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Scotland
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{{short description|Country in Europe, part of the United Kingdom}}{{About|the country|other uses|Scotland (disambiguation)}}{{pp-semi-indef|small=yes}}{{pp-move-indef|small=yes}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2019}}{{Use British English|date=December 2016}}







factoids
| image_flag = Flag of Scotland.svg| image_coat = Royal Standard of Scotland.svg{{!}}border| symbol_width = 125pxRoyal Banner of Scotland>Royal BannerscoIn My Defens God Me Defend">italics=offnbsp=omit}}{{smaller|"In my defence God me defend"}}National anthem of Scotland>Various Predominantly "Flower of Scotland"Country of the United Kingdom>CountryEdinburgh{{smaller>{{coord57N11W|display=inline}}}}| largest_city = GlasgowLanguages of Scotland>Recognised languages| languages =
{hide}unbulleted list |style=white-space:nowrap;
| English
| Scots
| Scottish Gaelic
| British Sign Language
{edih}| languages2_sub = yes| ethnic_groups =
{{unbulleted list |style=white-space:nowrap;
| 96.0% White
| 2.7% Asian
| 0.7% Black
| 0.4% Mixed
| 0.2% Arab
| 0.1% other
}}| ethnic_groups_year = 2011
Church of ScotlandCatholic Church in Scotland>Roman CatholicIrreligion in the United KingdomReligion in Scotland>Other ChristianIslamHTTPS://WWW.SCOTLANDSCENSUS.GOV.UK/DOCUMENTS/CENSUSRESULTS/RELEASE2A/REL2A_RELIGION_DETAILED_SCOTLAND.PDF>TITLE=SCOTLAND'S CENSUS - RELIGIONACCESSDATE=8 JANUARY 2019, Scottish people >Scots}}| type =Scots law>ScotlandScottish devolution>Devolved parliamentary legislature within a constitutional monarchy| monarch = Elizabeth II| prime_minister = Theresa May| first_minister = Nicola Sturgeon| deputy_first_minister = John Swinney| secretary_of_state = David Mundell| number_of_mps = 59| legislature = Scottish Parliament| sovereignty_type = FormationOrigins of the Kingdom of Alba>Kingdom established(traditionally 843)}}Acts of Union 1707>Union with England| established_date2 = 1 May 1707Scotland Act 1998>Devolution| established_date3 = 19 November 1998| area_rank =| area_km2 = 77933| area_sq_mi = 30090| area_footnote = Region and Country Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles, October 2013, ONS. Retrieved 9 August 2015.| area_label = Land| percent_water = 3.00%| population_rank =| population_estimate ={{increase}} 5,424,800| population_estimate_year = 2017| population_census = 5,313,600| population_census_year = 2011| population_density_km2 = 67.5| population_density_sq_mi = 174.1| population_density_rank =| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank =| GVA = £138 billion| GVA_rank =| GVA_year = 201weblink| GVA_per_capita = £25,500 Gini_change = Gini_ref = | Gini_rank = HDI_change = HDI_ref = HTTPS://HDI.GLOBALDATALAB.ORG/AREADATA/SHDI/>TITLE=SUB-NATIONAL HDI - AREA DATABASE - GLOBAL DATA LABLANGUAGE=EN HDI_rank =| cctld = .scot style=white-space:nowrap; Saint Andrew > Saint Columba}}}}Scotland (; {{IPA-gd|ˈal̪ˠapÉ™||Alba-gd.ogg}}) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Sharing a border with England to the southeast, Scotland is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast, the Irish Sea to the south, and the North Channel to the southwest. In addition to the mainland, situated on the northern third of the island of Great Britain, Scotland has over 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until 1707. By inheritance in 1603, James VI, King of Scots, became King of England and King of Ireland, thus forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May 1707 to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain. The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britain, which succeeded both the Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. In 1801, the Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland enacted a political union to create a United Kingdom. The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in 1922.Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland. The legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland; Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.Collier, J. G. (2001) Conflict of Laws (Third edition)(pdf) Cambridge University Press. "For the purposes of the English conflict of laws, every country in the world which is not part of England and Wales is a foreign country and its foreign laws. This means that not only totally foreign independent countries such as France or Russia ... are foreign countries but also British Colonies such as the Falkland Islands. Moreover, the other parts of the United Kingdom{{spaced ndash}}Scotland and Northern Ireland{{spaced ndash}}are foreign countries for present purposes, as are the other British Islands, the Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey." The continued existence of legal, educational, religious and other institutions distinct from those in the remainder of the UK have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity since the 1707 union with England.Devine, T. M. (1999), The Scottish Nation 1700–2000, P.288–289, {{ISBN|0-14-023004-1}} "created a new and powerful local state run by the Scottish bourgeoisie and reflecting their political and religious values. It was this local state, rather than a distant and usually indifferent Westminster authority, that in effect routinely governed Scotland"The Scottish Parliament, which is a unicameral legislature comprising 129 members, was established in 1999 and has authority over those areas of domestic policy which have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament. The head of the Scottish Government, the executive of the devolved legislature, is the First Minister of Scotland. Scotland is represented in the UK House of Commons by 59 MPs and in the European Parliament by 6 MEPs. Scotland is also a member of the British–Irish Council, and sends five members of the Scottish Parliament to the British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly. Scotland is divided into 32 subdivisions, known as local authorities, or councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of area.{{TOC limit|3}}

Etymology

"Scotland" comes from Scotti, the Latin name for the Gaels; Scotia initially referred to Ireland. From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in what is now east-central Scotland. The use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is now Scotland became common in the Late Middle Ages, as the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins.BOOK, Duffy, Seán, Medieval Ireland: An Encyclopedia, 2005, Routledge, 9781135948245, 698, en, {{rp|35–36}}{{rp|66–67}}

History

Early history

{{see also|Timeline of prehistoric Scotland}}File:Skara Brae house 1 5.jpg|thumb|The exposed interior of a house at Skara BraeSkara BraeRepeated glaciations, which covered the entire land mass of modern Scotland, destroyed any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period. It is believed the first post-glacial groups of hunter-gatherers arrived in Scotland around 12,800 years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.The earliest known evidence is a flint arrowhead from Islay. See Moffat, Alistair (2005) Before Scotland: The Story of Scotland Before History. London. Thames & Hudson. Page 42. At the time, Scotland was covered in forests, had more bog-land, and the main form of transport was by water.{{rp|9}} These settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 years ago, and the first villages around 6,000 years ago. The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation, burial, and ritual sites are particularly common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Western Isles, where a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone.BOOK, Pryor, Francis, Francis Pryor, Britain BC, HarperPerennial, London, 2003, 978-0-00-712693-4, 98–104 & 246–250, Evidence of sophisticated pre-Christian belief systems is demonstrated by sites such as the Callanish Stones on Lewis and the Maes Howe on Orkney, which were built in the third millennium BCE.{{rp|38}} The first written reference to Scotland was in 320 BC by Greek sailor Pytheas, who called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands.{{rp|10}} During the first millennium BCE, the society changed dramatically to a chiefdom model, as consolidation of settlement led to the concentration of wealth and underground stores of surplus food.{{rp|11}} The first Roman incursion into Scotland occurred in 79 AD, when Agricola invaded Scotland; he defeated a Caledonian army at the Battle of Mons Graupius in 83 AD.{{rp|12}} After the Roman victory, Roman forts were briefly set along the Gask Ridge close to the Highland line, but by three years after the battle, the Roman armies had withdrawn to the Southern Uplands.Hanson, William S. The Roman Presence: Brief Interludes, in Edwards, Kevin J. & Ralston, Ian B.M. (Eds) (2003). Scotland After the Ice Age: Environment, Archeology and History, 8000 BC—AD 1000. Edinburgh. Edinburgh University Press. The Romans erected Hadrian's Wall in northern England{{rp|12}} and the Limes Britannicus became the northern border of the Roman Empire.Robertson, Anne S. (1960). The Antonine Wall. Glasgow Archaeological Society.NEWS, Keys, David, Ancient Roman ‘hand of god’ discovered near Hadrian’s Wall sheds light on biggest combat operation ever in UK,weblink 6 July 2018, Independent, 27 June 2018, The Roman influence on the southern part of the country was considerable, and they introduced Christianity to Scotland.{{rp|13–14}}{{rp|38}}

Middle Ages

(File:Early Medieval Scotland areas.png|thumb|upright=1|Political divisions in early medieval Scotland)Beginning in the sixth century, the area that is now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictland, a patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland;{{rp|25–26}} the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria, which had conquered southeastern Scotland;{{rp|18–20}} the kingdom of Dál Riata in western Scotland founded in the sixth century by settlers from Ireland, bringing Gaelic language and culture with them.{{rp|20}} These societies were based on the family unit and had sharp divisions in wealth, although the vast majority were poor and worked full-time in subsistence agriculture. The Picts kept slaves (mostly captured in war) through the ninth century.{{rp|26–27}} Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries.{{rp|23–24}} Operating in the sixth century on the island of Iona, Saint Columba was one of the earliest and best-known missionaries.BOOK, Houston, Rab, Scotland: A Very Short Introduction, 2008, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 9780191578861, en, {{rp|39}} The Vikings began to raid Scotland in the eighth century. Although the raiders sought slaves and luxury items, their main motivation was to acquire land. The oldest Norse settlements were in northwest Scotland, but they eventually conquered many areas along the coast. Old Norse entirely displaced Gaelic in the Northern Isles.{{rp|29–30}} (File:Kingdom of Mann and the Isles-en.svg|thumb|upright=1|Norse kingdoms at the end of the eleventh century)In the ninth century, the Norse threat allowed a Gael named Cináed mac Ailpín (Kenneth I) to seize power over Pictland, establishing a royal dynasty to which the modern monarchs trace their lineage, and marking the beginning of the end of Pictish culture.{{rp|31–32}}BOOK, Kenneth mac Alpin, Brown, Dauvit, M. Lynch, The Oxford Companion to Scottish History, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 359, 2001, 978-0-19-211696-3, The kingdom of Cináed and his descendants, called Alba, was Gaelic in character but existed on the same area as Pictland. By the end of the tenth century, the Pictish language went extinct as its speakers shifted to Gaelic.{{rp|32–33}} From a base in eastern Scotland north of the River Forth and south of the River Spey, the kingdom expanded first southwards, into the former Northumbrian lands, and northwards into Moray.{{rp|34–35}} Around the turn of the millennium, there was a centralization in agricultural lands and the first towns began to be established.{{rp|36–37}} In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, with much of Scotland under the control of a single ruler and united by the Gaelic language, a modern nation-state first emerged, as did Scottish national consciousness.{{rp|38}} The domination of Gaelic was cracked during the reign of David I (1124–53), during which many English-speaking colonists settled in Scotland.{{rp|39}} David I and his successors also centralized royal power{{rp|41–42}} and united mainland Scotland, capturing regions such as Moray, Galloway, and Caithness, although he did not succeed at extending his power over the Hebrides, which had been ruled by various Scottish clans following the death of Somerled in 1164.{{rp|48–49}} The system of feudalism was consolidated, with both Anglo-Norman incomers and native Gaelic chieftains being granted land in exchange for serving the king.{{rp|53–54}} The Scottish kings rejected English demands to subjugate themselves; in fact, England invaded Scotland several times to prevent the latter's expansion into northern England.{{rp|45}} File:The Wallace Monument Aerial, Stirling.jpg|thumb|The Wallace Monument commemorates William WallaceWilliam WallaceThe death of Alexander III in March 1286 broke the succession line of Scotland's kings. Edward I of England arbitrated between various claimants for the Scottish crown. In return for surrendering Scotland's nominal independence, John Balliol was pronounced king in 1292.{{rp|47}}WEB,weblink Scotland Conquered, 1174–1296, National Archives, In 1294, Balliol and other Scottish lords refused Edward's demands to serve in his army against the French. Scotland and France sealed a treaty on 23 October 1295, known as the Auld Alliance. War ensued and John was deposed by Edward who took personal control of Scotland. Andrew Moray and William Wallace initially emerged as the principal leaders of the resistance to English rule in the Wars of Scottish Independence,WEB,weblink Scotland Regained, 1297–1328, National Archives of the United Kingdom, until Robert the Bruce was crowned king of Scotland in 1306.BOOK, King Robert the Bruce, A. F., Murison, reprint 2005, Kessinger Publishing, 1899, 978-1-4179-1494-4, 30,weblink Victory at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 proved the Scots had regained control of their kingdom. In 1320 the world's first documented declaration of independence, the Declaration of Arbroath, won the support of Pope John XXII, leading to the legal recognition of Scottish sovereignty by the English Crown.{{rp|70, 72}}A civil war between the Bruce dynasty and their long-term Comyn-Balliol rivals lasted until the middle of the 14th century. Although the Bruce faction was successful, David II's lack of an heir allowed his half-nephew Robert II to come to the throne and establish the House of Stewart.{{rp|77}} The Stewarts ruled Scotland for the remainder of the Middle Ages. The country they ruled experienced greater prosperity from the end of the 14th century through the Scottish Renaissance to the Reformation,BOOK, Mason, Roger, Wormald, Jenny, Jenny Wormald, Scotland: A History, 2005, Renaissance and Reformation: The Sixteenth Century, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 9780199601646, en, {{rp|93}} despite the effects of the Black Death in 1349{{rp|76}} and increasing division between Highlands and Lowlands.{{rp|78}} Multiple truces reduced warfare on the southern border.{{rp|76, 83}}

Early modern period

File:Portrait of King James I & VI (1618-1620).jpg|thumb|right|upright|James VI succeeded to the English and Irish thrones in 1603.]]The Treaty of Perpetual Peace was signed in 1502 by James IV of Scotland and Henry VII of England. James married Henry's daughter, Margaret Tudor.WEB,weblink James IV, King of Scots 1488–1513, BBC, James invaded England in support of France under the terms of the Auld Alliance and became the last British monarch to die in battle, at Flodden in 1513.WEB,weblink Battle of Flodden, (Sept. 9, 1513), Encyclopædia Britannica, In 1560, the Treaty of Edinburgh brought an end to the Anglo-French conflict and recognized the Protestant Elizabeth I as Queen of England.{{rp|112}} The Parliament of Scotland met and immediately adopted the Scots Confession, which signaled the Scottish Reformation's sharp break from papal authority and Catholic teaching.{{rp|44}} The Catholic Mary, Queen of Scots was forced to abdicate in 1567.WEB,weblink Religion, Marriage and Power in Scotland, 1503–1603, The National Archives of the United Kingdom, In 1603, James VI, King of Scots inherited the thrones of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Ireland in the Union of the Crowns, and moved to London.BOOK, Chronology of Scottish History, Geddes & Grosset, 978-1-85534-380-1, Ross, David, 2002, 1603: James VI becomes James I of England in the Union of the Crowns, and leaves Edinburgh for London, 56, The military was strengthened, allowing the imposition of royal authority on the western Highland clans. The 1609 Statutes of Iona compelled the cultural integration of Hebridean clan leaders.BOOK, Devine, T M, The Scottish Clearances: A History of the Dispossessed, 1600-1900, 2018, Allen Lane, London, 978-0241304105, {{rp|37–40}} With the exception of a short period under the Protectorate, Scotland remained a separate state, but there was considerable conflict between the crown and the Covenanters over the form of church government.{{rp|124}} The Glorious Revolution of 1688–89 saw the overthrow of King James VII of Scotland and II of England by the English Parliament in favour of William III and Mary II.{{rp|142}} In common with countries such as France, Norway, Sweden and Finland, Scotland experienced famines during the 1690s. Mortality, reduced childbirths and increased emigration reduced the population of parts of the country about 10-15%.{{rp|143}}BOOK, Karen J., Cullen, Famine in Scotland: The 'ill Years' of The 1690s,weblink 2010, Edinburgh University Press, 978-0748638871, 152–3, In 1698, the Company of Scotland attempted a project to secure a trading colony on the Isthmus of Panama. Although it received a huge investment, the Darien scheme failed, partially due to English hostility. Along with the threat of an English invasion, the resulting bankruptcies played a leading role in convincing the Scots elite to back a union with England.{{rp|143}} On 22 July 1706, the Treaty of Union was agreed between representatives of the Scots Parliament and the Parliament of England. The following year twin Acts of Union were passed by both parliaments to create the united Kingdom of Great Britain with effect from 1 May 1707 with popular opposition and anti-union riots in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere.BOOK, Devine, T. M., 1999, The Scottish Nation 1700–2000, Penguin Books, 9, 978-0-14-023004-8, From that point on anti-union demonstrations were common in the capital. In November rioting spread to the south west, that stronghold of strict Calvinism and covenanting tradition. The Glasgow mob rose against union sympathisers in disturbances that lasted intermittently for over a month, WEB, Act of Union 1707 Mob unrest and disorder, 2007, The House of Lords,weblink London, 23 December 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080101193416weblink">weblink 1 January 2008,

18th century

File:The Battle of Culloden.jpg|thumb|left|David Morier's depiction of the Battle of Culloden, which is often said to have marked the end of the Scottish clanScottish clanWith trade tariffs with England now abolished, trade blossomed, especially with Colonial America. The clippers belonging to the Glasgow Tobacco Lords were the fastest ships on the route to Virginia. Until the American War of Independence in 1776, Glasgow was the world's premier tobacco port, dominating world trade.JOURNAL, The Tobacco Lords: A study of the Tobacco Merchants of Glasgow and their Activities, The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 84, 1, 100–102, 4248011, Robert, Joseph C, 1976, The deposed Jacobite Stuart claimants had remained popular in the Highlands and north-east, particularly amongst non-Presbyterians, including Roman Catholics and Episcopalian Protestants. However, two major Jacobite risings launched in 1715 and 1745 failed to remove the House of Hanover from the British throne. The threat of the Jacobite movement to the United Kingdom and its monarchs effectively ended at the Battle of Culloden, Great Britain's last pitched battle.BOOK, Sher, Richard B., Wormald, Jenny, Jenny Wormald, Scotland: A History, 2005, Scotland Transformed: The Eighteenth Century, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 9780199601646, en, {{rp|157–158}}The Scottish Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution turned Scotland into an intellectual, commercial and industrial powerhouse"Some Dates in Scottish History from 1745 to 1914 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131031090022weblink |date=31 October 2013}}", The University of Iowa.–so much so Voltaire said "We look to Scotland for all our ideas of civilisation."WEB,weblink Enlightenment Scotland, Learning and Teaching Scotland, With the demise of Jacobitism and the advent of the Union, thousands of Scots, mainly Lowlanders, took up numerous positions of power in politics, civil service, the army and navy, trade, economics, colonial enterprises and other areas across the nascent British Empire. Historian Neil Davidson notes "after 1746 there was an entirely new level of participation by Scots in political life, particularly outside Scotland." Davidson also states "far from being 'peripheral' to the British economy, Scotland – or more precisely, the Lowlands – lay at its core."BOOK, The Origins of Scottish Nationhood, Neil Davidson(2000), Pluto Press, London, 94–95, In the Highlands, clan chiefs gradually started to think of themselves more as commercial landlords than leaders of their people. These social and economic changes included the first phase of the Highland Clearances and, ultimately, the demise of the clan system.BOOK, Devine, T M, Clanship to Crofters' War: The social transformation of the Scottish Highlands, 1994, Manchester University Press, 978-0-7190-9076-9, 2013, {{rp|32–53, passim}}{{rp|164}} In the last third of the 18th century, Highlanders began to migrate seasonally to Lowland cities for work, and emigration to the New World from both the Highlands and Lowlands became commonplace, even as the population increased.{{rp|164}}

19th century

File:John Atkinson Grimshaw - Shipping on the Clyde (1881).jpg|thumb|right|Shipping on the Clyde, by John Atkinson GrimshawJohn Atkinson GrimshawThe Scottish Reform Act 1832 increased the number of Scottish MPs and widened the franchise to include more of the middle classes.T. M. Devine and R. J. Finlay, Scotland in the Twentieth Century (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1996), pp. 64–5. From the mid-century, there were increasing calls for Home Rule for Scotland and the post of Secretary of State for Scotland was revived.F. Requejo and K-J Nagel, Federalism Beyond Federations: Asymmetry and Processes of Re-symmetrization in Europe (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2011), p. 39. In the later 19th century the growing importance of the working classes was marked by Keir Hardie's success in the 1888 Mid Lanarkshire by-election, leading to the foundation of the Scottish Labour Party, which was absorbed into the Independent Labour Party in 1895, with Hardie as its first leader.D. Howell, British Workers and the Independent Labour Party, 1888–1906 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1984), p. 144.Glasgow became one of the largest cities in the world and known as "the Second City of the Empire" after London.J. F. MacKenzie, "The second city of the Empire: Glasgow – imperial municipality", in F. Driver and D. Gilbert, eds, Imperial Cities: Landscape, Display and Identity (2003), pp. 215–23. After 1860 the Clydeside shipyards specialised in steamships made of iron (after 1870, made of steel), which rapidly replaced the wooden sailing vessels of both the merchant fleets and the battle fleets of the world. It became the world's pre-eminent shipbuilding centre.J. Shields, Clyde Built: a History of Ship-Building on the River Clyde (1949). The industrial developments, while they brought work and wealth, were so rapid that housing, town-planning, and provision for public health did not keep pace with them, and living conditions in some of the towns and cities worsened, with overcrowding, high infant mortality, and growing rates of tuberculosis.C. H. Lee, Scotland and the United Kingdom: the Economy and the Union in the Twentieth Century (1995), p. 43. The population of Scotland grew steadily in the 19th century, from 1,608,000 in the census of 1801 to 2,889,000 in 1851 and 4,472,000 in 1901.A. K. Cairncross, The Scottish Economy: A Statistical Account of Scottish Life by Members of the Staff of Glasgow University (Glasgow: Glasgow University Press, 1953), p. 10. Even with the development of industry, there were not enough good jobs. As a result, during the period 1841–1931, about 2 million Scots migrated to North America and Australia, and another 750,000 Scots relocated to England.R. A. Houston and W. W. Knox, eds, The New Penguin History of Scotland (Penguin, 2001), p. xxxii.File:Vuiamor2.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.1|Ruined croft houses at Fuaigh Mòr in the Outer Hebrides. The inhabitants were evicted during the Highland ClearancesHighland ClearancesWhile the Scottish Enlightenment is traditionally considered to have concluded toward the end of the 18th century,{{Citation|last=M. Magnusson |title=Review of James Buchan, Capital of the Mind: how Edinburgh Changed the World |journal=New Statesman |date=10 November 2003 |url=http://www.newstatesman.com/200311100040 |archiveurl=https://www.webcitation.org/5z3JQonlV?url=http://www.newstatesman.com/200311100040 |archivedate=29 May 2011 |deadurl=yes}} disproportionately large Scottish contributions to British science and letters continued for another 50 years or more, thanks to such figures as the physicists James Clerk Maxwell and Lord Kelvin, and the engineers and inventors James Watt and William Murdoch, whose work was critical to the technological developments of the Industrial Revolution throughout Britain.E. Wills, Scottish Firsts: a Celebration of Innovation and Achievement (Edinbugh: Mainstream, 2002). This period saw a process of rehabilitation for Highland culture. In the 1820s, as part of the Romantic revival, tartan and the kilt were adopted by members of the social elite, not just in Scotland, but across Europe,J. L. Roberts, The Jacobite Wars, pp. 193–5.M. Sievers, The Highland Myth as an Invented Tradition of 18th and 19th century and Its Significance for the Image of Scotland (GRIN Verlag, 2007), pp. 22–5. prompted by the popularity of Macpherson's Ossian cycleP. Morère, Scotland and France in the Enlightenment (Bucknell University Press, 2004), pp. 75–6.William Ferguson, The identity of the Scottish Nation: an Historic Quest (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1998), p. 227. and then Walter Scott's Waverley novels.Divine, Scottish Nation pp. 292–95. In literature, the most successful figure of the mid-19th century was Walter Scott. His first prose work, Waverley in 1814, is often called the first historical novel.{{Citation |author=K. S. Whetter |year=2008 |title=Understanding Genre and Medieval Romance |page=28|publisher=Ashgate}} It launched a highly successful career that probably more than any other helped define and popularise Scottish cultural identity.{{Citation |author=N. Davidson |year=2000 |title=The Origins of Scottish Nationhood |page=136 |publisher=Pluto Press}} Scotland also played a major part in the development of art and architecture. The Glasgow School, which developed in the late 19th century, and flourished in the early 20th century, produced a distinctive blend of influences including the Celtic Revival the Arts and Crafts movement, and Japonism, which found favour throughout the modern art world of continental Europe and helped define the Art Nouveau style. Proponents included architect and artist Charles Rennie Mackintosh.Stephan Tschudi-Madsen, The Art Nouveau Style: a Comprehensive Guide (Courier Dover, 2002), pp. 283–4.However, the Highlands remained poor, the only part of mainland Britain to continue to experience recurrent famine, with a limited range of products exported out of the region, negligible industrial production, but a continued population growth that tested the subsistence agriculture. These problems, and the desire to improve agriculture and profits were the driving forces of the ongoing Highland Clearances, in which many of the population of the Highlands suffered eviction as lands were enclosed, principally so that they could be used for sheep farming. The first phase of the clearances followed patterns of agricultural change throughout Britain. The second phase was driven by overpopulation, the Highland Potato Famine and the collapse of industries that had relied on the wartime economy of the Napoleonic Wars.E. Richards, The Highland Clearances: People, Landlords and Rural Turmoil (2008). File:Disruption forming Free Kirk.jpg|thumb|right|upright=1.6|The Disruption Assembly; painted by David Octavius HillDavid Octavius HillAfter prolonged years of struggle in the Kirk, in 1834 the Evangelicals gained control of the General Assembly and passed the Veto Act, which allowed congregations to reject unwanted "intrusive" presentations to livings by patrons. In the Disruption of 1843, roughly a third of the clergy, mainly from the North and Highlands, formed the separate Free Church of Scotland.G. Robb, "Popular Religion and the Christianization of the Scottish Highlands in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries", Journal of Religious History, 1990, 16(1): 18–34. Catholic emancipation in 1829 and the influx of large numbers of Irish immigrants, particularly after the famine years of the late 1840s, mainly to the growing lowland centres like Glasgow, led to a transformation in the fortunes of Catholicism. In 1878, despite opposition, a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical hierarchy was restored to the country, and Catholicism became a significant denomination within Scotland. Industrialisation, urbanisation and the Disruption of 1843 all undermined the tradition of parish schools. From 1830 the state began to fund buildings with grants; then from 1846 it was funding schools by direct sponsorship; and in 1872 Scotland moved to a system like that in England of state-sponsored largely free schools, run by local school boards.T. M. Devine, The Scottish Nation, pp. 91–100. The historic University of Glasgow became a leader in British higher education by providing the educational needs of youth from the urban and commercial classes, as opposed to the upper class.Paul L. Robertson, "The Development of an Urban University: Glasgow, 1860–1914", History of Education Quarterly, Winter 1990, vol. 30 (1), pp. 47–78. The University of St Andrews pioneered the admission of women to Scottish universities. From 1892 Scottish universities could admit and graduate women and the numbers of women at Scottish universities steadily increased until the early 20th century.M. F. Rayner-Canham and G. Rayner-Canham, Chemistry was Their Life: Pioneering British Women Chemists, 1880–1949, (Imperial College Press, 2008), p. 264.

Early 20th century

File:The Battle of the Somme, July-november 1916 Q4133.jpg|thumb|Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) in a trench at the Somme, 1916]]Scotland played a major role in the British effort in the First World War. It especially provided manpower, ships, machinery, fish and money.Richard J. Finlay, Modern Scotland 1914–2000 (2006), pp 1–33 With a population of 4.8 million in 1911, Scotland sent over half a million men to the war, of whom about 100,000 died and 150,000 were seriously wounded.R. A. Houston and W. W. J. Knox, eds. The New Penguin History of Scotland (2001) p 426 {{rp|203}} The socialist "Red Clydeside" movement, led by militant trade unionists, emerged during the war in response to war profiteering by landlords and capitalists.{{rp|204–205}} Formerly a Liberal stronghold, the industrial districts switched to Labour by 1922, with a base among the Irish Catholic working-class districts. Women were especially active in building neighbourhood solidarity on housing issues. However, the "Reds" operated within the Labour Party and had little influence in Parliament and the mood changed to passive despair by the late 1920s.Iain McLean, The Legend of Red Clydeside (1983)The shipbuilding industry expanded by a third and expected renewed prosperity, but instead, a serious depression hit the economy by 1922 and it did not fully recover until 1939. The interwar years were marked by economic stagnation in rural and urban areas, and high unemployment.Finlay, Modern Scotland 1914–2000 (2006), pp 34–72 Indeed, the war brought with it deep social, cultural, economic, and political dislocations. Thoughtful Scots pondered their declension, as the main social indicators such as poor health, bad housing, and long-term mass unemployment, pointed to terminal social and economic stagnation at best, or even a downward spiral. Service abroad on behalf of the Empire lost its allure to ambitious young people, who left Scotland permanently. The heavy dependence on obsolescent heavy industry and mining was a central problem, and no one offered workable solutions. The despair reflected what Finlay (1994) describes as a widespread sense of hopelessness that prepared local business and political leaders to accept a new orthodoxy of centralised government economic planning when it arrived during the Second World War.Richard J. Finlay, "National identity in Crisis: Politicians, Intellectuals and the 'End of Scotland', 1920–1939", History, June 1994, Vol. 79 Issue 256, pp 242–59File:Royal Scots with flag 01-1945.jpg|thumb|left|Royal Scots with a captured Japanese Hinomaru Yosegaki flag, Burma, 1945]]As part of the Blitz by Nazi Germany on the UK, factories, shipyards, and coal mines in Scotland came under attack during the Second World War. Cities such as Glasgow and Edinburgh were targeted by German bombers, as were smaller towns mostly located in the central belt of the country. Perhaps the most significant air-raid in Scotland was the Clydebank Blitz of March 1941, which intended to destroy naval shipbuilding in the area. 528 people were killed and 4,000 homes totally destroyed. As in World War I, Scapa Flow in Orkney served as an important Royal Navy base. Attacks on Scapa Flow and Rosyth gave RAF fighters their first successes downing bombers in the Firth of Forth and East Lothian.P. Wykeham, Fighter Command (Manchester: Ayer, rpt., 1979), {{ISBN|0-405-12209-8}}, p. 87. The shipyards and heavy engineering factories in Glasgow and Clydeside played a key part in the war effort, and suffered attacks from the Luftwaffe, enduring great destruction and loss of life. As transatlantic voyages involved negotiating north-west Britain, Scotland played a key part in the battle of the North Atlantic.J. Creswell, Sea Warfare 1939–1945 (Berkeley, University of California Press, 2nd edn., 1967), p. 52. Shetland's relative proximity to occupied Norway resulted in the Shetland bus by which fishing boats helped Norwegians flee the Nazis, and expeditions across the North Sea to assist resistance.D. Howarth, The Shetland Bus: A WWII Epic of Escape, Survival, and Adventure (Guilford, Delaware: Lyons Press, 2008), {{ISBN|1-59921-321-4}}.Scottish industry came out of the depression slump by a dramatic expansion of its industrial activity, absorbing unemployed men and many women as well. The shipyards were the centre of more activity, but many smaller industries produced the machinery needed by the British bombers, tanks and warships. Agriculture prospered, as did all sectors except for coal mining, which was operating mines near exhaustion. Real wages, adjusted for inflation, rose 25% and unemployment temporarily vanished. Increased income, and the more equal distribution of food, obtained through a tight rationing system, dramatically improved the health and nutrition.{{clear}}

Modern day

File:Opening of the Scottish Parliament, 1999.jpg|thumb|right|The official reconvening of the Scottish Parliament in July 1999 with Donald Dewar, then First Minister of Scotland (left) with Queen Elizabeth II (centre) and Presiding Officer Sir David SteelSir David SteelAfter 1945, Scotland's economic situation worsened due to overseas competition, inefficient industry, and industrial disputes.Harvie, Christopher No Gods and Precious Few Heroes (Edward Arnold, 1989) pp 54–63. Only in recent decades has the country enjoyed something of a cultural and economic renaissance. Economic factors contributing to this recovery included a resurgent financial services industry, electronics manufacturing, (see Silicon Glen),NEWS, Stewart, Heather,weblink Celtic Tiger Burns Brighter at Holyrood, The Guardian, 6 May 2007, and the North Sea oil and gas industry.WEB,weblink National Planning Framework for Scotland, Gov.scot, 17 September 2014, The introduction in 1989 by Margaret Thatcher's government of the Community Charge (widely known as the Poll Tax) one year before the rest of Great Britain,WEB, Torrance, David, David Torrance (journalist),weblink Modern myth of a poll tax test-bed lives on, The Scotsman, 30 March 2009, 19 September 2017, contributed to a growing movement for Scottish control over domestic affairs.NEWS,weblink The poll tax in Scotland 20 years on, BBC, BBC News, 1 April 2009, 17 September 2014, Following a referendum on devolution proposals in 1997, the Scotland Act 1998"The Scotland Act 1998" Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 22 April 2008. was passed by the UK Parliament, which established a devolved Scottish Parliament and Scottish Government with responsibility for most laws specific to Scotland."Devolution > Scottish responsibilities" Scottish Government publication, (web-page last updated November 2010) The Scottish Parliament was reconvened in Edinburgh on 4 July 1999.NEWS,weblink Special Report | 1999 | 06/99 | Scottish Parliament opening | Scotland's day of history, BBC News, 4 July 1999, 1 August 2018, The first First Minister of Scotland was Donald Dewar, who served until his sudden death in 2000.NEWS,weblink Donald Dewar dies after fall, The Independent, 11 October 2000, 1 August 2018, The Scottish Parliament Building at Holyrood itself did not open until October 2004, after lengthy construction delays and running over budget.NEWS,weblink UK | Scotland | Guide to opening of Scottish Parliament, BBC News, 6 October 2004, 1 August 2018, The Scottish Parliament has a form of proportional representation (the additional member system), which normally results in no one party having an overall majority. The pro-independence Scottish National Party led by Alex Salmond achieved this in the 2011 election, winning 69 of the 129 seats available.NEWS, Severin Carrell,weblink Salmond hails 'historic' victory as SNP secures Holyrood's first ever majority, The Guardian, 1 August 2018, The success of the SNP in achieving a majority in the Scottish Parliament paved the way for the September 2014 referendum on Scottish independence, in which 55% voted against independence.NEWS,weblink Scottish independence referendum - Results, BBC News, 19 September 2014, 1 August 2018, More powers, particularly in relation to taxation and social security, were devolved to the Scottish Parliament after the referendum, following cross-party talks in the Smith Commission.

Geography and natural history

File:Scotland topographic map-en.svg|thumb|upright=1.3|Topographic mapTopographic mapFile:BenNevis2005.jpg|thumb|Ben Nevis, in the Grampian MountainsGrampian MountainsThe mainland of Scotland comprises the northern third of the land mass of the island of Great Britain, which lies off the north-west coast of Continental Europe. The total area is {{convert|78772|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}, comparable to the size of the Czech Republic. Scotland's only land border is with England, and runs for {{convert|96|km|mi|0}} between the basin of the River Tweed on the east coast and the Solway Firth in the west. The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east. The island of Ireland lies only {{convert|21|km|mi|0}} from the south-western peninsula of Kintyre;North Channel, Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2 May 2016. Norway is {{convert|305|km|mi|0}} to the east and the Faroe Islands, {{convert|270|km|mi|0}} to the north.The territorial extent of Scotland is generally that established by the 1237 Treaty of York between Scotland and the Kingdom of EnglandWEB,weblink Uniting the Kingdoms?, Nationalarchives.gov.uk, 17 September 2014, and the 1266 Treaty of Perth between Scotland and Norway. Important exceptions include the Isle of Man which, having been lost to England in the 14th century, is now a crown dependency outside of the United Kingdom; the island groups Orkney and Shetland, which were acquired from Norway in 1472; and Berwick-upon-Tweed, lost to England in 1482.The geographical centre of Scotland lies a few miles from the village of Newtonmore in Badenoch.See "Centre of Scotland" Newtonmore.com. Retrieved 7 September 2012. Rising to {{convert|1344|m|ft|0}} above sea level, Scotland's highest point is the summit of Ben Nevis, in Lochaber, while Scotland's longest river, the River Tay, flows for a distance of {{convert|190|km|mi|0}}.Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. London. HarperCollins. Pages 734 and 930.WEB,weblink Tay, Encarta, 21 March 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080517013951weblink">weblink 17 May 2008,

Geology and geomorphology

File:The Cuillins on a still morning (9878281443).jpg|thumb|right|View of the Cullin on the Isle of SkyeIsle of SkyeThe whole of Scotland was covered by ice sheets during the Pleistocene ice ages and the landscape is much affected by glaciation. From a geological perspective, the country has three main sub-divisions.The Highlands and Islands lie to the north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault, which runs from Arran to Stonehaven. This part of Scotland largely comprises ancient rocks from the Cambrian and Precambrian, which were uplifted during the later Caledonian orogeny. It is interspersed with igneous intrusions of a more recent age, remnants of which formed mountain massifs such as the Cairngorms and Skye Cuillins.A significant exception to the above are the fossil-bearing beds of Old Red Sandstones found principally along the Moray Firth coast. The Highlands are generally mountainous and the highest elevations in the British Isles are found here. Scotland has over 790 islands divided into four main groups: Shetland, Orkney, and the Inner Hebrides and Outer Hebrides. There are numerous bodies of freshwater including Loch Lomond and Loch Ness. Some parts of the coastline consist of machair, a low-lying dune pasture land.The Central Lowlands is a rift valley mainly comprising Paleozoic formations. Many of these sediments have economic significance for it is here that the coal and iron bearing rocks that fuelled Scotland's industrial revolution are found. This area has also experienced intense volcanism, Arthur's Seat in Edinburgh being the remnant of a once much larger volcano. This area is relatively low-lying, although even here hills such as the Ochils and Campsie Fells are rarely far from view.File:Scotland Southern Uplands01 2002-08-16.jpg|thumb|The hills around Durisdeer from the A702 road, in the Southern UplandsSouthern UplandsThe Southern Uplands are a range of hills almost {{convert|200|km|mi|0}} long, interspersed with broad valleys. They lie south of a second fault line (the Southern Uplands fault) that runs from Girvan to Dunbar.WEB,weblink Southern Uplands, Tiscali.co.uk, 16 November 1990, 11 June 2009, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20041128062644weblink">weblink 28 November 2004, The geological foundations largely comprise Silurian deposits laid down some 400–500 million years ago. The high point of the Southern Uplands is Merrick with an elevation of {{convert|843|m|ft|0|abbr=on}}.Murray, W.H. (1973) The Islands of Western Scotland. London. Eyre Methuen {{ISBN|978-0-413-30380-6}}Murray, W.H. (1968) The Companion Guide to the West Highlands of Scotland. London. Collins. {{ISBN|0-00-211135-7}}Johnstone, Scott et al. (1990) The Corbetts and Other Scottish Hills. Edinburgh. Scottish Mountaineering Trust. Page 9. The Southern Uplands is home to Scotland's highest village, Wanlockhead ({{convert|430|m|ft|0|abbr=on|disp=or}} above sea level).NEWS,weblink Where is Scotland’s highest village?, More or Less (radio programme), BBC Radio 4 More or Less, Keane, Phoebe, 2019-04-17, 2019-04-28, en-GB,

Climate

The climate of Scotland is temperate and oceanic, and tends to be very changeable. As it is warmed by the Gulf Stream from the Atlantic, it has much milder winters (but cooler, wetter summers) than areas on similar latitudes, such as Labrador, southern Scandinavia, the Moscow region in Russia, and the Kamchatka Peninsula on the opposite side of Eurasia. However, temperatures are generally lower than in the rest of the UK, with the coldest ever UK temperature of {{convert|-27.2|°C|°F|1}} recorded at Braemar in the Grampian Mountains, on 11 February 1895.WEB,weblink BBC Weather: UK Records, BBC.co.uk., 21 September 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101202071307weblink">weblink 2 December 2010, The same temperature was also recorded in Braemar on 10 January 1982 and at Altnaharra, Highland, on 30 December 1995. Winter maxima average {{convert|6|°C|°F|0}} in the Lowlands, with summer maxima averaging {{convert|18|°C|°F|0}}. The highest temperature recorded was {{convert|32.9|°C|°F|1}} at Greycrook, Scottish Borders on 9 August 2003.File:Tiree, Balephuil Bay.jpg|thumb|right|Machair on TireeTireeThe west of Scotland is usually warmer than the east, owing to the influence of Atlantic ocean currents and the colder surface temperatures of the North Sea. Tiree, in the Inner Hebrides, is one of the sunniest places in the country: it had more than 300 hours of sunshine in May 1975. Rainfall varies widely across Scotland. The western highlands of Scotland are the wettest, with annual rainfall in a few places exceeding {{convert|3000|mm|in|abbr=on|sigfig=2}}.WEB,weblink Western Scotland: climate, 17 September 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141008091252weblink">weblink 8 October 2014, In comparison, much of lowland Scotland receives less than {{convert|800|mm|in|abbr=on|sigfig=2}} annually. Heavy snowfall is not common in the lowlands, but becomes more common with altitude. Braemar has an average of 59 snow days per year,WEB,weblink Scottish Weather Part One, BBC, 21 September 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110126064338weblink">weblink 26 January 2011, while many coastal areas average fewer than 10 days of lying snow per year.

Flora and fauna

File:Lepus timidus 01-cropped.jpg|left|thumb|A (Lepus timidus)}} in Findhorn Valley, May 2004Scotland's wildlife is typical of the north-west of Europe, although several of the larger mammals such as the lynx, brown bear, wolf, elk and walrus were hunted to extinction in historic times. There are important populations of seals and internationally significant nesting grounds for a variety of seabirds such as gannets.Fraser Darling, F. & Boyd, J. M. (1969) Natural History in the Highlands and Islands. London. Bloomsbury. The golden eagle is something of a national icon.Benvie, Neil (2004) Scotland's Wildlife. London. Aurum Press. {{ISBN|1-85410-978-2}} p. 12.On the high mountain tops, species including ptarmigan, mountain hare and stoat can be seen in their white colour phase during winter months."State of the Park Report. Chapter 2: Natural Resources"(pdf) (2006) Cairngorms National Park Authority. Retrieved 14 October 2007. Remnants of the native Scots pine forest existPreston, C. D., Pearman, D. A., & Dines, T. D. (2002) New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora. Oxford University Press. and within these areas the Scottish crossbill, the UK's only endemic bird species and vertebrate, can be found alongside capercaillie, Scottish wildcat, red squirrel and pine marten.Gooders, J. (1994) Field Guide to the Birds of Britain and Ireland. London. Kingfisher.Matthews, L. H. (1968) British Mammals. London. Bloomsbury.BOOK,weblink Future nature:a vision for conservation, WM Adams, 30, 10 January 2011, 978-1-85383-998-6, 2003, Various animals have been re-introduced, including the white-tailed sea eagle in 1975, the red kite in the 1980s,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110420032140weblink">"East Scotland Sea Eagles" RSPB. Retrieved 3 January 2014.NEWS, Ross, John, 29 December 2006, Mass slaughter of the red kites, The Scotsman, Edinburgh, and there have been experimental projects involving the beaver and wild boar. Today, much of the remaining native Caledonian Forest lies within the Cairngorms National Park and remnants of the forest remain at 84 locations across Scotland. On the west coast, remnants of ancient Celtic Rainforest still remain, particularly on the Taynish peninsula in Argyll, these forests are particularly rare due to high rates of deforestation throughout Scottish history.Ross, David (26 November 2009) "Wild Boar: our new eco warriors" The Herald. Glasgow.NEWS, Beavers return after 400-year gap,weblink 29 May 2009, BBC News, 5 December 2009, The flora of the country is varied incorporating both deciduous and coniferous woodland as well as moorland and tundra species. However, large scale commercial tree planting and the management of upland moorland habitat for the grazing of sheep and commercial field sport activities impacts upon the distribution of indigenous plants and animals.Integrated Upland Management for Wildlife, Field Sports, Agriculture & Public Enjoyment (pdf) (September 1999) Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 14 October 2007. The five tallest trees in the UK are located in Scotland.NEWS, Glen is home to super-sized trees,weblink 24 January 2019, BBC News, 25 March 2014, Although the number of native vascular plants is low by world standards, Scotland's substantial bryophyte flora is of global importance.WEB,weblink Why Scotland has so many mosses and liverworts, Snh.org.uk, 17 September 2014, WEB,weblink Bryology (mosses, liverworts and hornworts), Rbge.org.uk, 17 September 2014,

Demographics

{{see also|Languages of Scotland|Religion in Scotland|Scottish people}}File:Scotland population cartogram.svg|thumb|Scotland's population cartogramcartogramThe population of Scotland in the 2011 census was 5,295,400, the highest ever recorded.WEB,weblink Scotland's Population at its Highest Ever, 30 April 2015, National Records of Scotland, 12 February 2015, The most recent ONS estimate, for mid-2017, was 5,424,800. 62% of Scotland's population stated their national identity as 'Scottish only', 18% as 'Scottish and British', 8% as 'British only', and 4% chose 'other identity only'.Census 2011: Detailed characteristics on Ethnicity, Identity, Language and Religion in Scotland – Release 3A. Scotland Census 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2014. Although Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland, the largest city is Glasgow, which has just over 584,000 inhabitants. The Greater Glasgow conurbation, with a population of almost 1.2 million, is home to nearly a quarter of Scotland's population.WEB,weblink Did You Know?—Scotland's Cities, Rampantscotland.com, 17 September 2014, The Central Belt is where most of the main towns and cities are located, including Glasgow, Edinburgh, Dundee, and Perth. Scotland's only major city outside the Central Belt is Aberdeen.{{cn|date=January 2019}} Because of housing problems in Glasgow and Edinburgh, five new towns were designated between 1947 and 1966. They are East Kilbride, Glenrothes, Cumbernauld, Livingston, and Irvine.WEB,weblink New Towns, Bbc.co.uk, 17 September 2014, Scotland has fewer than 90 inhabited islands, typically the larger and more accessible ones. The Southern Uplands are essentially rural in nature and dominated by agriculture and forestry.Clapperton, C.M. (ed) (1983) Scotland: A New Study. London. David & Charles.Miller, J. (2004) Inverness. Edinburgh. Birlinn. {{ISBN|978-1-84158-296-2}} The total fertility rate (TFR) in Scotland is below the replacement rate of 2.1 (the TFR was 1.73 in 2011WEB,weblink Scotland's Population 2011: The Registrar General's Annual Review of Demographic Trends 157th Edition, Gro-gov.scot, 1 May 2013, ). The majority of births are to unmarried women (51.3% of births were outside of marriage in 2012WEB,weblink Table Q1: Births, stillbirths, deaths, marriages and civil partnerships, numbers and rates, Scotland, quarterly, 2002 to 2012, General Register Office for Scotland, 1 May 2013, ). Life expectancy for those born in Scotland between 2012 and 2014 is 77.1 years for males and 81.1 years for females. This is the lowest of any of the four countries of the UK.Immigration since World War II has given Glasgow, Edinburgh, and Dundee substantial but small South Asian communities.WEB,weblink A timeline of the history of South Asian Communities across Scotland, in collaboration with Glasgow Museums and Colourful Heritage, 20 April 2019, In 2011, there were an estimated 49,000 ethnically Pakistani people living in Scotland, making them the largest non-White ethnic group. Since the Enlargement of the European Union more people from Central and Eastern Europe have moved to Scotland, and the 2011 census indicated that 61,000 Poles live there.The Pole Position (6 August 2005). Glasgow. Sunday Herald newspaper. Scotland has four officially recognised languages: English, Scots, Scottish Gaelic and British Sign Language.Gaelic Language Plan, www.gov.scot. Retrieved 2 October 2014Scots Language Policy, Gov.scot, Retrieved 2 October 2014 Scottish Standard English, a variety of English as spoken in Scotland, is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with broad Scots at the other.Stuart-Smith J. Scottish English: Phonology in Varieties of English: The British Isles, Kortman & Upton (Eds), Mouton de Gruyter, New York 2008. p. 47 Scottish Standard English may have been influenced to varying degrees by Scots.Stuart-Smith J. Scottish English: Phonology in Varieties of English: The British Isles, Kortman & Upton (Eds), Mouton de Gruyter, New York 2008. p.48Macafee C. Scots in Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Vol. 11, Elsevier, Oxford, 2005. p. 33 The 2011 census indicated that 63% of the population had "no skills in Scots".WEB,weblink Scotland's Census 2011, National Records of Scotland, 27 May 2014, Others speak Highland English. Gaelic is mostly spoken in the Western Isles, where a large proportion of people still speak it; however, nationally its use is confined to just 1% of the population.WEB,weblink A Century on the Census—Gaelic in Twentieth Century Focus, Kenneth MacKinnon, University of Glasgow, 26 September 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070905013846weblink">weblink 5 September 2007, The number of Gaelic speakers in Scotland dropped from 250,000 in 1881 to 60,000 in 2008."Can TV's evolution ignite a Gaelic revolution?". The Scotsman. 16 September 2008.In the late twentieth century, about 25 million people outside Scotland were of Scottish descent.{{rp|225}} Before the Act of Union and since the Second World War, the primary destination for emigrants are other countries in Europe; major destinations have included Poland and Northern Ireland. In between, many Scots emigrated to the New World or other British colonies.{{rp|229}} Although economic downturns caused temporary increases in emigration, the largest exodus occurred during the period of economic growth in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and well-educated Scots were more likely to emigrate.{{rp|231}} In the 2000 Census, 9.2 million Americans self-reported some degree of Scottish descent,The US Census 2000. The weblink American Community Survey 2004 by the US Census Bureau estimates 5,752,571 people claiming Scottish ancestry and 5,323,888 people claiming Scotch-Irish ancestry. WEB,weblink Archived copy, 5 February 2016, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120108032342weblink">weblink 8 January 2012, while the Scottish-Canadian community accounts for 4.7 million people.WEB,weblink 2006 Canadian Census, 2 April 2008, 12.statcan.ca, 17 September 2014, {{Largest cities of Scotland}}

Religion

File:Abbey on the Isle of Iona - geograph.org.uk - 1459438.jpg|thumb|left|Iona AbbeyIona AbbeyOn the 2011 census, 54% of the Scottish population reported being Christian while nearly 37% reported not having a religion. Since the Scottish Reformation of 1560, the Church of Scotland has been Protestant and Calvinist in theology, including belief in predestination. Since 1690 it has had a Presbyterian system of church government and enjoys independence from the state.{{rp|44–45}} Historically, the Church of Scotland played a key role in poor relief{{rp|48}} although secular campaigners have attacked it for its role in witch trials and control over people's personal lives.{{rp|58}} Thirty-two percent of Scots identified their religion as "Church of Scotland" on the 2011 census, a drop of ten percentage points since 2001.Most of the sixteen percent of Scots who profess Catholic faithWEB, Scottish Government, Demographics,weblink 28 January 2019, English, live in Greater Glasgow and the north-west Highlands; many are descended from nineteenth-century Irish migrants.{{rp|52}} Other Christian denominations, including the Scottish Episcopal Church and the Free Church of Scotland,{{rp|57}} account for 5.5% of Scots. Islam is the largest non-Christian religion, with smaller Hindu, Buddhist, Jewish, and Sikh communities. Combined, non-Christian religions account for less than 3% of the Scottish population.

Politics and government

{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:left; float:right; margin-right:9px; margin-left:2px;" (File:Elizabeth II in Berlin 2015.JPG|129px) (File:Nicola Sturgeon Official HQ.jpg|129px)Queen Elizabeth IIMonarchNicola SturgeonFirst MinisterThe head of state of the United Kingdom is the monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II (since 1952).WEB,weblink Scottish Parliament, Opening of Parliament: Procession of the Crown of Scotland, 9 July 2016, Scotland has limited self-government within the United Kingdom, as well as representation in the UK Parliament. Executive and legislative powers respectively have been devolved to the Scottish Government and the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood in Edinburgh since 1999. The UK Parliament retains control over reserved matters specified in the Scotland Act 1998, including UK taxes, social security, defence, international relations and broadcasting.WEB,weblink Government of Scotland Facts, 17 September 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100503130512weblink">weblink 3 May 2010, {{failed verification|date=January 2019}} The Scottish Parliament has legislative authority for all other areas relating to Scotland. It initially had only a limited power to vary income tax,NEWS,weblink Brown opens door to Holyrood tax powers, Sunday Herald, 16 February 2008, 4 January 2014, but powers over taxation and social security were significantly expanded by the Scotland Acts of 2012 and 2016.WEB,weblink Scotland's tax powers: What it has and what's coming?, Douglas, Fraser, BBC News, BBC, 2 February 2016, 27 April 2017, File:Scottish Parliament Building and adjacent water pool, 2017.jpg|thumb|left|Holyrood is the seat of the national parliament of Scotland]]File: Bute House, Charlotte Square Edinburgh.JPG|thumb|left|Bute House is the official residence and workplace of the First Minister ]]The Scottish Parliament can give legislative consent over devolved matters back to the UK Parliament by passing a Legislative Consent Motion if United Kingdom-wide legislation is considered more appropriate for a certain issue. The programmes of legislation enacted by the Scottish Parliament have seen a divergence in the provision of public services compared to the rest of the UK. For instance, university education and care services for the elderly are free at point of use in Scotland, while fees are paid in the rest of the UK.{{cn|date=January 2019}} Scotland was the first country in the UK to ban smoking in enclosed public places.WEB,weblink Scotland begins pub smoking ban, BBC News, 26 March 2006, 29 January 2019, Last month MPs voted in favour of a total ban on smoking in enclosed public spaces in England, which is due to come into effect in the summer of 2007. Northern Ireland is introducing a ban in April next year, while no date has been set yet in Wales., The Scottish Parliament is a unicameral legislature with 129 members (MSPs): 73 of them represent individual constituencies and are elected on a first-past-the-post system; the other 56 are elected in eight different electoral regions by the additional member system. MSPs serve for a five-year period (formerly four years from 1999–2011). The Parliament nominates one of its Members, who is then appointed by the Monarch to serve as First Minister. Other ministers are appointed by the First Minister and serve at their discretion. Together they make up the Scottish Government, the executive arm of the devolved government.WEB,weblink People: Who runs the Scottish Government, Scottish Government, 21 November 2014, 11 January 2015, {{failed verification|date=January 2019}} In the 2016 election, the Scottish National Party (SNP) won 63 of the 129 seats available. Nicola Sturgeon, the leader of the SNP, has been the First Minister since November 2014.WEB,weblink Nicola Sturgeon wins Scottish first minister vote, 17 May 2016, 3 January 2019, BBC News, The Conservative Party became the largest opposition party in the 2016 elections, with the Labour Party, Scottish Green Party and Liberal Democrats also represented in the Parliament. The next Scottish Parliament election is due to be held on 6 May 2021.WEB,weblink Scottish Elections (Dates) Act 2016, legislation.gov.uk, 3 January 2019, Scotland is represented in the British House of Commons by 59 MPs elected from territory-based Scottish constituencies. In the 2017 general election, the SNP won 35 of the 59 seats. This represented a significant decline from the 2015 general election, when the SNP won 56 seats.WEB, Election 2015: SNP wins 56 of 59 seats in Scots landslide,weblink BBC News, BBC, 17 May 2015, Conservative, Labour and Liberal Democrat parties also represent Scottish constituencies in the House of Commons. The next United Kingdom general election is scheduled for 5 May 2022. The Scotland Office represents the UK government in Scotland on reserved matters and represents Scottish interests within the UK government.WEB,weblink Scotland Office Charter, Scotland Office website, 9 August 2004, 22 December 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071030185025weblink">weblink 30 October 2007, The Scotland Office is led by the Secretary of State for Scotland, who sits in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. Conservative MP David Mundell has held the position since May 2015.

International diplomacy

File:Bush&McConnell.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.8|Former First Minister Jack McConnell welcomes then-President of the United States George W. Bush to Glasgow Prestwick Airport at the start of the G8 SummitG8 SummitWhilst foreign policy remains a reserved matter,WEB,weblink Devolved and Reserved Matters - Visit & Learn, Scottish Parliament, 14 February 2017, 1 August 2018, the Scottish Government still has the power and ability to strengthen and develop Scotland, the economy and Scottish interests on the world stage and encourage foreign businesses, international devolved, regional and central governments to invest in Scotland.WEB,weblink International, gov.scot, 1 August 2018, Whilst the First Minister usually undertakes a number of foreign and international visits to promote Scotland, international relations, European and Commonwealth relations are also included within the portfolios of both the Cabinet Secretary for Culture, Tourism and External Affairs (responsible for international development)WEB,weblink Cabinet Secretary for Culture, Tourism and External Affairs, gov.scot, 1 August 2018, and the Minister for International Development and Europe (responsible for European Union relations and international relations).WEB,weblink Minister for Europe, Migration and International Development, gov.scot, 1 August 2018, During the G8 Summit in 2005, then First Minister Jack McConnell welcomed each head of government of the G8 nations to the countries Glasgow Prestwick AirportNEWS,weblink 'Best of Scotland' at G8 summit, BBC News, 3 July 2005, 1 August 2018, on behalf of then UK Prime Minister Tony Blair. During McConnell's time as First Minister, several relations with Scotland, including Scottish and Russian relations strengthened following a visit by President of Russia Vladimir Putin to Edinburgh. McConnell, speaking at the end, highlighted that the visit by Putin was a "post-devolution" step towards "Scotland regaining its international identity".NEWS,weblink Putin in Scottish capital, BBC News, 25 June 2003, 1 August 2018, Under the Salmond administration, Scotland's trade and investment deals with countries such as ChinaWEB,weblink First Minister Alex Salmond arrives in China, BBC News, 3 November 2013, 1 August 2018, WEB,weblink Working with China: five-year engagement strategy, gov.scot, 4 December 2012, 1 August 2018, and Canada, where Salmond established the Canada Plan 2010–2015 which aimed to strengthen "the important historical, cultural and economic links" between both Canada and Scotland.WEB,weblink Scotland's International Framework: Canada engagement strategy, gov.scot, 30 March 2017, 1 August 2018, To promote Scotland's interests and Scottish businesses in North America, there is a Scottish Affairs Office located in Washington, D.C. with the aim to promoting Scotland in both the United States and Canada.WEB,weblink International relations: International offices, gov.scot, 1 August 2018, During a 2017 visit to the United States, First Minister Nicola Sturgeon met with Jerry Brown, Governor of California, where both signed an agreement committing both the Government of California and the Scottish Government to work together to tackle climate change,WEB,weblink Sturgeon signs climate agreement with California, BBC News, 3 April 2017, 1 August 2018, as well as Sturgeon signing a £6.3 million deal for Scottish investment from American businesses and firms promoting trade, tourism and innovation.WEB,weblink Nicola Sturgeon nets £6.3million deal for Scots jobs on first day of US visit, Daily Record, 3 April 2017, 1 August 2018, During an official visit to the Republic of Ireland in 2016, Sturgeon claimed that is it "important for Ireland and Scotland and the whole of the British Isles that Ireland has a strong ally in Scotland". During the same engagement, Sturgeon became the first head of government to address the Seanad Éireann, the Upper House of the Irish Parliament.

Constitutional changes

File:Scottish Parliament Debating Chamber 2.jpg|thumb|The debating chamber within the Scottish Parliament BuildingScottish Parliament BuildingA policy of devolution had been advocated by the three main UK parties with varying enthusiasm during recent history. A previous Labour leader. John Smith, described the revival of a Scottish parliament as the "settled will of the Scottish people".Cavanagh, Michael (2001) The Campaigns for a Scottish Parliament. University of Strathclyde. Retrieved 12 April 2008. The devolved Scottish Parliament was created after a referendum in 1997 found majority support for both creating the Parliament and granting it limited powers to vary income tax.NEWS,weblink Scottish devolution referendum: The birth of a parliament, Andrew, Kerr, BBC News, 8 September 2017, 3 January 2019, The Scottish National Party (SNP), which supports Scottish independence, was first elected to form the Scottish Government in 2007. The new government established a "National Conversation" on constitutional issues, proposing a number of options such as increasing the powers of the Scottish Parliament, federalism, or a referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom. In rejecting the last option, the three main opposition parties in the Scottish Parliament created a commission to investigate the distribution of powers between devolved Scottish and UK-wide bodies.NEWS,weblink Party people confront new realities, BBC News, 18 January 2008, NEWS,weblink In quotes: Calman report reaction, 15 June 2009, 29 January 2019, BBC News, {{failed verification|Neither of these sources mention "federalism", so that bit is OR at the moment|date=January 2019}} The Scotland Act 2012, based on proposals by the commission, was subsequently enacted devolving additional powers to the Scottish Parliament.WEB,weblink Commons clears transfer of power, The Herald, Glasgow, January 2011, 4 October 2011, File:FM meets with Juncker.jpg|thumb|right|President of the European Commission Jean-Claude JunckerJean-Claude JunckerIn August 2009 the SNP proposed a bill to hold a referendum on independence in November 2010. Opposition from all other major parties led to an expected defeat.WEB,weblink Referendum Bill, Scottish Government, Official website, About > Programme for Government > 2009–10 > Summaries of Bills > Referendum Bill, 2 September 2009, 10 September 2009,weblink 10 September 2009, NEWS,weblink Salmond to push ahead with referendum Bill, The Times, 3 September 2009, 10 September 2009,weblink 10 September 2009, London, Angus, MacLeod, yes, NEWS,weblink BBC News, Scottish independence plan 'an election issue', 6 September 2010, After the 2011 elections gave the SNP an overall majority in the Scottish Parliament, a referendum on independence for Scotland was held on 18 September 2014.NEWS,weblink Scottish independence: Referendum to be held on 18 September, 2014, BBC News, 21 March 2013, 21 March 2013, London, Andrew, Black, The referendum resulted in a rejection of independence, by 55.3% to 44.7%.NEWS,weblink Scotland votes no: the union has survived, but the questions for the left are profound, The Guardian, 19 September 2014, WEB,weblink BBC, Scotland decides, 19 September 2014, During the campaign, the three main parties in the UK Parliament pledged to extend the powers of the Scottish Parliament.Scottish Independence Referendum: statement by the Prime Minister, UK Government An all-party commission chaired by Lord Smith of Kelvin was formed.Following a referendum on the UK's membership of the European Union on 23 June 2016, where a UK-wide majority voted to withdraw from the EU whilst a majority within Scotland voted to remain, Scotland's First Minister, Nicola Sturgeon, announced that as a result a new independence referendum was "highly likely".NEWS, Scottish Leader Nicola Sturgeon Announces Plans for Second Independence Referendum,weblink 24 June 2016, Time, 24 June 2016, NEWS,weblink Brexit: Nicola Sturgeon says second Scottish independence vote 'highly likely', 24 June 2016, BBC News, 24 June 2016,

Administrative subdivisions

File:Glasgow City Chambers Exterior.jpg|thumb|left|Glasgow City Chambers, seat of Glasgow City CouncilGlasgow City CouncilHistorical subdivisions of Scotland included the mormaerdom, stewartry, earldom, burgh, parish, county and regions and districts.Modern Scotland is subdivided in various ways depending on the purpose. In local government, there have been 32 single-tier council areas since 1996,"Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100301043228weblink |date=1 March 2010}} Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 26 September 2007. whose councils are responsible for the provision of all local government services. Decisions are made by councillors who are elected at local elections every five years. The head of each council is the Lord Provost or Provost alongside the Leader of the Council,WEB,weblink Council leaders, Cosla.gov.uk, 3 January 2019, with a Chief Executive being appointed as director of the council area.WEB,weblink Chief executives, Cosla.gov.uk, 3 January 2019, City status in the United Kingdom is conferred by letters patent.WEB,weblink City status, Dca.gov.uk, 17 September 2014, There are seven cities in Scotland: Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Inverness, Stirling and Perth.WEB,weblink UK Cities, Dca.gov.uk, 17 September 2014,

Law and criminal justice

File:High Court of Justiciary.jpg|thumb|upright|High Court of JusticiaryHigh Court of JusticiaryScots law has a basis derived from Roman law,WEB, History of the Faculty of Law,weblink The University of Edinburgh School of Law, 22 October 2007, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071122202314weblink">weblink 22 November 2007, combining features of both uncodified civil law, dating back to the Corpus Juris Civilis, and common law with medieval sources. The terms of the Treaty of Union with England in 1707 guaranteed the continued existence of a separate legal system in Scotland from that of England and Wales.The Articles: legal and miscellaneous, UK Parliament House of Lords (2007). "Article 19: The Scottish legal system and its courts was to remain unchanged":WEB, Act of Union 1707,weblink House of Lords, 22 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071114022831weblink">weblink 14 November 2007, Prior to 1611, there were several regional law systems in Scotland, most notably Udal law in Orkney and Shetland, based on old Norse law. Various other systems derived from common Celtic or Brehon laws survived in the Highlands until the 1800s."Law and institutions, Gaelic" & "Law and lawyers" in M. Lynch (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Scottish History, (Oxford, 2001), pp. 381–382 & 382–386. Udal Law remains relevant to land law in Orkney and Shetland: WEB, A General History of Scots Law (20th century),weblink Law Society of Scotland, 20 September 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070925220347weblink">weblink 25 September 2007, {{failed verification|date=January 2019}}Scots law provides for three types of courts responsible for the administration of justice: civil, criminal and heraldic. The supreme civil court is the Court of Session, although civil appeals can be taken to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom (or before 1 October 2009, the House of Lords). The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland. The Court of Session is housed at Parliament House, in Edinburgh, which was the home of the pre-Union Parliament of Scotland with the High Court of Justiciary and the Supreme Court of Appeal currently located at the Lawnmarket. The sheriff court is the main criminal and civil court, hearing most cases. There are 49 sheriff courts throughout the country."Court Information" www.scotcourts.gov.uk. Retrieved 26 September 207. {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20150320151120weblink |date=20 March 2015}}{{failed verification|date=January 2019}} District courts were introduced in 1975 for minor offences and small claims. These were gradually replaced by Justice of the Peace Courts from 2008 to 2010. The Court of the Lord Lyon regulates heraldry.For three centuries the Scots legal system was unique for being the only national legal system without a parliament. This ended with the advent of the Scottish Parliament in 1999, which legislates for Scotland. Many features within the system have been preserved. Within criminal law, the Scots legal system is unique in having three possible verdicts: "guilty", "not guilty" and "not proven".NEWS,weblink The case for keeping 'not proven' verdict, Timesonline.co.uk, 17 September 2014, {{failed verification|date=January 2019}} Both "not guilty" and "not proven" result in an acquittal, typically with no possibility of retrial in accordance with the rule of double jeopardy. There is, however, the possibility of a retrial where new evidence emerges at a later date that might have proven conclusive in the earlier trial at first instance, where the person acquitted subsequently admits the offence or where it can be proved that the acquittal was tainted by an attempt to pervert the course of justice – see the provisions of the Double Jeopardy (Scotland) Act 2011. Many laws differ between Scotland and the other parts of the United Kingdom, and many terms differ for certain legal concepts. Manslaughter, in England and Wales, is broadly similar to culpable homicide in Scotland, and arson is called wilful fire raising. Indeed, some acts considered crimes in England and Wales, such as forgery, are not so in Scotland. Procedure also differs. Scots juries, sitting in criminal cases, consist of fifteen jurors, which is three more than is typical in many countries.NEWS,weblink Scotland's unique 15-strong juries will not be abolished, The Scotsman, 11 May 2009, 13 March 2017, {{failed verification|date=January 2019}}The Scottish Prison Service (SPS) manages the prisons in Scotland, which collectively house over 8,500 prisoners.WEB,weblink Prisoner Population, Sps.gov.uk, 8 July 2009, The Cabinet Secretary for Justice is responsible for the Scottish Prison Service within the Scottish Government.

Health care

File:QEUH2.jpg|thumb|left|NHS Scotland's Queen Elizabeth University HospitalQueen Elizabeth University HospitalHealth care in Scotland is mainly provided by NHS Scotland, Scotland's public health care system. This was founded by the National Health Service (Scotland) Act 1947 (later repealed by the National Health Service (Scotland) Act 1978) that took effect on 5 July 1948 to coincide with the launch of the NHS in England and Wales. Prior to 1948, the Highlands and Islands Medical Service provided state-funded medical care to people in the Highlands and Islands.Highlands and Islands Medical Service (HIMS) www.60yearsofnhsscotland.co.uk. Retrieved 28 July 2008. Healthcare policy and funding is the responsibility of the Scottish Government's Health Directorates. The current Cabinet Secretary for Health and Sport is Jeane FreemanWEB, Cabinet and ministers – gov.scot,weblink beta.gov.scot, 11 August 2017, en, and the Director-General (DG) Health and chief executive, NHS Scotland is Paul Gray.WEB, Strategic Board of the Scottish Government,weblink Scottish Government, 8 June 2014, Rates of some noncommunicable diseases, including heart disease and lung cancer, are among the highest in Europe and are leading causes of death.WEB, Scotland – Economy,weblink Encyclopedia Britannica, 28 January 2019, en, In 2008, the NHS in Scotland had around 158,000 staff including more than 47,500 nurses, midwives and health visitors and over 3,800 consultants. There are also more than 12,000 doctors, family practitioners and allied health professionals, including dentists, opticians and community pharmacists, who operate as independent contractors providing a range of services within the NHS in return for fees and allowances. These fees and allowances were removed in May 2010, and prescriptions are entirely free, although dentists and opticians may charge if the patient's household earns over a certain amount, about £30,000 per annum.WEB,weblink About the NHS in Scotland, 17 September 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140628224652weblink">weblink 28 June 2014,

Economy

File:Skyline of Edinburgh.jpg|thumb|EdinburghEdinburghScotland had an estimated nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of up to £152 billion in 2015. In 2014, Scotland's per capita GDP was one of the highest in the EU.WEB, Khan, Mehreen,weblink The Scottish economy in ten essential charts, Daily Telegraph, 12 September 2014, 1 August 2018, Scotland has a Western-style open mixed economy closely linked with the rest of the UK and the wider world. Traditionally, the Scottish economy has been dominated by heavy industry underpinned by shipbuilding in Glasgow, coal mining and steel industries. Petroleum related industries associated with the extraction of North Sea oil have also been important employers from the 1970s, especially in the north-east of Scotland.In February 2012, the Centre for Economics and Business Research concluded that "Scotland receives no net subsidy" from the UK, as greater per capita tax generation in Scotland balanced out greater per capita public spending.WEB, How money in some regions subsidises others, Centre for Economics, Business Research, yes,weblink 31 July 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131012213023weblink">weblink 12 October 2013, More recent data, from 2012–13, show that Scotland generated 9.1% (£53.1bn; this included a geographical share of North Sea oil revenue – without it, the figures were 8.2% and £47.6bn) of the UK's tax revenues and received 9.3% (£65.2bn) of spending."Government Expenditure & Revenue Scotland 2012–13". p. 4. Retrieved 12 March 2014. Scotland's public spending deficit in 2012–13 was £12bn, a £3.5bn increase on the previous year; over the same period, the UK's deficit decreased by £2.6bn.Johnson, Simon (12 March 2014) "Scots Each Receive £1,300 More Spending Despite Oil Tax Drop". The Daily Telegraph. Over the past thirty years, Scotland contributed almost £20billion to the UK economy.WEB, Scotland's Balance Sheet, Scottish Government,weblink 12 June 2013, File:Glenmorangie Brennblasen.jpg|thumb|left|Scotch whiskyScotch whiskyIn the final quarter of 2016, the Scottish economy contracted by 0.2%;"Scotland's GDP 2016 Q4" (5 April 2017). Scottish Government. the UK as a whole grew by 0.7% in the same period.WEB, Scottish economic output falls by 0.2%, BBC,weblink 7 April 2017, As of September 2015, the Scottish unemployment rate of 5.9% was above the UK rate of 5.5%, while the Scottish employment rate of 74.0% was higher than the UK figure of 73.5%.WEB, Scottish Labour Market Statistics September 2015, Scottish Office,weblink 15 January 2016, De-industrialisation during the 1970s and 1980s saw a shift from a manufacturing focus towards a more service-oriented economy. Between April-June 2018, Scotland's economy was the best performing onshore economy in the United Kingdom, with Scotland outperforming the Economy of the United Kingdom as a whole, when the Scottish economy grew by 0.5% compared to UK economic growth of 0.4%WEB,weblink Scottish economic growth outpaces UK, 19 September 2018, www.bbc.co.uk, . In the final quarter of 2018 (July-September), Scotland's economy grew by 0.3% in real-terms which compared to the same period in the previous year (July-September 2017), the economy of Scotland has grown +1.5%. Based on recent publications from the Scottish Government, the largest single contributor to this period of growth in Scotland's economy was the construction sectorWEB,weblink Scotland's Gross Domestic Product, Quarter 3 2018, St Andrew's House, Scottish Government, 12 December 2018, www2.gov.scot, . Edinburgh is the financial services centre of Scotland, with many large finance firms based there, including: Lloyds Banking Group (owners of HBOS); the Government-owned Royal Bank of Scotland and Standard Life. Edinburgh was ranked 15th in the list of world financial centres in 2007, but fell to 37th in 2012, following damage to its reputation,Askeland, Erikka (20 March 2012) "Scots Cities Slide down Chart of the World's Top Financial Centres". The Scotsman. and in 2016 was ranked 56th out of 86.WEB,weblink The Global Financial Centres Index 19, March 2016, Long Finance, 6 July 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160408123054weblink">weblink 8 April 2016, yes, File:Bank of Scotland, Bank Street building 2014-07-05.jpg|thumb|right|The Bank of ScotlandBank of ScotlandIn 2014, total Scottish exports (excluding intra-UK trade) were estimated to be £27.5 billion.WEB, Export Statistics Scotland – Publication, Scottish Government,weblink 14 December 2014, Scotland's primary exports include whisky, electronics and financial services. The United States, Netherlands, Germany, France, and Norway constitute the country's major export markets. Scotland's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), including oil and gas produced in Scottish waters, was estimated at £150 billion for the calendar year 2012.WEB, Key Economy Statistics, Scottish Government,weblink 22 August 2014, If the reserves were split by population, that figure would be reduced to 9%.WEB,weblink Who would get the oil revenues if Scotland became independent?, Macalister, Terry, 2 March 2012, The Guardian, 14 October 2012, Whisky is one of Scotland's more known goods of economic activity. Exports increased by 87% in the decade to 2012WEB, Scotch Whisky Exports Hit Record Level,weblink Scotch Whisky Association, 2 April 2013, 12 June 2013, and were valued at £4.3 billion in 2013, which was 85% of Scotland's food and drink exports.WEB,weblink Scotch Whisky Exports Remain Flat, BBC News, 17 September 2014, It supports around 10,000 jobs directly and 25,000 indirectly.WEB, Scotch Whisky Briefing 2014,weblink Scotch Whisky Association, 30 May 2014, It may contribute £400–682 million to Scotland, rather than several billion pounds, as more than 80% of whisky produced is owned by non-Scottish companies.WEB,weblink New Doubt Cast over Alex Salmond's Claims of Scottish Wealth, Carrell, Severin, Griffiths, Ian, Terry Macalister, Terry, 29 May 2014, The Guardian, 30 May 2014, A briefing published in 2002 by the Scottish Parliament Information Centre (SPICe) for the Scottish Parliament's Enterprise and Life Long Learning Committee stated that tourism accounted for up to 5% of GDP and 7.5% of employment.WEB, The Economics of Tourism,weblink PDF, SPICe, 22 October 2007, 2002, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051106161727weblink">weblink 6 November 2005,

Currency

Although the Bank of England is the central bank for the UK, three Scottish clearing banks issue Sterling banknotes: the Bank of Scotland, the Royal Bank of Scotland and the Clydesdale Bank. The value of the Scottish banknotes in circulation in 2013 was £3.8 billion, underwritten by the Bank of England using funds deposited by each clearing bank, under the Banking Act 2009, in order to cover the total value of such notes in circulation.WEB,weblink Scottish Banknotes: The Treasury's Symbolic Hostage in the Independence Debate, The Guardian, 26 May 2014,

Military

File:Challenger2-Bergen-Hohne-Training-Area-2.jpg|thumb|left|A Challenger 2 main battle tank of the Royal Scots Dragoon GuardsRoyal Scots Dragoon GuardsAlthough Scotland has a long military tradition predating its union with England,{{rp|238}} its armed forces now form part of the British Armed Forces. Scottish regiments in the British Army include the Royal Regiment of Scotland, the Scots Guards, the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards and the 154 (Scottish) Regiment RLC, an Army Reserve Regiment of the Royal Logistic Corps. More than 4,000 Scots serve in the British Army around the world. A single front-line Royal Air Force base is located in Scotland. RAF Lossiemouth, located in Moray, is the most northerly air defence fighter base in the United Kingdom and is home to three fast-jet squadrons equipped with the Eurofighter Typhoon.Because of their topography and perceived remoteness, parts of Scotland have housed many sensitive defence establishments.NEWS,weblink Pensioner, 94, in nuclear protest, News.bbc.co.uk, 17 September 2014, NEWS,weblink Reprieve for RAF Lossiemouth base, News.bbc.co.uk, 17 September 2014, Between 1960 and 1991, the Holy Loch was a base for the US fleet of Polaris ballistic missile submarines.WEB,weblink Dunoon and the US Navy, Argyllonline.co.uk, 17 September 2014, By 2020, HMNB Clyde will be the base of all Royal Navy submarines. Currently, it hosts several submarines including the four Trident-armed, Vanguard class, ballistic missile submarines that comprise the UK's nuclear deterrent. The naval base is one of Scotland's largest employers, with 6,800 workers on site.

Education

File:St Andrews University - geograph.org.uk - 135908.jpg|thumb|University of St AndrewsUniversity of St AndrewsThe Scottish education system has always been distinct from the rest of the United Kingdom, with a characteristic emphasis on a broad education.WEB, A Guide to Education and Training in Scotland – "the broad education long regarded as characteristic of Scotland",weblink Scottish Government, 18 October 2007, In the 15th century, the Humanist emphasis on education cumulated with the passing of the Education Act 1496, which decreed that all sons of barons and freeholders of substance should attend grammar schools to learn "perfyct Latyne", resulting in an increase in literacy among a male and wealthy elite.P. J. Bawcutt and J. H. Williams, A Companion to Medieval Scottish Poetry (Woodbridge: Brewer, 2006), {{ISBN|1-84384-096-0}}, pp. 29–30. In the Reformation, the 1560 First Book of Discipline set out a plan for a school in every parish, but this proved financially impossible.R. A. Houston, Scottish Literacy and the Scottish Identity: Illiteracy and Society in Scotland and Northern England, 1600–1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002), {{ISBN|0-521-89088-8}}, p. 5. In 1616 an act in Privy council commanded every parish to establish a school.{{Citation|title=School education prior to 1873 |journal=Scottish Archive Network |year=2010 |url=http://www.scan.org.uk/knowledgebase/topics/education_box1.htm |archiveurl=https://www.webcitation.org/5zt4xQMkX?url=http://www.scan.org.uk/knowledgebase/topics/education_box1.htm |archivedate=2 July 2011 |deadurl=yes}} By the late seventeenth century there was a largely complete network of parish schools in the lowlands, but in the Highlands basic education was still lacking in many areas.R. Anderson, "The history of Scottish Education pre-1980", in T. G. K. Bryce and W. M. Humes, eds, Scottish Education: Post-Devolution (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2nd edn., 2003), {{ISBN|0-7486-1625-X}}, pp. 219–28. Education remained a matter for the church rather than the state until the Education (Scotland) Act 1872."Schools and schooling" in M. Lynch (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Scottish History, (Oxford, 2001), pp. 561–563.The Curriculum for Excellence, Scotland's national school curriculum, presently provides the curricular framework for children and young people from age 3 to 18.WEB, Curriculum for Excellence – Aims, Purposes and Principles,weblink Scottish Government, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100801110701weblink">weblink 1 August 2010, All 3- and 4-year-old children in Scotland are entitled to a free nursery place. Formal primary education begins at approximately 5 years old and lasts for 7 years (P1–P7); children in Scotland study for National Qualifications. The school leaving age is 16, after which students may choose to remain at school and study for Higher or Advanced Higher qualifications. A small number of students at certain private, independent schools may follow the English system and study towards GCSEs and A and AS-Levels instead.WEB,weblink The Scottish Exam System, 17 September 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080214084916weblink">weblink 14 February 2008, There are fifteen Scottish universities, some of which are amongst the oldest in the world.{{vague|date=January 2019}}WEB, Welcome to the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland,weblink Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland, 18 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071011070532weblink">weblink 11 October 2007, WEB, Understanding Scottish Qualifications,weblink Scottish Agricultural College, 18 October 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120522144025weblink">weblink 22 May 2012, These include the University of St Andrews, the University of Glasgow, the University of Aberdeen and the University of Edinburgh—many of which are ranked amongst the best in the UK.{{vague|date=January 2019}}NEWS,weblink RAE 2008: results for UK universities, The Guardian, 18 December 2008, 11 June 2009, London, NEWS,weblink The Times Good University Guide 2009 – league table, The Times, 30 April 2010, London, Patrick, Foster, Proportionally, Scotland had more universities in QS' World University Rankings' top 100 in 2012 than any other nation.WEB, Scotland tops global university rankings,weblink Newsnet Scotland, 11 September 2012, 11 January 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130309062707weblink">weblink 9 March 2013, The country produces 1% of the world's published research with less than 0.1% of the world's population, and higher education institutions account for 9% of Scotland's service sector exports.WEB, A Framework for Higher Education in Scotland: Higher Education Review Phase 2,weblink Scottish Government, 18 October 2007, WEB, What is higher education?,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20040316132403weblink">weblink yes, 16 March 2004, Universities Scotland, 18 October 2007, Scotland's University Courts are the only bodies in Scotland authorised to award degrees.Tuition is handled by the Student Awards Agency Scotland (SAAS), which does not charge fees to what it defines as "Young Students". Young Students are defined as those under 25, without children, marriage, civil partnership or cohabiting partner, who have not been outside of full-time education for more than three years. Fees exist for those outside the young student definition, typically from £1,200 to £1,800 for undergraduate courses, dependent on year of application and type of qualification. Postgraduate fees can be up to £3,400.WEB,weblink Introduction, 1 August 2018, The system has been in place since 2007 when graduate endowments were abolished.WEB,weblink Scottish Government – Graduate endowment scrapped, Scotland.gov.uk, 29 October 2014, Labour's education spokesperson Rhona Brankin criticised the Scottish system for failing to address student poverty.NEWS,weblink MSPs vote to scrap endowment fee, BBC News, 28 February 2008, 12 February 2011, Scotland's universities are complemented in the provision of Further and Higher Education by 43 colleges. Colleges offer National Certificates, Higher National Certificates, and Higher National Diplomas. These Group Awards, alongside Scottish Vocational Qualifications, aim to ensure Scotland's population has the appropriate skills and knowledge to meet workplace needs. In 2014, research reported by the Office for National Statistics found that Scotland was the most highly educated country in Europe and among the most well-educated in the world in terms of tertiary education attainment, with roughly 40% of people in Scotland aged 16–64 educated to NVQ level 4 and above.NEWS, Scotland 'most highly educated country in Europe', ITV News,weblink 8 June 2014, 5 June 2014, {{not in citation given|date=January 2019}} Based on the original data for EU statistical regions, all four Scottish regions ranked significantly above the European average for completion of tertiary-level education by 25- to 64-year-olds.WEB,weblink Tertiary educational attainment, age group 25–64 by sex and NUTS 2 regions, Eurostat, 2014, 8 June 2014,

Culture

{{see also||Scottish art|Media of Scotland}}

Scottish music

File:Scottish piper.jpg|thumb|upright=0.7|The bagpipesbagpipesScottish music is a significant aspect of the nation's culture, with both traditional and modern influences. A famous traditional Scottish instrument is the Great Highland bagpipe, a wind instrument consisting of three drones and a melody pipe (called the chanter), which are fed continuously by a reservoir of air in a bag. Bagpipe bands, featuring bagpipes and various types of drums, and showcasing Scottish music styles while creating new ones, have spread throughout the world. The clàrsach (harp), fiddle and accordion are also traditional Scottish instruments, the latter two heavily featured in Scottish country dance bands. There are many successful Scottish bands and individual artists in varying styles including Annie Lennox, Amy Macdonald, Runrig, Belle and Sebastian, Boards of Canada, Camera Obscura, Cocteau Twins, Deacon Blue, Franz Ferdinand, Susan Boyle, Emeli Sandé, Texas, The View, The Fratellis, Twin Atlantic and Biffy Clyro. Other Scottish musicians include Shirley Manson, Paolo Nutini, Andy Stewart and Calvin Harris.WEB,weblink Best Scottish Band of All Time, The List, 2 August 2006, {{failed verification|date=January 2019}} Scotland hosts several music festivals including the Royal National Mòd and Celtic Connections.NEWS, Young Scots have a duty to protect Gaelic, says SNP MSP,weblink 24 January 2019, The Scotsman, en,

Literature

Scotland has a literary heritage dating back to the early Middle Ages. The earliest extant literature composed in what is now Scotland was in Brythonic speech in the 6th century, but is preserved as part of Welsh literature.R. T. Lambdin and L. C. Lambdin, Encyclopedia of Medieval Literature (London: Greenwood, 2000), {{ISBN|0-313-30054-2}}, p. 508. Later medieval literature included works in Latin,I. Brown, T. Owen Clancy, M. Pittock, S. Manning, eds, The Edinburgh History of Scottish Literature: From Columba to the Union, until 1707 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007), {{ISBN|0-7486-1615-2}}, p. 94. Gaelic,J. T. Koch, Celtic Culture: a Historical Encyclopedia (ABC-CLIO, 2006), {{ISBN|1-85109-440-7}}, p. 999. Old EnglishE. M. Treharne, Old and Middle English c.890-c.1400: an Anthology (Wiley-Blackwell, 2004), {{ISBN|1-4051-1313-8}}, p. 108. and French.M. Fry, Edinburgh (London: Pan Macmillan, 2011), {{ISBN|0-330-53997-3}}. The first surviving major text in Early Scots is the 14th-century poet John Barbour's epic Brus, focusing on the life of Robert I,N. Jayapalan, History of English Literature (Atlantic, 2001), {{ISBN|81-269-0041-5}}, p. 23. and was soon followed by a series of vernacular romances and prose works.J. Wormald, Court, Kirk, and Community: Scotland, 1470–1625 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991), {{ISBN|0-7486-0276-3}}, pp. 60–7. In the 16th century, the crown's patronage helped the development of Scots drama and poetry,I. Brown, T. Owen Clancy, M. Pittock, S. Manning, eds, The Edinburgh History of Scottish Literature: From Columba to the Union, until 1707 (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007), {{ISBN|0-7486-1615-2}}, pp. 256–7. but the accession of James VI to the English throne removed a major centre of literary patronage and Scots was sidelined as a literary language.R. D. S. Jack, "Poetry under King James VI", in C. Cairns, ed., The History of Scottish Literature (Aberdeen University Press, 1988), vol. 1, {{ISBN|0-08-037728-9}}, pp. 137–8. Interest in Scots literature was revived in the 18th century by figures including James Macpherson, whose Ossian Cycle made him the first Scottish poet to gain an international reputation and was a major influence on the European Enlightenment.BOOK, J. Buchan, Crowded with Genius, Harper Collins, 2003, 978-0-06-055888-8, 163, It was also a major influence on Robert Burns, whom many consider the national poet,JOURNAL, L. McIlvanney, Spring 2005, Hugh Blair, Robert Burns, and the Invention of Scottish Literature, Eighteenth-Century Life, 29, 2, 25–46, 10.1215/00982601-29-2-25, and Walter Scott, whose Waverley Novels did much to define Scottish identity in the 19th century.BOOK, N. Davidson, 2000, The Origins of Scottish Nationhood, 978-0-7453-1608-6, 136, Pluto Press, Towards the end of the Victorian era a number of Scottish-born authors achieved international reputations as writers in English, including Robert Louis Stevenson, Arthur Conan Doyle, J. M. Barrie and George MacDonald.JOURNAL, Cultural Profile: 19th and early 20th century developments, Visiting Arts: Scotland: Cultural Profile,weblinkweblink 5 November 2011, yes, In the 20th century the Scottish Renaissance saw a surge of literary activity and attempts to reclaim the Scots language as a medium for serious literature. Members of the movement were followed by a new generation of post-war poets including Edwin Morgan, who would be appointed the first Scots Makar by the inaugural Scottish government in 2004.JOURNAL, The Scots Makar, The Scottish Government, 16 February 2004,weblink 28 October 2007,weblink 5 November 2011, yes, From the 1980s Scottish literature enjoyed another major revival, particularly associated with a group of writers including Irvine Welsh. Scottish poets who emerged in the same period included Carol Ann Duffy, who, in May 2009, was the first Scot named UK Poet Laureate.JOURNAL, 1 May 2009, Duffy reacts to new Laureate post, BBC News,weblinkweblink 5 November 2011, yes,

National identity

{{further|Scottish people|National symbols of Scotland}}File:Cirsium 049.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.8|The thistlethistleThe image of St. Andrew, martyred while bound to an X-shaped cross, first appeared in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of William I."Feature: Saint Andrew seals Scotland's independence" {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130916085046weblink |date=16 September 2013}}, The National Archives of Scotland, 28 November 2007, retrieved 12 September 2009. Following the death of King Alexander III in 1286 an image of Andrew was used on the seal of the Guardians of Scotland who assumed control of the kingdom during the subsequent interregnum.WEB,weblink Feature: Saint Andrew seals Scotland's independence, 9 December 2009, 28 November 2007, The National Archives of Scotland, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130916085046weblink">weblink 16 September 2013, Use of a simplified symbol associated with Saint Andrew, the saltire has its origins in the late 14th century; the Parliament of Scotland decreeing in 1385 that Scottish soldiers should wear a white Saint Andrew's Cross on the front and back of their tunics.Dickinson, Donaldson, Milne (eds.), A Source Book Of Scottish History, Nelson and Sons Ltd, Edinburgh 1952, p.205 Use of a blue background for the Saint Andrew's Cross is said to date from at least the 15th century.G. Bartram, www.flaginstitute.org British Flags & Emblems {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121109055700weblink |date=9 November 2012}} (Edinburgh: Tuckwell Press, 2004), {{ISBN|1-86232-297-X}}, p. 10. The symbol was adopted as the national flag of Scotland. Since 1606 the saltire has also formed part of the design of the Union Flag. There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the thistle, the nation's floral emblem (celebrated in the song, The Thistle o' Scotland), the Declaration of Arbroath, incorporating a statement of political independence made on 6 April 1320, the textile pattern tartan that often signifies a particular Scottish clan, the royal Lion Rampant flag and the Honours of Scotland which are displayed in Edinburgh Castle."National identity" in M. Lynch (ed.), The Oxford Companion to Scottish History, (Oxford, 2001), pp. 437–444.Keay, J. & Keay, J. (1994) Collins Encyclopaedia of Scotland. London. HarperCollins. Page 936.WEB,weblink Symbols of Scotland—Index, Rampantscotland.com, 17 September 2014, Although there is no official national anthem of Scotland,NEWS,weblink Action call over national anthem, BBC News, 21 March 2006, 3 November 2011, Flower of Scotland is played on special occasions and sporting events such as football and rugby matches involving the Scotland national teams and since 2010 is also played at the Commonwealth Games after it was voted the overwhelming favourite by participating Scottish athletes.NEWS,weblink Games team picks new Scots anthem, BBC, 9 January 2010, Other songs that have been suggested as possible national anthems include Scotland the Brave, Caledonia, Highland Cathedral, Scots Wha Hae, A Man's A Man for A' That and I'm Gonna Be (500 Miles).NEWS,weblink 5 national anthem alternatives to Flower of Scotland, The Scotsman, 8 March 2017, 25 January 2019, NEWS,weblink Do you know the tune to Highland Cathedral?, The Herald, 24 March 2006, 25 January 2019, St Andrew's Day, 30 November, is the national day, although Burns' Night tends to be more widely observed, particularly outside Scotland. In 2006, the Scottish Parliament passed the St Andrew's Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007, designating the day an official bank holiday."Explanatory Notes to St. Andrew's Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007" Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 22 September 2007.

Cuisine

File:Cock-a-leekie Soup.jpg|thumb|Cock-a-leekie soupCock-a-leekie soupScottish cuisine has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own but shares much with wider British and European cuisine as a result of local and foreign influences, both ancient and modern. Traditional Scottish dishes exist alongside international foodstuffs brought about by migration. Scotland's natural larder of game, dairy products, fish, fruit, and vegetables is the chief factor in traditional Scots cooking, with a high reliance on simplicity and a lack of spices from abroad, as these were historically rare and expensive. During the Late Middle Ages and early modern era, French cuisine played a role in Scottish cookery due to cultural exchanges brought about by the "Auld Alliance",WEB,weblink The Auld Alliance and its Influence on Scottish Cuisine, Gail Kilgore, 29 July 2006, especially during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots.The national dish of Scotland is haggis, a pudding consisting of sheeps' offal, oatmeal, onion, spices and fat, cooked in a casing.WEB,weblink Haggis, www.visitscotland.com, en, 2019-02-22, WEB,weblink haggis {{!, Definition, Origin, & Facts|website=Encyclopedia Britannica|language=en|access-date=2019-02-22}} Scotland's national drink is whisky, though Irn-Bru, a popular carbonated soft drink, is often described as "Scotland's other national drink".WEB,weblink Frequently Asked Questions - Scottish Food & Drink, www.visitscotland.com, en, 2019-02-23, WEB,weblink 15 things you didn't know about Irn-Bru, 2018-01-05, The Independent, en, 2019-02-23,

Media

File:John Logie Baird in 1917.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Scottish inventor John Logie BairdJohn Logie BairdNational newspapers such as the Daily Record, The Herald, The Scotsman and The National are all produced in Scotland. Important regional dailies include the Evening News in Edinburgh, The Courier in Dundee in the east, and The Press and Journal serving Aberdeen and the north. Scotland is represented at the Celtic Media Festival, which showcases film and television from the Celtic countries. Scottish entrants have won many awards since the festival began in 1980.WEB, About Us::Celtic Media Festival,weblink 3 January 2014, Celtic Media Festival, 2014, Celtic Media Festival website, Television in Scotland is largely the same as UK-wide broadcasts, however, the national broadcaster is BBC Scotland, a constituent part of the British Broadcasting Corporation, the publicly funded broadcaster of the United Kingdom. It runs three national television stations, and the national radio stations, BBC Radio Scotland and BBC Radio nan Gàidheal, amongst others. Scotland also has some programming in the Gaelic language. BBC Alba is the national Gaelic-language channel. The main Scottish commercial television station is STV which broadcasts on two of the three ITV regions of Scotland.WEB,weblink ITV Media - STV, www.itvmedia.co.uk, Scotland has a number of production companies which produce films and television programmes for Scottish, UK and international audiences. Popular films associated with Scotland through Scottish production or being filmed in Scotland include Braveheart (1995), Highlander (1986), Trainspotting (1996), Red Road (2006), Neds (2010), The Angel's Share (2012), Brave (2012)WEB,weblink Disney Pixar's Brave - Locations & Setting, Visitscotland.com, 3 January 2019, and Outlaw King (2018).WEB,weblink Scotland braces for 'Netflix effect' as TV film about Robert the Bruce is launched, Kevin, McKenna, 10 November 2018, 3 January 2019, Theguardian.com, Popular television programmes associated with Scotland include the long running BBC Scotland soap opera River City which has been broadcast since 2002,WEB,weblink BBC Studios - Scripted - Continuing Drama - River City, www.bbcstudios.com, Still Game, a popular Scottish sitcom broadcast throughout the United Kingdom (2002–2007, revived in 2016),WEB,weblink Still Game makes stage comeback, 23 October 2013, 3 January 2019, Bbc.com, Rab C. Nesbitt, Two Doors DownWEB,weblink BBC - Two Doors Down comes calling again with series four - Media Centre, www.bbc.co.uk, and Take the High RoadWEB,weblink Lesley Fitz-Simons: Scottish actress known for her role in Take the High Road, 11 April 2013, The Independent, .Wardpark Studios in Cumbernauld is one of Scotland's television and film production studios where the television programme Outlander is produced.WEB,weblink wpstudio, wpstudio, {{secondary source needed|date=January 2019}} Dumbarton Studios, located in Dumbarton is largely used for BBC Scotland programming, used for the filming and production of television programmes such as Still Game, River City, Two Doors Down Shetland.WEB,weblink BBC Dumbarton Studios, {{secondary source needed|date=January 2019}}

Sport

File:R&A Clubhouse, Old Course, Swilcan Burn bridge.jpg|thumb|left|The (Old Course at St Andrews]] dates to before 1552BOOK, Richardson, Forrest L., Routing the Golf Course: The Art & Science That Forms the Golf Journey, 2002, John Wiley & Sons, 9780471434801, 34, en, )Scotland hosts its own national sporting competitions and has independent representation at several international sporting events, including the FIFA World Cup, the Rugby Union World Cup, the Rugby League World Cup, the Cricket World Cup, the Netball World Cup and the Commonwealth Games. Distinctive features of the national sporting culture include the Highland games, curling and shinty. In boxing, Scotland has had 13 world champions, including Ken Buchanan, Benny Lynch and Jim Watt.{{cn|date=January 2019}} Scotland has competed at every Commonwealth Games since 1930 and has won 356 medals in total—91 Gold, 104 Silver and 161 Bronze.WEB,weblink Medal Tally, Cgcs.org.uk, 17 September 2014, Edinburgh played host to the Commonwealth Games in 1970 and 1986, and most recently Glasgow in 2014.WEB,weblink Overview and History, Cgcs.org.uk, 17 September 2014, The modern game of golf originated in 15th-century Scotland. Affordable public courses, including the Old Course at St Andrews, coexist with exclusive private courses such as The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews. Golf in Scotland is cheaper and more widely played than in other countries.{{rp|145–146}}The Scottish Football Association (SFA), the second-oldest national football association in the world, is the main governing body for football in Scotland. It operates the Scotland national football team, which contested the first ever international football match (a 0–0 draw with England on 30 November 1872). The national team last qualified for the World Cup finals in 1998, but finished last in their group stage.WEB, Craig Brown's highs and lows, BBC Sport, 7 October 2001,weblink 31 August 2008, The Scotland women's team have achieved more recent success, qualifying for both Euro 2017WEB,weblink Scotland: Anna Signeul urges players to fight for Euro 2017 places, Richard, Wilson, BBC Sport, 10 January 2017, 2 April 2017, and the 2019 World Cup.WEB,weblink Albania Women 1–2 Scotland Women, BBC Sport, 4 September 2018, 4 September 2018, Amy, MacBeath, Scottish club sides have achieved some success in European competitions, with Celtic winning the European Cup in 1967, Rangers and Aberdeen winning the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup in 1972 and 1983 respectively, and Aberdeen also winning the UEFA Super Cup in 1983. Celtic, Rangers and Dundee United have also reached and lost European finals, the most recent of these being in 2008.WEB,weblink UEFA Cup, RSSSF, Karel, Stokkermans, 17 May 2018, 6 January 2019,

Infrastructure

Energy

File:Whitelee - Wind turbines - looking south.JPG|thumb|Whitelee Wind FarmWhitelee Wind Farm{{See also|Nuclear power in Scotland|Renewable energy in Scotland}}Scotland's primary sources for electricity generation are provided though renewable energy (42%), nuclear (35%) and fossil fuel generation (22%).WEB,weblink Energy - Electricity Generation, St Andrew's House, Scottish Government, 1 April 2003, 2.gov.scot, 3 January 2019, The Scottish Government has a target to have the equivalent of 50% of the energy for Scotland's heat, transport and electricity consumption to be supplied from renewable sources by 2030.WEB,weblink The future of energy in Scotland: Scottish energy strategy, Gov.scot, 3 January 2019,

Transport

File:Haymarket - DRS 68007 evening commuter service.JPG|thumb|Domestic rail services are operated by Abellio ScotRailAbellio ScotRailFile:Forth rail bridge - paint will last 40 years now.jpg|thumb|The Forth BridgeForth BridgeFile:MV Loch Seaforth Departing Stornoway For Ullapool, 24 February 2015.jpg|thumb|A Calmac ferry departing StornowayStornowayScotland has five international airports—Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Glasgow Prestwick, and Inverness—operating scheduled services to Europe, North America and Asia, as well domestic services to England, Northern Ireland and Wales. Highlands and Islands Airports operates eleven airports across the Highlands, Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles, which are primarily used for short distance, public service operations. Edinburgh Airport is currently Scotland's busiest airport handling over 14 million passengers in 2018.WEB,weblink Datasets - UK Civil Aviation Authority, Caa.co.uk, 3 January 2019, It is also the UK's 6th busiest airport. British Airways, easyJet, flybe, Jet2, and Ryanair operate the majority of flights between Scotland and other major UK and European airports. There are currently three Scottish-based airlines: Directflight, Hebridean Air Services and Loganair.Network Rail owns and operates the fixed infrastructure assets of the railway system in Scotland, while Transport Scotland retains overall responsibility for rail strategy and funding in Scotland.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20050722065527weblink">"Disaggregating Network Rail's expenditure and revenue allowance and future price control framework: a consultation (June 2005)" Office of Rail Regulation. Retrieved 2 November 2007. Scotland's rail network has around 350 railway stations and {{convert|3000|km}} of track, a decline of over one-third since the mid-twentieth century. Over 89.3{{nbsp}}million passenger journeys are made each year. The East Coast and West Coast main railway lines connect the major cities and towns of Scotland with each other and with the rail network in England. London North Eastern Railway provides inter-city rail journeys between Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Inverness to London.{{cn|date=January 2019}} Completed in 1890, the railway bridge over the Firth of Forth has been described as the most iconic image of modern Scotland.{{rp|104}}The Scottish motorways and major trunk roads are managed by Transport Scotland, while the remainder of the road network is managed by local authorities. Bus transport was privatized in the 1980s.Regular ferry services operate between the Scottish mainland and outlying islands. Ferries serving both the inner and outer Hebrides are principally operated by the state-owned enterprise Caledonian MacBrayne. Services to the Northern Isles are operated by Serco. Other routes, served by multiple companies, connect southwest Scotland to Northern Ireland. Additional routes are operated by local authorities.

See also

Notes

{{notelist}}

References

Further reading

  • BOOK, Devine, Thomas Martin, Lee, Clive Howard, Peden, G. C., The Transformation of Scotland: The Economy Since 1700, 2005, Edinburgh University Press, 9780748614332, en,
  • Donnachie, Ian and George Hewitt. Dictionary of Scottish History. (2001). 384 pp.
  • Tabraham, Chris, and Colin Baxter. The Illustrated History of Scotland (2004) excerpt and text search
  • Trevor-Roper, Hugh, The Invention of Scotland: Myth and History, Yale, 2008, {{ISBN|0-300-13686-2}}
  • Watson, Fiona, Scotland; From Prehistory to the Present. Tempus, 2003. 286 pp.

External links

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