{div col end}}




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  • BOOK, Stephen Oppenheimer, Oppenheimer, Stephen, The Origins of the British: A Genetic Detective Story, 2006, Carroll & Graf, 978-0-7867-1890-0,
  • BOOK, Sykes, Bryan, Brian Sykes, Blood of the Isles: Exploring the Genetic Roots of Our Tribal History, 2006, DNA, Fossil, 978-0-593-05652-3,
  • BOOK, The Art of Gothic: Architecture, Sculpture, Painting, Toman, Rolf, photography by Achim Bednorz, 2007, Tandem Verlag GmbH, 978-3-8331-4676-3,
  • BOOK, Various, edited by Smiley, Jane, The Sagas of Icelanders,weblink 2001, Penguin (publisher), Penguin, 978-0-14-100003-9,

External links

{{Commons category|People of Ireland}} {{Ireland topics|expanded=Culture}}{{Celtic nations}}{{British Isles|Great Britain, Ireland, and related islands}}{{Authority control}}

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M.R.M. Parrott