British Army

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British Army
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{{Good article}}{{Use British English|date=August 2019}}{{Use dmy dates|date=March 2018}}{{EngvarB|date=June 2014}}

! colspan=2 |(File:Union flag 1606 (Kings Colors).svg|25px){{Small|(1707–1800)}}! Year! Regular Army! Year! Regular Army! Year! Regular Army! Army Reserve ! {{Small|Total}}| 1710| 70,000| 1810| 226,000| 1921| 1720| 20,000| 1820| 114,000| 1930! —| 1730| 20,000| 1830| 106,000| 1945End of the Second World War| 3,120,000| 1740| 55,000| 1840| 130,000| 1950| 364,000| 83,000! 447,000| 1750| 27,000| 1850| 151,000| 1960| 258,000| 120,000! 387,000| 1760| 87,000| 1860| 215,000| 1970| 176,000| 80,000! 256,000| 1770| 48,000| 1870| 185,000| 1980| 159,000| 63,000! 222,000| 1780| 79,000| 1880| 165,000| 1990| 153,000| 73,000! 226,000| 1790| 84,000| 1890| 210,000| 2000| 110,000| 45,000! 155,000| 1800| 163,000| 1900| 275,000| 2010| 113,000| 29,000! 142,000
unit_name British Army | image = British Army Logo.png| image_size = 150px| dates = | country = United Kingdom{hide}collapsible list
titlestyle background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;
| title = See details

| type = Army
Ground warfare>Land warfareFigure current {{as ofMaylc=y{edih}. Includes approx. 4000 soldiers who have completed basic stage 1 training, but who have not completed trade-specific Phase 2 trainingArmy Reserve (United Kingdom)>Army Reserve{{NoteTag20181|lc=y}}.}}| command_structure = British Armed Forces| garrison = | garrison_label = | nickname = | patron = Elizabeth II| motto = | colours = | colours_label = | march = | mascot = | equipment = | equipment_label = | battles = | anniversaries = | decorations = | battle_honours = | website = {{Official URL}}Mark Carleton-Smith>Sir Mark Carleton-SmithLIEUTENANT GENERAL MARK CARLETON-SMITH APPOINTED NEW CHIEF OF THE GENERAL STAFF >URL=HTTPS://WWW.GOV.UK/GOVERNMENT/NEWS/LIEUTENANT-GENERAL-MARK-CARLETON-SMITH-APPOINTED-NEW-CHIEF-OF-THE-GENERAL-STAFF DATE=2018-05-05 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180616201831/HTTPS://WWW.GOV.UK/GOVERNMENT/NEWS/LIEUTENANT-GENERAL-MARK-CARLETON-SMITH-APPOINTED-NEW-CHIEF-OF-THE-GENERAL-STAFF URL-STATUS=LIVE, dmy-all, Chief of the General Staff (United Kingdom)>Chief of the General StaffChristopher Tickell {{London Gazette>issue= 62738page=14447|date=13 August 2019}}Deputy Chief of the General Staff (United Kingdom)>Deputy Chief of the General Staff| commander3 = Warrant Officer Class 1 Gavin Paton| commander3_label = Army Sergeant Major| notable_commanders = centre100px)War flag}}centre100px)| identification_symbol_2_label = Non-ceremonial flagcentre|100px)| identification_symbol_3_label = Logo16601}} years ago) CLIFFORD WALTON>TITLE=HISTORY OF THE BRITISH STANDING ARMY. A.D. 1660 TO 1700YEAR=1894URL=HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/?ID=ZDXNAAAAMAAJ&Q=%22BRITISH+ARMY%22+1660&DQ=%22BRITISH+ARMY%22+1660PUBLISHER=BRASSEY'SEnglish/Scottish parliamentary control 1689, British parliamentary control 1707.}}}}{{British Army}}The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces. {{as of|2018}}, the British Army comprises just over 81,500 trained regular (full-time) personnel and just over 27,000 trained reserve (part-time) personnel.WEB,weblink UK Armed Forces Monthly Personnel Report – Jan 2018,weblink 1 May 2018, live, dmy-all, The modern British Army traces back to 1707, with an antecedent in the English Army that was created during the Restoration in 1660. The term British Army was adopted in 1707 after the Acts of Union between England and Scotland.BOOK,weblink Redcoats and courtesans: the birth of the British Army (1660–1690), Williams, Noel T. St John, 1 January 1994, Brassey's (UK), 1–2, en, BOOK,weblink History of the British Standing Army. A.D. 1660 to 1700, Walton, Clifford, 1 January 1894, Harrison and Sons, 16, en, Although all members of the British Army are expected to swear (or affirm) allegiance to the monarch as their commander-in-chief,WEB,weblink Commanding Officers Guide. Manual of Service Law (JSP 830, Volume 1, Chapter 18),weblink 8 October 2015, live, dmy-all, the Bill of Rights of 1689 requires parliamentary consent for the Crown to maintain a peacetime standing army.WEB,weblink Bill of Rights 1689, UK Parliament, en, 9 March 2017,weblink 12 March 2017, live, dmy-all, Therefore, Parliament approves the army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years. The army is administered by the Ministry of Defence and commanded by the Chief of the General Staff.WEB,weblink The British Army – Higher Command,, The British Army,, en, 9 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2017, live, dmy-all, The British Army has seen action in major wars between the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War and the First and Second World Wars. Britain's victories in these decisive wars allowed it to influence world events and establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers.BOOK,weblink The Oxford History of the British Empire: The nineteenth century, Louis, William Roger, Low, Alaine M., Porter, Andrew, 1 January 2001, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-924678-6, 332, en, BOOK,weblink The Historical Foundations of World Order: The Tower and the Arena, Johnston, Douglas, Reisman, W. Michael, 26 December 2007, BRILL, 978-90-474-2393-5, 508, en, Since the end of the Cold War, the British Army has been deployed to a number of conflict zones, often as part of an expeditionary force, a coalition force or part of a United Nations peacekeeping operation.WEB,weblink The British Army – Operations and Deployments,, The British Army,, en, 9 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2017, live, dmy-all,



File:Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper.jpg|thumb|Lord ProtectorLord Protector(File:General Thomas Fairfax (1612-1671) by Robert Walker and studio.jpg|thumb|Lord General Thomas Fairfax, the first commander of the New Model Army)Until the English Civil War, England never had a standing army with professional officers and careerist corporals and sergeants. It relied on militia organized by local officials, or private forces mobilized by the nobility, or on hired mercenaries from Europe.David G. Chandler, ed., The Oxford history of the British army (1996) pp 24–45. From the later Middle Ages until the English Civil War, when a foreign expeditionary force was needed, such as the one that Henry V of England took to France and that fought at the Battle of Agincourt (1415), the army, a professional one, was raised for the duration of the expedition.WEB,weblink A victorious army in the making: Raising King Henry V's army of 1415, 11 August 2015, Benjamin, Trowbridge, National Archives, 17 October 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 18 October 2017, live, dmy-all, During the English Civil War, the members of the Long Parliament realised that the use of county militia organised into regional associations (such as the Eastern Association), often commanded by local members of parliament (both from the House of Commons and the House of Lords), while more than able to hold their own in the regions which Parliamentarians controlled, were unlikely to win the war. So Parliament initiated two actions. The Self-denying Ordinance, with the notable exception of Oliver Cromwell, forbade members of parliament from serving as officers in the Parliamentary armies. This created a distinction between the civilians in Parliament, who tended to be Presbyterian and conciliatory to the Royalists in nature, and a corps of professional officers, who tended to Independent (Congregational) in theology, to whom they reported. The second action was legislation for the creation of a Parliamentary-funded army, commanded by Lord General Thomas Fairfax, which became known as the New Model Army (originally new-modelled Army).{{sfn|Rogers|1968|pp=207–211}}While this proved to be a war winning formula, the New Model Army, being organized and politically active, went on to dominate the politics of the Interregnum and by 1660 was widely disliked. The New Model Army was paid off and disbanded at the Restoration of the monarchy in 1660. For many decades the alleged excesses of the New Model Army under the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell were used as propaganda (and still feature in Irish folklore) and the Whig element recoiled from allowing a standing army.Lord Macaulay The History of England from the accession of James the Second (C.H. Firth ed. 1913) 1:136-38 The militia acts of 1661 and 1662 prevented local authorities from calling up militia and oppressing their own local opponents. Calling up the militia was possible only if the king and local elites agreed to do so.WEB, 'Charles II, 1661: An Act declaring the sole Right of the Militia to be in King and for the present ordering & disposing the same.', Statutes of the Realm: volume 5: 1628–80 (1819),, 308–309,weblink 5 March 2007,weblink" title="">weblink 27 September 2007, live, dmy-all, Charles II and his Cavalier supporters favoured a new army under royal control; and immediately after the Restoration began working on its establishment.David Chandler, The Oxford History of the British Army (2003) p. 46. weblink The first English Army regiments, including elements of the disbanded New Model Army, were formed between November 1660 and January 1661David Chandler, The Oxford History of the British Army (2003) p. 47. weblink and became a standing military force for England (financed by Parliament).Mallinson, p.2BOOK, Clayton, Anthony, The British Officer: Leading the Army from 1660 to the Present, 2014, Routledge, 978-1-317-86444-8, 12,weblink The first standing Army for Britain, a force of some 5,000 men on the English establishment, was formed at the Restoration in 1660–61. Separate forces were maintained on the Scottish and Irish establishments., The Royal Scots and Irish Armies were financed by the parliaments of Scotland and Ireland.BOOK, Glozier, Matthew, Onnekink, David, War, religion and service: Huguenot soldiering, 1685–1713, 2007, Ashgate, 0-7546-5444-3, 31,weblink After the Restoration there were separate English, Scottish (until 1707) and Irish (until 1800) military establishments, reflecting the national revenue from which a military unit was maintained. In operational and administrative matters all three combined into a single formation. From 1688, the description 'British' army is both convenient and accurate., Parliamentary control was established by the Bill of Rights 1689 and Claim of Right Act 1689, although the monarch continued to influence aspects of army administration until at least the end of the nineteenth century.David Chandler, The Oxford History of the British Army (2003) p. xvi–xviiAfter the Restoration Charles II pulled together four regiments of infantry and cavalry, calling them his guards, at a cost of £122,000 from his general budget. This became the foundation of the permanent English Army. By 1685 it had grown to 7,500 soldiers in marching regiments, and 1,400 men permanently stationed in garrisons. A rebellion in 1685 allowed James II to raise the forces to 20,000 men. There were 37,000 in 1678, when England played a role in the closing stage of the Franco-Dutch War. After William and Mary's accession to the throne England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance, primarily to prevent a French invasion restoring James II (Mary's father).{{harvnb|Miller|2000|p=144}} In 1689, William III expanded the army to 74,000, and then to 94,000 in 1694. Parliament was very nervous, and reduced the cadre to 7000 in 1697. Scotland and Ireland had theoretically separate military establishments, but they were unofficially merged with the English force.Chandler, ed., The Oxford history of the British army (1996) pp 46–57.Correlli Barnett, Britain and her army, 1509–1970: a military, political and social survey (1970) pp 90–98, 110–25.File:John Churchill Marlborough porträtterad av Adriaen van der Werff (1659-1722).jpg|thumb|alt=Oil-on-canvas portrait|John Churchill, 1st Duke of MarlboroughJohn Churchill, 1st Duke of MarlboroughBy the time of the 1707 Acts of Union, many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands for the War of the Spanish Succession. Although all the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment,BOOK, Chandler, David, The Oxford history of the British Army, 2003, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-280311-5, xv,weblink It is generally accepted that the regular standing army in Britain was officially created – in the sense of being fully accommodated within parliamentary control in 1689, although it is, strictly speaking, only correct to refer to the British army from the Act of Union with Scotland in 1707., they remained under the old operational-command structure and retained much of the institutional ethos, customs and traditions of the standing armies created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 47 years earlier. The order of seniority of the most-senior British Army line regiments is based on that of the English army. Although technically the Scots Royal Regiment of Foot was raised in 1633 and is the oldest Regiment of the Line,WEB, History,weblink British Army, 12 January 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 18 January 2017, live, dmy-all, Scottish and Irish regiments were only allowed to take a rank in the English army on the date of their arrival in England (or the date when they were first placed on the English establishment). In 1694, a board of general officers was convened to decide the rank of English, Irish and Scots regiments serving in the Netherlands; the regiment which became known as the Scots Greys were designated the 4th Dragoons because there were three English regiments raised prior to 1688, when the Scots Greys were first placed in the English establishment. In 1713, when a new board of general officers was convened to decide the rank of several regiments, the seniority of the Scots Greys was reassessed and based on their June 1685 entry into England. At that time there was only one English regiment of dragoons, and the Scots Greys eventually received the British Army rank of 2nd Dragoons.{{sfn|Royal Scots Greys|1840|pp=56–57}}

British Empire (1700–1914)

After 1700 British continental policy was to contain expansion by competing powers such as France and Spain. Although Spain was the dominant global power during the previous two centuries and the chief threat to England's early transatlantic ambitions, its influence was now waning. The territorial ambitions of the French, however, led to the War of the Spanish Succession{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=50}} and the Napoleonic Wars.Although the Royal Navy is widely regarded as vital to the rise of the British Empire, the British Army played an important role in the formation of colonies, protectorates and dominions in the Americas, Africa, Asia, India and Australasia.{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=104}}. British soldiers captured strategically-important territories, and the army was involved in wars to secure the empire's borders and support friendly governments. Among these actions were the Seven Years' War,{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=106}}. the American Revolutionary War,{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=129}} the Napoleonic Wars,{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=165}}. the First and Second Opium Wars,{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=102}} the Boxer Rebellion,{{harvnb|Bates|2010|p=25}}. the New Zealand Wars,WEB,weblink 1. – New Zealand wars – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand, Taonga, New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu,, en, 17 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 3 April 2017, live, dmy-all, the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857,{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=210}} the first and second Boer Wars,{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=257}} the Fenian raids,WEB,weblink The Fenian Raids,, 15 September 2001, 28 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 4 April 2012, live, dmy-all, the Irish War of Independence,{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=282}} interventions in Afghanistan (intended to maintain a buffer state between British India and the Russian Empire){{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=203}}. and the Crimean War (to keep the Russian Empire at a safe distance by aiding Turkey).{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=195}}. Like the English Army, the British Army fought the kingdoms of Spain, France (including the Empire of France) and the Netherlands for supremacy in North America and the West Indies. With native and provincial assistance, the army conquered New France in the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War and suppressed a Native American uprising in Pontiac's War.Pontiac's War {{Webarchive|url= |date=28 April 2011 }} Baltimore County Public Schools The British Army was defeated in the American Revolutionary War, losing the Thirteen Colonies but retaining The Canadas and The Maritimes as British North America.{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=110}}.File:Battle of Waterloo 1815.PNG|thumb|upright=1.05|alt=Panoramic painting of the Battle of Waterloo|The Duke of Wellington and Field Marshal von Blücher's triumph over Napoleon Bonaparte at the Battle of Waterloo ]]The British Army was heavily involved in the Napoleonic Wars, participating in a number of campaigns in Europe (including continuous deployment in the Peninsular War), the Caribbean, North Africa and North America. The war between the British and the First French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte stretched around the world; at its peak in 1813, the regular army contained over 250,000 men. A coalition of Anglo-Dutch and Prussian armies under the Duke of Wellington and Field Marshal von Blücher finally defeated Napoleon at Waterloo in 1815.{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=177}}.The English were involved politically and militarily in Ireland since receiving the Lordship of Ireland from the pope in 1171. The campaign of English republican Protector Oliver Cromwell involved uncompromising treatment of the Irish towns (most notably Drogheda and Wexford) which supported the Royalists during the English Civil War. The English Army (and the subsequent British Army) remained in Ireland primarily to suppress Irish revolts or disorder. In addition to its conflict with Irish nationalists, it was faced with the prospect of battling Anglo-Irish and Ulster Scots in Ireland who were angered by unfavourable taxation of Irish produce imported into Britain. With other Irish groups, they raised a volunteer army and threatened to emulate the American colonists if their conditions were not met. Learning from their experience in America, the British government sought a political solution. The British Army fought Irish rebels—Protestant and Catholic—primarily in Ulster and Leinster (Wolfe Tone's United Irishmen) in the 1798 rebellion.The 1798 Irish Rebellion {{Webarchive|url= |date=7 February 2011 }} BBCFile:Alphonse de Neuville - The defence of Rorke's Drift 1879 - Google Art Project.jpg|left|thumb|alt=Painting of the Battle of Rorke's Drift, with a building burning|In the 1879 Battle of Rorke's Drift, a small British force repelled an attack by overwhelming Zulu forces; eleven Victoria CrossVictoria CrossIn addition to battling the armies of other European empires (and its former colonies, the United States, in the War of 1812),WEB,weblink Guide to the War of 1812,, 30 July 2010, 28 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 5 August 2011, live, dmy-all, the British Army fought the Chinese in the first and second Opium Wars and the Boxer Rebellion, Māori tribes in the first of the New Zealand Wars, Nawab Shiraj-ud-Daula's forces and British East India Company mutineers in the Sepoy Rebellion of 1857, the Boers in the first and second Boer Wars, Irish Fenians in Canada during the Fenian raids and Irish separatists in the Anglo-Irish War. The increasing demands of imperial expansion and the inadequacy and inefficiency of the underfunded British Army, Militia, Yeomanry and Volunteer Force after the Napoleonic Wars led to the late-19th-century Cardwell and Childers Reforms, which gave the army its modern shape and redefined its regimental system.{{London Gazette|issue=24992|page=3300|date=1 July 1881}} The 1907 Haldane Reforms created the Territorial Force as the army's volunteer reserve component, merging and reorganising the Volunteer Force, Militia and Yeomanry.{{harvnb|Cassidy|2006|p=79}}.

World Wars (1914–1945)

File:Hrh Princess Elizabeth in the Auxiliary Territorial Service, April 1945 TR2832.jpg|thumb|right|Queen Elizabeth in Auxiliary Territorial ServiceAuxiliary Territorial ServiceFile:British Mark I male tank Somme 25 September 1916.jpg|alt=Early First World War tank, with soldiers in a trench next to it|thumb|British First World War Mark I tank; the guidance wheels behind the main body were later scrapped as unnecessary. Armoured vehicles of the era required considerable infantry and artillery support. (Photo by Ernest Brooks)]]File:The Battle of the Somme, July-november 1916 Q1462.jpg|thumb|alt=Narrow, crowded road with muddy shoulders|Infantrymen of the Middlesex Regiment with horse-drawn Lewis gunLewis gunFile:Scotishadvanceepsom.jpg|thumb|alt=Bagpiper leading a line of soldiers though thigh-high growth|Led by their piper, men of the 7th Battalion, Seaforth Highlanders (part of the 46th (Highland) Brigade), advance during Operation EpsomOperation EpsomGreat Britain was challenged by other powers, primarily the German Empire and the Third Reich, during the 20th century. A century earlier it vied with Napoleonic France for global pre-eminence, and Hanoverian Britain's natural allies were the kingdoms and principalities of northern Germany. By the middle of the 19th century, Britain and France were allies in preventing Russia's appropriation of the Ottoman Empire, although the fear of French invasion led shortly afterwards to the creation of the Volunteer Force. By the first decade of the 20th century, the United Kingdom was allied with France (by the Entente Cordiale) and Russia (which had a secret agreement with France for mutual support in a war against the Prussian-led German Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire).WEB,weblink Agreement concerning Persia, 23 July 2016,weblink 8 July 2016, live, dmy-all, When the First World War broke out in August 1914 the British Army sent the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), consisting mainly of regular army troops, to France and Belgium.{{harvnb|Ensor|1980|pp=525–526}}. The fighting bogged down into static trench warfare for the remainder of the war. In 1915 the army created the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force to invade the Ottoman Empire via Gallipoli, an unsuccessful attempt to capture Constantinople and secure a sea route to Russia.{{sfn|Chisholm|1911|p=3}}The First World War was the most devastating in British military history, with nearly 800,000 men killed and over two million wounded. Early in the war, the BEF was virtually destroyed and was replaced first by volunteers and then by a conscript force. Major battles included those at the Somme and Passchendaele.{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=310}}. Advances in technology saw the advent of the tankWEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 14 October 2007, Mark I tank,, 28 March 2011, (and the creation of the Royal Tank Regiment) and advances in aircraft design (and the creation of the Royal Flying Corps) which would be decisive in future battles.WEB,weblink RAF – World War 1, here, RAF Details,, en, 17 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 29 January 2017, dead, dmy-all, Trench warfare dominated Western Front strategy for most of the war, and the use of chemical weapons (disabling and poison gases) added to the devastation.WEB, Michael Duffy,weblink Weapons of War: Poison Gas,, 22 August 2009, 28 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 21 August 2007, live, dmy-all, The Second World War broke out in September 1939 with the Russian and German Army's invasion of Poland.{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=335}}. British assurances to the Poles led the British Empire to declare war on Germany. As in the First World War, a relatively small BEF was sent to France but then hastily evacuated from Dunkirk as the German forces swept through the Low Countries and across France in May 1940.{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=342}}.After the British Army recovered from its earlier defeats, it defeated the Germans and Italians at the Second Battle of El Alamein in North Africa in 1942–1943 and helped drive them from Africa. It then fought through Italy{{sfn|Taylor|1976|p=157}} and, with the help of American, Canadian, Australian, New Zealand, Indian and Free French forces,WEB,weblink D-Day and the Battle of Normandy,, 28 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 17 May 2013, dead, dmy-all, and took part in the D-Day invasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944; nearly half the Allied soldiers were British.{{sfn|Gilbert|2005|p=301}} In the Far East, the British Army rallied against the Japanese in the Burma Campaign and regained the British Far Eastern colonial possessions.{{sfn|Taylor|1976|p=210}}

Postcolonial era (1945–2000)

After the Second World War the British Army was significantly reduced in size, although National Service continued until 1960.{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=384}} This period saw decolonisation begin with the partition and independence of India and Pakistan, followed by the independence of British colonies in Africa and Asia. Although the British Army was a major participant in Korea in the early 1950s and Suez in 1956,{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=407}} during this period Britain's role in world events was reduced and the army was downsized.NEWS, Merged regiments and new brigading – many famous units to lose separate identity, The Times, 25 July 1957, {{full citation needed|date=September 2014}} The British Army of the Rhine, consisting of I (BR) Corps, remained in Germany as a bulwark against Soviet invasion.{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=440}} The Cold War continued, with significant technological advances in warfare, and the army saw the introduction of new weapons systems.{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=442}} Despite the decline of the British Empire, the army was engaged in Aden,{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=401}} Indonesia, Cyprus, Kenya and Malaya.{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=402}} In 1982, the British Army and the Royal Marines helped liberate the Falkland Islands during the conflict with Argentina after that country's invasion of the British territory.WEB,weblink Falklands Surrender Document,, 14 June 1982, 28 March 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 May 2011, dmy-all, In the three decades following 1969, the army was heavily deployed in Northern Ireland's Operation Banner to support the Royal Ulster Constabulary (later the Police Service of Northern Ireland) in their conflict with republican paramilitary groups.{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=411}}. The locally recruited Ulster Defence Regiment was formed, becoming home-service battalions of the Royal Irish Regiment in 1992 before it was disbanded in 2006. Over 700 soldiers were killed during the Troubles. Following the 1994–1996 IRA ceasefires and since 1997, demilitarisation has been part of the peace process and the military presence has been reduced.Army ending its operation in NI {{Webarchive|url= |date=23 November 2008 }} BBC News, 31 July 2007 On 25 June 2007 the 2nd Battalion of the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment left the army complex in Bessbrook, County Armagh, ending the longest operation in British Army history.NEWS, Last troops pull out of Bessbrook, BBC News Online, 25 June 2007,weblink 8 August 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 20 August 2007, live, dmy-all,

Persian Gulf War

File:An APC of the 7th Brigade Royal Scots.JPEG|thumb|alt=An armoured personnel carrier flying the Union Jack|Wrecked and abandoned vehicles along the Highway of DeathHighway of DeathThe British Army contributed 50,000 troops to the coalition which fought Iraq in the Persian Gulf War,WEB,weblink 50,000 troops in Gulf illness scare, 11 June 2004, The Guardian, 17 December 2016,weblink 29 October 2016, live, dmy-all, and British forces controlled Kuwait after its liberation. Forty-seven British military personnel died during the war.WEB,weblink Supreme sacrifice: British soldier killed in Iraq was unemployed TA man, 28 August 2003,, 28 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 30 April 2011, live, dmy-all,

{{anchor|Balkans conflicts}}Balkan conflicts

The army was deployed to Yugoslavia in 1992. Initially part of the United Nations Protection Force,{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=446}} in 1995 its command was transferred to the Implementation Force (IFOR) and then to the Stabilisation Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina (SFOR);{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=447}} the commitment rose to over 10,000 troops. In 1999, British forces under SFOR command were sent to Kosovo and the contingent increased to 19,000 troops.WEB,weblink Former Yugoslavia and the Role of British Forces,, en, 17 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 18 March 2017, live, dmy-all, Between early 1993 and June 2010, 72 British military personnel died during operations in the former Yugoslavian countries of Bosnia, Kosovo and Macedonia.WEB,weblink UK Post-WW2 Operational Deaths,weblink 7 May 2016, live, dmy-all,

The Troubles

Although there have been permanent garrisons in Northern Ireland throughout its history, the British Army was deployed as a peacekeeping force from 1969 to 2007 in Operation Banner.NEWS,weblink Army paper says IRA not defeated, BBC News, 6 July 2007, 21 March 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2009, live, dmy-all, Initially, this was (in the wake of unionist attacks on nationalist communities in DerryBloomfield, K Stormont in Crisis (Belfast 1994) p. 114. and Belfast)PRONI: Cabinet conclusions file CAB/4/1460 to prevent further loyalist attacks on Catholic communities; it developed into support of the Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) and its successor, the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI) against the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA).{{sfn|McKernan|2005|p=17}} Under the 1998 Good Friday Agreement, there was a gradual reduction in the number of soldiers deployed.Army dismantles NI post BBC News, 31 July 2000 In 2005, after the PIRA declared a ceasefire, the British Army dismantled posts, withdrew many troops and restored troop levels to those of a peacetime garrison.Army To Dismantle Tower Block Post {{Webarchive|url= |date=12 September 2008 }} Skyscrapernews, 2 August 2005Operation Banner ended at midnight on 31 July 2007 after about 38 years of continuous deployment, the longest in British Army history.WEB,weblink Operation Banner: An analysis of military operations in Northern Ireland, 2006, Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Ministry of Defence, PDF, 21 March 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 27 February 2008, According to an internal document released in 2007, the British Army had failed to defeat the IRA but made it impossible for them to win by violence. Operation Helvetic replaced Operation Banner in 2007, maintaining fewer service personnel in a more-benign environment.NEWS,weblink Army paper says IRA not defeated, 6 July 2007, BBC News, 21 March 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2009, live, dmy, Of the 300,000 troops who served in Northern Ireland since 1969, there were 763 British military personnel killedRemembrance Day: Where they fell {{Webarchive|url= |date=28 September 2018 }} BBC News, 13 November 2010 and 306 killed by the British military, mostly civilians.WEB,weblink Tabulations (Tables) of Basic Variables,, 28 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2011, live, dmy-all, An estimated 100 soldiers committed suicide during Operation Banner or soon afterwards and a similar number died in accidents. A total of 6,116 were wounded.NEWS, Harding, Thomas,weblink Troop deaths in Ulster 'higher than thought', Telegraph, 7 February 2005, 10 March 2019,weblink 21 September 2018, live, dmy-all,

Recent history (2000–present)

War in Afghanistan

File:3royalanglianafghan.JPG|thumb|alt=Armed soldiers in and around a military vehicle|Royal Anglian RegimentRoyal Anglian RegimentIn November 2001, as part of Operation Enduring Freedom with the United States, the United Kingdom deployed forces in Afghanistan to topple the Taliban in Operation Herrick.{{harvnb|Mallinson|2009|p=452}}. The 3rd Division were sent to Kabul to assist in the liberation of the capital and defeat Taliban forces in the mountains. In 2006 the British Army began concentrating on fighting Taliban forces and bringing security to Helmand Province, with around 9,500 British troops (including marines, airmen and sailors) deployed at its peakWEB,weblink Why we are in Afghanistan, Ministry of Defence (MoD), 7 November 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 22 October 2014, live, dmy-all, —the second-largest force after that of the US.UK sends 500 more to Afghanistan BBC News, 15 October 2009 In December 2012 Prime Minister David Cameron announced that the combat mission would end in 2014, and troop numbers gradually fell as the Afghan National Army took over the brunt of the fighting. Between 2001 and 26 April 2014 a total of 453 British military personnel died in Afghan operations.WEB,weblink British fatalities in Afghanistan, MoD, 7 November 2014,weblink 25 July 2015, live, dmy-all, Operation Herrick ended with the handover of Camp Bastion on 26 October 2014,NEWS,weblink UK ends Afghan combat operations, 26 October 2014, BBC News, 26 October 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 26 October 2014, live, dmy-all, but the British Army maintains a deployment in Afghanistan as part of Operation Toral.WEB,weblink UK to increase troops in Afghanistan from 450 to 500, 9 July 2016, The Guardian, 4 January 2017,weblink 7 February 2017, live, dmy-all,

Iraq War

File:1 RRF engage Iraqi Army positions with their 81mm Mortars. Iraq. 26-03-2003 MOD 45142764.jpg|thumb|alt=Two soldiers with a mortar gun—one loading and the other aiming|British soldiers from the 1st Battalion, Royal Regiment of Fusiliers battlegroup engage Iraqi positions with an 81mm mortar south of Basra ]]In 2003 the United Kingdom was a major contributor to the invasion of Iraq, sending a force of over 46,000 military personnel. The British Army controlled southern Iraq, and maintained a peace-keeping presence in Basra.NEWS,weblink Timeline: UK troops in Basra, BBC News, en-GB, 9 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 3 April 2009, live, dmy-all, All British troops were withdrawn from Iraq by 30 April 2009, after the Iraqi government refused to extend their mandate.WEB,weblink British Troops Leave Iraq As Mandate Ends, 31 July 2009,, 22 October 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 8 November 2010, live, dmy, One hundred and seventy-nine British military personnel died in Iraqi operations. The British Armed Forces returned to Iraq in 2014 as part of Operation Shader to counter the Islamic State (ISIL).WEB,weblink UK Operations in Syria and Iraq, 2015,weblink 18 March 2017, live, dmy-all,

UK operations and military aid to the civil authorities

The British Army maintains a standing liability to support the civil authorities in certain circumstances, usually in either niche capabilities (e.g. explosive ordance removal) or in general support of the civil authorities when their capacity is exceeded.WEB,weblink Operations in the UK: Defence Contribution to Resilience, 2007, Ministry of Defence, 1 May 2017,weblink 5 March 2016, live, dmy-all, WEB,weblink UK Operations, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 April 2017, dmy-all, In recent years this has been seen as army personnel supporting the civil authorities in the face of the 2001 United Kingdom foot-and-mouth outbreak, the 2002 firefighters strike, widespread flooding in 2005, 2007, 2009, 2013 and 2014 and most recently supporting the security services in Operation Temperer following the 2017 Manchester Arena bombing.NEWS,weblink Critical threat level: who made the decision and what does it mean?, Travis, Alan, 24 May 2017, The Guardian, 28 May 2017, MacAskill, Ewen, en-GB, 0261-3077,weblink 26 May 2017, live, dmy-all,

{{anchor|Modern British Army}}Modern army


File:Cavalry Trooping the Colour, 16th June 2007.jpg | alt=Mounted troops in dress uniform side by side, all on black horses|thumb|The Blues and Royals Trooping the ColourTrooping the ColourThe British Army has been a volunteer force since national service ended during the 1960s. Since the creation of the part-time, reserve Territorial Force in 1908 (renamed the Army Reserve in 2014), the full-time British Army has been known as the Regular Army. In January 2018 there were just over 81,500 trained Regulars and 27,000 Army Reservists.WEB,weblink UK Armed Forces Monthly Personnel Statistics, December 2016,weblink 11 February 2017, live, dmy-all, Following the Strategic Defence and Security Review 2010 (SDSR) and the Strategic Defence and Security Review 2015 the British Army adopted an evolving structure (known as Army 2020 Refine) that would see the number of Regular personnel set at 82,000 and see an increase in the number of Reservists to 30,000. This would bring the ratio of regular to part-time personnel in line with the US and Canada and better integrate the Army Reserve into the Regular Army.{{citation | title=Future Reserves 2020 | date=July 2011 | url= | location=London, UK | publisher=Ministry of Defence | accessdate=13 May 2012 | archive-url= | archive-date=3 April 2012 | url-status=live | df=dmy-all }}In addition to the active Regular and Reserve force all former Regular Army personnel may be recalled for duty if required (known as the Regular Reserve).British Army: Regular Reserve {{Webarchive | url= | date=15 December 2014 }}, 27 January 2014 The Regular Reserve has two categories: A and D. Category A is mandatory, with the length of time in the category dependent on time spent in Regular Army service. Category D is voluntary, and consists of personnel who are no longer required to serve in category A. Regular Reserves in both categories serve under a fixed-term reserve contract and may report for training or service overseas and at home, similar to the Army Reserve.dasa.mod – reserves and cadet strengths {{Webarchive | url= | date=2 February 2014 }}, table 3-page 13 – read note 2. April 2013. In 2007, there were 121,800 Regular Reserves, of which 33,760 served in categories A and D.dasa.mod – reserves and cadet strengths {{Webarchive | url= | date=3 December 2013 }}, table 3-page 5. April 2012. Beginning in April 2013, the full Regular Reserve strength was no longer reported—only those serving in categories A and D (30,000 in 2015) MoD – reserves and cadet strengths {{Webarchive | url= | date=17 April 2016 }}, table 1a-page 10. 1 April 2015.The table below illustrates British Army personnel figures from 1710 to 2015. The Army Reserve (Territorial Army) was established in 1908.{| class="wikitable"! colspan=10 |British Army strength{{NoteTag| 1710–1900,BOOK, The Great Powers and Global Struggle, 1490–1990, 1994, University Press of Kentucky, 0-8131-3353-X, United States, 149, Rasler, Karen, (Figure 8.1 Change in the Size of the British Army 1650–1910) 1918 & 1945,NEWS,weblink The time when the British army was really stretched, 23 July 2011, BBC, BBC News, Summers, Chris, 5 July 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 22 August 2016, live, dmy-all, 1920,WEB,weblink 23 June 1920,, Hansard – House of Commons, 5 July 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 20 August 2016, live, dmy-all, 1930,WEB,weblink Strength (Territorial Army) – 2 November 1930,, Hansard – House of Commons, 5 July 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 19 August 2016, live, dmy-all, 1950,BOOK, International Affairs and Defence: Army 2020, Rutherford, Tom, 26 July 2012, House of Commons Library, United Kingdom, 13, Brooke-Holland, Louisa, WEB,weblink Territorial Army (Recruitment) – 20 March 1950,, Hansard – House of Commons, 5 July 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, live, dmy-all, 1960,WEB,weblink The Territorial Army – 20 July 1960,, Hansard – House of Commons, 5 July 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 16 May 2013, live, dmy-all, 1970,WEB,weblink Army Estimates – 12 March 1970,, Hansard – House of Commons, 5 July 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, live, dmy-all, 1980–2000,BOOK,weblink House of Commons: Defence Statistics 2000, 21 December 2000, House of Commons Library, United Kingdom, 16–17, Berman, Gavin, 5 July 2016, 2010,BOOK,weblink UK ARMED FORCES QUARTERLY MANNING REPORT, 4 March 2010, Ministry of Defence, United Kingdom, 13,weblink 16 January 2014, dead, 5 July 2016, (Table 2a – Strength of UK Armed Forces1
– full-time trained and untrained personnel)BOOK,weblink UK RESERVE FORCES STRENGTHS, 22 September 2010, Ministry of Defence, United Kingdom, 3,weblink 16 January 2014, dead, 5 July 2016, (Table 1 – Strengths of All Services Reserves) 2015}}
! colspan=2 |(File:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg|25px){{Small|(1801–1921)}} ! colspan=4 |(File:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg|25px){{Small|(1921– Present)}}
Interwar period! —
Included in Regular}}! 3,120,000
| 1918End of the First World War| 3,820,000| 2015| 83,360| 29,603! 112,990

{{anchor|Modern Equipment}}Equipment


The British Army's basic infantry weapon is the L85A2 or L85A3 assault rifle, sometimes equipped with an L17A2 under-barrel grenade launcher or other attachments with the Picatinny rail. The rifle has several variants, including the L86A2, the Light Support Weapon (LSW) and the L22A2 carbine (issued to tank crews). These weapons are usually equipped with iron sights or an optical SUSAT, although optical sights have been purchased to supplement these.WEB,weblink The British Army – SA80 individual weapon,, en, 9 February 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 16 June 2017, live, dmy-all, Support fire is provided by the FN Minimi light machine gun and the L7 general-purpose machine gun (GPMG),WEB,weblink The British Army – General purpose machine gun,, en, 9 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 26 January 2017, live, dmy-all, and indirect fire is provided by L16 81mm mortars. The L129A1 sharpshooter rifle was brought into service during the war in Afghanistan to meet an urgent operational requirement.WEB,weblink L129A1 sharpshooter Rifle,weblink 12 June 2018, live, dmy-all, Sniper rifles include the L118A1 7.62 mm, L115A3 and the AW50F, all manufactured by Accuracy International.WEB,weblink The British Army – L115A3 Long range 'sniper' rifle,, The British Army,, en, 9 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 10 April 2017, live, dmy-all, Other weapons, such as the L128A1 (Benelli M4) combat shotgun, may be temporarily used.WEB,weblink Combat Shotgun – British Army Website,, 22 October 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 14 November 2010, dead, dmy,


The army's main battle tank is the Challenger 2.Challenger 2 {{Webarchive|url= |date=21 June 2007 }} BA SystemsWEB,weblink "UKDS 2013", 29 October 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 27 September 2013, live, dmy-all, It is supported by the Warrior Infantry Fighting Vehicle as the primary armoured personnel carrierWEB,weblink The British Army – Warrior infantry fighting vehicle,, en, 9 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 10 April 2017, live, dmy-all, and the many variants of the Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance (Tracked) and the FV430 series, which had its engines and armour upgraded as the Bulldog.WEB,weblink Multi-role Light Vehicle, 26 July 2006,, 28 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2011, dead, dmy-all, Light armoured units often utilise the Supacat "Jackal" MWMIK and Coyote for reconnaissance and fire support.WEB,weblink The British Army – Reconnaissance vehicles,, en, 9 February 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 16 March 2017, live, dmy-all,


The army has three main artillery systems: the Multi Launch Rocket System (MLRS), the AS-90 and the L118 light gun.WEB,weblink The British Army – Artillery and air defence,, The British Army,, en, 9 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 10 April 2017, live, dmy-all, The MLRS, first used in Operation Granby, has an {{convert|85|km|adj=on}} range.NEWS,weblink Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System (GMLRS) – Think Defence, Think Defence, 17 March 2017, en-US,weblink" title="">weblink 18 March 2017, live, dmy-all, The AS-90 is a 155 mm self-propelled armoured gun with a {{convert|24|km|adj=on}} range.WEB,weblink AS-90,, 28 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 26 April 2011, live, dmy-all, The L118 light gun is a 105 mm towed gun used in support of 16 Air Assault Brigade, 3 Commando Brigade of the Royal Marines and the Adaptive Force.105 mm Light Gun {{Webarchive|url= |date=20 February 2011 }} BAe Systems To identify artillery targets, the army operates weapon locators such as the MAMBA Radar and utilises artillery sound ranging.WEB,weblink The British Army – 5 Regiment,, en, 9 February 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 20 April 2017, live, dmy-all, For air defence it uses the Short-Range Air Defence (SHORAD) Rapier FSC missile system, widely deployed since the Falklands War,WEB,weblink Rapier missile,, 28 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2011, dead, dmy-all, and the Very Short-Range Air Defence (VSHORAD) Starstreak HVM (high-velocity missile) launched by a single soldier or from a vehicle-mounted launcher.Starstreak II sighted {{Webarchive|url= |date=12 April 2009 }} Janes

Protected mobility

Where armour is not required or mobility and speed are favoured the British Army utilises protected patrol vehicles, such as the Panther variant of the Iveco LMV, the Foxhound, and variants of the Cougar family (such as the Ridgeback, Husky and Mastiff).WEB,weblink The British Army – Protected patrol vehicles,, en, 9 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 10 April 2017, live, dmy-all, For day-to-day utility work the army commonly uses the Land Rover Wolf, which is based on the Land Rover Defender.WEB,weblink Land Rover Defender,, 28 March 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 April 2011, dmy-all,

Engineers, utility and signals

Specialist engineering vehicles include bomb-disposal robots and the modern variants of the Armoured Vehicle Royal Engineers, including the Titan bridge-layer, Trojan combat-engineer vehicle, Terrier Armoured Digger and Python Minefield Breaching System.WEB,weblink The British Army – Engineering equipment,, en, 9 February 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 11 February 2017, live, dmy-all, Day-to-day utility work uses a series of support vehicles, including six-, nine- and fifteen-tonne trucks (often called "Bedfords", after a historic utility vehicle), heavy-equipment transporters (HET), close-support tankers, quad bikes and ambulances.WEB,weblink The British Army – All-terrain mobility platform (ATMP),, en, 9 February 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 11 February 2017, live, dmy-all, WEB,weblink The British Army – Engineering and logistics,, en, 9 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 8 May 2017, live, dmy-all, Tactical communication uses the Bowman radio system, and operational or strategic communication is controlled by the Royal Corps of Signals.WEB,weblink The British Army – Royal Corps of Signals,, en, 11 February 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 23 November 2016, live, dmy-all,


The Army Air Corps (AAC) provides direct aviation support, with the Royal Air Force providing support helicopters. The primary attack helicopter is the Westland WAH-64 Apache, a licence-built, modified version of the US AH-64 Apache which replaced the Westland Lynx AH7 in the anti-tank role.WEB,weblink Apache,, 28 March 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 March 2010, dmy, Other helicopters include the Westland Gazelle (a light surveillance aircraft),WEB,weblink The British Army – Gazelle,, en, 17 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 10 April 2017, live, dmy-all, the Bell 212 (in jungle "hot and high" environments)WEB,weblink Bell Huey,, 28 March 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 April 2011, dmy, and the AgustaWestland AW159 Wildcat, a dedicated intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition, and reconnaissance (ISTAR) helicopter.WEB,weblink The British Army – Aircraft,, en, 9 March 2017, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 7 February 2017, dmy-all, The Eurocopter AS 365N Dauphin is used for special operations aviation,{{sfn|Ripley|2008|p=10}} and the Britten-Norman Islander is a light, fixed-wing aircraft used for airborne reconnaissance and command and control.WEB,weblink Islander,, 28 March 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2011, dead, dmy-all, The army operates two unmanned aerial vehicles ('UAV's) in a surveillance role: the small Lockheed Martin Desert Hawk III and the larger Thales Watchkeeper WK450.WEB,weblink British Army praises performance of Watchkeeper during debut deployment, Flight global, 17 November 2014, 3 February 2017,weblink 10 August 2017, live, dmy-all, WEB,weblink The British Army – Unmanned Air Systems,, en, 9 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 10 April 2017, live, dmy-all, File:Challenger_2-Megatron_MOD_45161542.jpg|alt=Large, camouflaged tank|Challenger 2 main battle tankFile:MCV-80.jpg|alt=Tank with painted camouflage|Warrior IFVFile:AS90 Self Propelled Gun - Tankfest 2009.jpg|alt=Self-propelled artillery gun|AS-90File:GUNNERS ON TARGET FOR EXERCISE STEEL SABRE IN NORTHUMBERLAND MOD 45159595.jpg|alt=Rocket launcher|Guided Multiple Launch Rocket System (GMLRS)File:Apache WAH64D Helicopter MOD 45149194.jpg|alt=Helicopter in the air|AgustaWestland ApacheFile:An upgraded Laser Light Module Mk 3 mounted on the SA-80 Mk2. MOD 45158979.jpg|alt=Soldier holding an assault rifle|L85A2 assault rifle

Current deployments


{{anchor|Low intensity operations}}Low-intensity operations {| class"wikitable" style"margin:auto; width:100%;"

! style="text-align:center; width:10%;" |Location! style="text-align:center; width:5%;" |Date! style="text-align:center; width:85%;" |Details! Afghanistan| 2015 | Operation Toral: The army maintains a deployment of 1,000 personnel in support of NATO's Resolute Support Mission.! Iraq| 2014Operation Shader: The army has personnel stationed in Iraq as part of the ongoing military intervention against ISIL, primarily to assist in the training of Iraqi Armed Forces>Iraqi security forces.HTTPS://WWW.PUBLICATIONS.PARLIAMENT.UK/PA/CM201617/CMSELECT/CMDFENCE/106/106.PDF>TITLE=UK MILITARY OPERATIONS IN SYRIA AND IRAQARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170318085447/HTTPS://WWW.PUBLICATIONS.PARLIAMENT.UK/PA/CM201617/CMSELECT/CMDFENCE/106/106.PDFURL-STATUS=LIVEBritish Armed Forces, there were 275 army personnel in 2016.HTTP://WWW.OXFORDRESEARCHGROUP.ORG.UK/PUBLICATIONS/BRIEFING_PAPERS_AND_REPORTS/UK_AND_UN_PEACE_OPERATIONS_CASE_GREATER_ENGAGEMENTPUBLISHER=OXFORD RESEARCH GROUPARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170308142500/HTTP://WWW.OXFORDRESEARCHGROUP.ORG.UK/PUBLICATIONS/BRIEFING_PAPERS_AND_REPORTS/UK_AND_UN_PEACE_OPERATIONS_CASE_GREATER_ENGAGEMENTURL-STATUS=LIVE, dmy-all, ! Cyprus| 1964 United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus>Operation Tosca: There were 275 troops deployed as part of the UNFICYP in 2016.! Sierra Leone| 1999 Operation Palliser in 1999, under United Nations resolutions, to aid the government in quelling violent uprisings by militiamen. Troops remain in the region to provide military support and training to the Sierra Leone government. British troops also provided support during the 2014 West African Ebola virus epidemic.HTTPS://WWW.BBC.CO.UK/NEWS/WORLD-AFRICA-14094419DATE=4 JANUARY 2017ACCESS-DATE=17 MARCH 2017ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170509114751/HTTP://WWW.BBC.CO.UK/NEWS/WORLD-AFRICA-14094419URL-STATUS=LIVE, dmy-all, ! Baltic states| 2017NATO Response Force: The British Army will deploy up to 800 troops in 2017 as part of its commitment to NATO to counter perceived Russian aggression against the Baltic states.HTTPS://WWW.TELEGRAPH.CO.UK/NEWS/2016/10/26/BRITAIN-BOOSTS-ESTONIA-TROOP-DEPLOYMENT-ON-RUSSIAS-BORDER/WORK=THE DAILY TELEGRAPHACCESSDATE=7 MARCH 2017ARCHIVE-DATE=1 MARCH 2017DF=DMY-ALL, HTTPS://WWW.BBC.CO.UK/NEWS/UK-39311670>TITLE=UK TROOPS IN ESTONIA TO DETER 'RUSSIAN AGGRESSION'WORK=BBC NEWSLANGUAGE=EN-GBARCHIVE-DATE=18 MARCH 2017DF=DMY-ALL, ">

Permanent overseas postings {| class"wikitable" style"margin:auto; width:100%;"

! style="text-align:center; width:10%;" |Location! style="text-align:center; width:5%;" |Date! style="text-align:center; width:85%;" |Details! Belize| 1949 British Army Training and Support Unit Belize: British troops were based in Belize from 1949 to 1994. Belize's neighbour, Guatemala, claimed the territory and there were a number of border disputes. At the request of the Belize government, British troops remained in Belize after independence in 1981 as a defence force.HTTP://WWW.BRITISHEMPIRE.CO.UK/MAPROOM/BRITISHHONDURAS.HTMWEBSITE=WWW.BRITISHEMPIRE.CO.UKARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170318085839/HTTP://WWW.BRITISHEMPIRE.CO.UK/MAPROOM/BRITISHHONDURAS.HTMURL-STATUS=LIVERAF Belize>main training unit was meant to be mothballed after the Strategic Defence and Security Review 2010,HTTP://BELIZEAN.COM/BELIZE-ASKS-FOR-RETURN-OF-BRITISH-ARMY-1571/ URL-STATUS=DEAD TITLE=BELIZE ASKS FOR RETURN OF BRITISH ARMY DATE=12 FEBRUARY 2013 ACCESSDATE=7 APRIL 2015ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150411024152/HTTP://FORCES.TV/85677232URL-STATUS=DEAD, dmy-all, ! Bermuda| 1701Royal Bermuda Regiment: Colonial Militia and volunteers existed from 1612 to 1816. The regular English Army, then British Army, Bermuda Garrison was first established by an Independent Company in 1701.HTTP://WWW.BERMUDA-ONLINE.ORG/BRITARMY.HTMPUBLISHER=BERMUDA ON LINEARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150723035420/HTTP://WWW.BERMUDA-ONLINE.ORG/BRITARMY.HTMURL-STATUS=LIVEBermuda Militia Artillery (BMA) and Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps (BVRC) were raised again from 1894. After the Royal Naval Dockyard, Bermuda>Royal Naval Dockyard was redesignated a naval base in 1951, the army garrison was closed in 1957, leaving only the part-time BMA and BVRC (renamed Bermuda Rifles in 1949). All regular army personnel other than members of the Permanent Staff of the local Territorials were withdrawn. Home defence has been provided by the Royal Bermuda Regiment since the 1965 amalgamation of the BMA and Bermuda Rifles.HTTPS://WWW.GOV.UK/GOVERNMENT/NEWS/ROYAL-ANGLIAN-SOLDIERS-BOOST-BERMUDA-REGIMENT>TITLE=ROYAL ANGLIAN SOLDIERS BOOST BERMUDA REGIMENTACCESSDATE=22 JULY 2015ARCHIVE-DATE=23 JULY 2015DF=DMY-ALL, ! Brunei| 1962 British Forces Brunei: One battalion of the Royal Gurkha Rifles, British Military Garrison Brunei>British Garrison, British Army Jungle Warfare Training School and 7 Flight AAC. A Gurkha battalion has been maintained in Brunei since the Brunei Revolt in 1962 at the request of List of Sultans of Brunei>Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin III. Training Team Brunei (TTB) is the Army's jungle-warfare school, and a small number of garrison troops support the battalion. 7 Flight AAC provides helicopter support to the Gurkha battalion and TTB.HTTP://WWW.ARMY.MOD.UK/OPERATIONS-DEPLOYMENTS/22792.ASPX > TITLE=THE BRITISH ARMY IN BRUNEI ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160609090139/HTTP://WWW.ARMY.MOD.UK/OPERATIONS-DEPLOYMENTS/22792.ASPX URL-STATUS=LIVE, dmy-all, ! Canada| 1972 British Army Training Unit Suffield: A training centre in Alberta prairie for the use of British Army and Canadian Forces under agreement with the government of Canada. British forces conduct regular, major armoured training exercises every year, with helicopter support provided by 29 (BATUS) Flight Army Air Corps (United Kingdom)>AAC.HTTP://WWW.ARMY.MOD.UK/OPERATIONS-DEPLOYMENTS/22727.ASPX > TITLE=THE BRITISH ARMY IN CANADA ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160605063606/HTTP://WWW.ARMY.MOD.UK/OPERATIONS-DEPLOYMENTS/22727.ASPX URL-STATUS=LIVE ACCESSDATE=2 MARCH 2013 ARCHIVE-DATE=28 FEBRUARY 2013 DF=DMY-ALL, ! Cyprus| 1960 Royal Engineers and Joint Service Signals Unit at Ayios Nikolaos Station>Ayios Nikolaos as part of British Forces Cyprus. The UK retains two Sovereign Base Areas on Cyprus after the rest of the island's independence, which are forward bases for deployments to the Middle East. Principal facilities are Alexander Barracks at Dhekelia and Salamanca Barracks at Episkopi.Somme Barracks (Cyprus) {{Webarchiveweblink >date=29 April 2011 }} Hansard, 26 March 2001! Falkland Islands| 1982 | Part of British Forces South Atlantic Islands: The British Army contribution consists of an infantry company group and an Engineer Squadron. Previously, a platoon-sized Royal Marines Naval Party was the military presence. After the war in 1982 between Argentina and the UK, the garrison was enlarged and bolstered with a base at RAF Mount Pleasant on East Falkland.weblink" title="">Falklands Forces Have A Vital Role To Play Falkland Islands News Network, 3 May 2006! Germany| 1945–2020 British Forces Germany: Home of the 1st (UK) Armoured Division. British forces remained in Germany after the end of the Second World War. The forces were reduced considerably after the end of the Cold War and in October 2010, Prime Minister David Cameron announced large cuts in defence; all UK troops currently in Germany will leave by 2020.Defence review: Cameron unveils armed forces cuts {{Webarchive>url= |date=19 October 2010 }}, BBC News Retrieved 19 October 2010.! Gibraltar| 1704 British Forces Gibraltar: A British Army garrison is provided by an indigenous regiment, the Royal Gibraltar Regiment.Royal Gibraltar Regiment trains in the UK {{Webarchive>url= |date=9 December 2010 }} Defence News, 13 May 2010! Kenya| 2010 British Army Training Unit Kenya: The army has a training centre in Kenya, under an agreement with the Kenyan government, which provides training facilities for three infantry battalions per year.HTTP://WWW.ARMY.MOD.UK/OPERATIONS-DEPLOYMENTS/22724.ASPX ACCESSDATE=2 MARCH 2013 ARCHIVE-DATE=30 JUNE 2016 DF=DMY-ALL,

{{anchor|Formation and structure}}Structure

{{British Army Arms}}Army Headquarters is located in Andover, Hampshire. The army's structure is broadly similar to the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force, in that the four-star (general-equivalent) field commands have been eliminated. Under the Army 2020 Command structure, the Chief of the General Staff is in charge of Army Headquarters. There are four lieutenant-general posts in Army headquarters: the Deputy Chief of the General Staff, the Commander Field Army, the Commander Home Command and the Commander Allied Rapid Reaction Corps.WEB,weblink Freedom of Information Act answer from Army Headquarters, Army Headquarters, 13 December 2015,weblink 22 December 2015, live, dmy-all, Army Headquarters is responsible for providing forces at operational readiness for employment by the Permanent Joint Headquarters.The command structure is hierarchical, with divisions and brigades controlling groups of units. Major units are regiment/battalion-sized, and minor units are company-sized units (or platoons). All units are Regular (full-time) or Army Reserve (part-time).Naming conventions of units differ for historical reasons, creating some confusion; the term "battalion" in the infantry is synonymous with a cavalry, artillery or engineer regiment, and the infantry "company" is synonymous with an engineer or cavalry squadron and an artillery battery. The table below illustrates the different names for equivalent units.{| class="wikitable"!Infantry!Cavalry and Engineers!Artillery|Regiment (two or more battalions grouped for administration)|No equivalent|No equivalent|Battalion |Regiment|Regiment|Company|Squadron|Battery|Platoon|Troop|TroopAdding to the confusion is the tendency of units (again for historical reasons) to misuse titles for larger administrative structures. Although the Royal Artillery consists of 13 Regular regiments (equivalent to infantry battalions), it calls itself the Royal Regiment of Artillery when referring to the units as a whole. The Royal Logistic Corps and Intelligence Corps are not corps-sized, but corps in this instance are administrative branches consisting of several battalions or regiments.

Operational structure

{{See also|List of units and formations of the British Army 2019|Operational Structure of the British Army}}The forces of the British Army after the Army 2020 reforms are organised in garrison as:
  • A modified 16 Air Assault Brigade and the 3rd Division will be the Army's primary armoured war-fighting force. Comprising: 1st Armoured Infantry Brigade, 12th Armoured Infantry Brigade, 20th Armoured Infantry Brigade, 1st Artillery Brigade, 101st Logistic Brigade, 25th Engineer Group, 7th Air Defence Group. By 2020, this division will reorganise and consist of two armoured infantry brigades and two strike brigades.WEB,weblink The British Army – Army 2020 Refine,, en, 9 March 2017, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 January 2017, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Strategic Defence and Security Review – Army:Written statement – HCWS367, UK Parliament, en, 9 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 20 February 2017, live, dmy-all,
  • The 1st Division, with its blend of lighter infantry, logistics, engineer and medics will provide more strategic choice and a range of capabilities, conducting capacity building, stabilization operations, disaster relief and UK resilience operations. It will include: 4th (Infantry) Brigade, 7th (Infantry) Brigade, 11th (Infantry) Brigade, 51st (Infantry) Brigade, 8th Engineer Brigade, 102nd Logistic Brigade, 104th Logistic Brigade, 2nd Medical Brigade;
  • The 6th (United Kingdom) Division, which will provide forces for asymmetric warfare, intelligence, counter-intelligence, cyber warfare and unconventional fighting will include: 1st Signal Brigade, 11th Signal Brigade, 1st Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance Brigade, 77th Brigade and the Specialist Infantry Group.NEWS, Army restructures to confront evolving threats,weblink British Army, Upavon, 1 August 2019, 2 August 2019,
File:The combined might of the 1 Yorkshire Regiment Battle group on display MOD 45158837.jpg|thumb|upright=2|alt=Large group of tanks|Challenger 2, Warrior, AS90, MLRS and Stormer of the Yorkshire Battlegroup ]]For operational tasks the most common unit is the battlegroup, formed around a combat unit and supported by units (or sub-units) from other areas. An example of a battlegroup in the Reactive Force (e.g. the 1st Brigade) would be two companies of armoured infantry (e.g. from the 1st Battalion of the Mercian Regiment), one squadron of heavy armour (e.g. A Squadron of the Royal Tank Regiment), a company of engineers (e.g. B Company of the 22nd Engineer Regiment), a battery of artillery (e.g. D Battery of the 1st Regiment of the Royal Horse Artillery) and smaller attachments from medical, logistic and intelligence units. Typically organised and commanded by a battlegroup headquarters and named after the unit which provided the most combat units, in this example it would be the 1 Mercian Battlegroup). This creates a self-sustaining mixed formation of armour, infantry, artillery, engineers and support units, typically 600 to 1,000 soldiers commanded by a lieutenant colonel.The table below demonstrates how three or four battlegroups make up a brigade and three or four brigades make up a division. A division is currently the largest unit the British Army is capable of deploying independently, although it could be grouped with three or four other divisions from a multi-national coalition to form a corps.WEB, British Army Formation & Structure,, 2011,weblink 15 April 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 29 April 2011, live, dmy-all, {| class="wikitable"!Type of unit!Division!Brigade!Battlegroup!Battalion, Regiment!Company, Squadron!Platoon, Troop!Section!Fire Team!Contains|3 brigades|3–4 battalions (battlegroups)|Combined arms unit|4–6 companies|3 platoons|3 sections|2 fire teams|4 individuals!Personnel|15,000|5,000|700–1,000|720|120|30|8–10|4!Commanded byMajor-General (United Kingdom)>Maj-GenBrigadier (United Kingdom)>BrigLieutenant Colonel (United Kingdom)>Lt ColLieutenant Colonel (United Kingdom)>Lt ColMajor (United Kingdom)>MajCaptain (British Army and Royal Marines)>Capt, Lieutenant or 2nd Lieutenant#United Kingdom and Commonwealth>2nd LtCorporal#United Kingdom>CplChosen man>LCpl

Special forces

File:uk-sas.svg|upright|thumb|alt=Emblem of a winged sword with the motto, "Who dares, wins"|SAS cap badgecap badgeThe British Army contributes two of the three special forces formations to the United Kingdom Special Forces directorate: the Special Air Service (SAS) and Special Reconnaissance Regiment (SRR).WEB, 26 March 2010, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Special Reconnaissance Regiment,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 25 April 2010, live, dmy-all, The SAS consists of one regular and two reserve regiments.WEB, 26 March 2010, Defence Analytical Services Agency, UK Defence Statistics 2009,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 February 2014, The regular regiment, 22 SAS, has its headquarters at Stirling Lines, Credenhill, Herefordshire. It consists of five squadrons (A, B, D, G and Reserve) and a training wing.{{harvnb|Fremont-Barnes|2009|p=62}} 22 SAS is supported by two reserve regiments, 21 SAS and 23 SAS, which collectively form the Special Air Service (Reserve) (SAS [R]), under the command of the 1st Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Brigade.Army Briefing Note 120/14, Newly formed Force Troops Command Specialist Brigades: "It commands all of the Army's Intelligence, Surveillance and Electronic Warfare assets, and is made up of units specifically from the former 1 Military Intelligence Brigade and 1 Artillery Brigade, as well as 14 Signal Regiment, 21 and 23 SAS®."The SRR, formed in 2005, performs close reconnaissance and special surveillance tasks. The Special Forces Support Group, under the operational control of the Director of Special Forces, provides operational manoeuvring support to the United Kingdom Special Forces.WEB,weblink Special Forces Support Group, Parliament of the United Kingdom, 26 March 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 24 April 2010, live, dmy-all,

{{anchor|Locally raised units of British Overseas Territories}}Local units

(File:1939 Dominion and Colonial Regiments.jpg|thumb|left|1939 Dominion and Colonial Regiments)(File:1945 Order of Precedence of the British Army.jpg|thumb|1945 Order of Precedence of the British Army)The British Army historically included many units from what are now separate Commonwealth realms. When the English Empire was established in North America, Bermuda, and the West Indies in the early 17th century there was no standing English Army, only the Militia, and this was extended to the colonies. Colonial militias defended colonies single-handedly at first against indigenous peoples and European competitors. Once the standing English Army, later the British Army, came into existence, the colonial militias fought side-by-side with it in a number of wars, including the Seven Years' War. Some of the colonial militias rebelled during the American War of Independence. Militia fought alongside the regular British Army (and native allies) in defending British North America from their former countrymen during the War of 1812. With the growth of the empire around the world, "non-European" (i.e. non-white, except for officers) units were recruited in many colonies and protectorates, but most were deemed auxiliaries and not part of the British Army. The West India Regiments were an exception, as they were fully incorporated into the British Army, but were kept outside of Europe and non-whites were denied commissions. Locally raised units in strategically-located colonies (including Bermuda, Gibraltar, Malta) and the Channel Islands were generally more fully integrated into the British Army as evident from their appearances in British Army lists, unlike units such as the King's African Rifles. The larger colonies (Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa, etc.) mostly achieved Commonwealth Dominion status before or after the First World War and were granted full legislative independence in 1931. While remaining within the British Empire, this placed their governments on a par with the British government, and hence their military units comprised separate armies (e.g. the Australian Army), although Canada retained the term "militia" for its military forces until the Second World War. From the 1940s, these dominions and many colonies chose full independence, usually becoming Commonwealth realms (as member states of the Commonwealth are known today).WEB, Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942, National Archives of Australia: Documenting a Democracy,weblink 8 August 2005, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 July 2005, dmy-all, {{citation |url =weblink|last=Bowden |first=James | first2=Philippe |last2=Lagassé | title=Succeeding to the Canadian throne | date=6 December 2012 |newspaper=Ottawa Citizen | accessdate=6 December 2012 |url-status=dead |archiveurl =weblink" title="">weblink |archivedate=10 January 2013 |df=dmy-all }}Units raised in self-governing and Crown colonies that are part of the British realm remain under British control. The UK retains responsibility for the defence of the fourteen remaining British Overseas Territories, of which four have locally raised regiments: File:Falklandsdf.jpg|alt=Line of soldiers near water|Falkland Islands Defence Force on parade in June 2013File:Detachment of Falkland Islands Defence Force.jpg|alt=Soldiers marching down a street in black uniforms|Detachment of the Falkland Islands Defence Force in ceremonial dressFile:US President JF Kennedy inspects Bermuda Rifles 1961.jpg|John Fitzgerald Kennedy, escorted by a Bermuda Militia Artillery officer, inspects a Bermuda Rifles guard in 1961, four years before the units amalgamatedFile:RSM of the Bermuda Regiment 1992.jpg|WO1 Herman Eve, RSM of the Royal Bermuda Regiment in 1992File:Bermuda Regiment Band.png|Bandsmen of the Royal Bermuda RegimentFile:Bermuda Regiment PNCO Cadre Promotion Parade.jpg|alt=Soldiers in white-and-black dress uniforms|Royal Bermuda Regiment on paradeFile:Changing of the Guard duo - Royal Gibraltar Regiment.jpg|alt=Two soldiers in red dress uniforms|Changing of the guard, Royal Gibraltar Regiment (2012)File:Royal Gibraltar Regiment.jpg|alt=Four soldiers marching in red-and-blue dress uniforms|Royal Gibraltar Regiment in London, April 2012


File:30a Sammlung Eybl Großbritannien. Alfred Leete (1882–1933) Britons (Kitchener) wants you (Briten Kitchener braucht Euch). 1914 (Nachdruck), 74 x 50 cm. (Slg.Nr. 552).jpg|thumb|alt=World War I recruiting poster, with Lord Kitchener pointing at the viewer|One of the most recognisable recruiting posters of the British Army; from World War I, with Lord Kitchener ]]Although the army primarily recruits within the United Kingdom, it accepts applications from Commonwealth citizens and (occasionally) those from friendly nations who meet certain criteria. In 2016, it was decided to open all roles to women in 2018; women had not previously been permitted to join the Combat Arms.WEB,weblink The British Army – Women in the Army,, en, 11 February 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 2 February 2017, live, dmy-all, The British Army is an equal-opportunity employer (with some exceptions due to its medical standards), and does not discriminate based on race, religion or sexual orientation.WEB,weblink The British Army – Diversity,, en, 11 February 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 12 February 2017, live, dmy-all, The minimum age is 16 (after the end of GCSEs), although soldiers under 18 may not serve in operations.WEB,weblink The British Army – Contact us/FAQs,, en, 9 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 20 April 2017, live, dmy-all, The maximum recruitment age is 35 years and 6 months, and the maximum age for Army Reserve soldiers is 49 years old, {{as of|2018|November|lc=y}}. A soldier would traditionally enlist for a term of 22 years, although recently there has been a shift towards 12-year terms with a 22-year option. A soldier is not normally permitted to leave until they have served for at least four years, and must give 12 months' notice.WEB,weblink British Army Terms of Service, April 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 June 2017, dmy-all,

Oath of allegiance

All soldiers and commissioned officers must take an oath of allegiance upon joining the Army, a process known as attestation. Those who wish to swear by God use the following words:}}Others replace the words "swear by Almighty God" with "solemnly, sincerely and truly declare and affirm".

Training establishments

{{see also|List of British Army installations|Selection and Training in the British Army}}(File:RMAS18Je6-4685.jpg|thumb|upright 1.5|alt=Red-brick buildings with large windows|New College buildings at Royal Military Academy Sandhurst)Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (RMAS) is the officer-training school,WEB,weblink Sandhurst, Royal Berkshire History, 7 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 22 February 2017, live, dmy-all, and Royal School of Artillery (RSA) trains the Royal Artillery.WEB,weblink 42nd Battalion arrive at Larkhill Camp on the Salisbury Plain,, 6 June 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 27 April 2015, live, dmy-all, Royal School of Military Engineering (RSME) trains the Corps of Royal Engineers.NEWS,weblink Holdfast secures £3bn MoD deal, The Daily Telegraph, 7 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 8 March 2017, live, dmy-all, The Army Training Regiment, Grantham provides training for Army Reserve recruits,WEB,weblink Army Training Regiment, Grantham, Ministry of Defence, 9 July 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 10 July 2016, live, dmy-all, and the Army Training Regiment, Pirbright provides training for the Army Air Corps, the Royal Artillery, the Royal Corps of Signals, the Royal Logistic Corps, the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, the Adjutant General's Corps, the Royal Army Medical Corps and the Intelligence Corps.WEB,weblink 1 ATR, Pirbright, Ministry of Defence, 9 July 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 11 July 2016, live, dmy-all, WEB,weblink 2 ATR, Pirbright, Ministry of Defence, 9 July 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 11 July 2016, live, dmy-all, The Army Training Regiment, Winchester trains the Royal Armoured Corps, the Army Air Corps, the Royal Artillery, the Royal Engineers, the Royal Corps of Signals, the Royal Logistic Corps, the Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, the Adjutant General's Corps, the Royal Army Medical Corps and the Intelligence Corps.WEB,weblink Army Training Regiment, Winchester, 31 March 2014,weblink 30 March 2014, live, dmy-all, There is an Infantry Training Centre at CatterickWEB,weblink Phase 1 Basic training for recruits, 21 April 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2012, live, dmy-all, and an Infantry Battle School in Brecon.WEB,weblink Infantry Battle School, Brecon, Paradata, 21 April 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 23 April 2014, live, dmy-all, Other training centres are the Army Foundation College (Harrogate) and Army Training Units.WEB,weblink Army Training Units, Ministry of Defence, 7 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 10 April 2017, live, dmy-all,

Flags and ensigns

The army's official flag is the 3:5 ratio Union Jack, although a non-ceremonial flag flies at the Ministry of Defence building in Whitehall and is often used at recruiting and military events and exhibitions.WEB,weblink British Army (non-ceremonial),, 22 October 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 16 September 2010, dead, dmy, It represents the army on the Cenotaph at Whitehall in London, the UK memorial to its war dead.WEB,weblink Whitehall Cenotaph,, 28 March 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 August 2008, dmy, Each British Army unit has a set of flags, known as the colours—normally a Regimental Colour and a Queen's Colour (the Union Jack).File:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg|alt=Union Jack|Official Army flagFile:Flag of the British Army.svg|alt=The British Lion, the crown and crossed swords on a red background|Non-ceremonial army flag; "Army", in gold letters, sometimes appears below the badge.File:British Army Ensign01.svg|alt=Flag with Union Jack and crossed swords on a blue background|Ensign for general use by the Royal Logistic CorpsFile:British Army Ensign00.svg|alt=Same as previous flag, with the British lion and the crown|Ensign flown by the Royal Logistic Corps from vessels commanded by commissioned officersFile:Royal Engineers Ensign.png|alt=Union Jack and stylised, winged hand on a blue background|Ensign of the Corps of Royal Engineers

Ranks, specialisms and insignia

Officers{| style="border:1px solid #8888aa; background:#f7f8ff; padding:5px; font-size:95%; margin:0 12px 12px 0; margin:auto; width:100%;"
{{Ranks and Insignia of NATO Armies/OF/Blank}}{{Ranks and Insignia of NATO Armies/OF/United Kingdom}} style="text-align:center;"|Abbreviation:FMGenLt GenMaj GenBrigColLt ColMajCaptLt2LtOCdt203Rank in abeyance.
Enlisted{| style="border:1px solid #8888aa; background:#f7f8ff; padding:5px; font-size:95%; margin:0 12px 12px 0; margin:auto; width:100%;"
{{Ranks and Insignia of NATO Armies/OR/Blank}}{{Ranks and insignia of NATO armies/OR/United Kingdom}} style="text-align:center;"|Abbreviation: WO1 WO2 SSgt / CSgt Sgt Cpl / Bdr /L/Sgt LCpl / L/Bdr PteEach regiment and corps has distinctive insignia, such as a cap badge, beret, tactical recognition flash or stable belt. Many units also call soldiers of different ranks by different names; a NATO OR-1 (private) is called a guardsman in Guards regiments, a gunner in artillery units and a sapper in engineer units. These names do not affect a soldier's pay or role.WEB,weblink The British Army – Ranks,, en, 9 March 2017,weblink 1 December 2017, live, dmy-all,


{{Further|Uniforms of the British Army}}The British Army uniform has sixteen categories, ranging from ceremonial uniforms to combat dress to evening wear. No. 8 Dress, the day-to-day uniform, is known as "Personal Clothing System – Combat Uniform" (PCS-CU)WEB,weblink The British Army – Personal clothing,, en, 9 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 10 April 2017, live, dmy-all, and consists of a Multi-Terrain Pattern (MTP) windproof smock, a lightweight jacket and trousers with ancillary items such as thermals and waterproofs.WEB,weblink Dress Codes and Head Dress, Forces 80, 7 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 19 February 2017, live, dmy-all, The army has introduced tactical recognition flashes (TRFs); worn on the right arm of a combat uniform, the insignia denotes the wearer's regiment or corps.WEB,weblink badge, unit, tactical recognition flash, British, Royal Corps of Signals, Imperial War Museum, 7 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 8 March 2017, live, dmy-all, Working headdress is typically a beret, whose colour indicates its wearer's type of regiment. Beret colours are:WEB,weblink Beret definitions, Apparel Search, 7 March 2017,weblink" title="">weblink 13 June 2017, live, dmy-all, In addition to working dress, the army has a number of parade uniforms for ceremonial and non-ceremonial occasions. The most-commonly-seen uniforms are No.1 Dress (full ceremonial, seen at formal occasions such as at the changing of the guard at Buckingham Palace) and No.2 Dress (Service Dress), a brown khaki uniform worn for non-ceremonial parades.

See also

{{Div col |colwidth = 22em }} {{div col end}}






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External links

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