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United States Marine Corps
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{{redirect|USMC|other uses|USMC (disambiguation)}}{{short description|Amphibious warfare branch of the United States Armed Forces}}{{use dmy dates|date=January 2019}}







factoids
){{NoteTagTITLE = MARINE CORPS DECADE TIMELINE | MARINE CORPS HISTORY ACCESSDATE = 15 JULY 2014 ARCHIVE-DATE = 6 JULY 2014 DF = DMY-ALL, | dates = | country = United StatesMarines>Marine corpsAmphibious warfare>Amphibious and expeditionary warfare2017DATE=9 FEBRUARY 2016 PUBLISHER=U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ARCHIVE-DATE=16 FEBRUARY 2016 DF=DMY-ALL, 38,500 reserve ({{as oflc=y}}) 1,304 manned aircraftWORLD AIR FORCES 2018>JOURNAL=FLIGHTGLOBALURL=HTTPS://WWW.FLIGHTGLOBAL.COM/ASSET/21905ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180614045619/HTTPS://WWW.FLIGHTGLOBAL.COM/ASSET/21905URL-STATUS=LIVEweblink {{Webarchive>url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180614045536weblink accessdate=13 June 2018 not listed by WAF 2018)United States Department of Defense>U.S. Department of Defense The Pentagon {{nowrap>Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.}}| garrison_label = Headquarters| nickname = "Jarheads", "Devil Dogs", "Teufel Hunden", "Leathernecks"Semper fidelis#The United States Marine Corps>Semper fidelisScarlet (color)>Scarlet and Gold (color)HTTP://WWW.TECOM.USMC.MIL/HD/DOCS_SPEECHES/ESTABLISHINGMCCOLORS.HTMLAST=LEJEUNEAUTHOR-LINK=JOHN A. LEJEUNEWORK=COMMANDANT OF THE MARINE CORPSUNITED STATES MARINE CORPS HISTORY DIVISION>ACCESSDATE=2 FEBRUARY 2010ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20101005033213/HTTP://WWW.TECOM.USMC.MIL/HD/DOCS_SPEECHES/ESTABLISHINGMCCOLORS.HTMWORK=UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS BRAND GUIDEACCESSDATE=7 AUGUST 2017ARCHIVE-DATE=1 FEBRUARY 2017DF=DMY-ALL, {{color box |#ff2400}}  {{color box |#ffdf00}}| colors_label = ColorsSemper Fidelis (march)>Semper Fidelis" {{audioPlay}}Bulldog>English BulldogHTTP://WWW.MARINES.MIL/UNIT/MCRC/8MCD/PAGES/READYFORTHECORPSMARINESRECRUITLATESTMASCOTFROMSOUTHTEXAS.ASPX>TITLE=READY FOR THE CORPS: MARINES RECRUIT LATEST MASCOT FROM SOUTH TEXASFIRST=SGT HEIDI E.WORK=MARINE CORPS RECRUITING COMMAND>PUBLISHER=UNITED STATES MARINE CORPSLOCATION=CASTROVILLE, TEXASARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20110320233156/HTTP://WWW.MARINES.MIL/UNIT/MCRC/8MCD/PAGES/READYFORTHECORPSMARINESRECRUITLATESTMASCOTFROMSOUTHTEXAS.ASPXLAST=DOBBSDATE=25 JULY 2008ACCESSDATE=22 DECEMBER 2010URL-STATUS=DEADARCHIVEDATE=16 MAY 2011, List of United States Marine Corps individual equipment>List of U.S. Marine Corps equipment| equipment_label = | battles = {hide}collapsible list| titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;| title = See listAmerican Revolutionary War Quasi-War First Barbary War War of 1812 Second Barbary War West Indies Anti-Piracy Operations of the United States>West Indies Anti-Piracy Operations Seminole Wars African Anti-Slavery Operations of the United States Aegean Sea Anti-Piracy Operations of the United States>Aegean Sea Anti-Piracy Operations First Sumatran expedition Second Sumatran expedition United States Exploring Expedition Capture of Monterey Mexican–American War Bombardment of San Juan del Norte Battle of Ty-ho Bay First Fiji Expedition Second Opium War Second Fiji Expedition Paraguay expedition Reform War John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry>John Brown's raid American Civil War Bombardment of Qui Nhon Shimonoseki Campaign Formosa Expedition United States expedition to Korea Egyptian Expedition (1882) Bering Sea Anti-Poaching Operations Kingdom of Hawaii overthrowal Second Samoan Civil War Banana Wars Philippine–American War Boxer Rebellion World War I Russian Civil War World War II Korean War Vietnam War 1958 Lebanon Crisis Occupation of the Dominican Republic (1965) Iranian Hostage Rescue Multinational Force in Lebanon Invasion of Grenada 1986 bombing of Libya Tanker War Invasion of Panama Persian Gulf War Somali Civil War Iraqi no-fly zones Bosnian War Kosovo War International Force for East Timor Operation Enduring Freedom Iraq War Pakistan-United States skirmishes Operation Odyssey Dawn 2014 Intervention against ISIL Operation Inherent Resolve Resolute Support Mission Battle of Khasham{edih}United States Marine Corps birthday ball>10 November200px) (File:Streamer PUC Army.PNGPresidential Unit Citation (United States)>Presidential Unit Citation (File:Streamer JMUA.PNGJoint Meritorious Unit Award (File:Navy Unit Commendation streamer.svg>200px) Navy Unit Commendation (File:Streamer VUA Army.PNGValorous Unit Award (File:Meritorious Unit Commendation (Navy-Marine) Streamer.jpg>200px) (File:Streamer MUC Army.PNGMeritorious Unit Commendation (File:Streamer FCDG.PNG>200px) Croix de guerre 1914–1918 (France) (File:Presidential Unit Citation (Philippines) Streamer.png>200px) Philippine Republic Presidential Unit Citation (File:Streamer KPUC.PNG>200px) Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation (File:VGCP Streamer.jpg>200px) Vietnam Gallantry Cross (File:Streamer RVMUCCA.PNG|200px) Vietnam Civil Actions Medal| battle_honours = www.marines.mil|Marines.mil}}Flag of the President of the United States of America.svgPresident of the United States>President Donald J. TrumpPowers of the president of the United States#Commander-in-chief>Commander-in-ChiefUSSecDefflag.svgMark Esper>Mark T. EsperUnited States Secretary of Defense>Secretary of DefenseFlag of the United States Secretary of the Navy.svg|size=23px}} Richard V. SpencerUnited States Secretary of the Navy>Secretary of the NavyFlag of the Commandant of the United States Marine Corps.svgGeneral (United States)>Gen David H. BergerCommandant of the Marine Corps>CommandantFlag of a United States Marine Corps general.svgGeneral (United States)>Gen Gary L. ThomasAssistant Commandant of the Marine Corps>Assistant CommandantWORK=USMC OFFICIAL WEBSITEARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20171118172620/HTTP://WWW.MARINES.MIL/MARINES/RANKS.ASPXURL-STATUS=LIVE, dmy-all, Troy E. Black| commander6_label = Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps| notable_commanders = border|100px)Flag of the United States Marine Corps>Flag100px)| identification_symbol_2_label = Seal100px)Eagle, Globe, and Anchor" or "EGA"){{NoteTag>Variations also used as a "Branch of Service Insignia" on Marine Corps uniformsMARINE CORPS ORDER P1020.34G W/CH 1–5: MARINE CORPS UNIFORM REGULATIONS, CHAPTER 4: INSIGNIA AND REGULATIONS FOR WEAR, PARAGRAPH 4001. BRANCH OF SERVICE INSIGNIA, PAGES 4–7 >URL=HTTP://WWW.MARINES.MIL/PORTALS/59/PUBLICATIONS/MCO%20P1020.34G%20W%20CH%201-5.PDF ACCESSDATE=15 JANUARY 2018 ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20171215092520/HTTP://WWW.MARINES.MIL/PORTALS/59/PUBLICATIONS/MCO%20P1020.34G%20W%20CH%201-5.PDF URL-STATUS=LIVE, dmy-all, }}| identification_symbol_4_label = SongMarines' Hymn>The Marine's Hymn" {{AudioPlay}}}}The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operationsJOURNAL, Gen. Charles C. Krulak, Operational Maneuver from the Sea, Headquarters Marine Corps, 1996,weblink 28 July 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060811112202weblink">weblink 11 August 2006, live, dmy-all, with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force. The U.S. Marine Corps is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.The Marine Corps has been a component of the U.S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834,Hoffman, Colonel Jon T., USMC: A Complete History, Marine Corps Association, Quantico, VA, (2002), p. 57. working closely with naval forces. The USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons, primarily Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are also embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers.WEB,weblink Tactical Aviation Integration, John Pike, globalsecurity.org, 1 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150405182315weblink">weblink 5 April 2015, live, dmy-all, The history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.WEB,weblink U.S. Marine Corps Decade Timeline, 1 October 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131001031854weblink">weblink 1 October 2013, live, dmy-all, In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island.BOOK, 2 June 2007,weblink Part I, Chapter 2: Evolution of Modern Amphibious Warfare, 1920–1941, Pearl Harbor to Guadalcanal, History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II, Volume I, Hough, Col Frank O. (USMCR); Ludwig, Maj Verle E. (USMC), and Henry I. Shaw, Jr., Historical Branch, HQMC, United States Marine Corps,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070530012649weblink">weblink 30 May 2007, live, dmy-all, BOOK, 3 August 2008,weblink Part II, Chapter 1: The Development of FMFPac, Western Pacific Operations, 1971, Garand, George W., Truman R. Strobridge, yes, History of U.S. Marine Corps Operation in World War II, Volume IV, Historical Branch, HQMC, United States Marine Corps,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080725095249weblink">weblink 25 July 2008, live, dmy-all, BOOK, 3 August 2008,weblink 1968, Part VI, Chapter 1: Amphibious Doctrine in World War II, Victory and Occupation, Frank, Benis M, Henry I. Saw, Jr., yes, History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II, Volume V, Historical Branch, HQMC, United States Marine Corps,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081011233619weblink">weblink 11 October 2008, live, dmy-all, As of 2017, the USMC has around 186,000 active duty members and some 38,500 personnel in reserve. It is the smallest U.S. military service within the DoD.The United States Coast Guard is smaller, about one-fifth the size of the U.S. Marine Corps, but it is part of United States Department of Homeland Security and does not normally operate under the DoD except during times of war or as directed by the U.S. president. The USMC is the largest marine corps force in the world and is larger than the armed forces of many significant powers; for example, the USMC is larger than the active duty Israel Defense Forces.NEWS, Israeli Defense Forces, CSIS, 12, 25 July 2006,weblink 13 August 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060816182139weblink">weblink 16 August 2006, live, dmy-all, NEWS, United States Armed Force Strength Figures, 31 January 2013, DOD,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090205070434weblink">weblink 5 February 2009,

Mission

As outlined in {{USC|10|5063}} and as originally introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are:
  • Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns;
  • Development of tactics, technique, and equipment used by amphibious landing forces in coordination with the Army and Air Force; and
  • Such other duties as the President or Department of Defense may direct.
(File:Marines training.jpg|thumb|left|U.S. Marines in training)This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, and "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps". It noted that the Corps has more often than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, Chapultepec, and numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties (such as those in Central America), World War I, and the Korean War. While these actions are not accurately described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests.BOOK
, Estes
, Kenneth W.
, The Marine Officer's Guide, 6th Edition
, Naval Institute Press
, 2000
, 1-55750-567-5,
(File:Marine band.jpg|thumb|left|The Marine Band, dubbed "The President's Own")The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House.BOOK, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, William J. Clinton, 1998, Book 2: July 1 to December 31, 1998, William J., Clinton, Office of the Federal Register, Bill Clinton, 1217, Government Printing Office, 2000, 978-1-4034-4551-3, Remarks Celebrating the 200th Anniversary of the United States Marine Corps Band 10 July 1998, The Marine Band played at Thomas Jefferson's Inauguration in 1801 and hasn't missed a single one since. Jefferson was a violin player who loved music almost as much as he loved freedom. He named the band "The President's Own"., Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C., guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, and the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively.BOOK, Marines: An Illustrated History: the United States Marine Corps from 1775 to the 21st Century, Chester G., Hearn, 180, Zenith Imprint, 2007, 978-0-7603-3211-5, The Executive Flight Detachment also provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies, legations, and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.BOOK, Marine Pride: A Salute to America's Elite Fighting Force,weblink registration, Scott, Keller, 56, Citadel Press, 2004, 978-0-8065-2603-4, The relationship between the Department of State and the U.S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies, consulates, and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, and 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide.WEB,weblink The Role of Marines in Embassy Security, 22 November 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304094058weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, live, dmy-all,

Historical mission

The Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny; to the latter end, their quarters on ship were often strategically positioned between the officers' quarters and the rest of the vessel. Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at sea and ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montagu and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas. The role of the Marine Corps has expanded significantly since then; as the importance of its original naval mission declined with changing naval warfare doctrine and the professionalization of the naval service, the Corps adapted by focusing on formerly secondary missions ashore. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns.Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers, battleships and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, and continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries. Marines would develop tactics and techniques of amphibious assault on defended coastlines in time for use in World War II.BOOK, Lawliss, Chuck, The Marine Book: A Portrait of America's Military Elite, Thames and Hudson, 1988, New York, During World War II, Marines continued to serve on capital ships. They often were assigned to man anti-aircraft batteries. When gun cruisers were retired by the 1960s, the remaining Marine detachments were only seen on battleships and carriers. Its original mission of providing shipboard security finally ended in the 1990s.

Capabilities

File:Marine-31st.jpg|thumb|left|upright|U.S. Marines from the 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit31st Marine Expeditionary UnitThe Marine Corps fulfills a critical military role as an amphibious warfare force. It is capable of asymmetric warfare with conventional, irregular, and hybrid forces.While the Marine Corps does not employ any unique capabilities, as a force it can rapidly deploy a combined-arms task force to almost anywhere in the world within days. The basic structure for all deployed units is a Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) that integrates a ground combat element, an aviation combat element and a Logistics Combat Element under a common command element. While the creation of joint commands under the Goldwater–Nichols Act has improved inter-service coordination between each branch, the Corps's ability to permanently maintain integrated multi-element task forces under a single command provides a smoother implementation of combined-arms warfare principles.BOOK, Warren, James A., American Spartans: The U.S. Marines: A Combat History From Iwo Jima to Iraq, Free Press, Simon & Schuster, 2005, New York, 0-684-87284-6,weblink The close integration of disparate Marine units stems from an organizational culture centered on the infantry. Every other Marine capability exists to support the infantry. Unlike some Western militaries, the Corps remained conservative against theories proclaiming the ability of new weapons to win wars independently. For example, Marine aviation has always been focused on close air support and has remained largely uninfluenced by air power theories proclaiming that strategic bombing can single-handedly win wars.File:US Marine Artillery during Iraq Invasion March 26 2003.ogg|thumb|left|Bravo Battery, 1st Battalion, 11th MarinesBravo Battery, 1st Battalion, 11th MarinesThis focus on the infantry is matched with the doctrine of "Every Marine [is] a rifleman", a focus of Commandant Alfred M. Gray, Jr., emphasizing the infantry combat abilities of every Marine. All Marines, regardless of military specialization, receive training as a rifleman; and all officers receive additional training as infantry platoon commanders.BOOK, Milks, Keith A., Ensuring 'Every Marine a Rifleman' is more than just a catch phrase, Marine Corps News, 22 MEU, USMC, 8 May 2003,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071224075658weblink">weblink 24 December 2007, Story ID # 20071230234422, For example, at Wake Island, when all of the Marine aircraft were destroyed, pilots continued the fight as ground officers, leading supply clerks and cooks in a final defensive effort.JOURNAL, Lieutenant Colonel R.D. Heinl, Jr., USMC, Marines in WWII Historical Monograph: The Defense of Wake, Historical Section, Division of Public Information, Headquarters, USMC, 1947,weblink 28 August 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061002174813weblink">weblink 2 October 2006, live, dmy-all, Flexibility of execution is implemented via an emphasis on "commander's intent" as a guiding principle for carrying out orders; specifying the end state but leaving open the method of execution.BOOK, Lind, William S., William S. Lind, Michael, Col., Wyly, Michael Wyly, Maneuver Warfare Handbook, Westview Press, 1985, Boulder, Colorado, 0-86531-862-X, The amphibious assault techniques developed for World War II evolved, with the addition of air assault and maneuver warfare doctrine, into the current "Operational Maneuver from the Sea" doctrine of power projection from the seas. The Marines are credited with the development of helicopter insertion doctrine and were the earliest in the American military to widely adopt maneuver-warfare principles, which emphasize low-level initiative and flexible execution. In light of recent warfare that has strayed from the Corps's traditional missions, it has renewed an emphasis on amphibious capabilities.WEB,weblink Marines return to their amphibious roots, Patrick, Capt Timothy, 10 December 2010, II Marine Expeditionary Force, United States Marine Corps, 22 December 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101225055336weblink">weblink 25 December 2010, live, dmy-all, (File:USMC-041227-M-0484L-006.jpg|thumb|Machine gunner from 1st Platoon, Company B, 1st Battalion, 23rd Marine Regiment in cold weather gear armed with a Squad Automatic Weapon taking part in a security patrol around Ramadi, Iraq, 27 December 2006)The Marine Corps relies on the Navy for sealift to provide its rapid deployment capabilities. In addition to basing a third of the Fleet Marine Force in Japan, Marine Expeditionary Units (MEU) are typically stationed at sea so they can function as first responders to international incidents.BOOK
, Chenoweth
, H. Avery, Colonel, USMCR (Ret.)
, Nihart
, Brooke, Colonel, USMC (Ret.)
, Semper fi: The Definitive Illustrated History of the U.S. Marines
, Main Street
, 2005
, New York
, 1-4027-3099-3, To aid rapid deployment, the Maritime Pre-Positioning System was developed: fleets of container ships are positioned throughout the world with enough equipment and supplies for a Marine Expeditionary Force to deploy for 30 days.
The USMC is planning to reduce its logistical requirements and by 2025 eliminate all liquid fuel use for Marine Expeditionary Forces, except for highly efficient vehicles."Marine Corps Expeditionary Energy Office." {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20141101032142weblink |date=1 November 2014 }}. Marines.mil.

Doctrine

Two small manuals published during the 1930s would establish USMC doctrine in two areas. The Small Wars Manual laid the framework for Marine counter-insurgency operations from Vietnam to Iraq and Afghanistan while the Tentative Landing Operations Manual established the doctrine for the amphibious operations of World War II. "Operational Maneuver from the Sea" is the current doctrine of power projection.

History

Origins

File:Battle of Nassau.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Painting of Continental Marines landing on a tropical beach from rowboats, with two ships in the background|Continental Marines land at New Providence during the Battle of NassauBattle of NassauThe United States Marine Corps traces its roots to the Continental Marines of the American Revolutionary War, formed by Captain Samuel Nicholas by a resolution of the Second Continental Congress on 10 November 1775, to raise two battalions of Marines. That date is regarded and celebrated as the date of the Marine Corps's birthday. At the end of the American Revolution, both the Continental Navy and Continental Marines were disbanded in April 1783. The institution itself would not be resurrected until 11 July 1798. At that time, in preparation for the Quasi-War with France, Congress created the United States Marine Corps.WEB, U.S. Congress, Congress of the United States, An Act for Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps, 11 July 1798,weblink 6 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100610134122weblink">weblink 10 June 2010, live, dmy-all, Marines had been enlisted by the War Department as early as August 1797WEB, Captain John Barry, Muster Roll of Officers, Petty Officers, Seamen, and Marines, on the Frigate United States, 9 February 1798,weblink 16 May 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090827075735weblink">weblink 27 August 2009, live, dmy-all, for service in the new-build frigates authorized by the Congressional "Act to provide a Naval Armament" of 18 March 1794,WEB, U.S. Congress, Congress of the United States, Act to provide a Naval Armament, 18 March 1794, NARA,weblink 16 May 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110107211812weblink">weblink 7 January 2011, live, dmy-all, which specified the numbers of Marines to recruit for each frigate.File:Attack on Derna by Charles Waterhouse 01.jpg|thumb|Marines leading Arab mercenaries to victory under U.S. Navy Lieutenant William Eaton and U.S. Marine Corps First Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon during the Battle of Derna ]]File:Wiki Capture Penguin.jpg|thumb|British and U.S. troops garrisoned aboard Hornet and Penguin exchanging small arms musket fire with Tristan da Cuna in the background during the final engagement between British and U.S. forces in the War of 1812War of 1812The Marines' most famous action of this period occurred during the First Barbary War (1801–1805) against the Barbary pirates,Richard Leiby, Terrorists by Another Name: The Barbary Pirates {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20180810132404weblink |date=10 August 2018 }}, The Washington Post, 15 October 2001 when William Eaton and First Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon led eight Marines and 500 mercenaries in an effort to capture Tripoli. Though they only reached Derna, the action at Tripoli has been immortalized in the Marines' hymn and the Mameluke sword carried by Marine officers.BOOK, Simmons, Edwin H., The United States Marines: A History, Fourth Edition, Naval Institute Press, 2003, Annapolis, Maryland, 1-59114-790-5, During the War of 1812, Marine detachments on Navy ships took part in some of the great frigate duels that characterized the war, which were the first and last engagements of the conflict. Their most significant contribution, however, was holding the center of General Jackson's defensive line at the 1815 Battle of New Orleans, the final major battle and one of the most one-sided engagements of the war. With widespread news of the battle and the capture of HMS Cyane, HMS Levant and HMS Penguin, the final engagements between British and U.S. forces, the Marines had gained a reputation as expert marksmen, especially in defensive and ship-to-ship actions. They played a large role in the 1813 defense of Sacket's Harbor, New York and Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia,Roosevelt, Theodore, The Naval War of 1812, Random House, New York, {{ISBN|0-375-75419-9}} also taking part in the 1814 defense of Plattsburgh in the Champlain Valley during one of the final British offensives along the Canadian-American border.After the war, the Marine Corps fell into a malaise that ended with the appointment of Archibald Henderson as its fifth Commandant in 1820. Under his tenure, the Corps took on expeditionary duties in the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Key West, West Africa, the Falkland Islands, and Sumatra. Commandant Henderson is credited with thwarting President Jackson's attempts to combine and integrate the Marine Corps with the Army. Instead, Congress passed the Act for the Better Organization of the Marine Corps in 1834, stipulating that the Corps was part of the Department of the Navy as a sister service to the Navy.WEB, U.S. Congress, Congress of the United States, An Act for the Better Organization of the United States Marine Corps, 30 June 1834,weblink 3 August 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101007205958weblink">weblink 7 October 2010, This would be the first of many times that the independent existence of the Corps was challenged.File:Chapultepec.jpg|thumb|left|U.S. Marines storming Chapultepec castle under a large American flag, paving the way for the fall of Mexico City]]Commandant Henderson volunteered the Marines for service in the Seminole Wars of 1835, personally leading nearly half of the entire Corps (two battalions) to war. A decade later, in the Mexican–American War (1846–1848), the Marines made their famed assault on Chapultepec Palace in Mexico City, which would be later celebrated as the "Halls of Montezuma" in the Marines' hymn. In the 1850s, the Marines would see further service in Panama and Asia, attached to Matthew Perry's East India Squadron on its historic trip to the Far East.BOOK, Moskin, J. Robert, The U.S. Marine Corps Story, McGraw-Hill, 1987, New York,

American Civil War to World War I

File:Marines01.jpg|thumb|Five USMC privates with fixed bayonets, and their NCO with his sword at the alt=black & white photograph of six U.S. marines standing in line, five with Civil War-era rifles and one with an NCO sword.The Marine Corps played a small role in the Civil War (1861–1865); their most prominent task was blockade duty. As more and more states seceded from the Union, about a third of the Corps's officers left the United States to join the Confederacy and form the Confederate States Marine Corps, which ultimately played little part in the war. The battalion of recruits formed for the First Battle of Bull Run (also known as the First Battle of ManassasWEB,weblink National Park Service, 20 October 2018,weblink 12 October 2018, live, dmy-all, by the Confederate forces), performed poorly, retreating with the rest of the Union forces. Blockade duty included sea-based amphibious operations to secure forward bases. In late November 1861, Marines and sailors landed a reconnaissance in force from the {{USS|Flag|1861|6}} at Tybee Island, Georgia, to occupy the Lighthouse and Martello Tower on the northern end of the island. It would later be the Army base for bombardment of Fort Pulaski.WEB,weblink Archaeological Reconnaissance at the Drudi Tract, Tybee Island, Chatham County, Georgia, LAMAR Institute Publication Series, Daniel T., Elliott, Savannah, Georgia, 2008, 9, 7 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111001013945weblink">weblink 1 October 2011, In April and May 1862, Union Marines participated in the capture and occupation of New Orleans and the occupation of Baton Rouge, LouisianaHoffman, Colonel Jon T., USMC: A Complete History, Marine Corps Association, Quantico, VA, (2002), p. 92. signal events in the war that helped secure Union control of the lower Mississippi River basin and denied the Confederacy a major port and naval base on the Gulf coast.The remainder of the 19th century was marked by declining strength and introspection about the mission of the Marine Corps. The Navy's transition from sail to steam put into question the need for Marines on naval ships. Meanwhile, Marines served as a convenient resource for interventions and landings to protect American interests overseas. The Corps was involved in over 28 separate interventions in the 30 years from the end of the American Civil War to the end of 19th century.WEB,weblink Marine Corps Casualties: 1775–2015, Frequently Requested, Reference Branch, USMC History Division, 2016, 23 April 2016, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160426035939weblink">weblink 26 April 2016, They would be called upon to stem political and labor unrest within the United States.BOOK, Ellsworth, Harry Allanson, One Hundred Eighty Landings of United States Marines 1800–1934, History and Museums Division, HQ, USMC, 1934, Washington, D.C., Under Commandant Jacob Zeilin's tenure, Marine customs and traditions took shape: the Corps adopted the Marine Corps emblem on 19 November 1868. It was during this time that "The Marines' Hymn" was first heard. Around 1883, the Marines adopted their current motto "Semper Fidelis" (Always Faithful).John Philip Sousa, the musician and composer, enlisted as a Marine apprentice at the age of 13, serving from 1867 until 1872, and again from 1880 to 1892 as the leader of the Marine Band. During the Spanish–American War (1898), Marines led American forces ashore in the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico, demonstrating their readiness for deployment. At Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, the Marines seized an advanced naval base that remains in use today. Between 1899 and 1916, the Corps continued its record of participation in foreign expeditions, including the Philippine–American War, the Boxer Rebellion in China (1899–1901), Panama, the Cuban Pacifications, the Perdicaris incident in Morocco, Veracruz, Santo Domingo, and the Banana Wars in Haiti and Nicaragua; the experiences gained in counter-insurgency and guerrilla operations during this period were consolidated into the Small Wars Manual.JOURNAL, Report on Marine Corps Duplication of Effort between Army and Navy, U.S. Marine Corps., 17 December 1932, Contains a very detailed account of almost all the actions of the Continental Marines and USMC until 1932. It is available in scanned TIFF format from the archives of the Marine Corps University.

World War I

File:Scott Belleau Wood.jpg|thumb|left|alt=monochromatic artwork of Marines fighting Germans in a forest|Georges Scott, American Marines in Belleau Wood, 1918]]During World War I Marines served as a part of the American Expeditionary Force under General Pershing when America entered into the war on 6 April 1917. The Marine Corps had a deep pool of officers and NCOs with battle experience, and experienced a large expansion. During the war, the Marines, fighting on the Western Front in France, fought at the battle at Belleau Wood in mid-1918. Though the Marines and U.S. media reported that Germans had nicknamed them Teufel Hunden as meaning "Devil Dogs", for their reputation as shock troops and marksmen at ranges up to 900 meters, there is no evidence of this in German records (as Teufelshunde would be the proper German phrase). Nevertheless, the name stuck in U.S. Marine lore.JOURNAL, Life, Teufel-Hunden, 1918, John Ames, Mitchell, 72,weblink 759, 7 October 2011, (File:Flag of the United States Marine Corps (1914-1939).png|thumb|upright=0.8|alt=float|{{FIAV|historical}} The flag of the United States Marine Corps from 1914 to 1939)The U.S. Marine Corps entered the war with 511 officers and 13,214 enlisted personnel, and by 11 November 1918 had reached a strength of 2,400 officers and 70,000 enlisted.WEB, History of Marine Corps Aviation – World War One, AcePilots.com,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060111063805weblink">weblink 11 January 2006, African-Americans were entirely excluded from the Marine Corps during this conflict.Chad L. Williams, Torchbearers of Democracy: African American Soldiers in the World War I Era. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 2010; pg. 6. Opha May Johnson was the first woman to enlist in the Marines; she joined the Marine Corps Reserve in 1918 during World War I, officially becoming the first female Marine.BOOK, Hewitt, Linda J., Women Marines in World War I (1974), 1974, United States Marine Corps History and Museums Division,weblink 31 December 2014,weblink 15 March 2016, live, dmy-all, From then until the end of World War I, 305 women enlisted in the Corps.WEB,weblink Women Marines, Usmcpress.com, 11 August 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150819072746weblink">weblink 19 August 2015, live, dmy-all, Between the World Wars, the Marine Corps was headed by Commandant John A. Lejeune, and under his leadership, the Corps studied and developed amphibious techniques that would be of great use in World War II. Many officers, including Lieutenant Colonel Earl Hancock "Pete" Ellis, foresaw a war in the Pacific with Japan and undertook preparations for such a conflict. Through 1941, as the prospect of war grew, the Corps pushed urgently for joint amphibious exercises with the Army and acquired amphibious equipment that would prove of great use in the upcoming conflict.BOOK
, Ballendorf
, Dirk Anthony
, Pete Ellis: an amphibious warfare prophet, 1880–1923
, Naval Institute Press
, 1997
, Annapolis, Maryland
,

World War II

File:Peter Ortiz.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.7|Former French Foreign Legion Lieutenant, and U.S. Marine Corps officer Peter J. OrtizPeter J. OrtizIn World War II, the Marines performed a central role in the Pacific War, along with the U.S. Army. The battles of Guadalcanal, Bougainville, Tarawa, Guam, Tinian, Cape Gloucester, Saipan, Peleliu, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa saw fierce fighting between Marines and the Imperial Japanese Army. Some 600,000 Americans served in the U.S. Marine Corps in World War II.WEB,weblink Expanding the Size of the U.S. Military in World War II, warfarehistorynetwork.com, 2019-03-13,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180812194913weblink">weblink 12 August 2018, live, dmy-all, The Battle of Iwo Jima, which began on 19 February 1945, was arguably the most famous Marine engagement of the war. The Japanese had learned from their defeats in the Marianas Campaign and prepared many fortified positions on the island including pillboxes and network of tunnels. The Japanese put up fierce resistance, but American forces reached the summit of Mount Suribachi on 23 February. The mission was accomplished with high losses of 26,000 American casualties and 22,000 Japanese.Derrick Wright and Jim Laurier, Iwo Jima 1945: The Marines raise the flag on Mount Suribachi (2012)The Marines played a comparatively minor role in the European theater. Nonetheless, they did continue to provide security detachments to U.S. embassies, and ships, contributed personnel to small, special ops teams dropped into Nazi-occupied Europe as part of Office of Strategic Services (OSS, precursor to the CIA) missions, and acted as staff planners, and trainers for U.S. Army amphibious operations, including the Normandy landings.Chenoweth (2005), p. 270-71Smith Jr., Thomas W., "Rivalry at Normandy", National Review, 4 June 2004By the end of the war, the Corps expanded from two brigades to six divisions, five air wings, and supporting troops, totaling about 485,000 Marines. In addition, 20 defense battalions and a parachute battalion were raised.WEB, Marines in World War II Commemorative Series, Marine Corps Historical Center,weblink 17 January 2008, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080208103845weblink">weblink 8 February 2008, Nearly 87,000 Marines were casualties during World War II (including nearly 20,000 killed), and 82 were awarded the Medal of Honor.BOOK, Medal of honor: historical facts & figures, Ron, Owens, 110, Turner Publishing Company, 2004, 978-1-56311-995-8, File:USMC War Memorial Night.jpg|thumb|Photograph of the Marine Corps War Memorial, which depicts the second U.S. flag-raising atop Mount Suribachi, on Iwo Jima. The memorial is modeled on Joe Rosenthal's famous Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima.|alt=Color photo of the Marine Corps War Memorial, a bronze statue of six Marines raising a U.S. flag attached unto a Japanese pipe atop Mount SuribachiMount SuribachiIn 1942, the Navy Seabees were created with the Marine Corps providing their organization and military training. Many Seabee units were issued the USMC standard issue and were re-designated "Marine". Despite the Corps's giving them their military organization, military training, issuing them uniforms and redesignating their units the Seabees remained Navy.{{NoteTag|See: 17th Marines, 18th Marines, 19th Marines, and 20th Marines}}Battle Orders – US Marine Corps Pacific Theater of Operations 1943–44, Gordon L Rottman, Osprey Publishing, p. 13 {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170312130832weblink |date=12 March 2017 }}.Seabees with the Marines, U.S. Navy Seabee Museum Archives, Port Hueneme, CA 93043 {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170525180137weblink |date=25 May 2017 }} USMC historian Gordon L. Rottmann wrote that one of the "Navy's biggest contributions to the Marine Corps during WWII was the creation of the Seabees."BOOK, U.S. Marine Corps World War II Order of Battle: Ground and Air units in the Pacific War, 1939–1945, Gordon L., Rottman, Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 2002, 31, 978-0-31331-906-8, Despite Secretary of the Navy, James Forrestal's prediction that the Marine flag raising at Iwo Jima meant "a Marine Corps for the next five hundred years",BOOK, Warren, James A., American Spartans: The U.S. Marines: A Combat History from Iwo Jima to Iraq,weblink 2007, Simon and Schuster, New York, 978-1-4165-3297-2, 70, BOOK, Clancy, Tom, Tom Clancy, Marine: A Guided Tour of a Marine Expeditionary Unit,weblink 1996, Penguin Group US, 978-1-4295-2009-6, 670, 6 June 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140708150644weblink">weblink 8 July 2014, live, dmy-all, the Corps faced an immediate institutional crisis following the war due to a suddenly shrunken budget. Army generals pushing for a strengthened and reorganized defense establishment attempted to fold the Marine mission and assets into the Navy and Army. Drawing on hastily assembled Congressional support, and with the assistance of the so-called "Revolt of the Admirals", the Marine Corps rebuffed such efforts to dismantle the Corps, resulting in statutory protection of the Marine Corps in the National Security Act of 1947.BOOK, Krulak, Victor H., Victor H. Krulak, First To Fight: An Inside View of the U.S. Marine Corps, Naval Institute Press, 1984, Annapolis, Maryland, 0-87021-785-2, Chapter 7, The Marines' Push Button pp. 113–119. Shortly afterward, in 1952 the Douglas–Mansfield Act afforded the Commandant an equal voice with the Joint Chiefs of Staff on matters relating to the Marines and established the structure of three active divisions and air wings that remain today.

Korean War

File:Koreacloseairsupport1950.JPEG|thumb|F4U Corsairs provide close air support to Marines of the 1st Marine Division1st Marine DivisionThe Korean War (1950–1953) saw the hastily formed Provisional Marine Brigade holding the defensive line at the Pusan Perimeter. To execute a flanking maneuver, General Douglas MacArthur called on United Nations forces, including U.S. Marines, to make an amphibious landing at Inchon. The successful landing resulted in the collapse of North Korean lines and the pursuit of North Korean forces north near the Yalu River until the entrance of the People's Republic of China into the war. Chinese troops surrounded, surprised and overwhelmed the overextended and outnumbered American forces. The U.S. Army's X Corps, which included the 1st Marine Division and the Army's 7th Infantry Division, regrouped and inflicted heavy casualties during their fighting withdrawal to the coast, known as the Battle of Chosin Reservoir.The fighting calmed after the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir, but late in March 1953 the relative quiet of the war was broken when the People's Liberation Army launched a massive offensive on three outposts manned by the 5th Marine Regiment. These outposts were codenamed "Reno", "Vegas", and "Carson". The campaign was collectively known as the Nevada Cities Campaign. There was brutal fighting on Reno hill, which was eventually captured by the Chinese. Although Reno was lost, the 5th Marines held both Vegas and Carson through the rest of the campaign. In this one campaign, the Marines suffered approximately 1,000 casualties, and might have suffered much more without the U.S. Army's Task Force Faith. Marines would continue a battle of attrition around the 38th Parallel until the 1953 armistice.BOOK
, Fehrenbach
, T. R.
, T. R. Fehrenbach
, This Kind of War: The Classic Korean War History
, Brassey's
, 1994
, 1-57488-259-7,
The Korean War saw the Corps expand from 75,000 regulars to a force of 261,000 Marines, mostly reservists. 30,544 Marines were killed or wounded during the war and 42 were awarded the Medal of Honor.WEB
, Fast Facts on the Korean War
, History Division, U.S. Marine Corps
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070806010111weblink">weblink
, 6 August 2007
,

Vietnam War

File:U.S. Marines in Operation Allen Brook (Vietnam War) 001.jpg|thumb|U.S. Marines of "G" Company, 2nd Battalion, 7th Marines in action during Operation Allen BrookOperation Allen BrookThe Marine Corps served in the Vietnam War taking part in such battles as the Battle of Hue and the Battle of Khe Sanh in 1968. Individuals from the USMC generally operated in the Northern I Corps Regions of South Vietnam. While there, they were constantly engaged in a guerrilla war against the Viet Cong, along with an intermittent conventional war against the North Vietnamese Army (NVA). Portions of the Corps were responsible for the less-known Combined Action Program (CAP) that implemented unconventional techniques for counter-insurgency and worked as military advisers to the Republic of Vietnam Marine Corps. Marines were withdrawn in 1971, and returned briefly in 1975 to evacuate Saigon and attempt a rescue of the crew of the Mayagüez.BOOK, Millet, Alan R., Semper Fidelis: The History of the United States Marine Corps, Simon & Schuster, 1991, New York, 605, 978-0-02-921596-8, Vietnam was the longest war for Marines; by its end, 13,091Casualties: U.S. Navy and Marine Corps {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070605234857weblink |date= 5 June 2007 }}, United States Navy.Official Navy figures number the Marine deaths at 13,091. This source provides a number of 14,837. WEB,weblink 31 March 1997, U.S. Military Casualties in Southeast Asia, The Wall-USA, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060902063652weblink">weblink 2 September 2006, had been killed in action, 51,392 had been wounded, and 57 Medals of Honor had been awarded.WEB,weblink Casualties: U.S. Navy and Marine Corps Personnel Killed and Wounded in Wars, Conflicts, Terrorist Acts, and Other Hostile Incidents, 7 August 2006, Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070605234857weblink">weblink 5 June 2007, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070806030250weblink">weblink 6 August 2007, Marines Awarded the Medal of Honor, United States Marine Corps, Due to policies concerning rotation, more Marines were deployed for service during Vietnam than World War II.Simmons, 247. Roughly 800,000 Marines served in Vietnam, as opposed to 600,000 in World War II.While recovering from Vietnam, the Corps hit a detrimental low point in its service history caused by courts-martial and non-judicial punishments related partially to increased unauthorized absences and desertions during the war. Overhauling of the Corps began in the late 1970s, discharging the most delinquent, and once quality of new recruits improved, the Corps focused on reforming the NCO Corps, a vital functioning part of its forces.

Interim: Vietnam War to the War on Terror

File:Beirut Memorial 1.jpg|thumb|left|Beirut Memorial at Marine Corps Base Camp LejeuneMarine Corps Base Camp LejeuneAfter the Vietnam War, the U.S. Marines resumed their expeditionary role, participating in the failed 1980 Iran hostage rescue attempt Operation Eagle Claw, the invasion of Grenada (Operation Urgent Fury) and the invasion of Panama (Operation Just Cause). On 23 October 1983, the Marine headquarters building in Beirut, Lebanon, was bombed, causing the highest peacetime losses to the Corps in its history (220 Marines and 21 other service members were killed) and leading to the American withdrawal from the country. The year 1990 saw Marines of the Joint Task Force Sharp Edge save thousands of lives by evacuating British, French and American nationals from the violence of the Liberian Civil War.File:3-3 India CO Desert Storm.jpg|thumb|U.S. Marines from 3rd Battalion, 3rd Marines during the Desert StormDesert StormDuring the Persian Gulf War of 1990 to 1991, Marine task forces formed for Operation Desert Shield, and later liberated Kuwait, along with Coalition forces, in Operation Desert Storm. Marines participated in combat operations in Somalia (1992–1995) during Operations Restore Hope, Restore Hope II, and United Shield to provide humanitarian relief.WEB, The preannounced landing of U.S. Marines was witnessed by millions of U.S. primetime television viewers, United States Naval Aviation, 1910–1995, U.S. Navy,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20011005191719weblink">weblink dead, 2001-10-05, (PDF file, see "1992, 9 December" on p. 16) In 1997, Marines took part in Operation Silver Wake, the evacuation of American citizens from the US Embassy in Tirana, Albania.

Global War on Terrorism

File:Marines in Saddams palace DM-SD-04-12222.jpg|thumb|left|alt=Color photograph of three U.S. Marines entering a partially destroyed palace|U.S. Marines from 1st Battalion, 7th Marines enter a palace in BaghdadBaghdadFile:3rd Battalion 3rd Marines dawn patrol.jpg|thumb|U.S. Marines conducting a dawn patrol in Afghanistan's Nawa District, Helmand Province (May 2010)]]Following the attacks on 11 September 2001, President George W. Bush announced the Global War on Terrorism. The stated objective of the Global War on Terror is "the defeat of Al-Qaeda, other terrorist groups and any nation that supports or harbors terrorists".WEB
, 3 August 2008
,weblink
, Address to Congress
, Whitehouse
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100528020254weblink">weblink
, 28 May 2010
, live
, dmy-all, Since then, the Marine Corps, alongside the other military services, has engaged in global operations around the world in support of that mission.
In spring 2009, President Barack Obama's goal of reducing spending in the Defense Department was led by Secretary Robert Gates in a series of budget cuts that did not significantly change the Corps's budget and programs, cutting only the VH-71 Kestrel and resetting the VXX program.NEWS,weblink Gates Announces Major Pentagon Priority Shifts, CNN, 9 April 2009, 14 April 2009,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090417041415weblink">weblink 17 April 2009, live, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Gates Takes Aim at Pentagon Spending, Shanker, Thom, 8 May 2010, The New York Times, 9 May 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100509101742weblink">weblink 9 May 2010, live, dmy-all, NEWS,weblink Gates: Cuts in Pentagon bureaucracy needed to help maintain military force, Jaffe, Greg, 9 May 2010, The Washington Post, 9 May 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100509101556weblink">weblink 9 May 2010, live, dmy-all, However, the National Commission on Fiscal Responsibility and Reform singled the Corps out for the brunt of a series of recommended cuts in late 2010.WEB, Smith, Rich,weblink Marines Under Fire From Pentagon Cuts, Money Times, 13 November 2010, 14 November 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110428134513weblink">weblink 28 April 2011, In light of budget sequestration in 2013, General Amos set a goal of a force of 174,000 Marines.WEB,weblink Amos: America Needs a Robust Crisis Response Force, Defense One, 1 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150330025915weblink">weblink 30 March 2015, live, dmy-all, He testified that this was the minimum number that would allow for an effective response to even a single contingency operation, but it would reduce the peacetime ratio of time at home bases to time deployed down to a historical low level.WEB,weblink Gen. Amos: 174,000 force would mean 11 fewer battalions, 14 fewer squadrons, Military Times, 1 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160123231509weblink">weblink 23 January 2016, live, dmy-all,

Afghanistan Campaign (Operation Enduring Freedom-Afghanistan)

File:1st platoon, Alpha Company, 1st Battalion, 9th Marine Regiment, 24th MEU, Djibouti, 2010.jpg|thumb|U.S. Marines dismounting from an Assault Amphibious VehicleAssault Amphibious VehicleFile:Operation Moshtarak.jpg|thumb|left|A Marine Corporal and Lance Corporal of 3rd Battalion, 6th Marines engaging the enemy during Operation Moshtarak in Afghanistan's Helmand ProvinceHelmand ProvinceMarines and other American forces began staging in Pakistan and Uzbekistan on the border of Afghanistan as early as October 2001 in preparation for Operation Enduring Freedom.NEWS
, 27 April 2007
,weblink
, War Against Terror Will Involve Amorphous Front Lines
, CNN
, 1 October 2001
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071114165807weblink">weblink
, 14 November 2007
, live
, dmy-all, The 15th and 26th Marine Expeditionary Units were some of the first conventional forces into Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in November 2001.WEB
, 3 August 2008
,weblink
, Marines land in Afghanistan
, International Herald Tribune,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080522074847weblink">weblink 22 May 2008, Since then, Marine battalions and squadrons have been rotating through, engaging Taliban and Al-Qaeda forces. Marines of the 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit flooded into the Taliban-held town of Garmsir on 29 April 2008, in Helmand Province, in the first major American operation in the region in years.NEWS,weblink Marines launch attack on Taliban in Helmand, The Telegraph, 13 December 2010, 29 April 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110428121746weblink">weblink 28 April 2011, live, dmy-all, In June 2009, 7,000 Marines with the 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade deployed to Afghanistan in an effort to improve security,NEWS,weblink 7,000 Marines Join Fight in Afghanistan, 8 June 2009, Associated Press, CBS News, 3 November 2009, Camp Leatherhead (sic),weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090804083806weblink">weblink 4 August 2009, live, dmy-all, and began Operation Strike of the Sword the next month. In February 2010, the 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade launched the largest offensive of the Afghan Campaign since 2001, the Battle of Marjah, to clear the Taliban from their key stronghold in Helmand Province.Gal Perl Finkel, Back to the ground? {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160817075613weblink |date=17 August 2016 }}, Israel Hayom, 8 November 2015. After Marjah, Marines progressed north up the Helmand River and cleared the towns of Kajahki and Sangin. Marines remained in Helmand Province until 2014.

Iraq Campaign (Operations Iraqi Freedom, New Dawn, Inherent Resolve)

File:Second Battle of Fallujah, mosque firefight and house searches.ogv|thumb|U.S. Marines during the Second Battle of FallujahSecond Battle of FallujahFile:U.S. Marines with 3rd Battalion, 4th Marines.jpg|thumb|3rd Battalion, 4th Marines loading 120mm mortar rounds during Operation Inherent Resolve in Syria, November 2018]]U.S. Marines served in the Iraq War, along with its sister services. The I Marine Expeditionary Force, along with the U.S. Army's 3rd Infantry Division, spearheaded the 2003 invasion of Iraq.BOOK, West, Bing, Bing West, General Ray L. Smith, The March Up: Taking Baghdad with the 1st Marine Division, Bantam Books, September 2003, New York, 17, 0-553-80376-X,weblink The Marines left Iraq in the summer of 2003, but returned in the beginning of 2004. They were given responsibility for the Al Anbar Province, the large desert region to the west of Baghdad. During this occupation, the Marines lead assaults on the city of Fallujah in April (Operation Vigilant Resolve) and November 2004 (Operation Phantom Fury) and saw intense fighting in such places as Ramadi, Al-Qa'im and Hīt.BOOK, West, Bing, Bing West, No True Glory: A Frontline Account of the Battle for Fallujah, Bantam Dell, October 2005, New York, 111–113, 978-0-553-80402-7,weblink Their time in Iraq has courted controversy with the Haditha killings and the Hamdania incident.NEWS, 27 April 2007,weblink Marines face charges in Haditha killings, CNN,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070124204653weblink">weblink 24 January 2007, NEWS, 3 August 2008,weblink 8 Troops Charged in Death of Iraqi, CNN, Josh, White, Sonya, Geis, 22 June 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110428123414weblink">weblink 28 April 2011, live, dmy-all, The Anbar Awakening and 2007 surge reduced levels of violence. The Marine Corps officially ended its role in Iraq on 23 January 2010 when they handed over responsibility for Al Anbar Province to the U.S. Army.NEWS,weblink Are Marines Out of Iraq for Good?, Burns, Robert, 25 January 2010, Associated Press, Military.com, 28 January 2010, U.S. Marines would ultimately return to Iraq in the summer of 2014, in response to growing violence there.WEB,weblink U.S. to Send 275 Marines to Iraq, Won't Rule Out Cooperation With Iran – KTLA, KTLA, 1 April 2015, Throughout the Global War on Terrorism, the U.S. Marines have supported operations in Africa to counter Islamic extremism and piracy in the Red Sea. In late 2002, Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa was stood up at Camp Lemonnier, Djibouti to provide regional security.WEB, 3 August 2008,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080103014254weblink">weblink 3 January 2008, Fact Sheet – CJTF-HOA, Combined Joint Task Force – Horn of Africa, Despite transferring overall command to the Navy in 2006, the Marines continued to operate in the Horn of Africa into 2007.WEB, 3 August 2008,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071210224157weblink">weblink 10 December 2007, USMC.mil – 26th MEU in HOA, United States Marine Corps,

Organization

Department of the Navy

The Department of the Navy, led by the Secretary of the Navy, is a military department of the cabinet-level U.S. Department of Defense that oversees the Marine Corps and the Navy. The most senior Marine officer is the Commandant (unless a Marine officer is the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs or Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs), responsible to the Secretary of the Navy for organizing, recruiting, training, and equipping the Marine Corps so that its forces are ready for deployment under the operational command of the Combatant Commanders. The Marine Corps is organized into four principal subdivisions: Headquarters Marine Corps (HQMC), the Operating Forces, the Supporting Establishment, and the Marine Forces Reserve (MARFORRES or USMCR).

Headquarters Marine Corps (HQMC)

Headquarters Marine Corps consists of the Commandant of the Marine Corps, the Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps, the Director Marine Corps Staff, the several Deputy Commandants, the Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps, and various special staff officers and Marine Corps agency heads that report directly to either the Commandant or Assistant Commandant. HQMC is supported by the Headquarters and Service Battalion, USMC providing administrative, supply, logistics, training, and services support to the Commandant and his staff.

Operating Forces

The Operating Forces are divided into three categories: Marine Corps Forces (MARFOR) assigned to unified combatant commands, viz., the Fleet Marine Forces (FMF), Security Forces guarding high-risk naval installations, and Security Guard detachments at American embassies. Under the "Forces for Unified Commands" memo, in accordance with the Unified Command Plan approved by the President, Marine Corps Forces are assigned to each of the Combatant Commands at the discretion of the Secretary of Defense. Since 1991, the Marine Corps has maintained component headquarters at each of the regional unified combatant commands.BOOK, Marine Corps Operations, United States Marine Corps, 19, Cosimo, Inc, 2007, 978-1-60206-062-3, Marine Corps Forces are divided into Forces Command (MARFORCOM) and Pacific Command (MARFORPAC), each headed by a lieutenant general dual-posted as the commanding general of either FMF Atlantic (FMFLANT) or FMF Pacific (FMFPAC), respectively. MARFORCOM/FMFLANT has operational control of the II Marine Expeditionary Force; MARFORPAC/FMFPAC has operational control of the I Marine Expeditionary Force and III Marine Expeditionary Force.

Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF)

The basic framework for deployable Marine units is the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF), a flexible structure of varying size. A MAGTF integrates a ground combat element (GCE), an aviation combat element (ACE), and a logistics combat element (LCE) under a common command element (CE), capable of operating independently or as part of a larger coalition. The MAGTF structure reflects a strong preference in the Corps towards self-sufficiency and a commitment to combined arms, both essential assets to an expeditionary force. The Marine Corps has a wariness and distrust of reliance on its sister services, and towards joint operations in general.

Supporting Establishment

The Supporting Establishment includes the Combat Development Command, the Logistics Command, the Systems Command, the Recruiting Command, the Installations Command, the Marine Band, and the Marine Drum and Bugle Corps.

Marine Corps bases and stations

The Marine Corps operates many major bases, 14 of which host operating forces, several support and training installations, as well as satellite facilities.JOURNAL, Williams, BGen Willie J., Bases and Stations Are They Relevant?, Marine Corps Gazette, 88, 10, 12–16, Marine Corps Association, October 2004, Marine Corps bases are concentrated around the locations of the Marine Expeditionary Forces, though reserve units are scattered throughout the United States. The principal bases are Camp Pendleton on the West Coast, home to I MEF; Camp Lejeune on the East Coast, home to II MEF; and Camp Butler in Okinawa, Japan, home to III MEF.Other important bases include air stations, recruit depots, logistics bases, and training commands. Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms in California is the Marine Corps's largest base and home to the Corps's most complex, combined-arms, live-fire training. Marine Corps Base Quantico in Virginia is home to Marine Corps Combat Development Command, and nicknamed the "Crossroads of the Marine Corps".WEB,weblink About MCB Quantico, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110428123457weblink">weblink 28 April 2011, WEB, About Marine Corps University, U.S. Marine Corps,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070927174929weblink">weblink 27 September 2007, 27 September 2007, The Marine Corps maintains a significant presence in the National Capital Region, with Headquarters Marine Corps scattered amongst the Pentagon, Henderson Hall, Washington Navy Yard, and Marine Barracks, Washington, D.C. Additionally, Marines operate detachments at many installations owned by other branches, to better share resources, such as specialty schools. Marines are also present at, and operate many, forward bases during expeditionary operations.

Marine Forces Reserve (MARFORRES/USMCR)

Marine Forces Reserve consists of the Force Headquarters Group, 4th Marine Division, 4th Marine Aircraft Wing, and the 4th Marine Logistics Group. The MARFORRES/USMCR is capable of forming a 4th Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) or reinforcing/augmenting active-duty forces.

Special Operations

{{See also|Marine Raider Regiment|United States Marine Corps Special Operations Capable Forces}}File:MARSOC are shooting with M4 at Washoe Coutny Reginal Shooting Facility.jpg|thumb|Marine Raiders conduct CQB training]]Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command (MARSOC) includes: the Marine Raider Regiment, the Marine Raider Support Group, and the Marine Special Operations School. Both the Raider Regiment and the Raider Support Group consist of a headquarters company and three operations battalions. The Special Operations School conducts screening, assessment, selection, training and development functions for MARSOC units.Marine Corps Special Operations Capable forces include: Air Naval Gunfire Liaison Companies, the Chemical Biological Incident Response Force, the Marine Division Reconnaissance Battalions, Force Reconnaissance Companies, Maritime Special Purpose Force, and Special Reaction Teams. Additionally, all deployed Marine Expeditionary Units are certified as "Special Operations Capable", viz. "MEU(SOC)", however Special Operations Capable forces are not considered to be special operations forces.Although the notion of a Marine special operations forces contribution to the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) was considered as early as the founding of USSOCOM in the 1980s, it was resisted by the Marine Corps. Then-Commandant Paul X. Kelley expressed the belief that Marines should only support Marines, and that the Corps should not fund a special operations capability that would not directly support Marine operations.WEB, Smith, Jr., W Thomas, Marines, Navy SEALs Forge New Special Operations Team; An exclusive interview with U.S. Navy SEAL Commander Mark Divine, Military.com, 2005,weblink 3 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081008003921weblink">weblink 8 October 2008, live, dmy-all, However, much of the resistance from within the Corps dissipated when Marine leaders watched the Corps's 15th and 26th MEU(SOC)s "sit on the sidelines" during the very early stages of Operation Enduring Freedom while other special operations units from the Army, Navy, and Air Force actively engaged in operations in Afghanistan. After a three-year development period, the Corps agreed in 2006 to supply a 2,500-strong unit, Marine Forces Special Operations Command, which would answer directly to USSOCOM.NEWS, Graham, Bradley, Elite Marine Unit to Help Fight Terrorism, Force to Be Part of Special Operations, The Washington Post, 2 November 2005,weblink 3 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20081010175717weblink">weblink 10 October 2008, live, dmy-all,

Personnel

{{See also|List of notable United States Marines|List of historically notable United States Marines}}

Leadership

{{Multiple image| align = right| direction = horizontal| width = 125| image1 = Gen. David H. Berger.jpg| width1 = | alt1 = color photograph of Joseph F. Dunford, Jr.David H. Berger>David Berger, Commandant of the Marine Corps| name = Glenn M. Walters| image2 = ACMC 2018 HiRes.jpg| width2 = | alt2 = color photograph of John M. Paxton, Jr.Gary L. Thomas (general)>Gary L. Thomas, Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps| image3 = 19th Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps Troy E. Black.jpg| width3 = | alt3 = color photograph of Troy E. Black| caption3 = Troy E. Black, Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps| total_width = }}The Commandant of the Marine Corps is the highest-ranking officer of the Marine Corps, unless a Marine is either the chairman or Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs. The Commandant has the U.S. Code Title 10 responsibility to staff, train, and equip the Marine Corps and has no command authority. The Commandant is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and reports to the Secretary of the Navy.Estes (1986), p. 60The Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps acts as the chief deputy to the Commandant. The Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps is the senior enlisted Marine, and acts as an adviser to the Commandant. Headquarters Marine Corps comprises the rest of the Commandant's counsel and staff, with deputy Commandants that oversee various aspects of the Corps assets and capabilities.The current and 38th Commandant is David Berger, who assumed the position on 11 July 2019.WEB,weblink Leaders, marines.mil, 11 July 2019, WEB,weblink Dunford Replaces Amos as New Marine Corps Commandant, Military.com, 1 April 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150523000618weblink">weblink 23 May 2015, live, dmy-all, The 35th and current Assistant Commandant is Gary L. Thomas, while the 19th and current Sergeant Major is Troy E. Black

Women

File:Opha Johnson and Katherine Towle in 1946.png|thumb|Opha Johnson (far right) in 1946, with Katherine TowleKatherine Towle(File:First three female Marines graduate Infantry training course 131121-M-JR212-076.jpg|thumb|Two of the first female graduates of the School of Infantry-East's Infantry Training Battalion course, 2013)Women have served in the United States Marine Corps since 1918.WEB, Women Marines Association, 29 July 2017,weblinkweblink 12 July 2017, live, dmy-all, The first woman to have enlisted was Opha May Johnson (4 May 1878 – 11 August 1955). NEWS,weblink Girl Joins Devil Dogs, 14 August 1918, Evening Star, 24 October 2019, WEB,weblink The first woman Marine: In 1918, she couldn't vote but rushed to serve, Dvorak, Petula, 22 September 2017, The Washington Post, live, 24 October 2019, In January 2017, three women joined an infantry battalion at Camp Lejeune, NC. Women had not served as infantry Marines prior to this.NEWS, Tatum, Sophie, Military welcomes first women infantry Marines, CNN, 29 July 2017,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170729132252weblink">weblink 29 July 2017, live, dmy-all, In 2017, the Marines released a recruitment advertisement that focused on women for the first time.WEB, Marines Release First-Ever Ad Spotlighting Woman in Combat Position, NPR, 29 July 2017,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170729093716weblink">weblink 29 July 2017, live, dmy-all, {{As of|2019|October|df=}}, female Marines make up 7.8% of the force.

Rank structure

As in the rest of the United States Armed Forces (excluding the Air Force, which does not currently appoint warrant officers), Marine Corps ranks fall into one of three categories: commissioned officer, warrant officer, and enlisted, in decreasing order of authority. To standardize compensation, each rank is assigned a pay grade.WEB,weblink DoD Defense Insignia, 28 August 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060831150912weblink">weblink 31 August 2006, live, dmy-all,

Commissioned officers

Commissioned officers are distinguished from other officers by their commission, which is the formal written authority, issued in the name of the President of the United States, that confers the rank and authority of a Marine officer. Commissioned officers carry the "special trust and confidence" of the President of the United States. Marine Corps commissioned officers are promoted based on an "up or out" system in accordance with the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act of 1980.{|class=wikitable style="text-align: center;width: 100%;"!Pay Grade||O-1||O-2||O-3||O-4||O-5||O-6||O-7||O-8||O-9||O-10! rowspan=2|Rank Insigniacenteralt=gold vertical bar)centeralt=silver vertical bar)centeralt=two silver vertical bars)centergold oak leaf)centerSilver oak leaf)centerSilver eagle with shield clutching arrows)centerSingle silver star)centerTwo silver stars)centerThree silver stars)centerFour silver stars)style="font-size: 90%;"Second Lieutenant (United States)>Second LieutenantFirst Lieutenant (United States)>First LieutenantCaptain (United States)>CaptainMajor (United States)>MajorLieutenant colonel (United States)>Lieutenant ColonelColonel (United States)>ColonelBrigadier general (United States)>Brigadier GeneralMajor general (United States)>Major GeneralLieutenant general (United States)>Lieutenant GeneralGeneral (United States)>Generalstyle="font-size: 90%;"Abbreviation>|Genstyle="font-size: 90%;"Note: Pin-on insignia for paygrades O-1 and O-2 shown above are depicted by U.S. Army / Air Force insignia; the U.S. Naval Services (Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard) use insignia that do not have beveled edges, as seen in the O-3 insignia.

Warrant officers

{{See also|Warrant officer (United States)}}Warrant officers are primarily former enlisted experts in a specific specialized field and provide leadership generally only within that speciality.{| class=wikitable style="text-align: center;width: 100%;"!Pay Grade||W-1||W-2||W-3||W-4||W-5! rowspan=2|Rank Insignia(File:USMC WO1.svggold bar with two red squares)(File:USMC CWO2.svggold bar with three red squares)(File:USMC CWO3.svgsilver bar with two red squares)(File:USMC CWO4.svgsilver bar with three red squares)(File:USMC CWO5.svgsilver bar with a red line down the long axis)style="font-size: 90%;"Warrant Officer 1Chief Warrant Officer 2Chief Warrant Officer 3Chief Warrant Officer 4Chief Warrant Officer 5style="font-size: 90%;"|CWO5

Enlisted

{{unreferenced section|date=November 2017}}Enlisted Marines in the pay grades E-1 to E-3 make up the bulk of the Corps's ranks, usually referred to simply as "Marines". Although they do not technically hold leadership ranks, the Corps's ethos stresses leadership among all Marines, and junior Marines are often assigned responsibility normally reserved for superiors. Those in the pay grades of E-4 and E-5 are non-commissioned officers (NCOs). They primarily supervise junior Marines and act as a vital link with the higher command structure, ensuring that orders are carried out correctly. Marines E-6 and higher are Staff Non-Commissioned Officers (SNCOs), charged with supervising NCOs and acting as enlisted advisers to the command.The E-8 and E-9 levels have two and three ranks per pay grade, respectively, each with different responsibilities. The First Sergeant and Sergeant Major ranks are command-oriented, serving as the senior enlisted Marines in a unit, charged to assist the commanding officer in matters of discipline, administration and the morale and welfare of the unit. Master Sergeants and Master Gunnery Sergeants provide technical leadership as occupational specialists in their specific MOS. The Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps also E-9, is a billet conferred on the senior enlisted Marine of the entire Marine Corps, personally selected by the Commandant. It is possible however for an enlisted Marine to hold a position senior to Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps which was the case from 2011 to 2015 with the appointment of Sergeant Major Bryan B. Battaglia to the billet of Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman, who is the senior enlisted member of the United States military.Different forms of address can be found at United States Marine Corps rank insignia and List of United States Marine Corps acronyms and expressions.{|class=wikitable style="text-align: center;width: 100%;"!Pay Grade||E-1||E-2||E-3||E-4||E-5||E-6||E-7||colspan=2|E-8||colspan=3|E-9! rowspan=2|Rank InsigniaNo Insignia(File:USMC-E2.svgsingle chevron)(File:USMC-E3.svgsingle chevron with crossed rifles)(File:USMC-E4.svgtwo chevrons with crossed rifles)(File:USMC-E5.svgthree chevrons with crossed rifles)(File:USMC-E6.svgthree chevrons up and one rocker with crossed rifles)(File:USMC-E7.svgthree chevrons up and two rockers with crossed rifles)(File:USMC-E8-MSG.svgthree chevrons up and three rockers with crossed rifles)(File:USMC-E8-1SG.svgthree chevrons up and three rockers with diamond)(File:USMC-E9-MGyS.svgthree chevrons up and four rockers with exploding grenade)(File:USMC-E9-SGM.svgthree chevrons up and four rockers with star)(File:USMC-E9-SGMMC.svgthree chevrons up and four rockers with Eagle, Globe, and Anchor insignia flanked by two stars)style="font-size: 90%;"PrivatePrivate First ClassLance CorporalCorporalSergeantStaff SergeantGunnery SergeantMaster SergeantFirst SergeantMaster Gunnery SergeantSergeant MajorSergeant Major of the Marine Corpsstyle="font-size: 90%;"|SMMC

Military Occupational Specialty

The Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) is a system of job classification. Using a four digit code, it designates what field and specific occupation a Marine performs. Segregated between officer and enlisted, the MOS determines the staffing of a unit. Some MOSs change with rank to reflect supervisory positions, others are secondary and represent a temporary assignment outside of a Marine's normal duties or special skill.(File:Marine-m16.jpg|thumb|Marine recruits on a Squad Rush course)

Initial training

Every year, over 2,000 new Marine officers are commissioned, and 38,000 recruits accepted and trained. All new Marines, enlisted or officer, are recruited by the Marine Corps Recruiting Command.BOOK, Marine: a guided tour of a Marine expeditionary unit, Tom, Clancy, Tom Clancy, 46, Penguin, 1996, 978-0-425-15454-0,weblink Commissioned officers are commissioned mainly through one of three sources: Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC), Officer Candidates School (OCS), or the United States Naval Academy (USNA). Following commissioning, all Marine commissioned officers, regardless of accession route or further training requirements, attend The Basic School (TBS) at Marine Corps Base Quantico, Virginia. At TBS, second lieutenants, warrant officers, and selected foreign officers learn the art of infantry and combined arms warfare.(File:Marine recruits.jpg|thumb|left|Marine recruits at Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego)Enlisted Marines attend recruit training, known as boot camp, at either Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego or Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island. Historically, the Mississippi River served as a dividing line that delineated who would be trained where, while more recently, a district system has ensured a more even distribution of male recruits between the two MCRD facilities. Females attend only the Parris Island depot as part of the segregated Fourth Recruit Training Battalion. All recruits must pass a fitness test to start training; those who fail receive individualized attention and training until the minimum standards are reached. Marine recruit training is the longest among the American military services; it is 13 weeks long including processing and out-processing.BOOK, Recruit Medicine: Textbooks of Military Medicine, Bernard L. DeKoning, 33, Government Printing Office, 2006, 978-0-16-076718-0, The U.S Army basic training is currently 10 weeks long, however this does not include processing and out-processing.Following recruit training, enlisted Marines then attend The School of Infantry at Camp Geiger or Camp Pendleton. Infantry Marines begin their combat training, which varies in length, immediately with the Infantry Training Battalion (ITB). Marines in all other MOSs other than infantry train for 29 days in Marine Combat Training (MCT), learning common infantry skills, before continuing on to their MOS schools, which vary in length.BOOK, Making the Corps: 10th Anniversary Edition with a New Afterword by the Author, Thomas E., Ricks, Thomas E. Ricks (journalist), 239, 10, Simon and Schuster, 2007, 978-1-4165-4450-0,

Uniforms

(File:Marine dress blues.jpg|thumb|upright|Marine in "Dress Blues")The Marine Corps has the most stable and most recognizable uniforms in the American military; the Dress Blues dates back to the early 19th century and the service uniform to the early 20th century. Only a handful of skills (parachutist, air crew, explosive ordnance disposal, etc.) warrant distinguishing badges, and rank insignia is not worn on uniform headgear (with the exception of an officer's garrison service cover). While other servicemembers commonly identify with a sub-group as much as or more than their service (Ranger, submariner, aircrew, etc.), Marine uniforms do not reflect such division.Marines have four main uniforms: Dress, Service, Utility, and Physical Training (PT). These uniforms have a few minor, but very distinct, variations from enlisted personnel to commissioned and non-commissioned officers. The Marine Corps Dress uniform is the most elaborate, worn for formal or ceremonial occasions. There are four different forms of the Dress uniform. The variations of the dress uniforms are known as "Alphas", "Bravos", "Charlies", or "Deltas". The most common being the "Blue Dress Alphas or Bravos", called "Dress Blues" or simply "Blues". It is most often seen in recruiting advertisements and is equivalent to black tie. There is a "Blue-White" Dress for summer, and Evening Dress for formal (white tie) occasions. Versions with a khaki shirt in lieu of the coat (Blue Dress Charlie/Delta) are worn as a daily working uniform by Marine recruiters and NROTC staff.WEB
, Mco p1020.34g
, United States Marine Corps
,weblink
, 27 November 2005
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091008135448weblink">weblink
, 8 October 2009
, dmy-all
, The Service Uniform was once the prescribed daily work attire in garrison; however, it has been largely superseded in this role by the utility uniform. Consisting of olive green and khaki colors, it is commonly referred to as "Greens". It is roughly equivalent in function and composition to a business suit.The Utility Uniform, currently the Marine Corps Combat Utility Uniform, is a camouflage uniform intended for wear in the field or for dirty work in garrison, though it has been standardized for regular duty. It is rendered in MARPAT pixelated camouflage that breaks up the wearer's shape. In garrison, the woodland and desert uniforms are worn depending on the Marine's duty station.ALMAR 007/08 {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20080813032114weblink |date=13 August 2008 }} directing seasonal uniform changes Marines consider the utilities a working uniform and do not permit their wear off-base, except in transit to and from their place of duty and in the event of an emergency.

Culture

As in any military organization, the official and unofficial traditions of the Marine Corps serve to reinforce camaraderie and set the service apart from others. The Corps's embrace of its rich culture and history is cited as a reason for its high esprit de corps.(File:Flags, USMC.png|thumb|left|alt=color artwork of an Eagle, Globe, and Anchor over crossed American and Marine flags|Eagle, Globe and Anchor along with the U.S. flag, the Marine Corps flag and the Commandant's flag)

Official traditions and customs

{{listen|filename=John_Philip_Sousa_-_U.S._Marine_Band_-_Semper_Fidelis_March.ogg|title=Semper Fidelis MarchJohn Philip Sousa's "Semper Fidelis (march)>Semper Fidelis March", the official march of the U.S. Marine Corps. Performed by the U.S. Marine Band in June 1909.}}The Marines' Hymn dates back to the 19th century and is the oldest official song in the United States armed forces. The Marine motto Semper Fidelis means Always Faithful in Latin, often appearing as Semper Fi; also the name of the official march of the Corps, composed by John Philip Sousa. The mottos "Fortitudine" (With Fortitude); By Sea and by Land, a translation of the Royal Marines' Per Mare, Per Terram; and To the Shores of Tripoli were used until 1868.WEB
, USMC Customs and Traditions
, History Division, U.S. Marine Corps
,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070304212218weblink">weblink
, 4 March 2007
, The Marine Corps emblem is the Eagle, Globe, and Anchor, sometimes abbreviated "EGA", adopted in 1868.WEB
, U.S. Marine Corps Emblem
, U.S. Marine Corps
,weblink
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080107114803weblink">weblink
, 7 January 2008
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, The Marine Corps seal includes the emblem, also is found on the flag of the United States Marine Corps, and establishes scarlet and gold as the official colors.WEB
, 11 October 2008
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, Marine Corps Emblem and Seal
, Customs and Traditions
, Reference Branch, History Division, United States Marine Corps
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070219202302weblink">weblink
, 19 February 2007
, dmy-all
, Two styles of swords are worn by Marines: the officers' Mameluke Sword, similar to the Persian shamshir presented to Lt. Presley O'Bannon after the Battle of Derna, and the Marine NCO sword. The Marine Corps Birthday is celebrated every year on 10 November in a cake-cutting ceremony where the first slice of cake is given to the oldest Marine present, who in turn hands it off to the youngest Marine present. The celebration includes a reading of Commandant Lejeune's Birthday Message.WEB,weblink Marine Corps Birthday Celebration, USMC History Division, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070806095953weblink">weblink 6 August 2007, dmy-all, Close Order Drill is heavily emphasized early on in a Marine's initial training, incorporated into most formal events, and is used to teach discipline by instilling habits of precision and automatic response to orders, increase the confidence of junior officers and noncommissioned officers through the exercise of command and give Marines an opportunity to handle individual weapons.WEB
, Drill a Platoon Sized Unit
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, Marine Corps University
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,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070710044843weblink">weblink
, 10 July 2007
, dead
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, An important part of the Marine Corps culture is the traditional seafaring naval terminology derived from its history with the Navy. Marines are not "soldiers", or "sailors".NEWS, Don't call a Marine a soldier or sailor,weblink 26 May 2017, The News-Times, 25 September 2005, Danbury, CT,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170525180208weblink">weblink 25 May 2017, live, dmy-all,

Unofficial traditions and customs

(File:Teufel Hunden US Marines recruiting poster.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=cartoon of a bulldog wearing a Marine helmet chasing a dachshund wearing a German helmet, the poster reads "Teufelhunden: German nickname for U.S. Marines. Devil Dog recruiting station, 628 South State Street"|A recruiting poster makes use of the "Teufel Hunden" nickname)Marines have several generic nicknames:
  • Devil Dog German soldiers during the First World War said that at Belleau Wood the Marines were so vicious that the German infantrymen called them Teufel-Hunden – 'devil dogs'.BOOK, U.S. Marine Guidebook, 37, United states Marine Corps, 2010, Marine Corps History, Customs, and Courtesies, 978-1-60239-941-9, Marines fought like teufel hunden, legendary wild, devil dogs that at one time roamed the forests of northern Germany, BOOK, Walking Point: American Narratives of Vietnam,weblink registration, Myers, Thomas, 114, Oxford University Press, USA, 1988, Hearts of Darkness, 978-0-19-505351-7, He reminds his charges that "at Belleau Wood the Marines were so vicious that the German infantrymen called them Teufel-Hunden – 'devil dogs', BOOK, To Lead by the Unknowing, to Do the Unthinkable, 5, Michael, Waseleski, 2009, the 5th and 6th Marine Regiments earned the nickname of "Teufel Hunden" (devil dog) by the Germans in World War I during the 1918 Château-Thierry campaign near the French village of Bouresches, the Battle of Belleau Wood, 978-1-4389-5676-3, AuthorHouse, WEB,weblink 6th Marine Regiment > Units > 1st Battalion > History, www.6thmarines.marines.mil, 2019-05-20,
  • Gyrene commonly used between fellow Marines.BOOK, FUBAR Fed Up Beyond All Recognition: Soldier Slang of World War II, Rottman, Gordon, 49, Osprey Publishing, 2011, GI and Gyrene Jargon US Army and Marine Corps Slang, 978-1-84908-653-0, based on Chinese pronunciation of Marine,
  • Leatherneck refers to a leather collar formerly part of the Marine uniform during the Revolutionary War period.BOOK, U.S. Marine Guidebook, 37, United states Marine Corps, 2010, Marine Corps History, Customs, and Courtesies, 978-1-60239-941-9, In 1804 the Secretary of the Navy ordered Marines to wear black leather stock collars when on duty,
  • Jarhead has several oft-disputed explanations.BOOK, FUBAR Fed Up Beyond All Recognition: Soldier Slang of World War II, Rottman, Gordon, 51, Osprey Publishing, 2011, GI and Gyrene Jargon US Army and Marine Corps Slang, 978-1-84908-653-0, Most likely it was the pillbox cap and high stiff collar making a Marine appear similar to a Mason jar,
Some other unofficial traditions include mottos and exclamations:
  • Oorah is common among Marines, being similar in function and purpose to the Army and Air Force's hooah and the Navy's hooyah cries. Many possible etymologies have been offered for the term.WEB


, Hiresman III
, LCpl. Paul W
, The meaning of 'Oorah' traced back to its roots
, Marine Corps News
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  • Semper Fi is a common greeting among serving and veteran Marines. It is short for the Marine Corps Motto "Semper Fidelis", which in Latin means "Always Faithful".
  • Improvise, Adapt and Overcome has become an adopted mantra in many units.BOOK, The Marine Corps Way: Using Maneuver Warfare to Lead a Winning Organization, Santamaria, Jason A., Vincent Martino, Eric K. Clemons, 149, McGraw-Hill Professional, 2005, 978-0-07-145883-2, Long before Hollywood popularized it, Marines used the phrase to reflect their preference for being a fluid, loosely reined force that could spontaneously react to rapidly changing situations, rather than a rigid outfit that moved in a specific direction with a precise plan.,

Veteran Marines

The Corps encourages the idea that "Marine" is an earned title and most Marine Corps personnel take to heart the phrase "Once a Marine, Always a Marine". They reject the term "ex-Marine" in most circumstances. There are no regulations concerning the address of persons who have left active service, so a number of customary terms have come into common use:
  • "Marine" is acceptable and considered complimentary by most Corps personnel.
  • An honorably discharged Marine is a "Marine". The title "Marine Corps Veteran" is also acceptable. There are no honorably discharged "Former" or "Ex" Marines.
  • "Retired Marine" is generally reserved for those who have completed 20 or more years of service are called "Lifers" and formally retired or those who have been medically retired.
  • According to one of the "Commandant's White letters" from Commandant Alfred M. Gray, Jr., referring to a Marine by their last earned rank is appropriate.BOOK, Freedman, David H., Corps Business: The 30 Management Principles of the U.S. Marines, Collins, 2000, New York,

Martial arts program

(File:Marine martial arts.jpg|thumb|Marine training in martial arts)In 2001, the Marine Corps initiated an internally designed martial arts program, called Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP). Due to an expectation that urban and police-type peacekeeping missions would become more common in the 21st century, placing Marines in even closer contact with unarmed civilians, MCMAP was implemented to provide Marines with a larger and more versatile set of less-than-lethal options for controlling hostile, but unarmed individuals. It is a stated aim of the program to instill and maintain the "Warrior Ethos" within Marines.Yi, Capt. Jamison, USMC. "MCMAP and the Warrior Ethos", Military Review, November–December 2004. The Marine Corps Martial Arts program is an eclectic mix of different styles of martial arts melded together. MCMAP consists of punches and kicks from Taekwondo and Karate, opponent weight transfer from Jujitsu, ground grappling involving joint locking techniques and chokes from Brazilian jiu-jitsu, and a mix of knife and baton/stick fighting derived from Eskrima, and elbow strikes and kick boxing from Muay Thai. Marines begin MCMAP training in boot camp, where they will earn the first of five available belts.JOURNAL, The Few and the Proud: A Tradition of Excellence Fuels the US Marine Corps Martial Arts Program, Loren, Franck, Black Belt, 2003, 70, 41, 7,

Equipment

As of 2013, the typical infantry rifleman carries $14,000 worth of gear (excluding night-vision goggles), compared to $2,500 a decade earlier. The number of pieces of equipment (everything from radios to trucks) in a typical infantry battalion has also increased, from 3,400 pieces of gear in 2001 to 8,500 in 2013.Corps to Industry: Prepare for the Worst {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130928004549weblink |date=28 September 2013 }} – DoDBuzz.com, 26 September 2013

Infantry weapons

File:FORECON CQB trng -001-.jpg|thumb|Marines firing the MEU(SOC) pistol while garrisongarrisonThe basic infantry weapon of the Marine Corps is the M4 Carbine, with a majority of non-infantry Marines equipped with the M16A4 service rifle. The M4 carbineWEB, Top Marine Glad to Have M16A4 Standard, Kit Up!, Military.com,weblink 25 March 2010, 27 April 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100328044510weblink">weblink 28 March 2010, live, dmy-all, and Colt 9mm SMGWEB,weblink NAVMC DIRECTIVE 3500.90: MARINE CORPS SECURITY GUARD BATTALION TRAINING AND READINESS MANUAL, (SHORT TITLE: MSGBN T&R MANUAL), Headquarters Marine Corps, 4 April 2006,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090110131959weblink">weblink 10 January 2009, 11 June 2014, have also been issued. The standard side arm is the M9A1 pistol. The Colt M1911A1 is also being put back into service as the M45A1 Close Quarter Battle Pistol (CQBP) in small numbers. Suppressive fire is provided by the M27 IAR, M249 SAW, and M240 machine guns, at the squad and company levels respectively. In addition, indirect fire is provided by the M203 grenade launcher and the M32 grenade launcher in fireteams, M224 60 mm mortar in companies, and M252 81 mm mortar in battalions. The M2 .50 caliber heavy machine gun and MK19 automatic grenade launcher (40 mm) are available for use by dismounted infantry, though they are more commonly vehicle-mounted. Precision firepower is provided by the M40 series, and the Barrett M107, while designated marksmen use the DMR (being replaced by the M39 EMR), and the SAM-R.WEB, M40A1 Sniper Rifle, USMC Fact File, U.S. Marine corps,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070225004953weblink">weblink 25 February 2007, File:AAV-australia.jpg|thumb|Marine Amphibious Assault VehicleAmphibious Assault VehicleThe Marine Corps utilizes a variety of direct-fire rockets and missiles to provide infantry with an offensive and defensive anti-armor capability. The SMAW and AT4 are unguided rockets that can destroy armor and fixed defenses (e.g., bunkers) at ranges up to 500 meters. The smaller and lighter M72 LAW can destroy targets at ranges up to 200 meters.John Antal "Packing a Punch: America's Man-Portable Antitank Weapons" page 88 Military Technology 3/2010 {{ISSN|0722-3226}}WEB,weblink Light Assault Weapon (LAW), FBO.gov, 20 January 2012,weblink 14 February 2012, live, dmy-all, The Predator SRAW, FGM-148 Javelin and BGM-71 TOW are anti-tank guided missiles. The Javelin can utilize top-attack profiles to avoid heavy frontal armor. The Predator is a short-range fire-and-forget weapon; the Javelin and TOW are heavier missiles effective past 2,000 meters that give infantry an offensive capability against armor.WEB, Tube Launched, Optically Tracked, Wire Guided (TOW) Missile Weapon System, USMC Fact File, U.S. Marine Corps,weblink
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070211021126weblink">weblink
, 11 February 2007,
The USMC is currently seeking to purchase commercial off-the-shelf bullet-trap or shoot-through rifle-grenades.13-Ammunition and Explosives – M6785412I1003 (Archived) – Federal Business Opportunities: Opportunities {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130116102636weblink |date=16 January 2013 }}. Fbo.gov (9 November 2011). These grenades will provide individual Marines additional firepower and will allow indirect fire against targets in defilade, behind walls and buildings or rooftops and elevated positions at ranges between 30 and 150 meters.

Ground vehicles

File:M1 strategic mobility.jpg|thumb|left|A Marine M1 Abrams tank offloading from a Landing Craft Air CushionedLanding Craft Air CushionedThe Corps operates the same HMMWV and M1A1 Abrams tank as does the Army. However, for its specific needs, the Corps uses a number of unique vehicles. The LAV-25 is a dedicated wheeled armored personnel carrier, similar to the Army's Stryker vehicle, used to provide strategic mobility.WEB, Light Armored Vehicle-25 (LAV-25), USMC Fact File, U.S. Marine Corps,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20030428184054weblink">weblink 28 April 2003, Amphibious capability is provided by the AAV-7A1 Assault Amphibious Vehicle, an armored tracked vehicle that doubles as an armored personnel carrier, due to be replaced by the Amphibious Combat Vehicle, a faster vehicle with superior armor and weaponry. The threat of land mines and improvised explosive devices in Iraq and Afghanistan has seen the Corps begin purchasing heavy armored vehicles that can better withstand the effects of these weapons as part of the Mine Resistant Ambush Protected vehicle program.WEB
, U.S. Marine Corps Orders More Force Protection Vehicles
, Force Protection, Inc. – In the News
, Force Protection, Inc.
, August 2006
,weblink
, 3 January 2007
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090503120706weblink">weblink
, 3 May 2009
, dmy-all
, The Marine Corps has ordered 1,960 MRAP vehicles, hoping to use them to replace HMMWVs and some Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacements on patrols in Iraq.JOURNAL
, Andrew Feickert
, Mine-Resistant, Ambush-Protected (MRAP) Vehicles: Background and Issues for Congress
,
, United States Congress
, 21 August 2007
,weblink
,
, 25 June 2017
,weblink
, 27 June 2017
, live
, dmy-all
,
The Logistics Vehicle System Replacement began replacing the Logistics Vehicle System in 2009.WEB,weblink First LVSR truck arrives in Afghanistan, Lamothe, Dan, 22 October 2009, Marine Corps Times, 23 October 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110428155003weblink">weblink 28 April 2011,
Prior to 2005, the Marines operated exclusively tube artillery – the M198 155 mm howitzer, being replaced by the M777 155 mm howitzer. However, the Marine Corps has expanded its artillery composition to include the High Mobility Artillery Rocket System (HIMARS), a truck-mounted rocket artillery system. Both are capable of firing guided munitions.JOURNAL
, Lewis
, Maj. J Christopher
, The Future Artillery Force...Today
, Marine Corps Gazette
, July 2006
, 24–25
, Marine Corps Association
, July 2006
,

Aircraft

File:Aircraft.osprey.678pix.jpg|thumb|alt=color photo of four parachutists jumping from the open ramp of an MV-22 Osprey in flight|Marine parachutists jumping from an MV-22 Osprey at 10,000 feet]]{{See also|List of active United States military aircraft}}The organic aviation capability of the Marine Corps is essential to its amphibious mission. The Corps operates both rotary-wing and fixed-wing aircraft mainly to provide Assault Support and close air support to its ground forces. However, other aircraft types are also used in a variety of support and special-purpose roles.The light transport and attack capabilities are provided by the Bell UH-1Y Venom and Bell AH-1 SuperCobra, which is being replaced by the Bell AH-1Z Viper.WEB,weblink AH-1W Super Cobra Helicopter, USMC Fact File, U.S. Marine Corps, 3 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070205090648weblink">weblink 5 February 2007, Medium-lift squadrons flying the CH-46E Sea Knight and CH-53D Sea Stallion helicopters are converting to the MV-22 Osprey tiltrotor with superior range and speed. Heavy-lift squadrons are equipped with the CH-53E Super Stallion helicopter, eventually to be replaced with the upgraded CH-53K.WEB, Marine Corps Rotary Wing, Federation of American Scientists,weblink 29 October 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151105060424weblink">weblink 5 November 2015, live, dmy-all, File:AH-1Z lands on USS Makin Island LHD-8.jpg|thumb|left|A U.S. Marine AH-1Z ViperAH-1Z ViperMarine attack squadrons fly the AV-8B Harrier II; while the fighter/attack mission is handled by the single-seat and dual-seat versions of the F/A-18 Hornet strike-fighter aircraft. The AV-8B is a V/STOL aircraft that can operate from amphibious assault ships, land air bases and short, expeditionary airfields, while the F/A-18 can only be flown from land or aircraft carriers. Both are slated to be replaced by 340 of the STOVL B version of the F-35 Lightning IIWEB, F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Program, United States Department of Defense, Department of Defense,weblink 3 August 2008,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071027111123weblink">weblink 27 October 2007, live, dmy-all, and 80 of the carrier F-35C versions for deployment with Navy carrier air wings.WEB, Daniel, Lisa,weblink Plan Improves Navy, Marine Corps Air Capabilities, American Forces Press Service, United States Department of Defense, 14 March 2011, 23 March 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110529052624weblink">weblink 29 May 2011, WEB,weblink More Marines to fly carrier-variant JSFs, Cavas, Christopher P., 14 March 2011, Marine Corps Times, 23 March 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110428154152weblink">weblink 28 April 2011, WEB,weblink Marine Corps continues flying with Joint Strike Fighter program, Michael S., Cifuentes, Headquarters Marine Corps, 14 March 2011, 11 June 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130301031003weblink">weblink 1 March 2013, WEB,weblink U.S. Marine Corps Received Its First F-35C Lightning II Carrier Variant, 29 January 2015, 4 February 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150204044303weblink">weblink 4 February 2015, live, dmy-all, File:US Navy 111003-N-ZZ999-002 An F-35B Lightning II makes the first vertical landing on a flight deck at sea aboard the amphibious assault ship USS W.jpg|thumb|right|Marine Corps F-35B, the vertical-landing version of the F-35 Lightning II multirole fightermultirole fighterIn addition, the Corps operates its own organic aerial refueling and electronic warfare (EW) assets in the form of the KC-130 Hercules and EA-6B Prowler, respectively, however it also receives a large amount of support from the U.S. Air Force. The Hercules doubles as a ground refueler and tactical-airlift transport aircraft. The Prowler is one of the only two active tactical electronic warfare aircraft left in the United States inventory, and has been labeled a "national asset"; it is used along with the Navy's EA-18G Growlers to assist in any American combat action since the retirement of the Air Force's tactical EW aircraft.WEB, EA-6B Prowler, USMC Fact File, U.S. Marine corps,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20061023105631weblink">weblink 23 October 2006, 3 August 2008, The Marine Corps plans to retire the Prowlers by September 2016 and after that time EW capability will come from Marine Air-Ground Task Force Electronic Warfare, which is a strategy where every platform contributes and functions as a sensor, shooter and sharer.Prowler "Final Four" perform division flight {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160304102014weblink |date=4 March 2016 }} Marine Corps, 2 March 2016The Marines operate unmanned aerial vehicles: the RQ-7 Shadow and Scan Eagle for tactical reconnaissance.WEB, Talton, Trista, U.S. Marines' Shadow UAV Sees First Combat, Defensenews.com,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20120731190354weblink">weblink dead, 31 July 2012, 3 August 2008, WEB, Scully, Megan, Army assumes Navy, Marine UAV training, Seapower,weblink 6 December 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080402011319weblink">weblink 2 April 2008, live, dmy-all, Marine Fighter Training Squadron 401 (VMFT-401), operates F-5E, F-5F and F-5N Tiger II aircraft in support of air combat adversary (aggressor) training. Marine Helicopter Squadron One (HMX-1) operates the VH-3D Sea King and VH-60N Whitehawk helicopters in the VIP transport role, most notably Marine One, but are due to be replaced. A single Marine Corps C-130 Hercules aircraft, "Fat Albert", is used to support the U.S. Navy's flight demonstration team, the "Blue Angels".In April 2016 it was reported that the vast majority of USMC aircraft were not capable of flight. Official statistics confirm that, of 276 F/A-18 Hornet strike fighters in the Marine Corps inventory, only about 30% are ready to fly; and only 42 of 147 heavy-lift CH-53E Super Stallion helicopters are airworthy. Average monthly flight time per pilot has dropped from an average of between 25 and 30 hours in 2006 to just over 4 hours in 2016.WEB,weblink Budget Cuts Leaving Marine Corps Aircraft Grounded, 15 April 2016, Military.com, 16 April 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160417194940weblink">weblink 17 April 2016, live, dmy-all,

Relationship with other services

In general, the Marine Corps shares many resources with the other branches of the United States Armed Forces. However, the Corps has consistently sought to maintain its own identity with regard to mission, funding, and assets, while utilizing support available from the larger branches. While the Marine Corps has far fewer installations both in the U.S. and worldwide than the other branches, many Army posts, Naval stations, and Air Force bases have a Marine presence. They also cross train with other countries.

United States Navy

{{more citations needed|section|date=November 2017}}File:USS Bonhomme Richard (LHD-6) welldeck.jpg|thumb|alt=color photo of swimming AAVs approaching the well deck of an amphibious assault ship|Assault Amphibious Vehicles approach the Bonhomme Richard|LHD-6|6}}The Marine Corps's counterpart under the Department of the Navy is the United States Navy. As a result, the Navy and Marine Corps have a close relationship, more so than with other branches of the military. Whitepapers and promotional literature have commonly used the phrase "Navy-Marine Corps Team",JOURNAL
, Clark
, Adm. Vern
, Vern Clark
, Sea Power 21
, Proceedings
, 130
, October 2002
, 3005
, Naval Institute Press
, October 2002
,weblink
, 10.1090/S0002-9939-02-06392-X
, 28 July 2006
, Hinton
, Don
weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070303223546weblink">weblink >archivedate= 3 March 2007, VIDEO
, Lt. Col. James Kuhn
, Enduring Freedom
, Film
, Department of the Navy
,weblink
, 2 November 2005
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060724224601weblink">weblink
, 24 July 2006
, dmy-all
, or refer to "the Naval Service". Both the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) and Commandant of the Marine Corps report directly to the Secretary of the Navy.Operationally, the Marine Corps provides the Fleet Marine Forces for service with the Navy's fleets, including the forward-deployed Marine Expeditionary Units embarked aboard Navy amphibious warships. The Corps also contributes some Marine Aviation fixed-wing fighter/attack assets (aircraft squadrons and related aircraft maintenance augmentation units) as part of the Carrier Air Wings deployed aboard aircraft carriers. The Marine Corps Security Force Regiment provides infantry-based security battalions and Fleet Anti-terrorism Security Team companies to guard and defend high-priority and overseas Navy bases. Security for the Presidential Retreat located aboard the Naval Support Activity Thurmont, viz., Camp David is provided by the Marine infantry battalion stationed as part of the garrison aboard Marine Barracks Washington.Cooperation between the two services includes the training and instruction of some future Marine Corps officers (most are trained and commissioned through Marine Corps OCS), all Marine Corps Naval Aviators (aircraft pilots) and Naval Flight Officers (airborne weapons and sensor system officers), and some Navy and Marine Corps enlisted personnel. The Corps receives a significant portion of its officers from the United States Naval Academy (USNA) and Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps (NROTC). USNA and NROTC staff and faculty includes Marine Corps instructors. Marine Corps aviators and flight officers are trained in the Naval Air Training Command (NATRACOM) and are designated, or winged as Naval Aviators or Naval Flight Officers. The Marine Corps provides flight instructors to the Naval Air Training Command as well as drill instructors to the Navy's Officer Candidate School. Many enlisted Marines, particularly those in the aviation maintenance specialties, are trained at Navy technical training centers. The Marine Corps also provides ground combat training support to various Navy field medical (Hospital Corpsmen), Naval Construction Force (Seabee), and Navy Expeditionary Warfare personnel, units, and commands.(File:100419M3599F027.JPG|thumb|left|alt=A Marine (left) and a sailor (right) both dressed in combat gear, fire at a target on a desert weapons range|A Marine and sailor train with rifles in Iraq)Training alongside each other is viewed as critical, as the Navy provides transport, logistical, and combat support to put Marine units into the fight, such as maritime prepositioning ships and naval gunfire support. Most Marine aviation assets ultimately derive from the Navy, with regard to acquisition, funding, and testing, and Navy aircraft carriers typically deploy with a Marine squadron alongside Navy squadrons. Marines do not recruit or train noncombatants such as chaplains or medical/dental personnel; naval personnel fill these roles. Some of these sailors, particularly Hospital Corpsmen and Religious Programs Specialists, generally wear Marine uniforms emblazoned with Navy insignia. Conversely, the Marine Corps is responsible for conducting land operations to support naval campaigns, including the seizure of naval bases. Both services operate a network security team in conjunction.Marines and sailors share many naval traditions, especially terminology and customs. Marine Corps Medal of Honor recipients wear the Navy variant of this and other awards; and with few exceptions, the awards and badges of the Navy and Marine Corps are identical. Much of testing for new Marine Corps aircraft is done at NAS Patuxent River. The Navy's Blue Angels flight demonstration team is staffed by both Navy and Marine officers and enlisted men, and includes a Marine C-130 Hercules aircraft.In 2007, the Marine Corps joined with the Navy and Coast Guard to adopt a new maritime strategy called A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower that raises the notion of prevention of war to the same philosophical level as the conduct of war.WEB,weblink Sea Services Unveil New Maritime Strategy, Navy News Service, 17 October 2007, 3 August 2008, Jim Garamone,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090305040311weblink">weblink 5 March 2009, live, dmy-all, This new strategy charts a course for the Navy, Coast Guard and Marine Corps to work collectively with each other and international partners to prevent regional crises, man-made or natural, from occurring or reacting quickly should one occur to avoid negative impacts to the United States.The Marines have reduced the requirement for large amphibious ships from 42 to a bare minimum of 33 ships; the fleet currently stands at 29 ships and is likely to shrink in the future.Erwin, Sandra. "Marines Worry About Future Shortage of Navy Ships." {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110523023904weblink |date=23 May 2011 }} National Defense Magazine, 19 April 2011.

United States Army

File:CSA-2006-01-12-095303 M249SAW.jpg|thumb|A soldier from the 1st Infantry Regiment provides security for a joint Army-Marine patrol in Rawa in 2006. The shoulder sleeve insignia has the logo of the 2nd Marine Division.]]The Marine Corps combat capabilities overlap with those of the United States Army, the latter having historically viewed the Corps as encroaching on the Army's capabilities and competing for funding, missions, and renown. The attitude dates back to the founding of the Continental Marines, when General George Washington refused to allow the initial Marine battalions to be drawn from among his Continental Army. Most significantly, in the aftermath of World War II, Army efforts to restructure the American defense establishment included the dissolution of the Corps and the folding of its capabilities into the other services. Leading this movement were such prominent Army officers as General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Army Chief of Staff George C. Marshall. Nonetheless- during the Korean War, the Marines received the admiration of such Army officers as General Douglas MacArthur, and Major General Frank E. Lowe. weblink More recently, with most of the 2000s spent in operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, Secretary of Defense Robert Gates voiced concerns that the Marines are becoming a "second Army".WEB, Kevin Baron, Gates: Time has come to re-examine future of Marine Corps, 12 August 2010,weblink 20 September 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100916071214weblink">weblink 16 September 2010, live, dmy-all, Doctrinally, the Marine Corps's focus is on being expeditionary and independent, and places emphasis on amphibious mobility and combined arms; these make it a much lighter force than many units of the Army. However, the Army maintains much larger and diverse combat arms (infantry, armor, artillery, special operations), ground transport, and logistics, while the Marines have a more diverse aviation arm (which constitutes a larger percentage of forces), and is usually organic to the MAGTF. Marines operate as expeditionary units and are completely amphibious. The Marine Corps focus is on standardized infantry units with the other arms in support roles, as the "Every Marine a rifleman" creed shows. This commitment to standardized units can be seen in the short-lived experiment of the Marine Raiders. Widely known as the first American special operations unit, created during World War II (February 1941WEB, Fred Pushies, Marine Corps Special Operations: A Brief History, 3 December 2012,weblink 8 March 2018,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180308165220weblink">weblink 8 March 2018, live, dmy-all, ), was seen as controversial, due to the thought of ‘an elite unit, within an elite unit’ was not in the Marine Corps interest.BOOK, Rottman, Gordon L. Rottman, US Special Warfare Units in the Pacific Theater 1941–45: Scouts, Raiders, Rangers and Reconnaissance Units, Raider Units, Osprey Publishing, 2006, While the U.S. Army's 75th Ranger Regiment, also created in World War II (December 1941), enjoys high prestige to this day due to its continuous service. The Marine Corps, by the insistence of then Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld,WEB, Bradley Graham, Elite Marine Unit to Help Fight Terrorism, 3 November 2005,weblink 17 September 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170525191505weblink">weblink 25 May 2017, live, dmy-all, were to create the present day successors to the Marine Raiders and join them to Special Operations Command starting with the establishment of MCSOCOM Detachment One in 2003.JOURNAL, Priddy, Maj. Wade, Marine Detachment 1: Opening the door for a Marine force contribution to USSOCom, Marine Corps Gazette, 90, 6, 58–59, Marine Corps Association, 2006, The Marines often leverage the Army's acquisition of ground equipment (as well as benefiting from Army research and development resources), training resources, and other support concepts. The majority of vehicles and weapons are shared with, modified, or inherited from Army programs.{{Citation needed|reason=Reliable source needed for the whole sentence|date=June 2017}}Culturally, Marines and soldiers share most of the common U.S. military slang and terminology, but the Corps utilizes a large number of naval terms and traditions incompatible with army lifestyle, as well as their own unique vernacular. Many Marines regard their culture to have a deep warrior tradition, with the ethos that "Every Marine a rifleman" and emphasis on cross-training and combat readiness despite actual military occupation, be it infantry or otherwise. Doctrinally, Marines tend to decentralize and push leadership to lower ranks, while fostering initiative to a greater degree.JOURNAL, Connable, Maj Ben, 2008, Culture Warriors: Marine Corps Organizational Culture and Adaptation to Cultural Terrain, Small Wars Journal, Small Wars Foundation,weblink dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100207050351weblink">weblink 7 February 2010, dmy-all,

United States Air Force

File:C-5 CH-46.jpg|thumb|upright|alt=color photo of Marines pushing carted equipment from the open bay of a large cargo jet|Marines unload CH-46 Sea Knight helicopters from an Air Force C-5 GalaxyC-5 GalaxyWhile some of Marine Corps Aviation assets ultimately derive from the Navy, a large amount of support is drawn from the United States Air Force. The Marine Corps makes extensive use of the USAF Air Mobility Command to airlift Marines and equipment, along with utilizing close air support from the Air Force. The Air Force may also attach TACP units to conventional marine ground forces to provide coordination for close air support.WEB,weblink U.S. Air Force – Career Detail – Tactical Air Control Party Specialist (TACP), airforce.com, 21 August 2017,weblink 22 August 2017, live, dmy-all, The Air Force traditionally provides the Joint Force Air Component Commander who controls "sorties for air defense, and long range interdiction and reconnaissance" while the MAGTF commander retains control of the Marines' organic aviation assets, however Marine Aviation missions not directly in the support of the MAGTF will be typically controlled by the JFACC.WEB,weblink Purpose of JFACC (archived), 28 January 2010, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20051119110547weblink">weblink 19 November 2005, . U.S. Air ForceBOOK, Expeditionary Operations (Marine Corps Doctrinal Publication 3), United States Marine Corps, 83, Willside Press LLC, 2005, 978-1-55742-371-9, WEB,weblink Archived copy, 18 December 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141222114848weblink">weblink 22 December 2014,

United States Coast Guard

The Marine Corps shares a sphere of operation with units of the United States Coast Guard, including operation of the Joint Maritime Training Center (JMTC) (previously known as the Special Missions Training Center (SMTC)), a joint Coast Guard, Navy, and Marine Corps training facility located on the Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune in Camp Lejeune, North Carolina.

Budget

According to the Department of the Navy (from where the Marine Corps receives its funding), for FY 2019, the Marine Corps received $43.2B in funding.WEB,weblink Highlights of the Department of the Navy FY 2019 Budget, 23 May 2017, live, 5 November 2018,weblink 12 April 2019, dmy-all, {| class="wikitable"|+Appropriation Summary – United States Marine Corps (in millions of dollarsweblink figure 1.6!Area!FY2018!FY2019|Military Personnel|13,197|13,888|Reserve Personnel|763|785|Medicare-Eligible Retiree Health Fund Contribution|903|831|Medicare-Eligible Retiree Health Fund Contribution, Reserves|81|74|Operation and Maintenance|8,118|7,843|Operation and Maintenance, Reserve|287|275|Procurement|2,019|2,858|Procurement of Ammunition, Navy/Marine Corps|1,038*|1,182*|Military Construction, Navy and Marine Corps|1,993*|2,593*|Total Appropriated|28,399|30,329
  • not exact due to certain fields being combined with Navy Expenditures
In 2013, the USMC became the first American military branch to ever have a fully audited annual budget.WEB,weblink Corps Becomes First Service to Pass Audit, Sisk, Richard, 7 February 2014, dodbuzz.com, Military Advantage, A Monster Company., 7 February 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140207164754weblink">weblink 7 February 2014, live, dmy-all,

See also

Notes

{{NoteFoot}}

References

Citations

{{Reflist}}

Sources

  • {{Marine Corps}}

Further reading

  • BOOK


, Foster
, Douglas
, Braving the Fear: The True Story of Rowdy US Marines in the Gulf War
, PublishAmerica
, 2006
, Frederick, Maryland
,weblink
, 1-4137-9902-7
, 12 May 2017
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180420134128weblink">weblink
, 20 April 2018
, dead
, dmy-all
,
  • BOOK


, Martinez
, Marco
, Hard Corps: From Gangster to Marine Hero
, Crown Forum
, 2007
, New York
, 978-0-307-38304-4
,
  • BOOK


, Ricks
, Thomas E.
, Making the Corps
,weblink
, registration
, Scribner
, 1997
, New York
, 1-4165-4450-X
, ,

External links

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