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{{about|the Canadian city|the suburb of Portland, Oregon|Vancouver, Washington|other uses|Vancouver (disambiguation)}}{{pp-vandalism|small=yes}}{{Use Canadian English|date=July 2014}}{{Use mdy dates|date=April 2019}}







factoids
Yaletown| photo2a = Lions Gate Bridge at night.jpg{{!}}Lions Gate Bridge at night| photo3a = Millennium Gate, Vancouver's Chinatown National Historic Site of Canada, WLM2012.jpg{{!}}Millennium Gate| photo3b = UBC aerial view-cropped.jpg{{!}}An areal view of the University of British Columbia| photo4a = Downtown Vancouver, 16 sept 2007.jpg{{!}}Downtown Vancouver| photo4c = Vancouver Totem poles in Stanley Park.jpg{{!}}Totem poles in Stanley Park| spacing = 1| color_border = white| color = white| size = 280114%Yaletown, Lions Gate Bridge, Millennium Gate in Chinatown, Vancouver>Vancouver's Chinatown, University of British Columbia, Downtown Vancouver, totem poles in Stanley Park.}}}}| imagesize = | caption = | image_flag = Flag of Vancouver (Canada).svg| flag_size = | image_seal = | seal_size = | image_shield = | shield_size = | image_blank_emblem = Vancouverlogo.svg| image_map = GVRDVancouver.svg| mapsize = Metro Vancouver Regional District>Metro Vancouver in British Columbia, Canada| image_map1 = | mapsize1 = | map_caption1 = | image_dot_map = | pushpin_map = Canada British Columbia#Canada#North America| pushpin_map_caption = Location within British ColumbiaLocation within CanadaLocation within North America| subdivision_type = Country| subdivision_name = CanadaProvinces and territories of Canada>Province| subdivision_name1 = British ColumbiaRegions of Canada#British Columbia>Region| subdivision_name2 = Lower MainlandList of British Columbia Regional Districts>Regional district| subdivision_name4 = Metro Vancouver| government_footnotes = | government_type = | leader_title = MayorKennedy Stewart (Canadian politician)>Kennedy StewartVancouver City Council>City Council| leader_name1 = {hide}Collapsible list|title = List of Councillors|frame_style = border:none; padding: 0;|list_style = text-align:left;display:none; {edih}Current members of the Canadian House of Commons>MPs (Fed.)| leader_name3 = {{Collapsible list|title = List of MPs|frame_style = border:none; padding: 0;|list_style = text-align:left;display:none;Don Davies (New Democratic Party>NDP)Hedy Fry (Liberal Party of Canada>L)Jenny Kwan (New Democratic Party>NDP)Joyce Murray (Liberal Party of Canada>L)Harjit Sajjan (Liberal Party of Canada>L)Jody Wilson-Raybould (Independent politician>Ind)}}Legislative Assembly of British Columbia>MLAs (Prov.)| leader_name4 = {{Collapsible list|title = List of MLAs|frame_style = border:none; padding: 0;|list_style = text-align:left;display:none;Spencer Chandra Herbert (British Columbia New Democratic Party>NDP)George Chow (British Columbia New Democratic Party>NDP)Adrian Dix (British Columbia New Democratic Party>NDP)David Eby (British Columbia New Democratic Party>NDP)Mable Elmore (British Columbia New Democratic Party>NDP)George Heyman (British Columbia New Democratic Party>NDP)Michael Lee (Canadian politician)>Michael Lee (BCL)Melanie Mark (British Columbia New Democratic Party>NDP)Shane Simpson (British Columbia New Democratic Party>NDP)Sam Sullivan (British Columbia Liberal Party>BCL)Andrew Wilkinson (Canadian politician)>Andrew Wilkinson (BCL)}}| established_title = Incorporated| established_date = April 6, 1886Captain George Vancouver R.N., (1757–1798), explored 1792 for Kingdom of Great Britain>British Royal Navy| established_title2 = | established_date2 = | established_title3 = | established_date3 = | area_magnitude = | unit_pref = | area_footnotes = | area_total_km2 = 114.97| area_land_km2 = | area_water_km2 = | area_total_sq_mi = | area_land_sq_mi = | area_water_sq_mi = | area_water_percent = | area_urban_km2 = 876.44| area_urban_sq_mi = | area_metro_km2 = 2878.52| area_metro_sq_mi = Canada 2016 Census>2016PUBLISHER=STATISTICS CANADA ACCESSDATE=FEBRUARY 8, 2016 ARCHIVE-DATE=FEBRUARY 10, 2017 ACCESS-DATE=SEPTEMBER 1, 2018 ARCHIVE-DATE=NOVEMBER 3, 2018, live, | population_note = List of the 100 largest municipalities in Canada by population>(8th)| population_density_km2 = 5492.6| population_density_sq_mi = List of the 100 largest metropolitan areas in Canada>3rd)| population_density_metro_km2 = | population_density_metro_sq_mi = WEBSITE=WWW12.STATCAN.GC.CA DATE=8 FEBRUARY 2017, | population_density_urban_km2 = 2,584| population_density_urban_sq_mi = | population_demonym = Vancouverite| blank_name_sec2 = GDPAmerican dollar>US$ 110 billionHTTP://WWW.BROOKINGS.EDU/RESEARCH/INTERACTIVES/GLOBAL-METRO-MONITOR-3 >TITLE=GLOBAL CITY GDP 2014 ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 18, 2014 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130605135349/HTTP://WWW.BROOKINGS.EDU/RESEARCH/INTERACTIVES/GLOBAL-METRO-MONITOR-3, June 5, 2013, | blank1_name_sec2 = GDP per capita| blank1_info_sec2 = US$44,337Pacific Standard Time Zone>PST| utc_offset = −8| timezone_DST = PDT| utc_offset_DST = −749N6region:CA-BC|display=inline,title}}| elevation_footnotes = | elevation_m = 0–152| elevation_ft = 0–501Canadian postal code#Forward sortation areas>Forward sortation areaList of V postal codes of Canada>V5K – V6T, V6Z, V7X – V7YArea code 604>604, Area code 778, Area code 236>236, 672National Topographic System>NTS Map| blank_info = 092G03Geographical Names Board of Canada>GNBC Code| blank1_info = JBRIKstate=BC1}}state=BC7}} {{jctBCstate=BC7A}} {{jctBC|99}}| website = City of Vancouver| footnotes = }}Vancouver ({{IPAc-en|audio=EN-Vancouver.ogg|v|æ|n|ˈ|k|uː|v|É™r}}) is a coastal seaport city in western Canada, located in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia. As the most populous city in the province, the 2016 census recorded 631,486 people in the city, up from 603,502 in 2011. The Greater Vancouver area had a population of 2,463,431 in 2016, making it the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada. Vancouver has the highest population density in Canada, with over 5,400 people per square kilometre,NEWS, Population of Metro Vancouver outpaced national growth rate,weblink Vancouver Sun, Vancouver, February 8, 2017, February 8, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170208161128weblink">weblink February 8, 2017, live, NEWS, Campion-Smith, Bruce, February 8, 2017, Canada's population grew 1.7M in 5 years, latest census shows,weblink Toronto Star, Toronto, February 8, 2017,weblink February 8, 2017, live, which makes it the fifth-most densely populated city with over 250,000 residents in North America, behind New York City, Guadalajara, San Francisco,WEB,weblink Population and dwelling counts, for Canada and census subdivisions (municipalities) with 5,000-plus population, 2011 and 2006 censuses, February 9, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120722165821weblink">weblink July 22, 2012, live, and Mexico City according to the 2011 census. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada according to that census; 52% of its residents have a first language other than English.WEB,weblink Census 2006 Community Profiles: Vancouver, City and CMA, Government of Canada, 2006, October 10, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111104190749weblink">weblink November 4, 2011, live, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060512164806weblink">weblink 12 May 2006, City Facts 2004, City of Vancouver, 2004, PDF, 9 June 2011, dead, dmy-all, 48.9% have neither English nor French as their first language. Roughly 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage.Vancouver is consistently named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life,WEB,weblink Vancouver ranked best city in North America for quality of living, Staff, DH Vancouver, March 20, 2018, Daily Hive, February 27, 2019,weblink February 19, 2019, live, NEWS,weblink Vancouver and Melbourne top city league, October 4, 2002, BBC News, June 9, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150712065852weblink">weblink July 12, 2015, live, NEWS,weblink Liveable Vancouver, June 8, 2009, The Economist, Mark, Frary, June 9, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110726084626weblink">weblink July 26, 2011, live, and the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city ranked among the top-ten of the world's most well-living citiesWEB,weblink The Liveabililty Ranking and Overview August 2015, August 18, 2015, for five consecutive years.NEWS,weblink Vancouver still world's most livable city: survey, Koranyi, Balazs, February 21, 2011, Reuters, July 3, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151120003605weblink">weblink November 20, 2015, live, Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009; and the 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics which were held in Vancouver and Whistler, a resort community {{convert|125|km|mi|abbr=on}} north of the city.WEB,weblink Vancouver 2010 Schedule, 2010, olympic.org, International Olympic Committee, June 9, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110707172444weblink">weblink July 7, 2011, live, In 2014, following thirty years in California, the TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place.WEB,weblink FIFA Women's World Cup Canada 2015â„¢ match schedule unveiled, FIFA, April 30, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130426020740weblink">weblink April 26, 2013, live, The original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on July 1, 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels quickly appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B.I. ("B.I" standing for "Burrard Inlet"). As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR), it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886. By 1887, the Canadian Pacific transcontinental railway was extended westward to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport to the Pacific Ocean, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient / East Asia, Eastern Canada, and Europe.BOOK, Morley, A., 1974, Vancouver, from milltown to metropolis, 64026114, Vancouver, Mitchell Press, BOOK, Norris, John M., 72170963, Strangers Entertained, Vancouver, British Columbia Centennial '71 Committee, 1971, {{As of|2016}}, Port Metro Vancouver is the fourth-largest port by tonnage in the Americas (recently displacing New York City), 29th in the world,WEB,weblink World Port Rankings 2016, American Association of Port Authorities, August 1, 2019,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180429222548weblink">weblink April 29, 2018, live, the busiest and largest in Canada, and the most diversified port in North America.WEB,weblink Port Metro Vancouver Mid-Year Stats Include Bright Spots in a Difficult First Half for 2009, Port Metro Vancouver, July 31, 2009, June 9, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110615025718weblink">weblink June 15, 2011, {{primary source inline|date=February 2012}} While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry.WEB,weblink Overnight visitors to Greater Vancouver by volume, monthly and annual basis, Vancouver Convention and Visitors Bureau, PDF, June 9, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110717081342weblink">weblink July 17, 2011, Major film production studios in Vancouver and nearby Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America,WEB, Industry Profile,weblink BC Film Commission, June 9, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110707220257weblink">weblink July 7, 2011, WEB, Ontario film industry outperforming B.C.'s,weblink Business In Vancouver, August 12, 2012, dead,weblink August 12, 2012, earning it the nickname "Hollywood North".BOOK, Gasher, Mike, Hollywood North: The Feature Film Industry in British Columbia, University of British Columbia Press, November 2002, Vancouver, 978-0-7748-0967-2, NEWS,weblink Vancouver: Welcome to Brollywood, Shrimpton, James, August 17, 2007, News Limited, March 16, 2013, NEWS,weblink Canada's Hollywood Gets a Boost with New Studio, August 9, 1988, Miami Herald, March 16, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130511050226weblink">weblink May 11, 2013, live,

Etymology

The city takes its name from George Vancouver, who explored the inner harbour of Burrard Inlet in 1792 and gave various places British names.WEB,weblink Dictionary of Canadian Biography: George Vancouver, biography.ca,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180203064456weblink">weblink February 3, 2018, live, The family name "Vancouver" itself originates from the Dutch "Van Coevorden", denoting somebody from the city of Coevorden, Netherlands. The explorer's ancestors came to England "from Coevorden", which is the origin of the name that eventually became "Vancouver".BOOK, Davis, Chuck, W. Kaye Lamb, Greater Vancouver Book: An Urban Encyclopaedia, Linkman Press, 1997, Surrey, BC, 34–36, 978-1-896846-00-2, WEB,weblink Coevorden, The History of Metropolitan Vancouver, Chuck, Davis, June 7, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110610231756weblink">weblink June 10, 2011, live,

History

{{See also|Timeline of Vancouver history}}

Before 1850

Archaeological records indicate that Aboriginal people were already living in the "Vancouver" area from 8,000 to 10,000 years ago.WEB, Thom, Brian, 1996,weblink Stó:lo Culture – Ideas of Prehistory and Changing Cultural Relationships to the Land and Environment, November 23, 2006, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070718061334weblink">weblink July 18, 2007, BOOK, Carlson, Keith Thor (ed.), A Stó:lō-Coast Salish Historical Atlas, Vancouver, BC, Douglas & McIntyre, 2001, 6–18, 978-1-55054-812-9, The city is located in the traditional and presently unceded territories of the Squamish, Musqueam, and Tseil-Waututh (Burrard) peoples of the Coast Salish group.BOOK, Barman, J., 2005, Stanley Park's Secret, 21, Harbour Publishing, 978-1-55017-346-8, They had villages in various parts of present-day Vancouver, such as Stanley Park, False Creek, Kitsilano, Point Grey and near the mouth of the Fraser River.Europeans became acquainted with the area of the future Vancouver when José María Narváez of Spain explored the coast of present-day Point Grey and parts of Burrard Inlet in 1791—although one author contends that Francis Drake may have visited the area in 1579.BOOK, Bawlf, R. Samuel, 2003, The Secret Voyage of Sir Francis Drake: 1577–1580, Walker & Company, 978-0-8027-1405-3, The explorer and North West Company trader Simon Fraser and his crew became the first-known Europeans to set foot on the site of the present-day city. In 1808, they travelled from the east down the Fraser River, perhaps as far as Point Grey.WEB, History of City of Vancouver, Caroun.com,weblink January 17, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070329195141weblink">weblink March 29, 2007, live,

Early growth

File:Maple Tree Corner Vancouver 1886.jpg|thumb|View of Gastown from Carrall and Water Street in 1886. Gastown was a settlement that quickly became a centre for trade and commerce on Burrard InletBurrard InletThe Fraser Gold Rush of 1858 brought over 25,000 men, mainly from California, to nearby New Westminster (founded February 14, 1859) on the Fraser River, on their way to the Fraser Canyon, bypassing what would become Vancouver.BOOK, Hull, Raymond, Vancouver's Past, University of Washington Press, 1974, Seattle, Christine, Soules, Gordon, Soules, 978-0-295-95364-9, BOOK, McGowan's War, New Star Books, 1-55420-001-6, Donald J., Hauka, 2003, BOOK, Matthews, J.S. "Skit", Early Vancouver, 1936, City of Vancouver, Vancouver is among British Columbia's youngest cities;BOOK, Cranny, Michael, Jarvis, Graham, Moles, Garvin, Seney, Bruce, Horizons: Canada Moves West, Prentice Hall Ginn Canada, 1999, Scarborough, ON, 978-0-13-012367-1, the first European settlement in what is now Vancouver was not until 1862 at McCleery's Farm on the Fraser River, just east of the ancient village of Musqueam in what is now Marpole. A sawmill established at Moodyville (now the City of North Vancouver) in 1863, began the city's long relationship with logging. It was quickly followed by mills owned by Captain Edward Stamp on the south shore of the inlet. Stamp, who had begun logging in the Port Alberni area, first attempted to run a mill at Brockton Point, but difficult currents and reefs forced the relocation of the operation in 1867 to a point near the foot of Dunlevy Street. This mill, known as the Hastings Mill, became the nucleus around which Vancouver formed. The mill's central role in the city waned after the arrival of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) in the 1880s. It nevertheless remained important to the local economy until it closed in the 1920s.BOOK, Davis, Chuck, The Greater Vancouver Book: An Urban Encyclopaedia, Linkman Press, 1997, Surrey, British Columbia, 39–47, 1-896846-00-9, The settlement, which came to be called Gastown, grew quickly around the original makeshift tavern established by "Gassy" Jack Deighton in 1867 on the edge of the Hastings Mill property.WEB,weblink Welcome to Gastown, March 28, 2008, Gastown Business Improvement Society, December 5, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091125034053weblink">weblink November 25, 2009, In 1870, the colonial government surveyed the settlement and laid out a townsite, renamed "Granville" in honour of the then-British Secretary of State for the Colonies, Lord Granville. This site, with its natural harbour, was selected in 1884WEB,weblink Chronology[1757–1884], June 7, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110610223324weblink">weblink June 10, 2011, live, as the terminus for the Canadian Pacific Railway, to the disappointment of Port Moody, New Westminster and Victoria, all of which had vied to be the railhead. A railway was among the inducements for British Columbia to join the Confederation in 1871, but the Pacific Scandal and arguments over the use of Chinese labour delayed construction until the 1880s.BOOK, Morton, James, (In the Sea of Sterile Mountains: The Chinese in British Columbia), J.J. Douglas, 1973, Vancouver, 978-0-88894-052-0,

Incorporation

File:First Vancouver Council Meeting after fire.jpg|thumb|left|The first Vancouver City Council meeting following the Great Vancouver FireGreat Vancouver FireThe City of Vancouver was incorporated on April 6, 1886, the same year that the first transcontinental train arrived. CPR president William Van Horne arrived in Port Moody to establish the CPR terminus recommended by Henry John Cambie, and gave the city its name in honour of George Vancouver. The Great Vancouver Fire on June 13, 1886, razed the entire city. The Vancouver Fire Department was established that year and the city quickly rebuilt. Vancouver's population grew from a settlement of 1,000 people in 1881 to over 20,000 by the turn of the century and 100,000 by 1911.BOOK, Davis, Chuck, Richard, von Kleist, Greater Vancouver Book: An Urban Encyclopaedia, Linkman Press, 1997, Surrey, BC, 780, 978-1-896846-00-2, Vancouver merchants outfitted prospectors bound for the Klondike Gold Rush in 1898. One of those merchants, Charles Woodward, had opened the first Woodward's store at Abbott and Cordova Streets in 1892 and, along with Spencer's and the Hudson's Bay department stores, formed the core of the city's retail sector for decades.WEB, Our History: Acquisitions, Retail, Woodward's Stores Limited, Hudson's Bay Company,weblink June 9, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070227013354weblink">weblink February 27, 2007, The economy of early Vancouver was dominated by large companies such as the CPR, which fuelled economic activity and led to the rapid development of the new city;WEB, British Columbia facts – economic history,weblink June 12, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110911062907weblink">weblink September 11, 2011, in fact, the CPR was the main real estate owner and housing developer in the city. While some manufacturing did develop, including the establishment of the British Columbia Sugar Refinery by Benjamin Tingley Rogers in 1890,WEB, BC Sugar,weblink The History of Metropolitan Vancouver, May 29, 2014, The dream had become reality: B.C. Sugar was incorporated March 26, 1890. Its president, Benjamin Tingley Rogers, was 24.,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150104205132weblink">weblink January 4, 2015, live, natural resources became the basis for Vancouver's economy. The resource sector was initially based on logging and later on exports moving through the seaport, where commercial traffic constituted the largest economic sector in Vancouver by the 1930s.JOURNAL, McCandless, R. C., Vancouver's 'Red Menace' of 1935: The Waterfront Situation, BC Studies, 22, 68, 1974,

Twentieth century

File:RCMP 1938 sitdowner strike.jpg|thumb|Plainclothes RCMP officers attack Relief Camp Workers' Union protesters in 1938. Several protests over unemployment occurred in the city during the Great DepressionGreat DepressionFile:Downtown celebrations at the end of World War II, VPL 42793 (17106384760).jpg|thumb|Downtown celebrations at the end of World War IIWorld War IIThe dominance of the economy by big business was accompanied by an often militant labour movement. The first major sympathy strike was in 1903 when railway employees struck against the CPR for union recognition. Labour leader Frank Rogers was killed by CPR police while picketing at the docks, becoming the movement's first martyr in British Columbia.BOOK, Phillips, Paul A., No Power Greater: A Century of Labour in British Columbia, BC Federation of Labour/Boag Foundation, 1967, Vancouver, 39–41, The rise of industrial tensions throughout the province led to Canada's first general strike in 1918, at the Cumberland coal mines on Vancouver Island.BOOK, Phillips, Paul A., No Power Greater: A Century of Labour in British Columbia, BC Federation of Labour/Boag Foundation, 1967, Vancouver, 71–74, Following a lull in the 1920s, the strike wave peaked in 1935 when unemployed men flooded the city to protest conditions in the relief camps run by the military in remote areas throughout the province.JOURNAL, Manley, John, Canadian Communists, Revolutionary Unionism, and the 'Third Period': The Workers' Unity League,, Journal of the Canadian Historical Association, New Series, 5, 167–194, 1994,weblink PDF, November 12, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070614201558weblink">weblink June 14, 2007, live, BOOK, Brown, Lorne, When Freedom was Lost: The Unemployed, the Agitator, and the State, Black Rose Books, 1987, Montreal, 978-0-920057-77-3, After two tense months of daily and disruptive protesting, the relief camp strikers decided to take their grievances to the federal government and embarked on the On-to-Ottawa Trek, but their protest was put down by force. The workers were arrested near Mission and interned in work camps for the duration of the Depression.BOOK, Schroeder, Andreas, Carved From Wood: A History of Mission 1861–1992, 1991, Mission Foundation, 978-1-55056-131-9, Other social movements, such as the first-wave feminist, moral reform, and temperance movements were also instrumental in Vancouver's development. Mary Ellen Smith, a Vancouver suffragist and prohibitionist, became the first woman elected to a provincial legislature in Canada in 1918.BOOK, Robin, Martin, The Rush for Spoils: The Company Province,, McClelland and Stewart, 1972, Toronto, 172, 978-0-7710-7675-6, Alcohol prohibition began in the First World War and lasted until 1921, when the provincial government established control over alcohol sales, a practice still in place today.BOOK, Robin, Martin, The Rush for Spoils: The Company Province,, McClelland and Stewart, 1972, Toronto, 187–188, 978-0-7710-7675-6, Canada's first drug law came about following an inquiry conducted by the federal minister of Labour and future prime minister, William Lyon Mackenzie King. King was sent to investigate damages claims resulting from a riot when the Asiatic Exclusion League led a rampage through Chinatown and Japantown. Two of the claimants were opium manufacturers, and after further investigation, King found that white women were reportedly frequenting opium dens as well as Chinese men. A federal law banning the manufacture, sale, and importation of opium for non-medicinal purposes was soon passed based on these revelations.JOURNAL, Catherine, Carstairs, 'Hop Heads' and 'Hypes':Drug Use, Regulation and Resistance in Canada,, University of Toronto, 2000,weblink PDF, June 9, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071201195420weblink">weblink December 1, 2007, live, These riots, and the formation of the Asiatic Exclusion League, also act as signs of a growing fear and mistrust towards the Japanese living in Vancouver and throughout BC. These fears were exacerbated by the attack on Pearl Harbor leading to the eventual internment or deportation of all Japanese-Canadians living in the city and the province.BOOK, Roy, Patricia E., Mutual Hostages: Canadians and Japanese during the Second World War, 1990, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, 0-8020-5774-8, 103, After the war, these Japanese-Canadian men and women were not allowed to return to cities like Vancouver causing areas, like the aforementioned Japantown, to cease to be ethnically Japanese areas as the communities never revived.BOOK, La Violette, Forrest E., The Canadian Japanese and World War II, 1948, University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, v, Amalgamation with Point Grey and South Vancouver gave the city its final boundaries not long before it became the third-largest metropolis in the country. As of January 1, 1929, the population of the enlarged Vancouver was 228,193.BOOK, Francis, Daniel, L.D.:Mayor Louis Taylor and the Rise of Vancouver, Arsenal Pulp Press, 2004, Vancouver, 135, 978-1-55152-156-5,

Geography

(File:Vancouver by Sentinel-2.jpg|left|thumb|Satellite image of Vancouver){{Further|List of bodies of water in Vancouver|Lower Mainland Ecoregion}}Located on the Burrard Peninsula, Vancouver lies between Burrard Inlet to the north and the Fraser River to the south. The Strait of Georgia, to the west, is shielded from the Pacific Ocean by Vancouver Island. The city has an area of {{convert|114|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}}, including both flat and hilly ground, and is in the Pacific Time Zone (UTC−8) and the Pacific Maritime Ecozone.WEB, Pacific Maritime Ecozone, Environment Canada,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040621163804weblink">weblink June 21, 2004, April 11, 2005, December 1, 2009, dead, Until the city's naming in 1885, "Vancouver" referred to Vancouver Island, and it remains a common misconception that the city is located on the island.WEB,weblink Vancouver Is Not On Vancouver Island, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111105042253weblink">weblink November 5, 2011, WEB,weblink Vancouver Island – "Victoria Island" and other Misconceptions, June 7, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110905043543weblink">weblink September 5, 2011, live, The island and the city are both named after Royal Navy Captain George Vancouver (as is the city of Vancouver, Washington in the United States).Vancouver has one of the largest urban parks in North America, Stanley Park, which covers {{convert|404.9|ha|acre}}.WEB, World66 – Vancouver Travel Guide,weblink World 66, October 18, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060513001153weblink">weblink May 13, 2006, dead, The North Shore Mountains dominate the cityscape, and on a clear day, scenic vistas include the snow-capped volcano Mount Baker in the state of Washington to the southeast, Vancouver Island across the Strait of Georgia to the west and southwest, and Bowen Island to the northwest.WEB, About Vancouver, City of Vancouver,weblink November 17, 2009, December 1, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101201103409weblink">weblink December 1, 2010, live,

Ecology

The vegetation in the Vancouver area was originally temperate rain forest, consisting of conifers with scattered pockets of maple and alder, and large areas of swampland (even in upland areas, due to poor drainage).WEB, Stanley Park History,weblink City of Vancouver, 2009, December 1, 2009,weblink August 23, 2011, live, The conifers were a typical coastal British Columbia mix of Douglas fir, Western red cedar, and Western Hemlock.WEB, "Lower Mainland Ecoregion": Narrative Descriptions of Terrestrial Ecozones and Ecoregions of Canada (#196),weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070127133028weblink">weblink January 27, 2007, Environment Canada, December 4, 2009, dead, The area is thought to have had the largest trees of these species on the British Columbia Coast. Only in Elliott Bay, Seattle did the size of trees rival those of Burrard Inlet and English Bay. The largest trees in Vancouver's old-growth forest were in the Gastown area, where the first logging occurred, and on the southern slopes of False Creek and English Bay, especially around Jericho Beach. The forest in Stanley Park was logged between the 1860s and 1880s, and evidence of old-fashioned logging techniques such as springboard notches can still be seen there.WEB,weblink Stanley Park: Forest – Monument Trees, City of Vancouver, 2009, December 1, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101201164108weblink">weblink December 1, 2010, live, Many plants and trees growing throughout Vancouver and the Lower Mainland were imported from other parts of the continent and from points across the Pacific. Examples include the monkey puzzle tree, the Japanese Maple, and various flowering exotics, such as magnolias, azaleas, and rhododendrons. Some species imported from harsher climates in Eastern Canada or Europe have grown to immense sizes. The native Douglas Maple can also attain a tremendous size. Many of the city's streets are lined with flowering varieties of Japanese cherry trees donated from the 1930s onward by the government of Japan. These flower for several weeks in early spring each year, an occasion celebrated by the Vancouver Cherry Blossom Festival. Other streets are lined with flowering chestnut, horse chestnut, and other decorative shade trees.WEB, History,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090503001521weblink">weblink May 3, 2009, Vancouver Cherry Blossom Festival, 2009, November 30, 2009, dead,

Climate

{{climate chart| Vancouver 6.9 | 168.4 8.2 | 104.6 10.3 | 113.9 13.2 | 88.5 16.7 | 65.0 19.6 | 53.8 22.2 | 35.6 22.2 | 36.7 18.9 | 50.9 13.5 | 120.8 9.2 | 188.9 6.3 | 161.9|float=right|date=September 12, 2017 }}Vancouver is one of Canada's warmest cities in the winter. Vancouver's climate is temperate by Canadian standards and is classified as oceanic or marine west coast, which under the Köppen climate classification system is classified as Cfb that borders on a warm summer Mediterranean Climate Csb. While during summer months the inland temperatures are significantly higher, Vancouver has the coolest summer average high of all major Canadian metropolitan areas. The summer months are typically dry, with an average of only one in five days during July and August receiving precipitation. In contrast, there is some precipitation during nearly half the days from November through March.WEB,weblink Station Results: Vancouver City Hall, 1971–2000, Environment Canada, November 21, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120609134613weblink">weblink June 9, 2012, Vancouver is also one of the wettest Canadian cities. However, precipitation varies throughout the metropolitan area. Annual precipitation as measured at Vancouver International Airport in Richmond averages {{convert|1,189|mm|in|abbr=on}}, compared with {{convert|1588|mm|abbr=on}} in the downtown area and {{convert|2044|mm|abbr=on}} in North Vancouver.WEB,weblink Station Results | Canada's National Climate Archive, climate.weatheroffice.gc.ca, Environment Canada, February 4, 2013, February 27, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130511224616weblink">weblink May 11, 2013, WEB,weblink Station Results | Canada's National Climate Archive, climate.weatheroffice.gc.ca, Environment Canada, February 4, 2013, February 27, 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130512003233weblink">weblink May 12, 2013, The daily maximum averages {{convert|22|°C|°F|abbr=on}} in July and August, with highs rarely reaching {{convert|30|°C|°F|abbr=on}}.The highest temperature ever recorded at the airport was {{convert|34.4|°C|°F|abbr=on}} set on July 30, 2009,NEWS, Temperature record broken in Lower Mainland – again,weblink CBC News, July 30, 2009, June 9, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100327002624weblink">weblink March 27, 2010, and the highest temperature ever recorded within the city of Vancouver was {{convert|35.0|°C|°F|abbr=on}} occurring first on July 31, 1965,WEB, Weather Data – Vancouver Kitsilano, Environment Canada,weblink January 21, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161009123726weblink">weblink October 9, 2016, live, again on August 8, 1981,WEB, Weather Data – Vancouver Dunbar South, Environment Canada,weblink January 21, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161009123357weblink">weblink October 9, 2016, live, and finally on May 29, 1983.WEB, Weather Data – Vancouver Wales St, Environment Canada,weblink January 21, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161009130706weblink">weblink October 9, 2016, live, The coldest temperature ever recorded in the city was {{convert|-17.8|°C|0}} on January 14, 1950WEB, Weather Data – VANCOUVER INT'L A, Environment Canada,weblink March 17, 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180318054927weblink">weblink March 18, 2018, live, and again on December 29, 1968.WEB, Weather Data – VANCOUVER INT'L A, Environment Canada,weblink March 17, 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180318054154weblink">weblink March 18, 2018, live, On average, snow falls on nine days per year, with three days receiving {{convert|5|cm|in|abbr=on}} or more. Average yearly snowfall is {{convert|38.1|cm|in|abbr=on}} but typically does not remain on the ground for long.Winters in Greater Vancouver are the fourth-mildest of Canadian cities after nearby Victoria, Nanaimo and Duncan, all on Vancouver Island.WEB, Weather Winners – Mildest Winters, Environment Canada,weblink June 9, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111125151335weblink">weblink November 25, 2011, Vancouver's growing season averages 237 days, from March 18 until November 10.WEB, Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010 Station Data, Environment Canada,weblink January 15, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150226212930weblink">weblink February 26, 2015, live, Vancouver's 1981–2010 USDA Plant Hardiness Zone ranges from 8A to 9A depending on elevation and proximity to water.WEB, Plant Hardiness Zones 1981–2010, Natural Resources Canada,weblink January 15, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150416235706weblink">weblink April 16, 2015, live, {{Clear}}{{Vancouver weatherbox}}

Cityscape

Urban planning

File:Vancouver aerial view.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Aerial view of Downtown VancouverDowntown Vancouver{{As of|2011}}, Vancouver is the most densely populated city in Canada. Urban planning in Vancouver is characterized by high-rise residential and mixed-use development in urban centres, as an alternative to sprawl.WEB, Vancouverism, Canadian Architect,weblink Julie, Bogdanowicz, August 2006, June 9, 2011, As part of the larger Metro Vancouver region, it is influenced by the policy direction of livability as illustrated in Metro Vancouver's Regional Growth Strategy.Vancouver has been ranked one of the most livable cities in the world for more than a decade. {{As of|2010}}, Vancouver has been ranked as having the fourth-highest quality of living of any city on Earth.NEWS, Quality of Living worldwide city rankings 2010 – Mercer survey, Mercer, May 26, 2010,weblink April 22, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110725220010weblink">weblink July 25, 2011, live, In contrast, according to Forbes, Vancouver had the sixth-most overpriced real estate market in the world and was second-highest in North America after Los Angeles in 2007.NEWS, August 24, 2007, World's Most Overpriced Real Estate Markets, Forbes, Matt, Woolsey,weblink November 29, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091120054510weblink">weblink November 20, 2009, live, Vancouver has also been ranked among Canada's most expensive cities in which to live. Sales in February 2016 were 56.3% higher than the 10-year average for the month.WEB,weblink Metro Vancouver home buyers set a record pace in February, March 10, 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160311082733weblink">weblink March 11, 2016, NEWS, Tann, vom Hove, City Mayors: World's most expensive cities (EIU), City Mayors Economics, June 17, 2008,weblink March 30, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100316150554weblink">weblink March 16, 2010, live, NEWS, Eric, Beauchesne, Toronto pegged as priciest place to live in Canada, The Vancouver Sun, June 24, 2006,weblink November 29, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091227122715weblink">weblink December 27, 2009, Forbes has also ranked Vancouver as the tenth-cleanest city in the world.NEWS, April 16, 2007, Which Are The World's Cleanest Cities?, Forbes, Robert, Malone,weblink December 5, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091130200233weblink">weblink November 30, 2009, live, Vancouver's characteristic approach to urban planning originated in the late 1950s, when city planners began to encourage the building of high-rise residential towers in Vancouver's West End,NEWS, Some things worked: The best – or worst – planning decisions made in the Lower Mainland, Frances, Bula,weblink Vancouver Sun, September 6, 2007, December 4, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110604123009weblink">weblink June 4, 2011, subject to strict requirements for setbacks and open space to protect sight lines and preserve green space. The success of these dense but liveable neighbourhoods led to the redevelopment of urban industrial sites, such as North False Creek and Coal Harbour, beginning in the mid-1980s. The result is a compact urban core that has gained international recognition for its "high amenity and 'livable' development".BOOK, Hutton, T., The New Economy of the Inner City, Routledge, 2008, London & New York, 978-0-415-77134-4, Google Books link {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160501101835weblink |date=May 1, 2016 }} In 2006, the city launched a planning initiative entitled EcoDensity, with the stated goal of exploring ways in which "density, design, and land use can contribute to environmental sustainability, affordability, and livability".WEB, Vancouver EcoDensity Initiative,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090513201310weblink">weblink May 13, 2009, City of Vancouver, July 3, 2009, dead, {{wide image|Vancouver panorama stanleypark.jpg|1000px|Vancouver skyline from Stanley Park}}

Architecture

{{Anchor|Culture}}File:Robson Square Vancouver 02.JPG|thumb|left|Robson Square is a civic centre and public square designed by local architect Arthur EricksonArthur EricksonThe Vancouver Art Gallery is housed downtown in the neoclassical former courthouse built in 1906. The courthouse building was designed by Francis Rattenbury, who also designed the British Columbia Parliament Buildings and the Empress Hotel in Victoria, and the lavishly decorated second Hotel Vancouver.WEB, Davis, Chuck,weblink Rattenbury, The History of Metropolitan Vancouver, November 23, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070103045039weblink">weblink January 3, 2007, live, The 556-room Hotel Vancouver, opened in 1939 and the third by that name, is across the street with its copper roof. The Gothic-style Christ Church Cathedral, across from the hotel, opened in 1894 and was declared a heritage building in 1976.There are several modern buildings in the downtown area, including the Harbour Centre, the Vancouver Law Courts and surrounding plaza known as Robson Square (designed by Arthur Erickson) and the Vancouver Library Square (designed by Moshe Safdie and DA Architects), reminiscent of the Colosseum in Rome, and the recently completed Woodward's building Redevelopment (designed by Henriquez Partners Architects).The original BC Hydro headquarters building (designed by Ron Thom and Ned Pratt) at Nelson and Burrard Streets is a modernist high-rise, now converted into the Electra condominia.The Electra, at vancouver.ca {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20050123162421weblink |date=January 23, 2005 }} Also notable is the "concrete waffle" of the MacMillan Bloedel building on the north-east corner of the Georgia and Thurlow intersection.File:Living Shangri-La from One Wall Centre.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Completed in 2008, Living Shangri-La is the tallest building in Vancouver.]]A prominent addition to the city's landscape is the giant tent-frame Canada Place (designed by Zeidler Roberts Partnership Partnership, MCMP & DA Architects), the former Canada Pavilion from the 1986 World Exposition, which includes part of the Convention Centre, the Pan-Pacific Hotel, and a cruise ship terminal. Two modern buildings that define the southern skyline away from the downtown area are City Hall and the Centennial Pavilion of Vancouver General Hospital, both designed by Townley and Matheson in 1936 and 1958, respectively.WEB,weblink Townley, Matheson and Partners, Archives Association of British Columbia, 2009, November 30, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110728104509weblink">weblink July 28, 2011, BOOK, Kalman, Harold, Exploring Vancouver: Ten Tours of the City and its Buildings, University of British Columbia Press, 1974, Vancouver, 160–161, 978-0-7748-0028-0, A collection of Edwardian buildings in the city's old downtown core were, in their day, the tallest commercial buildings in the British Empire. These were, in succession, the Carter-Cotton Building (former home of The Vancouver Province newspaper), the Dominion Building (1907) and the Sun Tower (1911), the former two at Cambie and Hastings Streets and the latter at Beatty and Pender Streets.The Sun Tower's cupola was finally exceeded as the Empire's tallest commercial building by the elaborate Art Deco Marine Building in the 1920s.BOOK, Kalman, Harold, Exploring Vancouver: Ten Tours of the City and its Buildings, University of British Columbia Press, 1974, Vancouver, 22, 24, 78, 978-0-7748-0028-0, The Marine Building is known for its elaborate ceramic tile facings and brass-gilt doors and elevators, which make it a favourite location for movie shoots.WEB,weblink Marine Building, Archiseek, November 23, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110429045540weblink">weblink April 29, 2011, live, Topping the list of tallest buildings in Vancouver is Living Shangri-La at {{convert|201|m|ft}}WEB,weblink Living Shangri-La, Emporis Buildings, November 30, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101224224609weblink">weblink December 24, 2010, live, and 62 storeys. The second-tallest building in Vancouver is the Trump International Hotel and Tower at {{convert|188|m|ft}}, followed by the Private Residences at Hotel Georgia, at {{convert|156|m|ft}}. The fourth-tallest is One Wall Centre at {{convert|150|m|ft}}WEB,weblink Vancouver High-rise buildings (in ft), Emporis Buildings, February 6, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070930012745weblink">weblink September 30, 2007, live, and 48 storeys, followed closely by the Shaw Tower at {{convert|149|m|ft}}.{{clear}}

Demographics

{{update section|date=September 2018}}{{Historical populationsdate=April 2018}}|type = Canada|align = right|width =|state =|shading =|percentages =|footnote =1370926133Canada 1911 Census>1911|100401117217246593275353344833365844384522410375426256410188414281431147471644Canada 1996 Census>1996|514008Canada 2001 Census>2001|545671Canada 2006 Census>2006|578041Canada 2011 Census>2011|603502Canada 2016 Census>2016|631486}}File:Vancouver Chinatown 16.JPG|thumb|Vancouver's Chinatown is Canada's largest ChinatownChinatownThe 2016 census recorded more than 631,000 people in the city, making it the eighth-largest among Canadian cities. More specifically, Vancouver is the fourth-largest in Western Canada after Calgary, Edmonton and Winnipeg.WEB,weblink Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, census metropolitan areas, census agglomerations and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2011 and 2006 censuses, Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics, www12.statcan.gc.ca, July 21, 2017,weblink June 25, 2013, live, The metropolitan area referred to as Greater Vancouver, with more than 2.4{{nbsp}}million residents, is the third-most populous metropolitan area in the country and the most populous in Western Canada. The larger Lower Mainland-Southwest economic region (which includes also the Squamish-Lillooet, Fraser Valley, and Sunshine Coast Regional District) has a population of over 2.93{{nbsp}}million.WEB, Canada 2011 Census Lower Mainland Economic Region,weblink February 19, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120722160951weblink">weblink July 22, 2012, live, With 5,249 people per square km (13,590 per sq mi), the City of Vancouver is the most densely populated of Canadian municipalities having more than 5,000 residents. Approximately 74 percent of the people living in Metro Vancouver live outside the city.Vancouver has been called a "city of neighbourhoods". Each neighbourhood in Vancouver has a distinct character and ethnic mix.JOURNAL, Thomas R., Berger, A City of Neighbourhoods: Report of the 2004 Vancouver Electoral Reform Commission, City of Vancouver, June 8, 2004,weblink PDF, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111125152652weblink">weblink November 25, 2011, People of English, Scottish, and Irish origins were historically the largest ethnic groups in the city,WEB,weblink Population by selected ethnic origins, by census metropolitan areas (2006 Census), Statistics Canada, 2006, December 1, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110115171531weblink">weblink January 15, 2011, and elements of British society and culture are still visible in some areas, particularly South Granville and Kerrisdale. Germans are the next-largest European ethnic group in Vancouver and were a leading force in the city's society and economy until the rise of anti-German sentiment with the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Today the Chinese are the largest visible ethnic group in the city, with a diverse Chinese-speaking community, and several dialects, including Cantonese and Mandarin.WEB, Visible minorities (2006 census),weblink Statistics Canada, December 1, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110810205754weblink">weblink August 10, 2011, Neighbourhoods with distinct ethnic commercial areas include the Chinatown, Punjabi Market, Little Italy, Greektown, and (formerly) Japantown.Since the 1980s, immigration has drastically increased, making the city more ethnically and linguistically diverse; 53% do not speak English as their first language.WEB, Census Profile 2016 Census Greater Vancouver, Statistics Canada,weblink October 2, 2018,weblink October 2, 2018, live, Almost 30% of the city's inhabitants are of Chinese heritage.WEB,weblink Visible minority, Statistics Canada, July 24, 2009, June 9, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110727235419weblink">weblink July 27, 2011, live, In the 1980s, an influx of immigrants from Hong Kong in anticipation of the transfer of sovereignty from the United Kingdom to China, combined with an increase in immigrants from mainland China and previous immigrants from Taiwan, established in Vancouver one of the highest concentrations of ethnic Chinese residents in North America.WEB, Miro, Cernetig,weblink Chinese Vancouver: A decade of change, Vancouver Sun, Canada, June 30, 2007, January 25, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110721180032weblink">weblink July 21, 2011, This arrival of Asian immigrants continued a tradition of immigration from around the world that had established Vancouver as the second-most popular destination for immigrants in Canada after Toronto.WEB, Canada's ethnocultural portrait: Canada, Statistics Canada, 2001,weblink January 28, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070202013310weblink">weblink February 2, 2007, live, Other significant Asian ethnic groups in Vancouver are South and West Asian (7.4%), Filipino (5.9%), Japanese (1.7%), Korean (1.5%), as well as sizeable communities of Vietnamese, Indonesians, and Cambodians.WEB, Census Profile 2016 Census Greater Vancouver, Statistics Canada,weblink October 2, 2018,weblink December 10, 2018, live, Despite increases in Latin American immigration to Vancouver in the 1980s and 1990s, recent immigration has been comparatively low, and African immigration has been similarly stagnant (3.6% and 3.3% of total immigrant population, respectively).Hiebert, D., (June 2009). "The Economic Integration of Immigrants in Metropolitan Vancouver". IRPPChoices 15 (7), p. 6. Retrieved July 13, 2009. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121130181145weblink |date=November 30, 2012 }} The black population of Vancouver is rather scant in comparison to other Canadian major cities, making up 0.9% of the city. Hogan's Alley, a small area adjacent to Chinatown, just off Main Street at Prior, was once home to a significant black community. The neighbourhood of Strathcona was the core of the city's Jewish community.Sarah-Jane (Saje) Mathieu, "North of the Colour Line: Sleeping Car Porters and the Battle Against Jim Crow on Canadian Rails,1880–1920" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120609091627weblink |date=June 9, 2012 }}, Labour/Le Travail no. 47 (Spring 2001).Accessed 2006-09-27. {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070930171154weblink |date=September 30, 2007}} City of Vancouver Community Profiles In 1981, less than 7% of the population belonged to a visible minority group.WEB, Visible Minorities and Aboriginal Peoples in Vancouver's Labour Market,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081016204636weblink">weblink October 16, 2008, Krishna, Pendakur, December 13, 2005, Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, January 24, 2010, dead, By 2016, this proportion had grown to 57%.WEB, Census Profile 2016 Census Greater Vancouver, Statistics Canada,weblink October 2, 2018,weblink December 10, 2018, live, Prior to the Hong Kong diaspora of the 1990s, the largest non-British ethnic groups in the city were Irish and German, followed by Scandinavian, Italian, Ukrainian and Chinese. From the mid-1950s until the 1980s, many Portuguese immigrants came to Vancouver and the city had the third-largest Portuguese population in Canada in 2001.WEB, Henrique, Santos, Portuguese-Canadians and Their Academic Underachievement in High School in British Columbia: The Case of an Invisible Minority,weblink 2006, Simon Fraser University, May 23, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110613034148weblink">weblink June 13, 2011, Eastern Europeans, including Russians, Czechs, Poles, Romanians and Hungarians began immigrating after the Soviet takeover of Eastern Europe after World War II. Greek immigration increased in the late 1960s and early '70s, with most settling in the Kitsilano area. Vancouver also has a significant aboriginal community of about 11,000 people.WEB, Community Highlights for Vancouver,weblink February 1, 2007, Statistics Canada, January 24, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090214111125weblink">weblink February 14, 2009, live, Vancouver has a large LGBT communityNEWS, Gay U.S. couples can't get divorces for Canadian marriages,weblink September 25, 2009, CBC News, January 24, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090929083016weblink">weblink September 29, 2009, focused on the West End neighbourhood lining a certain stretch of Davie Street, recently officially designated as Davie Village,WEB, Gay clubs build community in Vancouver,weblink Matthew, Burrows, July 31, 2008, The Georgia Straight, June 9, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111127224034weblink">weblink November 27, 2011, live, though the gay community is omnipresent throughout West End and Yaletown areas. Vancouver is host to one of the country's largest annual LGBT pride parades.WEB, Milk protégé praises Vancouver Pride celebration, Andrew, Weichel, CTV News,weblink August 2, 2009, June 9, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110810060032weblink">weblink August 10, 2011, live, {{Pie chart
| caption=Pie chart of the ethnic breakdown of Vancouver from the 2016 census
| label1 = European
| value1 = 47.2
| color1 = white
| label2 = Chinese
| value2 = 26.5
| color2 = yellow
| label3 = South Asian
| value3 = 6
| color3 = darkgreen
| label4 = Filipino
| value4 = 5.8
| color4 = orange
| label5 = Southeast Asian
| value5 = 2.7
| color5 = blue
| label6 = Aboriginal
| value6 = 2.1
| color6 = red
| label7 = Latin American
| value7 = 1.7
| color7 = brown
| label8 = Japanese
| value8 = 1.6
| color8 = tan
| label9 = Korean
| value9 = 1.5
| color9 = magenta
| label10= West Asian
| value10= 1.4
| color10= purple
| label11= Black
| value11= 1
| color11= indigo
| label12= Arab
| value12= 0.5
| color12= green
| label13= Multiple visible minorities
| value13= 1.8
| color13= grey
| label14= Visible minority not included elsewhere
| value14= 0.2
| color14= pink
}}{| class="wikitable"! colspan="2" | Canada 2016 Census!! Population !! % of Total Population Visible minority groupSource:CENSUS PROFILE, 2016 CENSUS VANCOUVER, CITY [CENSUS SUBDIVISION], BRITISH COLUMBIA AND CANADA [COUNTRY]>PUBLISHER=STATISTICS CANADAACCESS-DATE=JULY 23, 2019ARCHIVE-DATE=NOVEMBER 3, 2018, live, Chinese Canadian>Chinese 167,180 {{Percentage 630150| 1}}South Asian Canadian>South Asian 37,130 {{Percentage 618210 | 1}}Filipino Canadian>Filipino 36,460 {{Percentage 630150 | 1}}Southeast Asian> 17120 1}}Latin American Canadian>Latin American 10,935 {{Percentage 630150 | 1}}Japanese Canadians>Japanese 10,315 {{Percentage 630150 | 1}}Korean Canadian>Korean 9,360 {{Percentage 630150 | 1}}Western Asia>West Asian 8,630 {{Percentage 630150 | 1}}Black Canadians>Black 6,345 {{Percentage 630150 | 1}}Arab Canadians>Arab 2,965 {{Percentage 630150 | 1}} 1500 1}}Multiracial>Mixed visible minority 11,070 {{Percentage 630150 | 1}} Total visible minority population 319,010 '''{{Percentage 630150| 1}}''' Aboriginal peoples in Canada groupSource:HTTPS://WWW12.STATCAN.GC.CA/CENSUS-RECENSEMENT/2016/DP-PD/PROF/DETAILS/PAGE.CFM?LANG=E&GEO1=CSD&CODE1=5915022&GEO2=CD&CODE2=5915&DATA=COUNT&SEARCHTEXT=VANCOUVER&SEARCHTYPE=BEGINS&SEARCHPR=01&B1=ABORIGINAL%20PEOPLES&TABID=1 PUBLISHER=STATISTICS CANADA ACCESSDATE=NOVEMBER 14, 2018 ARCHIVE-DATE=NOVEMBER 16, 2018 First Nations > 8930 1}}Métis people (Canada)>Métis 4,405 {{Percentage 630150 | 1}}Inuit > 105 1}} Total Aboriginal population 13,440 '''{{Percentage 630150 | 1}}''' European CanadianSource:HTTPS://WWW12.STATCAN.GC.CA/CENSUS-RECENSEMENT/2016/DP-PD/PROF/DETAILS/PAGE.CFM?LANG=E&GEO1=CSD&CODE1=5915022&GEO2=CD&CODE2=5915&DATA=COUNT&SEARCHTEXT=VANCOUVER&SEARCHTYPE=BEGINS&SEARCHPR=01&B1=ETHNIC%20ORIGIN&TABID=1 >TITLE=CENSUS PROFILE, 2016 CENSUS ETHNIC ORIGIN POPULATION DATE=APRIL 24, 2018 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20181117130712/HTTPS://WWW12.STATCAN.GC.CA/CENSUS-RECENSEMENT/2016/DP-PD/PROF/DETAILS/PAGE.CFM?LANG=E&GEO1=CSD&CODE1=5915022&GEO2=CD&CODE2=5915&DATA=COUNT&SEARCHTEXT=VANCOUVER&SEARCHTYPE=BEGINS&SEARCHPR=01&B1=ETHNIC%20ORIGIN&TABID=1 URL-STATUS=LIVE, 297,700 '''{{Percentage 630150 | 1}}''' Total population 630,150100%

Economy

With its location on the Pacific Rim and at the western terminus of Canada's transcontinental highway and rail routes, Vancouver is one of the nation's largest industrial centres. Port Metro Vancouver, Canada's largest and most diversified port, does more than C$172{{nbsp}}billion in trade with over 160 different trading economies annually. Port activities generate $9.7{{nbsp}}billion in gross domestic product and $20.3{{nbsp}}billion in economic output.WEB,weblink Port Metro Vancouver, Port Metro Vancouver, June 4, 2013, March 1, 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100210012845weblink">weblink February 10, 2010, Vancouver is also the headquarters of forest product and mining companies. In recent years, Vancouver has become a centre for software development, biotechnology, aerospace, video game development, animation studios and television production and film industry.WEB,weblink Economy, World New Network, Vancouver WN City Guide, July 11, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100131015805weblink">weblink January 31, 2010, live, Vancouver hosts approximately 65 movies and 55 TV series annually and is the 3rd largest film & TV production centre in North America, supporting 20,000 jobs.WEB,weblink Film and Television Production in Vancouver, Vancouver Economic Commission, March 12, 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180313092942weblink">weblink March 13, 2018, live, The city's strong focus on lifestyle and health culture also makes it a hub for many lifestyle brands with Lululemon, Arc'teryx, Kit and Ace, Mountain Equipment Co-op, Herschel Supply Co., Aritzia, Reigning Champ, and Nature's Path Foods all founded and headquartered in Vancouver. Vancouver was also the birthplace of 1-800-GOT-JUNK? and Western Canada's largest online-only publication, Daily Hive.WEB,weblink Discovery Series: Exclusive Roundtable and Office Tour with Daily Hive Vancouver, Greater Vancouver Board of Trade, January 28, 2019,weblink November 29, 2018, live, File:PortOVan.jpg|thumb|left|The Port of Vancouver is the largest port in Canada, and the third-largest port in the Americas (by tonnage).]]Vancouver's scenic location makes it a major tourist destination. Over 10.3{{nbsp}}million people visited Vancouver in 2017. Annually, tourism contributes approximately $4.8{{nbsp}}billion to the Metro Vancouver economy and supports over 70,000 jobs.WEB,weblink Fast Facts about Vancouver's Tourist Industry, Tourism Vancouver, March 12, 2018,weblink March 13, 2018, live, Many visit to see the city's gardens, Stanley Park, Queen Elizabeth Park, VanDusen Botanical Garden and the mountains, ocean, forest and parklands which surround the city. Each year over a million people pass through Vancouver on cruise ship vacations, often bound for Alaska.Vancouver is the most stressed city in the spectrum of affordability of housing in Canada.REPORT, RBC Economics, May 2012, Housing Trends and Affordability,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060813174549weblink">weblink August 13, 2006, In 2012, Vancouver was ranked by Demographia as the second-most unaffordable city in the world, rated as even more severely unaffordable in 2012 than in 2011.REPORT,weblink 8th Annual Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey: 2012 Ratings for Metropolitan Markets, 2012, Wendell, Cox, Hugh, Pavletich, PDF, June 5, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130123080849weblink">weblink January 23, 2013, live, NEWS, Frances, Bula, Vancouver is 13th least affordable city in world, Vancouver Sun, January 22, 2007,weblink January 25, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100717113449weblink">weblink July 17, 2010, WEB,weblink Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey: 2006, Wendell Cox Consultancy, November 12, 2006, PDF,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061111074531weblink">weblink November 11, 2006, live, WEB, Housing Affordability,weblink RBC Financial Group, September 27, 2006, PDF, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060813174549weblink">weblink August 13, 2006, The city has adopted various strategies to reduce housing costs, including cooperative housing, legalized secondary suites, increased density and smart growth. As of April 2010, the average two-level home in Vancouver sold for a record high of $987,500, compared with the Canadian average of $365,141.WEB, Survey of Vancouver housing price increase exceeds rest of Canada, BIV Daily Business News, April 9, 2010,weblink April 28, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110728024337weblink">weblink July 28, 2011, A factor explaining the high property prices may be policies by the Canadian government which permit snow washing, which allows foreigners to buy property in Canada while shielding their identities from tax authorities, making real estate transactions an effective way to conduct money laundering.WEB, January 4, 2018, The Economist,weblink Snow washing: Canada frets about anonymously owned firms – Identity checks to obtain a library card are more onerous than those to form a private firm, February 14, 2018, ... 2009 the national police force estimated that up to C$15bn ($12bn) was being laundered in the country each year (an estimated annual $2trn is laundered globally). ...,weblink February 15, 2018, live, Since the 1990s, development of high-rise condominia in the downtown peninsula has been financed, in part, by an inflow of capital from Hong Kong immigrants due to the former colony's 1997 handover to China.WEB, Ayesha, Bhatty, Canada prepares for an Asian future, BBC News, May 25, 2012,weblink May 29, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120529001447weblink">weblink May 29, 2012, live, Such development has clustered in the Yaletown and Coal Harbour districts and around many of the SkyTrain stations to the east of the downtown. The city's selection to co-host the 2010 Winter Olympics was also a major influence on economic development. Concern was expressed that Vancouver's increasing homelessness problem would be exacerbated by the Olympics because owners of single room occupancy hotels, which house many of the city's lowest income residents, converted their properties to attract higher income residents and tourists.NEWS, Homelessness could triple by 2010: report, CBC News, September 21, 2006,weblink January 25, 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090613000122weblink">weblink June 13, 2009, Another significant international event held in Vancouver, the 1986 World Exposition, received over 20{{nbsp}}million visitors and added $3.7{{nbsp}}billion to the Canadian economy.WEB,weblink Expo 86, September 9, 2012, O'Leary, Kim Patrick, The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica-Dominion, 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111228071533weblink">weblink December 28, 2011, Some still-standing Vancouver landmarks, including the SkyTrain public transit system and Canada Place, were built as part of the exposition.

Government

(File:Stadtgliederung Vancouver 2008.png|thumb|23 official neighbourhoods of Vancouver|alt=)Vancouver, unlike other British Columbia municipalities, is incorporated under the Vancouver Charter.WEB,weblink Vancouver Charter, Queen's Printer, November 18, 2009, November 29, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110706165944weblink">weblink July 6, 2011, live, The legislation, passed in 1953, supersedes the Vancouver Incorporation Act, 1921 and grants the city more and different powers than other communities possess under BC's Municipalities Act.The civic government was dominated by the centre-right Non-Partisan Association (NPA) since World War II, albeit with some significant centre-left interludes until 2008. The NPA fractured over the issue of drug policy in 2002, facilitating a landslide victory for the Coalition of Progressive Electors (COPE) on a harm reduction platform. Subsequently, North America's only legal safe injection site was opened for the significant number of intravenous heroin users in the city.NEWS,weblink Vancouver Insite drug-injection facility can stay open, BBC News, September 30, 2011, September 30, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110930151624weblink">weblink September 30, 2011, live, Vancouver is governed by the eleven-member Vancouver City Council, a nine-member School Board, and a seven-member Park Board, all of whom serve four-year terms. Unusually for a city of Vancouver's size, all municipal elections are on an at-large basis. Historically, in all levels of government, the more affluent west side of Vancouver has voted along conservative or liberal lines while the eastern side of the city has voted along left-wing lines.JOURNAL, Andrea Barbara, Smith, The Origins of the NPA: A Study in Vancouver Politics, MA thesis, University of British Columbia, 1981, This was reaffirmed with the results of the 2005 provincial election and the 2006 federal election.File:City Hall (6868486297).jpg|thumb|Opened in 1936, Vancouver City Hall is home to Vancouver City CouncilVancouver City CouncilThough polarized, a political consensus has emerged in Vancouver around a number of issues. Protection of urban parks, a focus on the development of rapid transit as opposed to a freeway system, a harm-reduction approach to illegal drug use, and a general concern about community-based development are examples of policies that have come to have broad support across the political spectrum in Vancouver.{{citation needed|date=March 2013}}In the 2008 Municipal Election campaign, NPA incumbent mayor Sam Sullivan was ousted as mayoral candidate by the party in a close vote, which instated Peter Ladner as the new mayoral candidate for the NPA. Gregor Robertson, a former MLA for Vancouver-Fairview and head of Happy Planet, was the mayoral candidate for Vision Vancouver, the other main contender. Vision Vancouver candidate Gregor Robertson defeated Ladner by a considerable margin, nearing 20,000 votes. The balance of power was significantly shifted to Vision Vancouver, which held seven of the 10 spots for councillor. Of the remaining three, COPE received two and the NPA one. For park commissioner, four spots went to Vision Vancouver, one to the Green Party, one to COPE, and one to NPA. For school trustee, there were four Vision Vancouver seats, three COPE seats, and two NPA seats.WEB,weblink Vancouver Votes Municipal Election 2008, City of Vancouver, November 29, 2009, In the 2018 Vancouver municipal election, independent Kennedy Stewart was elected mayor of Vancouver.WEB, Zussman, Richard, Ferreras, Jesse, B.C. municipal election 2018: Vancouver results - BC {{!, Globalnews.ca |url=https://globalnews.ca/news/4166537/vancouver-bc-municipal-election-2018/ |website=globalnews.ca |language=en |date=30 June 2018 |access-date=February 12, 2019 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181009090835weblink |archive-date=October 9, 2018 |url-status=live }}Vancouver's budget consists of a capital and an operating component. The 2017 operating budget was $1.323{{nbsp}}billion, while the 2018 operating budget is $1.407{{nbsp}}billion (a year over year increase of 6.4%). The capital budget for 2018 is unchanged from 2017 and stands at $426.4{{nbsp}}million.WEB,weblink Vancouver 2018 Budget Highlights, January 25, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180108232404weblink">weblink January 8, 2018, live, Budget increases are largely funded through increases in property taxes and community amenity contributions imposed in exchange for increases in allowable density as part of the construction permitting process. Utility fees and other user fees have also been increased, but represent a comparatively small portion of Vancouver's overall budget.

Regional government

Vancouver is a member municipality of Metro Vancouver, a regional government. In total there are 22 municipalities, one electoral area and one treaty First Nation comprising Metro Vancouver,WEB,weblink Who is Metro Vancouver, Metro Vancouver, August 9, 2012,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120820020310weblink">weblink August 20, 2012, live, the regional government whose seat is in Burnaby. While each member of Metro Vancouver has its own separate local governing body, Metro Vancouver oversees common services and planning functions within the area such as providing drinking water; operating sewage and solid waste handling; maintaining regional parks; overseeing air quality, greenhouse gases and ecological health; and providing a strategy for regional growth and land use.

Provincial and federal representation

In the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia, Vancouver is represented by 11 Members of the Legislative Assembly (MLAs). As of July 2017, there are three seats held by the BC Liberal Party and eight by the BC New Democratic Party.WEB,weblink MLA Finder, January 30, 2012, Legislative Assembly of British Columbia, July 21, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120112101537weblink">weblink January 12, 2012, In the House of Commons of Canada, Vancouver is represented by six members of Parliament. In the most recent 2015 federal election, the Liberals retained two (Vancouver Quadra and Vancouver Centre) seats and gained another two, while the NDP held on to the two seats (Vancouver East and Vancouver Kingsway), they held at dissolution while the Conservatives were shut out of the city. One current Cabinet minister hails from the city – Vancouver South MP Harjit Sajjan is Minister of National Defence.

Policing and crime

Vancouver operates the Vancouver Police Department, with a strength of 1,327 sworn members and an operating budget of $257.6{{nbsp}}million in 2015.Vancouver Police Department. 2015 Annual Report {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170421040959weblink |date=April 21, 2017 }}. Retrieved March 13, 2017. Over 16% of the city's budget was spent on police protection in 2005.WEB, 2005 Annual Report, City of Vancouver, 2005,weblink PDF, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120419062930weblink">weblink April 19, 2012, File:Vancouver Police.jpg|thumb|Mounted officers of the Vancouver Police Department in Stanley ParkStanley ParkThe Vancouver Police Department's operational divisions include a bicycle squad, a marine squad, and a dog squad. It also has a mounted squad, used primarily to patrol Stanley Park and occasionally the Downtown Eastside and West End, as well as for crowd control.WEB, Mounted Squad: Patrol District One, Vancouver Police Department,weblinkweblink dead, February 21, 2005, January 18, 2005, January 31, 2010, The police work in conjunction with civilian and volunteer run Community Police Centres.WEB, Operations Division, City of Vancouver,weblinkweblink dead, May 17, 2006, January 3, 2006, January 31, 2010, In 2006, the police department established its own Counter Terrorism Unit. In 2005, a new transit police force, the Greater Vancouver Transportation Authority Police Service (now South Coast British Columbia Transportation Authority Police Service), was established with full police powers.Before the legalization of marijuana, Vancouver police generally did not arrest people for possessing small amounts of marijuana.WEB,weblink Getting Dot-Bombed in Vancouver, Jackie, Cohen, Wired, March 31, 2001, January 31, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100211112343weblink">weblink February 11, 2010, live, In 2000 the Vancouver Police Department established a specialized drug squad, "Growbusters", to carry out an aggressive campaign against the city's estimated 4,000 hydroponic marijuana growing operations (or grow-ops) in residential areas.NEWS, Growbusters, CBC News, July 26, 2000,weblink January 17, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070527023833weblink">weblink May 27, 2007, live, As with other law enforcement campaigns targeting marijuana this initiative has been sharply criticized.WEB, Burrows, Mathew, Who You Gonna Call?, The Republic, February 21, 2002,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20080509030322weblink">weblink May 9, 2008, January 31, 2010, dead, {{As of|2008}}, Vancouver had the seventh-highest crime rate, dropping 3 spots since 2005, among Canada's 27 census metropolitan areas.WEB, Police-reported crime statistics, Statistics Canada,weblink July 21, 2009, December 1, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101202233147weblink">weblink December 2, 2010, live, However, as with other Canadian cities, the overall crime rate has been falling "dramatically".WEB,weblink Police-reported Crime Severity Index, Statistics Canada, April 21, 2009, December 1, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110609204246weblink">weblink June 9, 2011, live, Vancouver's property crime rate is particularly high, ranking among the highest for major North American cities.NEWS,weblink September 1, 2006, Vancouver property crime down in 2005, CBC News, June 12, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080430133223weblink">weblink April 30, 2008, But even property crime dropped 10.5% between 2004 and 2005.WEB, Beyond the Call, Annual Report 2005, Vancouver Police Department, 2005,weblink PDF, November 23, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081029053622weblink">weblink October 29, 2008, live, For 2006, Metro Vancouver had the highest rate of gun-related violent crime of any major metropolitan region in Canada, with 45.3 violent offences involving guns for every 100,000 people in Metro Vancouver, above the national average of 27.5.WEB,weblink Gun crime in Metro Vancouver highest per capita in Canada, Canada.com, February 20, 2008, April 26, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090214043459weblink">weblink February 14, 2009, A series of gang-related incidents in early 2009 escalated into what police have dubbed a gang war. Vancouver plays host to special events such as the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation conference, the Clinton-Yeltsin Summit, or the Symphony of Fire fireworks show that require significant policing. The 1994 Stanley Cup riot overwhelmed police and injured as many as 200 people.NEWS,weblink 200 Injured In Vancouver, June 16, 1994, New York Times, July 14, 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080316090306weblink">weblink March 16, 2008, live, A second riot took place following the 2011 Stanley Cup Finals.NEWS,weblink Shocking scenes from the Vancouver Game 7 riots, June 16, 2011, Yahoo!, June 16, 2011, Greg, Wyshynski,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110618112638weblink">weblink June 18, 2011, live,

Military

Jericho Beach in Vancouver is the location of the headquarters of 39 Canadian Brigade Group of the Canadian Army.WEB,weblink Land Force Western Area, National Defence Canada, August 12, 2008, July 17, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090505214307weblink">weblink May 5, 2009, Local primary reserve units include The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada and The British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own), based at the Seaforth Armoury and the Beatty Street Drill Hall, respectively, and the 15th Field Regiment, Royal Canadian Artillery.WEB,weblink Land Force Western Area Units, National Defence Canada, September 30, 2009, July 17, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090506110111weblink">weblink May 6, 2009, The Naval Reserve Unit {{HMCS|Discovery}} is based on Deadman's Island in Stanley Park.WEB,weblink The Naval Reserve: Nearest Units, National Defence Canada, January 29, 2010, July 17, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090225100920weblink">weblink February 25, 2009, RCAF Station Jericho Beach, the first air base in Western Canada, was taken over by the Canadian Army in 1947 when sea planes were replaced by long-range aircraft. Most of the base facilities were transferred to the City of Vancouver in 1969 and the area renamed "Jericho Park".WEB,weblink Jericho Beach Flying Boat Station, Royal Canadian Legion, BC/Yukon Command, July 17, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110706184233weblink">weblink July 6, 2011,

Education

File:Vancouver School Board headquarters, Vancouver, BC.jpg|thumb|Headquarters of the Vancouver School Board. The English-language school district serves Vancouver and the University Endowment LandsUniversity Endowment LandsFile:UBC-Main-Mall2-1650x1050.jpg|thumb|Main mall of the University of British Columbia (UBC). UBC is one of five public universitiespublic universitiesThe Vancouver School Board enrolls more than 110,000 students in its elementary, secondary, and post-secondary institutions, making it the second-largest school district in the province.WEB,weblink About Us, Vancouver School Board, 2011, June 14, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110716060130weblink">weblink July 16, 2011, live, WEB,weblink District Review Report, School District No. 39 Vancouver, PDF, British Columbia Education, 2011, June 14, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111213191614weblink">weblink December 13, 2011, live, The district administers about 76 elementary schools, 17 elementary annexes, 18 secondary schools, 7 adult education centres, 2 Vancouver Learning Network schools,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161114001900weblink">weblink dead, November 14, 2016, VSB webcat, Vancouver School Board, which include 18 French immersion, a Mandarin bilingual, a fine arts, gifted, and Montessori schools. The Conseil scolaire francophone de la Colombie-Britannique operates three Francophone schools in that city: the primary schools école Rose-des-vents and école Anne-Hébert as well as the école secondaire Jules-Verne."Carte des écoles {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150817050550weblink |date=August 17, 2015 }}." Conseil scolaire francophone de la Colombie-Britanique. Retrieved on January 22, 2015. More than 46 independent schools of a wide variety are also eligible for partial provincial funding and educate approximately 10% of pupils in the city.WEB,weblink FISA History, Federation of Independent School Associations, 2011, June 14, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110416105557weblink">weblink April 16, 2011, There are five public universities in the Greater Vancouver area, the largest being the University of British Columbia (UBC) and Simon Fraser University (SFU), with a combined enrolment of more than 90,000 undergraduates, graduates, and professional students in 2008.WEB,weblink About UBC, University of British Columbia, 2011, June 14, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110823164835weblink">weblink August 23, 2011, live, WEB,weblink About SFU, Simon Fraser University, 2011, June 14, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110604092307weblink">weblink June 4, 2011, live, UBC often ranks among the 40 best universities in the world and is among the 20 best public universities.WEB,weblink UBC: Our Place Among the World's Best, UBC, 2011, June 14, 2011, dead,weblink June 7, 2011, SFU consistently ranks as the top comprehensive university in Canada and is among the 200 best universities in the world.WEB,weblink Times Higher Education's The World University Rankings 2010, September 19, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100917234412weblink">weblink September 17, 2010, live, UBC's main campus is located on the tip of Burrard Peninsula, just west of the University Endowment Lands with the city-proper adjacent to the east. SFU's main campus is in Burnaby. Both also maintain campuses in Downtown Vancouver and Surrey.The other public universities in the metropolitan area around Vancouver are Capilano University in North Vancouver, Emily Carr University of Art and Design, and Kwantlen Polytechnic University whose four campuses are all outside the city proper. Six private institutions also operate in the region: Trinity Western University in Langley, UOPX Canada in Burnaby, and University Canada West, NYIT Canada, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Columbia College, and Sprott Shaw College, all in Vancouver.Vancouver Community College and Langara College are publicly funded college-level institutions in Vancouver, as is Douglas College with three campuses outside the city. The British Columbia Institute of Technology in Burnaby provides polytechnic education. These are augmented by private and vocational institutions and other colleges in the surrounding areas of Metro Vancouver that provide career, trade, and university-transfer programs, while the Vancouver Film School provides one-year programs in film production and video game design.WEB,weblink Emily Carr University of Art + Design, Emily Carr University of Art and Design, 2011, June 14, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110604120832weblink">weblink June 4, 2011, live, WEB,weblink Message from the President of Vancouver Film School, James Griffin, Vancouver Film School, 2011, June 14, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101219002454weblink">weblink December 19, 2010, live, International students and English as a Second Language (ESL) students have been significant in the enrolment of these public and private institutions. For the 2008–2009 school year, 53% of Vancouver School Board's students spoke a language other than English at home.

Arts and culture

File:Vancity Theatre.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Opened in 2005, Vancouver International Film Centre houses production rooms and offices for the Vancouver International Film FestivalVancouver International Film Festival

Theatre, dance, film and television

Theatre

Prominent theatre companies in Vancouver include the Arts Club Theatre Company on Granville Island, and Bard on the Beach. Smaller companies include Touchstone Theatre, and Studio 58. The Cultch, The Firehall Arts Centre, United Players, Pacific and Metro Theatres, all run continuous theatre seasons. Theatre Under the Stars produces shows in the summer at Malkin Bowl in Stanley Park. Annual festivals that are held in Vancouver include the PuSh International Performing Arts Festival in January and the Vancouver Fringe Festival in September.The Vancouver Playhouse Theatre Company operated for fifty years, ending in March 2012.Hall, Neal & Lee, Jeff (March 9, 2012)."Vancouver Playhouse Theatre Company to close" {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20181212191928weblink |date=December 12, 2018 }} The Vancouver Sun (Vancouver)

Dance

The Scotiabank Dance Centre, a converted bank building on the corner of Davie and Granville, functions as a gathering place and performance venue for Vancouver-based dancers and choreographers. Dances for a Small Stage is a semi-annual dance festival.

Film

The Vancouver International Film Festival, which runs for two weeks each September, shows over 350 films and is one of the larger film festivals in North America. The Vancouver International Film Centre venue, the Vancity Theatre, runs independent non-commercial films throughout the rest of the year, as do the Pacific Cinémathèque, and the Rio theatres.

Films set in Vancouver

{{Category see also|Films set in Vancouver}}Vancouver has become a major film location,WEB, Vancouver, British Columbia,weblink What's Filming?, December 22, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161222223456weblink">weblink December 22, 2016, live, known as Hollywood North, as it has stood in for several U.S. cities. However, it has started to appear as itself in several feature films. Among (:Category:films set in Vancouver|films set in the city and its surroundings) are the 1994 US thriller Intersection, starring Richard Gere and Sharon Stone; the 2007 Canadian ghost thriller They Wait, starring Terry Chen and Jaime King; and the acclaimed Canadian 'mockumentary' Hard Core Logo, and was named the second-best Canadian film of the last 15 years, in a 2001 poll of 200 industry voters, performed by Playback. Genie Award-winning filmmaker Mina Shum has filmed and set several of her internationally released features in Vancouver, including the Sundance-screened Long Life, Happiness & Prosperity (2002).

Television shows produced in Vancouver

Many past and current TV shows have been filmed and (:Category:Television shows set in Vancouver|set) in Vancouver. The first Canadian prime time national series to be produced out of Vancouver was Cold SquadWEB, Edwards, Ian, On set: Cold Squad,weblink Playback (magazine), Playback, Brunico Communications, September 22, 1997, October 23, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161021131901weblink">weblink October 21, 2016, live, WEB, Edwards, Ian, Groundbreaking cop series takes final bow,weblink Playback (magazine), Playback, Brunico Communications, October 11, 2004, October 23, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160911092438weblink">weblink September 11, 2016, live, and its storyline was also physically set in the city. Other series set in or around the city of Vancouver include Continuum, Da Vinci's Inquest, Danger Bay, Edgemont, Godiva's, Intelligence, Motive, Northwood, (Primeval: New World), Robson Arms, The Romeo Section, Shattered, The Switch, and These Arms of Mine.Television shows (:Category:Television series produced in Vancouver|produced)WEB, Heeb, Emily, Did you know These 20 TV Shows were filmed in Vancouver?,weblink British Columbia Magazine, February 12, 2016, December 22, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170107042643weblink">weblink January 7, 2017, live, (but not set) in Vancouver include 21 Jump Street, The 100, The 4400, Airwolf, Almost Human, Arrow, Backstrom, Caprica, Cedar Cove, Chesapeake Shores, The Commish, Dark Angel, Dirk Gently's Holistic Detective Agency, The Flash, The Good Doctor, Haters Back Off, Hellcats, Intelligence, iZombie, The Killing, The L Word, Life Unexpected, The Man in the High Castle, Once Upon a Time, Psych, Reaper, Riverdale, Rogue, Smallville, Stargate SG-1, Supergirl, Supernatural, The Tomorrow People, The Magicians, Tru Calling, Van Helsing, Witches of East End, and The X-Files.

Libraries and museums

File:Idling between races 2008 (2603732034).jpg|thumb|Science World is an interactive science centre. The building was originally constructed for Expo 86Expo 86Libraries in Vancouver include the Vancouver Public Library with its main branch at Library Square, designed by Moshe Safdie. The central branch contains 1.5{{nbsp}}million volumes. Altogether there are twenty-two branches containing 2.25{{nbsp}}million volumes.WEB,weblink Vancouver Public Library Frequently Asked Questions, Vancouver Public Library, July 7, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100623042615weblink">weblink June 23, 2010, live, The Vancouver Tool Library is Canada's original tool lending library.The Vancouver Art Gallery has a permanent collection of nearly 10,000 items and is the home of a significant number of works by Emily Carr.WEB,weblink Welcome from Kathleen Bartels, Director of the Vancouver Art Gallery, Vancouver Art Gallery, November 1, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071107115909weblink">weblink November 7, 2007, dead, However, little or none of the permanent collection is ever on view. Downtown is also home to the Contemporary Art Gallery (Vancouver), which showcases temporary exhibitions by up-and-coming Vancouver artists. The Morris and Helen Belkin Art Gallery with a small collection of contemporary works is part of the University of British Columbia.In the Kitsilano district are the Vancouver Maritime Museum, the H. R. MacMillan Space Centre, and the Vancouver Museum, the largest civic museum in Canada. The Museum of Anthropology at UBC is a leading museum of Pacific Northwest Coast First Nations culture. A more interactive museum is Science World at the head of False Creek. The city also features a diverse collection of Public Art.

Visual art

{{See also|Public art in Vancouver}}File:Inukshuk.jpg|thumb|The Inukshuk at English Bay. The inukshuk is one of several pieces of public artpublic artThe Vancouver School of conceptualNEWS,weblink Photography with an eye for social relevance, San Francisco Chronicle, Kenneth, Baker, January 9, 2009, December 2, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110525142452weblink">weblink May 25, 2011, live, photography (often referred to as photoconceptualism)Sarah Milroy "Is Arden our next greatest photographer?" Globe and Mail (October 27, 2007): R1. is a term applied to a grouping of artists from Vancouver who achieved international recognition starting in the 1980s. No formal "school" exists and the grouping remains both informal and often controversialMarsha Lederman "Behind the Lens: The Vancouver School Debate" Globe and Mail (October 20, 2007): R13. even among the artists themselves, who often resist the term. Artists associated with the term include Jeff Wall, Ian Wallace, Ken Lum, Roy Arden, Stan Douglas and Rodney Graham.Intertidal: Vancouver Art & Artists / E-Flux {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100211153956weblink |date=February 11, 2010 }}. E-flux.com. Retrieved June 9, 2011.Vancouver has a history of Aboriginal art. Examples of this can be seen at the Museum of AnthropologyWEB,weblink Archived copy, August 20, 2019,weblink July 30, 2019, live,

Music and nightlife

{{See also|Music of Vancouver}}Musical contributions from Vancouver include performers of classical, folk and popular music. The Vancouver Symphony Orchestra is the professional orchestra based in the city. The Vancouver Opera is a major opera company in the city, and City Opera of Vancouver is the city's professional chamber opera company. The city is home to a number of Canadian composers including Rodney Sharman, Jeffrey Ryan, and Jocelyn Morlock.File:Olymp 31.jpg|thumb|left|The Granville Entertainment DistrictGranville Entertainment DistrictThe city produced a number of notable punk rock bands, including D.O.A. Other early Vancouver punk bands included the Subhumans, the Young Canadians, the Pointed Sticks, and U-J3RK5.NEWS, Buium, Greg, Sound and Fury: Reliving Vancouver's punk explosion, CBC News, April 15, 2005,weblink January 23, 2007, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060827080236weblink">weblink August 27, 2006, When alternative rock became popular in the 1990s, several Vancouver groups rose to prominence, including 54-40, Odds, Moist, the Matthew Good Band, Sons of Freedom and Econoline Crush. Recent successful Vancouver bands include Gob, Marianas Trench, Theory of a Deadman and Stabilo. Today, Vancouver is home to a number of popular independent bands such as The New Pornographers, Japandroids, Destroyer, In Medias Res, Tegan and Sara, and independent labels including Nettwerk and Mint. Vancouver also produced influential metal band Strapping Young Lad and pioneering electro-industrial bands Skinny Puppy, Numb and Front Line Assembly; the latter's Bill Leeb is better known for founding ambient pop super-group Delerium. Other popular musical artists who made their mark from Vancouver include Carly Rae Jepsen, Bryan Adams, Sarah McLachlan, Heart, Prism, Trooper, Chilliwack, Payolas, Moev, Images in Vogue, Michael Bublé, Stef Lang and Spirit of the West.WEB, Gooch, Bryan N. S., Music in Vancouver, The Canadian Encyclopedia, Historica,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070930033715weblink">weblink September 30, 2007, Larger musical performances are usually held at venues such as Rogers Arena, Queen Elizabeth Theatre, BC Place Stadium or the Pacific Coliseum, while smaller acts are held at places such as the Commodore Ballroom, the Orpheum Theatre and the Vogue Theatre. The Vancouver Folk Music Festival and the Vancouver International Jazz Festival showcase music in their respective genres from around the world. Vancouver's Hong Kong Chinese population has produced several Cantopop stars across the Hong Kong entertainment industry. Similarly, various Indo-Canadian artists and actors have a profile in Bollywood or other aspects of India's entertainment industry.Vancouver has a vibrant nightlife scene, whether it be food and dining, or bars and nightclubs. The Granville Entertainment District has the city's highest concentration of bars and nightclubs with closing times of 3{{nbsp}}am, in addition to various after-hours clubs open until late morning on weekends. The street can attract large crowds on weekends and is closed to traffic on such nights. Gastown is also a popular area for nightlife with many upscale restaurants and nightclubs, as well as the Davie Village which is centre to the city's LGBT community.

Media

File:Canada Place (1294380311).jpg|thumb|Granville Square (centre building) houses the two major daily newspapers of the city, The Vancouver Sun and The ProvinceThe ProvinceVancouver is a centre for film and television production. Nicknamed Hollywood North, a distinction it shares with Toronto,BOOK, Mike, Gasher, Hollywood North: The Feature Film Industry in British Columbia,weblink 2002, UBC Press, 978-0-7748-0968-9, 25, November 9, 2015,weblink January 1, 2016, live, BOOK, Thomas L., McPhail, Global Communication: Theories, Stakeholders, and Trends,weblink March 8, 2010, John Wiley & Sons, 978-1-4443-3030-4, 29, November 9, 2015,weblink January 1, 2016, live, BOOK, David, Lavery, The Essential Cult Tv Reader,weblink January 15, 2010, University Press of Kentucky, 978-0-8131-7365-8, 261, November 9, 2015,weblink January 1, 2016, live, the city has been used as a film making location for nearly a century, beginning with the Edison Manufacturing Company.Ken MacIntyre. Reel Vancouver. Vancouver: Whitecap Books, 1996. p. 133. In 2008 more than 260 productions were filmed in Vancouver.{{primary source inline|date=August 2012}} In 2011 Vancouver slipped to fourth place overall at 1.19{{nbsp}}billion, although the region still leads Canada in foreign production.WEB, British Columbia Film Commission Production Statistics 2008,weblink BC Film Commission, 2008, PDF, December 5, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110928103828weblink">weblink September 28, 2011, WEB, Vancouver Film Industry,weblink Canada.com, December 5, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080517112136weblink">weblink May 17, 2008, A wide mix of local, national, and international newspapers are distributed in the city. The two major English-language daily newspapers are The Vancouver Sun and The Province. Also, there are two national newspapers distributed in the city, including The Globe and Mail, which began publication of a "national edition" in BC in 1983 and recently expanded to include a three-page BC news section, and the National Post which centres on national news. Other local newspapers include 24H (a local free daily), the Vancouver franchise of the national free daily Metro, the twice-a-week Vancouver Courier, and the independent newspaper The Georgia Straight. Three Chinese-language daily newspapers, Ming Pao, Sing Tao and World Journal cater to the city's large Cantonese- and Mandarin-speaking population. A number of other local and international papers serve other multicultural groups in the Lower Mainland.File:2010-08 750 Burrard Street.jpg|thumb|left|750 Burrard Street houses Bell Media's West Coast headquarters and the regional offices for The Globe and MailThe Globe and MailSome of the local television stations include CBC, Citytv, CTV and Global BC. OMNI British Columbia produces daily newscasts in Cantonese, Mandarin, Punjabi and Korean, and weekly newscasts in Tagalog, as well as programs aimed at other cultural groups. Fairchild Group also has two television stations: Fairchild TV and Talentvision, serving Cantonese- and Mandarin-speaking audiences, respectively.Radio stations with news departments include CBC Radio One, CKNW and News 1130. The Franco-Columbian community is served by Radio-Canada outlets CBUFT-DT channel 26 (Ici Radio-Canada Télé), CBUF-FM 97.7 (Première Chaîne) and CBUX-FM 90.9 (Espace musique). The multilingual South Asian community is served by Spice Radio on 1200 AM established in 2014.NEWS, Cahute, Larissa, New Vancouver radio station will be aimed at entire South Asian community,weblink Vancouver Desi, September 24, 2014, September 25, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140926015246weblink">weblink September 26, 2014, live, Media dominance is a frequently discussed issue in Vancouver as newspapers The Vancouver Sun, The Province, the Vancouver Courier and other local newspapers such as the Surrey Now, the Burnaby Now and the Richmond News, are all owned by Postmedia Network.WEB,weblink Canwest seeks bankruptcy protection for broadcasting assets and National Post, The Georgia Straight, Charlie, Smith, October 6, 2009, December 5, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091214231927weblink">weblink December 14, 2009, live, The concentration of media ownership has spurred alternatives, making Vancouver a centre for independent online media including The Tyee, the Vancouver Observer, and NowPublic,WEB,weblink CanWest Metro Move Preserves Daily Dominance, The Tyee, Shannon, Rupp, March 16, 2005, December 1, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090211024716weblink">weblink February 11, 2009, live, as well as hyperlocal online media, like Daily Hive and Vancouver Is Awesome,WEB,weblink Editor's Picks: Media, September 24, 2009, Georgia Straight, February 7, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100923204115weblink">weblink September 23, 2010, live, which provide coverage of community events and local arts and culture.

Transportation

{{See also|List of roads in Vancouver}}
File:A look downtown (759827996).jpg|thumbnail|A SeaBus crosses Burrard InletBurrard InletVancouver's streetcar system began on June 28, 1890, and ran from the (first) Granville Street Bridge to Westminster Avenue (now Main Street and Kingsway). Less than a year later, the Westminster and Vancouver Tramway Company began operating Canada's first interurban line between the two cities (extended to Chilliwack in 1910). Another line (1902), the Vancouver and Lulu Island Railway, was leased by the Canadian Pacific Railway to the British Columbia Electric Railway in 1905 and ran from the Granville Street Bridge to Steveston via Kerrisdale, which encouraged residential neighbourhoods outside the central core to develop.WEB, Davis, Chuck,weblink 1885–1891, The History of Metropolitan Vancouver, November 23, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070723142431weblink">weblink July 23, 2007, live, From 1897 the British Columbia Electric Railway (BCER) became the company that operated the urban and interurban rail system, until 1958, when its last vestiges were dismantled in favour of "trackless" trolley and gasoline/diesel buses;WEB, Davis, Chuck,weblink 1958, The History of Metropolitan Vancouver, November 14, 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070103044837weblink">weblink January 3, 2007, live, in that same year the BCER became the core of the newly created, publicly owned BC Hydro.{{Citation needed|date=March 2013}} Vancouver currently has the second-largest trolleybus fleet in North America, after San Francisco.WEB, Snider, Drew,weblink Light Rail vs. Trolley Bus, Masstransitmag.com, June 1, 2007, May 30, 2012, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120613192726weblink">weblink June 13, 2012, File:Hwy1-offramp-withbg.jpg|thumb|left|Off and on-ramps leading to British Columbia Highway 1 in Vancouver. Highway 1 is the only controlled-access highwaycontrolled-access highwaySuccessive city councils in the 1970s and 1980s prohibited the construction of freeways as part of a long-term plan.NEWS, Millar, Royce, No freeways puts Vancouver on top, September 11, 2006, The Age,weblink November 14, 2006, Melbourne,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071106000122weblink">weblink November 6, 2007, live, As a result, the only major freeway within city limits is Highway 1, which passes through the north-eastern corner of the city. While the number of cars in Vancouver proper has been steadily rising with population growth, the rate of car ownership and the average distance driven by daily commuters have fallen since the early 1990s.WEB, Traffic entering Vancouver, 1986 to 2005, City of Vancouver,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011110739weblink">weblink October 11, 2007, May 30, 2007, dead, Vancouver is the only major Canadian city with these trends. Despite the fact that the journey time per vehicle has increased by one-third and growing traffic mass, there are 7% fewer cars making trips into the downtown core."Driving Lessons". Vancouver Magazine. (June 2007). In 2012, Vancouver had the worst traffic congestion in Canada and the second-highest in North America, behind Los Angeles.NEWS,weblink Vancouver Has Canada's Worst Traffic Congestion: Report, The Huffington Post B.C., October 11, 2012, February 17, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130216111046weblink">weblink February 16, 2013, live, {{As of|2013}}, Vancouver now has the worst traffic congestion in North America.NEWS,weblink Vancouver has worst traffic congestion in North America: report, Global BC, November 6, 2013, December 1, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131203054942weblink">weblink December 3, 2013, live, Residents have been more inclined to live in areas closer to their interests, or use more energy-efficient means of travel, such as mass transit and cycling. This is, in part, the result of a push by city planners for a solution to traffic problems and pro-environment campaigns. Transportation demand management policies have imposed restrictions on drivers making it more difficult and expensive to commute while introducing more benefits for non-drivers.File:Skytrain1248.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Vancouver's SkyTrain in the Grandview Cut, with downtown Vancouver in the background. The white dome-like structure is the old roof of alt=A two car train follows rail tracks under and bridge. In the background can be seen a domed sports stadium and high-rise buildings.TransLink is responsible for roads and public transportation within Metro Vancouver (in succession to BC Transit, which had taken over the transit functions of BC Hydro). It provides bus service, including the B-Line rapid bus service, a foot passenger and bicycle ferry service (known as SeaBus), an automated rapid transit service called SkyTrain, and West Coast Express commuter rail. Vancouver's SkyTrain system is currently running on three lines, the Millennium Line, the Expo Line and the Canada Line WEB, July 2008,weblink 2009 10-Year Transportation & Financial Plan, PDF, TransLink, June 9, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111125152439weblink">weblink November 25, 2011, with a total of 53 stations as of 2017. Only 20 of these stations are within the City of Vancouver borders, with the remainders in the adjacent suburbs. A number of city's biggest tourist attractions, such as English Bay/ Stanley Park, the Vancouver Aquarium, University of British Columbia with the Museum of Anthropology, and Kitsilano are not connected by this rapid transit system.Changes are being made to the regional transportation network as part of Translink's 10-Year Transportation Plan. The Canada Line, opened on August 17, 2009, connects Vancouver International Airport and the neighbouring city of Richmond with the existing SkyTrain system. The Evergreen Extension, which opened on December 2, 2016, links the cities of Coquitlam and Port Moody with the SkyTrain system.WEB,weblink Information Bulletin: Evergreen Line RFP released, November 9, 2011, British Columbia Ministry of Transportation, November 10, 2011,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120105185805weblink">weblink January 5, 2012, dead, As of January 2019, plans to extend the SkyTrain Millennium Line west to UBC as a subway under Broadway have been approved and there are plans for capacity upgrades and an extension to the Expo Line. Several road projects will be completed within the next few years, as part of the Provincial Government's Gateway Program.Other modes of transport add to the diversity of options available in Vancouver. Inter-city passenger rail service is operated from Pacific Central Station by Via Rail to points east, Amtrak Cascades to Seattle and Portland, and Rocky Mountaineer rail tour routes. Small passenger ferries operating in False Creek provide commuter service to Granville Island, Downtown Vancouver and Kitsilano. Vancouver has a citywide network of bicycle lanes and routes, which supports an active population of cyclists year-round. Cycling has become Vancouver's fastest-growing mode of transportation.WEB,weblink Cycling statistics, City of Vancouver, 2009, December 1, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101201135843weblink">weblink December 1, 2010, live, The bicycle-sharing system Mobi was introduced to the city in June 2016.WEB,weblink Vancouver unveils bike-share program Mobi, May 21, 2016, CTV News, September 28, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161002064339weblink">weblink October 2, 2016, live, Vancouver is served by Vancouver International Airport (YVR), located on Sea Island in the city of Richmond, immediately south of Vancouver. Vancouver's airport is Canada's second-busiest airport,WEB,weblink Facts & Stats, Vancouver International Airport, June 9, 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120614115658weblink">weblink June 14, 2012, and the second-largest gateway on the west coast of North America for international passengers.British Columbia: Business and Investment Environment. Government of Canada. Retrieved August 2, 2009. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130204043130weblink |date=February 4, 2013 }} HeliJet and float plane companies operate scheduled air service from Vancouver harbour and YVR south terminal. The city is also served by two BC Ferry terminals. One is to the northwest at Horseshoe Bay (in West Vancouver), and the other is to the south, at Tsawwassen (in Delta).WEB,weblink BC Ferries, British Columbia Ferry Services Inc., 2009, November 30, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091021210835weblink">weblink October 21, 2009, live,

Sports and recreation

File:3rd Beach, Vancouver, BC - panoramio.jpg|thumb|Third BeachThird BeachThe mild climate of the city and proximity to ocean, mountains, rivers and lakes make the area a popular destination for outdoor recreation. Vancouver has over {{convert|1298|ha|acre|abbr=off}} of parks, of which, Stanley Park, at {{convert|404|ha|acre|abbr=off}}, is the largest.WEB,weblink About the Park Board, Vancouver Board of Parks and Recreation, December 5, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101201142621weblink">weblink December 1, 2010, live, The city has several large beaches, many adjacent to one another, extending from the shoreline of Stanley Park around False Creek to the south side of English Bay, from Kitsilano to the University Endowment Lands, (which also has beaches that are not part of the city proper). The {{convert|18|km|mi}} of beaches include Second and Third Beaches in Stanley Park, English Bay (First Beach), Sunset, Kitsilano Beach, Jericho, Locarno, Spanish Banks, Spanish Banks Extension, Spanish Banks West, and Wreck Beach. There is also a freshwater beach at Trout Lake in John Hendry Park. The coastline provides for many types of water sport, and the city is a popular destination for boating enthusiasts.WEB,weblink Recreation: Beaches, Vancouver Park Board, 2009, December 5, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101202065448weblink">weblink December 2, 2010, live, Within a 20- to 30-minute drive from downtown Vancouver are the North Shore Mountains, with three ski areas: Cypress Mountain, Grouse Mountain, and Mount Seymour. Mountain bikers have created world-renowned trails across the North Shore. The Capilano River, Lynn Creek and Seymour River, also on the North Shore, provide opportunities to whitewater enthusiasts during periods of rain and spring melt, though the canyons of those rivers are more utilized for hiking and swimming than whitewater.WEB,weblink Capilano River, Metro Vancouver, 2009, December 5, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100203232456weblink">weblink February 3, 2010, Running races include the Vancouver Sun Run (a {{convert|10|km|adj=mid}} race) every April; the Vancouver Marathon, held every May; and the Scotiabank Vancouver Half-Marathon held every June. The Grouse Grind is a {{convert|2.9|km|mi|adj=on}} climb up Grouse Mountain open throughout the summer and fall months, including the annual Grouse Grind Mountain Run. Hiking trails include the Baden-Powell Trail, an arduous {{convert|42|km|mi|-long|adj=mid}} hike from West Vancouver's Horseshoe Bay to Deep Cove in the District of North Vancouver.WEB,weblink Baden-Powell Centennial Trail, Brian, Grover, BC Car-Free, 2009, December 5, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100402110037weblink">weblink April 2, 2010, live, File:B.C. Place from False Creek (cropped).jpg|thumb|left|BC Place is a multi-purpose stadium that is home to the BC Lions of the CFL and the Vancouver Whitecaps FC of MLS.]]Vancouver is also home to notable cycling races. Most summers since 1973, the Global Relay Gastown Grand Prix has been held on the cobblestone streets of Gastown. This race and the UBC Grand Prix are part of BC Superweek, an annual series of professional cycling races in Metro Vancouver.The British Columbia Derby is a nine furlong horse race held at the Hastings Racecourse in the third week of September.WEB,weblink Hastings Racecourse, August 20, 2019,weblink July 23, 2019, live, In 2009, Metro Vancouver hosted the World Police and Fire Games. Swangard Stadium, in the neighbouring city of Burnaby, hosted games for the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup.WEB,weblink Canada's World Cup team opens camp in Vancouver, Canadian Soccer Association, January 17, 2007, December 5, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110605031124weblink">weblink June 5, 2011, Vancouver, along with Whistler and Richmond, was the host city for the 2010 Winter Olympics and the 2010 Winter Paralympics. On June 12, 2010, it played host to Ultimate Fighting Championship 115 (UFC 115) which was the fourth UFC event to be held in Canada (and the first outside Montreal).In 2011, Vancouver hosted the Grey Cup, the Canadian Football League (CFL) championship game which is awarded every year to a different city which has a CFL team. The BC Titans of the International Basketball League played their inaugural season in 2009, with home games at the Langley Event Centre.WEB,weblink Welcome from the President, Mara, Jonathan, Vancouver Titans, December 5, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100301041038weblink">weblink March 1, 2010, Vancouver is a centre for the fast-growing sport of ultimate. During the summer of 2008 Vancouver hosted the World Ultimate Championships.WEB,weblink World Ultimate Championships come to Vancouver, December 5, 2009, Jenny, Lee, July 30, 2008, Vancouver Sun, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110101184300weblink">weblink January 1, 2011, The National Basketball Association (NBA) came to town in the form of the Vancouver Grizzlies in 1995. They played their games at Rogers Arena. After 6 years in Vancouver, the team relocated to Memphis, Tennessee in 2001.File:Towelpower.jpg|thumb|The Vancouver Canucks is an NHL team who play their home games in Rogers ArenaRogers ArenaIn 2015, Vancouver was one of six venues for the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup and hosted the Final game between the United States and Japan.Vancouver has an adult obesity rate of 12% compared to the Canadian average of 23%. 51.8% of Vancouverites are overweight, making it the fourth-thinnest city in Canada after Toronto, Montreal, and Halifax.WEB, Regional differences in obesity, Health Reports, Statistics Canada, August 22, 2006,weblink December 5, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110609204300weblink">weblink June 9, 2011, live, NEWS, Sharon, Kirkey, Suburban Sprawl, CanWest News Service, August 23, 2006,weblink December 5, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100717113427weblink">weblink July 17, 2010, ">

Current professional teams{| class"wikitable sortable" style"text-align:center"|+

! scope="col"|Professional Team! scope="col"|League! scope="col"|Sport! scope="col"|Venue! scope="col"|Established! scope="col"|Championships| BC Lions| Canadian Football League (CFL)Canadian football>Football| BC Place| 1954| 6| Vancouver Canucks| National Hockey League (NHL)| Ice hockey| Rogers ArenaPacific Coast Hockey League>PCHL)| 0 (6 in previous leagues)| Vancouver Canadians| Northwest League(NWL)| Baseball| Nat Bailey Stadium| 2000| 4| Vancouver Giants| Western Hockey League (WHL)| Ice hockey| Langley Events Centre| 2001| 1|Vancouver Whitecaps FC|Major League Soccer (MLS)Association Football>Soccer|BC PlaceNorth American Soccer League (1968–84)>NASL)| 0 (7 in previous leagues)|BC Bears|Canadian Rugby Championship (CRC)|Rugby Union|Thunderbird Stadium| 2009| 2| Vancouver Warriors| National Lacrosse League (NLL)| Box Lacrosse| Rogers Arena| 2014| 0 (1 as the Washington Stealth)| Vancouver Titans| Overwatch LeagueOverwatch (video game)>Overwatch| Blizzard Arena| 2018| 1 (Stage 1 Champions)

Twin towns – sister cities

The City of Vancouver was one of the first cities in Canada to enter into an international sister cities arrangement.JOURNAL, Patrick J., Smith, Kennedy, Stewart, 2003,weblink PDF, Beavers and Cats Revisited: Creatures and Tenants versus Municipal Charter(s) and Home Rule, Queen's University, Institute of Intergovernmental Relations, December 1, 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110726045528weblink">weblink July 26, 2011, Special arrangements for cultural, social and economic benefits have been created with these sister cities.WEB,weblink Vancouver Twinning Relationships, City of Vancouver, December 5, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110205010523weblink">weblink February 5, 2011, WEB,weblink Eight Cities/Six Ports: Yokohama's Sister Cities/Sister Ports, Yokohama Convention & Visitors Bureau, December 5, 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090827064945weblink">weblink August 27, 2009, {| class="wikitable plainrowheaders" "text-align:left;font-size:100%;"|! scope="col"|Country! scope="col"|Municipality! scope="col"|Year| Ukraine! scope="row"|OdessaWEB,weblink International and consular relationships, City of Vancouver, April 8, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180228041514weblink">weblink February 28, 2018, live, | 1944| Japan! scope="row"|Yokohama| 1965| United Kingdom! scope="row"|Edinburgh| 1978| China! scope="row"|Guangzhou| 1985| United States! scope="row"|Los Angeles| 1986{{Div col end}}

Sustainability

(File:Vancouver street recycling.JPG|thumb|Container recycling, paper recycling and garbage bin in Vancouver)The City of Vancouver has taken a number of steps to become a sustainable city. Ninety-three percent of the electricity used in Vancouver is generated using sustainable resources such as hydroelectric power. The city is also actively working towards becoming a greener city. The City of Vancouver has crafted an action plan of goals it has set to meet by 2020, including reducing greenhouse gas emissions, encouraging the growth of green jobs and businesses, requiring green construction, and reducing waste.WEB,weblink Greenest City 2020 Action Plan – the City's Sustainability Plan, PDF, March 1, 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131203184248weblink">weblink December 3, 2013, live,

Greenest City Initiative

The Greenest City action plan, (GCAP), is a City of Vancouver urban sustainability initiative. Its primary mission is to ensure that Vancouver becomes the greenest city in the world by the year 2020. The GCAP originated based on the 2009 work of the Greenest City Action Team, a committee co-chaired by Vancouver mayor Gregor Robertson.WEB, Canada’s greenest mayor,weblink Runnalls, Jeremy, Corporate Knights, May 20, 2015, August 17, 2019,weblink August 17, 2019, live, The GCAP was approved by Vancouver city council in July 2011.WEB, Greenest City Action Plan,weblink City of Vanouver, August 17, 2019,weblink July 23, 2019, live,

Zero Waste 2040 Strategy

In May 2018, the Zero Waste 2040 Strategy passed Vancouver's city council.NEWS,weblink Vancouver votes to ban single-use straws, foam cups and take-out containers, May 17, 2018, CTV News, July 28, 2018,weblink July 29, 2018, live, The city began work the same year on decreasing the amount of single-use items distributed in the city, and has stated its intention to ban these items in 2021 if businesses don't meet reduction targets.As part of the plan, a ban on plastic straws, polystyrene food packaging and free shopping bags will go into effect during mid-2019.NEWS,weblink Vancouver to be first major Canadian city to ban plastic straws, Woods, Melanie, May 17, 2018, The Globe and Mail, July 27, 2018,weblink August 10, 2018, live,

Notable people

See also

Notes

{{notelist}}

References

{{reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, Constance, Brissenden, 2006, Vancouver: A Pictorial Celebration Including Vancouver Island, Victoria, and Whistler,weblink Penn Publishing Ltd, 1-4027-2386-5,
  • BOOK, Jollota, Pat, 2007, Downtown Vancouver,weblink Arcadia, 0-7385-2959-1,
  • BOOK, Lance, Berelowitz, 2005, Dream City: Vancouver and the Global Imagination,weblink Douglas & McIntyre, 1-55365-170-7,
  • BOOK, Vogel, Aynsley, Dana, Wyse, 2009, Vancouver : a history in photographs,weblink Heritage House Pub. Co, 978-1-894974-88-2,

External links

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