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{{short description|Republic in East Africa}}{{other uses}}{{pp-vandalism|small=yes}}{{Update|date=November 2018}}{{EngvarB|date=March 2015}}{{Use dmy dates|date=November 2016}}{{Coord|1|N|38|E|display=title}}

|image_flag = Flag of Kenya.svg|image_coat = Coat of arms of Kenya (Official).svgHarambee" (Swahili){{small>"Let us all pull together"}}Ee Mungu Nguvu Yetu"()(File:National anthem of Kenya, performed by the United States Navy Band.wav)|image_map = Location Kenya AU Africa.svgcountryprefix=region=the African Union|region_color=light blue}}|image_map2 = Kenya - Location Map (2013) - KEN - UNOCHA.svg|capital = Nairobi1S48type:city}}|largest_city = Nairobi English language>SwahiliConstitution (2009) Art. 7 [National, official and other languages] "(1) The national language of the Republic is Swahili. (2) The official languages of the Republic are Swahili and English. (3) The State shall–-–- (a) promote and protect the diversity of language of the people of Kenya; and (b) promote the development and use of indigenous languages, Kenyan Sign language, Braille and other communication formats and technologies accessible to persons with disabilities."}}|languages_type = National languageSwahili language>Swahili|ethnic_groups =
{{unbulleted list
| 22% Kikuyu
| 14% Luhya
| 13% Luo
| 12% Kalenjin
| 11% Kamba
| 6% Kisii
| 6% Meru
| 15% other African
| 1% non-African
}}|ethnic_groups_year = 2018
Demographics of Kenya>KenyanUnitary state>Unitary Presidential system Constitution of Kenya>constitutional republicPresident of Kenya>President|leader_name1 = Uhuru KenyattaDeputy President of Kenya>Deputy President|leader_name2 = William RutoSenate of Kenya>Speaker of the Senate|leader_name3 = Kenneth LusakaSpeaker of the National Assembly of Kenya>Speaker of the National Assembly|leader_name4 = Justin MuturiChief Justice of Kenya>Chief Justice|leader_name5 = David MaragaAttorney General of Kenya>Attorney General|leader_name6 = Paul Kihara KariukiParliament of Kenya>ParliamentSenate of Kenya>SenateNational Assembly (Kenya)>National Assembly|sovereignty_type = Independence|established_event1 = from the United Kingdom|established_date1 = 12 December 1963|established_event2 = Republic declared|established_date2 = 12 December 1964|area_km2 = 580,367PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS STATISTICS DIVISIONACCESSDATE=4 SEPTEMBER 2017, HTTP://UNSTATS.UN.ORG/UNSD/DEMOGRAPHIC/PRODUCTS/DYB/DYB2012.HTM>TITLE=UNITED NATIONS STATISTICS DIVISION - DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIAL STATISTICS,, |area_rank = 48th |area_sq_mi = 224,960 |percent_water = 2.3PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, ACCESSDATE=22 MAY 2011 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130810182358/HTTP://WWW.KNBS.OR.KE/CENSUS%20RESULTS/KNBS%20BROCHURE.PDF DF=DMY, |population_estimate_year = 2019|population_estimate_rank = 28th|population_census_year = 2009|population_density_km2 = 78|population_density_sq_mi = 202 |population_density_rank = 124thPUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, |GDP_PPP_year = 2019|GDP_PPP_rank =PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND ACCESS-DATE=15 JUNE 2019, |GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank =PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND ACCESS-DATE=15 JUNE 2019, |GDP_nominal_year = 2019|GDP_nominal_rank =PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND ACCESS-DATE=15 JUNE 2019, |GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank =|Gini = 42.5 |Gini_year = 2014|Gini_change = YEAR=2014 ACCESSDATE=26 JULY 2014, |Gini_rank = 48th|HDI = 0.590 |HDI_year = 2017|HDI_change = increase YEAR=2018 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, |HDI_rank = 142nd|currency = Kenyan shilling|currency_code = KESEast Africa Time>EAT|utc_offset = +3Anno Domini>AD)Right- and left-hand traffic>left|calling_code = +254|cctld = .ke}} According to the CIA, estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of mortality because of AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex, than would otherwise be expected.}}Kenya ({{IPAc-en|audio=Kenya pronunciation.ogg|ˈ|k|ɛ|n|j|ə}}), officially the Republic of Kenya (), is a country in Africa with 47 semiautonomous counties governed by elected governors. At {{convert|580,367|km2|sqmi}}, Kenya is the world's 48th largest country by total area. With a population of more than 52.2 million people, Kenya is the 27th most populous country.WEB,weblink World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations,, 2019-01-29, Kenya's capital and largest city is Nairobi while its oldest city and first capital is the coastal city of Mombasa. Kisumu City is the third largest city and also an inland port on Lake Victoria. Other important urban centres include Nakuru and Eldoret.Kenya is bordered by South Sudan to the North West, Ethiopia to the North, Somalia to the East, Uganda to the West, Tanzania to the South and the Indian Ocean to the South-East.Nilotic-speaking pastoralists (ancestral to Kenya's Nilotic speakers) started migrating from present-day Southern Sudan into Kenya around 500 BC. European colonisation of Kenya began in the 19th century during the European exploration of the interior. The modern-day Kenya emerged from a protectorate established by the British Empire in 1895 and the subsequent Kenya Colony, which began in 1920. Numerous disputes between the UK and the colony led to the Mau Mau revolution, which began in 1952, and the subsequent declaration of independence in 1963. After independence, Kenya remained a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The current constitution was adopted in 2010 to replace the 1963 independence constitution.Kenya is a presidential representative democratic republic, in which elected officials represent the people and the president is the head of state and government.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2007-12-13, Victorian Electronic Democracy - Final Report - Table of ContentsVictorian Electronic Democracy - Final Report - Glossary, 2007-12-13, 2019-01-29, Kenya is a member of United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, COMESA, and other international organisations. With a GNI of 1,460,WEB,weblink GNI per capita, Atlas method (current US$) {{!, Data||access-date=2019-01-29}} Kenya is a lower-middle-income economy. Kenya's economy is the largest in eastern and central Africa.Ethiopia GDP purchasing power 2010: 86 billion. 14 September 2006.Kenya GDP purchasing power 2010: 66 Billion. 14 September 2006. with Nairobi serving as a major regional commercial hub. Agriculture is the largest sector; tea and coffee are traditional cash crops, while fresh flowers are a fast-growing export. The service industry is also a major economic driver, particularly tourism. Kenya is a member of the East African Community trade bloc, though some international trade organisations categorise it as part of the Greater Horn of Africa.Maxwell, Daniel, and Ben Watkins. "Humanitarian information systems and emergencies in the Greater Horn of Africa: logical components and logical linkages." Disasters 27.1 (2003): 72-90. Africa is Kenya's largest export market, followed by the European Union.WEB,weblink The African Lions: Kenya country case study, MWANGI S. KIMENYI, FRANCIS M. MWEGA, NJUGUNA S. NDUNG'U, May 2016, The Brookings Institution, 23 May 2016,


The Republic of Kenya is named after Mount Kenya. The earliest recorded version of the modern name was written by German explorer Johann Ludwig Krapf in the 19th century. While travelling with a Kamba caravan led by the legendary long distance trader Chief Kivoi, Krapf spotted the mountain peak and asked what it was called. Kivoi told him "Kĩ-Nyaa" or "Kĩĩma- Kĩĩnyaa" probably because the pattern of black rock and white snow on its peaks reminded them of the feathers of the cock ostrich.BOOK, Sullivan, Paul, 2006, Kikuyu Districts, Mkuki na Nyota Publishers, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, The Agikuyu, who inhabit the slopes of Mt. Kenya, call it Kĩrĩma Kĩrĩnyaga in Kikuyu, while the Embu call it "Kirenyaa." All three names have the same meaning.WEB,weblink History, 13 May 2016, Ludwig Krapf recorded the name as both Kenia and Kegnia.BOOK, Krapf, Johann Ludwig, Johann Ludwig Krapf, Travels, Researches, and Missionary Labours in Eastern Africa, 1860, Frank Cass & Co. Ltd, London, JOURNAL, Krapf, Johann Ludwig, Johann Ludwig Krapf, 13 May 1850, Extract from Krapf's diary, Church Missionary Intelligencer, i, 452, BOOK, Foottit, Claire, 2004, Kenya, The Brade Travel Guide, 2006, Bradt Travel Guides Ltd, 978-1-84162-066-4, Others say that this was—on the contrary—a very precise notation of a correct African pronunciation {{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|ɛ|n|j|ə}}.JOURNAL, Ratcliffe, B. J., The Spelling of Kenya, Journal of the Royal African Society, 42–44, 42, 166, January 1943, 717465, An 1882 map drawn by Joseph Thompsons, a Scottish geologist and naturalist, indicated Mt. Kenya as Mt. Kenia, 1862. The mountain's name was accepted, pars pro toto, as the name of the country. It did not come into widespread official use during the early colonial period, when the country was instead referred to as the East African Protectorate. It was changed to the Colony of Kenya in 1920.



File:Turkana Boy.jpg|thumb|upright=0.65|left|The Turkana boy, a 1.6-million-year-old hominid fossil belonging to Homo erectusHomo erectusFossils found in Kenya suggest that primates roamed the area more than 20 million years ago. Recent findings near Lake Turkana indicate that hominids such as Homo habilis (1.8 and 2.5 million years ago) and Homo erectus (1.9 million to 350,000 years ago) are possible direct ancestors of modern Homo sapiens, and lived in Kenya in the Pleistocene epoch.During excavations at Lake Turkana in 1984, paleoanthropologist Richard Leakey assisted by Kamoya Kimeu discovered the Turkana Boy, a 1.6-million-year-old fossil belonging to Homo erectus. Previous research on early hominids is particularly identified with Mary Leakey and Louis Leakey, who were responsible for the preliminary archaeological research at Olorgesailie and Hyrax Hill. Later work at the former site was undertaken by Glynn Isaac.BOOK, Glynn Llywelyn Isaac, Barbara Isaac, Olorgesailie: archeological studies of a Middle Pleistocene lake basin in Kenya, 1977, University of Chicago Press, xiii, {{google books, y, qwEoAQAAMAAJ, xiii, }}


The first inhabitants of present-day Kenya were hunter-gatherer groups, akin to the modern Khoisan speakers.Ehret, C. (2002) The Civilizations of Africa: a History to 1800, University Press of Virginia, {{ISBN|0-8139-2085-X}}. These people were later replaced by agropastoralist Cushitic speakers from the Horn of Africa.Ehret, C. (1980) The historical reconstruction of Southern Cushitic phonology and vocabulary, Kölner Beiträge zur Afrikanistik 5, Bd., Reimer, Berlin. During the early Holocene, the regional climate shifted from dry to wetter climatic conditions, providing an opportunity for the development of cultural traditions, such as agriculture and herding, in a more favourable environment.Around 500 BC, Nilotic-speaking pastoralists (ancestral to Kenya's Nilotic speakers) started migrating from present-day Southern Sudan into Kenya.Ehret, C. (1983) Culture History in the Southern Sudan, J. Mack, P. Robertshaw, Eds., British Institute in Eastern Africa, Nairobi, pp. 19–48, {{ISBN|1-872566-04-9}}.Ambrose, S.H. (1982). "Archaeological and linguistic reconstructions of history in East Africa." In Ehert, C., and Posnansky, M. (eds.), The archaeological and linguistic reconstruction of African history, University of California Press, {{ISBN|0-520-04593-9}}.Ambrose, S.H. (1986) Sprache und Geschichte in Afrika 7.2, 11. Nilotic groups in Kenya include the Kalenjin, Samburu, Luo, Turkana, Maasai.BOOK, {{google books, y, _84Gg-o5BhYC, 55, |title=Traditional occupations of indigenous and tribal peoples: Emerging trends|date=2000|publisher=International Labour Organization|isbn=9789221122586|language=en}}By the first millennium AD, Bantu-speaking farmers had moved into the region.Ehret, C. (1998) An African Classical Age : Eastern and Southern Africa in World History, 1000 B.C. to A.D. 400., University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, pp. xvii, 354, {{ISBN|0-8139-2057-4}}. The Bantus originated in West Africa along the Benue River in what is now eastern Nigeria and western Cameroon.Smith, C. Wayne (1995) Crop Production: Evolution, History, and Technology, John Wiley & Sons, p. 132, {{ISBN|0-471-07972-3}}. The Bantu migration brought new developments in agriculture and iron working to the region. Bantu groups in Kenya include the Kikuyu, Luhya, Kamba, Kisii, Meru, Kuria, Aembu, Ambeere, Wadawida-Watuweta, Wapokomo and Mijikenda among others.Remarkable prehistoric sites in the interior of Kenya include the archaeoastronomical site Namoratunga on the west side of Lake Turkana and the walled settlement of ThimLich Ohinga in Migori County.

Swahili culture and trade (1st century–19th century)

{{Further|Swahili culture|Sultanate of Zanzibar}}File:Lamu door.jpg|thumb|A traditional Swahili carved wooden door in LamuLamuThe Kenyan coast had served host to communities of ironworkers and communities of Bantu subsistence farmers, hunters and fishers who supported the economy with agriculture, fishing, metal production and trade with foreign countries. These communities formed the earliest city states in the region which were collectively known as Azania.WEB,weblink Wonders of the African World, PBS, 16 April 2010, By the 1st century CE, many of the city-states such as Mombasa, Malindi, and Zanzibar began to establish trade relations with Arabs. This led to the increased economic growth of the Swahili states, introduction of Islam, Arabic influences on the Swahili Bantu language, cultural diffusion, as well as the Swahili city-states becoming a member of a larger trade network.WEB,weblink History and Origin of Swahili – Jifunze Kiswahili,, 17 July 2016, BOOK, {{google books, y, LZuxGsXVPoMC, 114, |title=African Foreign Policy and Diplomacy from Antiquity to the 21st Century|last=Nanjira|first=Daniel Don|date=2010|publisher=ABC-CLIO|isbn=9780313379826|language=en}} Many historians had long believed that the city states were established by Arab or Persian traders, but archeological evidence has led scholars to recognize the city states as an indigenous development which, though subjected to foreign influence due to trade, retained a Bantu cultural core.JOURNAL, Spear, Thomas, 2000, Early Swahili History Reconsidered, The International Journal of African Historical Studies, 33, 2, 257–290, 220649, 10.2307/220649, The Kilwa Sultanate was a medieval sultanate, centred at Kilwa in modern-day Tanzania. At its height, its authority stretched over the entire length of the Swahili Coast, including Kenya. It was said to be founded in the 10th century by Ali ibn al-Hassan Shirazi,شاكر مصطفى, موسوعة دوال العالم الأسلامي ورجالها الجزء الثالث, (دار العلم للملايين: 1993), p. 1360 a Persian Sultan from Shiraz in southern Iran.Hastings, James (2003) Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics Part 24, Kessinger Publishing, p. 847 However, scholars have suggested that claims of Arab or Persian origin of city-states were attempts by the Swahili to legitimize themselves both locally and internationally.WEB, The wealth of Africa The Swahili Coast, British Museum,weblink 7 June 2017, WEB, K. Kris Hirst, 12 February 2017, Swahili Culture Guide – The Rise and Fall of Swahili States, 10 June 2017,weblink Since the 10th century, rulers of Kilwa would go on to build elaborate coral mosques and introduce copper coinage.BOOK, {{google books, y, kVwhcDDhHQkC, 62, |p=62|title=Makran, Oman, and Zanzibar: Three-Terminal Cultural Corridor in the Western Indian Ocean, 1799-1856|last=Nicolini|first=Beatrice|date=2004-01-01|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004137806|language=en}}File:British Museum Kilwa pot sherds.jpg|thumb|Pottery sherds from the Kilwa Sultanate, founded in the 10th century by the Persian Sultan Ali ibn al-Hassan ShiraziAli ibn al-Hassan ShiraziThe Swahili built Mombasa into a major port city and established trade links with other nearby city-states, as well as commercial centres in Persia, Arabia, and even India.BOOK, {{google books, y, 6u3CRDloG-YC, 22, |title=Hybrid Urbanism |publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group |date= 30 March 2001|isbn=978-0-275-96612-6|author=Alsayyad, Nezar}} By the 15th-century, Portuguese voyager Duarte Barbosa claimed that "Mombasa is a place of great traffic and has a good harbour in which there are always moored small craft of many kinds and also great ships, both of which are bound from Sofala and others which come from Cambay and Melinde and others which sail to the island of Zanzibar."BOOK, {{google books, y, 3CPc22nMqIC, 24, |title=The African Dispersal in the Deccan |publisher=Orient Blackswan|isbn=978-81-250-0485-1|author=Ali, Shanti Sadiq|year=1996}}Later on in the 17th century, once the Swahili coast was conquered and came under direct rule of Omani Arabs, the slave trade was expanded by the Omani Arabs to meet the demands of plantations in Oman and Zanzibar."Slavery (sociology)". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Initially these traders came mainly from Oman, but later many came from Zanzibar (such as Tippu Tip).Swahili Coast. National Geographic. In addition, the Portuguese started buying slaves from the Omani and Zanzibari traders in response to the interruption of the transatlantic slave trade by British abolitionists.Swahili, a Bantu language with Arabic, Persian, and other Middle Eastern and South Asian loanwords, later developed as a lingua franca for trade between the different peoples. Swahili now also has loan words from English.Throughout the centuries, the Kenyan Coast has played host to many merchants and explorers. Among the cities that line the Kenyan coast is the City of Malindi. It has remained an important Swahili settlement since the 14th century and once rivalled Mombasa for dominance in the African Great Lakes region. Malindi has traditionally been a friendly port city for foreign powers. In 1414, the Chinese trader and explorer Zheng He representing the Ming Dynasty visited the East African coast on one of his last 'treasure voyages'.WEB, PBS website,weblink 12 October 2015, Malindi authorities welcomed the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama in 1498.

British Kenya (1888–1962)

File:Africa 1909 16a.png|thumb|British East AfricaBritish East AfricaThe colonial history of Kenya dates from the establishment of a German protectorate over the Sultan of Zanzibar's coastal possessions in 1885, followed by the arrival of the Imperial British East Africa Company in 1888. Imperial rivalry was prevented when Germany handed its coastal holdings to Britain in 1890. This was followed by the building of the Uganda Railway passing through the country.Encyclopædia BritannicaThe building of the railway was resisted by some ethnic groups—notably the Nandi led by Orkoiyot Koitalel Arap Samoei for ten years from 1890 to 1900—however the British eventually built the railway. The Nandi were the first ethnic group to be put in a native reserve to stop them from disrupting the building of the railway.During the railway construction era, there was a significant inflow of Indian people, who provided the bulk of the skilled manpower required for construction.R. Mugo Gatheru (2005) Kenya: From Colonization to Independence, 1888–1970, McFarland, {{ISBN|0-7864-2199-1}} They and most of their descendants later remained in Kenya and formed the core of several distinct Indian communities such as the Ismaili Muslim and Sikh communities.WEB, Jenkins, Orville Boyd,weblink Sikh,, 16 April 2010, While building the railway through Tsavo, a number of the Indian railway workers and local African labourers were attacked by two lions known as the Tsavo maneaters.WEB,weblink Ismaili muslim,, 16 April 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 January 2009, dmy, At the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, the governors of British East Africa (as the protectorate was generally known) and German East Africa agreed a truce in an attempt to keep the young colonies out of direct hostilities. Lt. Col. Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck took command of the German military forces, determined to tie down as many British resources as possible. Completely cut off from Germany, von Lettow conducted an effective guerrilla warfare campaign, living off the land, capturing British supplies, and remaining undefeated. He eventually surrendered in Northern Rhodesia (today Zambia) fourteen days after the Armistice was signed in 1918.File:Kurve bei Mombasa.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|The Kenya–Uganda Railway near MombasaMombasaTo chase von Lettow, the British deployed the British Indian Army troops from India but needed large numbers of porters to overcome the formidable logistics of transporting supplies far into the interior on foot. The Carrier Corps was formed and ultimately mobilised over 400,000 Africans, contributing to their long-term politicisation.In 1920, the East Africa Protectorate was turned into a colony and renamed Kenya for its highest mountain.During the early part of the 20th century, the interior central highlands were settled by British and other European farmers, who became wealthy farming coffee and tea."We Want Our Country". Time. 5 November 1965. (One depiction of this period of change from one colonist's perspective is found in the memoir Out of Africa by Danish author Baroness Karen von Blixen-Finecke, published in 1937.) By the 1930s, approximately 30,000 white settlers lived in the area and gained a political voice because of their contribution to the market economy.The central highlands were already home to over a million members of the Kikuyu people, most of whom had no land claims in European terms and lived as itinerant farmers. To protect their interests, the settlers banned the growing of coffee, introduced a hut tax, and the landless were granted less and less land in exchange for their labour. A massive exodus to the cities ensued as their ability to provide a living from the land dwindled. There were 80,000 white settlers living in Kenya in the 1950s.BOOK, {{google books, y, R-r3g6OdLEUC, 28}, 28, Kenya, Firestone, Matthew, 2010-09-15, Lonely Planet Publications, 9781742203553, en, Throughout World War II, Kenya was an important source of manpower and agriculture for the United Kingdom. Kenya itself was the site of fighting between Allied forces and Italian troops in 1940–41 when Italian forces invaded. Wajir and Malindi were bombed as well.In 1952, Princess Elizabeth and her husband Prince Philip were on holiday at the Treetops Hotel in Kenya when her father, King George VI, died in his sleep. The young princess cut short her trip and returned home immediately to take her throne. She was crowned Queen Elizabeth II at Westminster Abbey in 1953 and as British hunter and conservationist Jim Corbett (who accompanied the royal couple) put it, she went up a tree in Africa a princess and came down a queen.NEWS,weblink London, The Daily Telegraph, Hugo, Vickers, Diamond Jubilee: the moment that Princess Elizabeth became Queen, 29 January 2012,

Mau Mau Uprising

{{Further|Mau Mau Uprising}}File:Statue of Dedan Kimathi Nairobi, Kenya.jpg|thumb|A statue of Dedan Kimathi, a Kenyan rebel leader with the Mau MauMau MauFrom October 1952 to December 1959, Kenya was in a state of emergency arising from the Mau Mau rebellion against British rule. The Mau Mau, also known as the Kenya Land and Freedom Army, were primarily members of the Kikuyu Group.The governor requested and obtained British and African troops, including the King's African Rifles. The British began counter-insurgency operations. In May 1953, General Sir George Erskine took charge as commander-in-chief of the colony's armed forces, with the personal backing of Winston Churchill.Maloba, Wunyabari O. (1993) Mau Mau and Kenya: An Analysis of Peasant Revolt, Indiana University Press, 0852557450.The capture of Warũhiũ Itote (also known as General China) on 15 January 1954 and the subsequent interrogation led to a better understanding of the Mau Mau command structure for the British. Operation Anvil opened on 24 April 1954, after weeks of planning by the army with the approval of the War Council. The operation effectively placed Nairobi under military siege. Nairobi's occupants were screened and the Mau Mau supporters moved to detention camps. The Home Guard formed the core of the government's strategy as it was composed of loyalist Africans, not foreign forces such as the British Army and King's African Rifles. By the end of the emergency, the Home Guard had killed 4,686 Mau Mau, amounting to 42% of the total insurgents.The capture of Dedan Kimathi on 21 October 1956 in Nyeri signified the ultimate defeat of the Mau Mau and essentially ended the military offensive. During this period, substantial governmental changes to land tenure occurred. The most important of these was the Swynnerton Plan, which was used to both reward loyalists and punish Mau Mau.


File:Jomo Kenyatta.jpg|thumb|upright|left|The first President and founding father of Kenya, Jomo KenyattaJomo KenyattaThe first direct elections for native Kenyans to the Legislative Council took place in 1957. Despite British hopes of handing power to "moderate" local rivals, it was the Kenya African National Union (KANU) of Jomo Kenyatta that formed a government. The Colony of Kenya and the Protectorate of Kenya each came to an end on 12 December 1963 with independence being conferred on all of Kenya. The United Kingdom ceded sovereignty over the Colony of Kenya. The Sultan of Zanzibar agreed that simultaneous with independence for the Colony of Kenya, the Sultan would cease to have sovereignty over the Protectorate of Kenya so that all of Kenya would be one sovereign, independent state."Commonwealth and Colonial Law" by Kenneth Roberts-Wray, London, Stevens, 1966. P. 762HC Deb 22 November 1963 vol 684 cc1329-400 wherein the UK Under-Secretary of State for Commonwealth Relations and for the Colonies stated: "An agreement was then signed on the 8th October 1963, providing that on the date when Kenya became independent the territories comprising the Kenya Coastal Strip would become part of Kenya proper." In this way, Kenya became an independent country under the Kenya Independence Act 1963 of the United Kingdom. Exactly 12 months later on 12 December 1964, Kenya became a republic under the name "Republic of Kenya".Concurrently, the Kenyan army fought the Shifta War against ethnic Somali rebels inhabiting the Northern Frontier District, who wanted to join their kin in the Somali Republic to the north.Bruce Baker, Escape from Domination in Africa: Political Disengagement & Its Consequences, (Africa World Press: 2003), p.83 A ceasefire was eventually reached with the signature of the Arusha Memorandum in October 1967, but relative insecurity prevailed through 1969.JOURNAL, Hogg, Richard, 1986, The New Pastoralism: Poverty and Dependency in Northern Kenya, Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, 56, 3, 319–333, 1160687, 10.2307/1160687, JOURNAL, Howell, John, May 1968, An Analysis of Kenyan Foreign Policy, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 6, 1, 29–48, 158675, 10.1017/S0022278X00016657, To discourage further invasions, Kenya signed a defence pact with Ethiopia in 1969, which is still in effect.WEB, Pike, John,weblink Post-Independence Low Intensity Conflict in Kenya,, 1992, 16 April 2010,

The first president of Kenya

{{Further|Presidency of Jomo Kenyatta|Jomo Kenyatta}}On 12 December 1964 the Republic of Kenya was proclaimed, and Jomo Kenyatta became Kenya's first president.WEB, Kenya at the United Nations, Permanent Mission of the Republic of Kenya to the United Nations,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 8 June 2009, 2002, Consulate General of Kenya in New York, 15 February 2010, Under Kenyatta, corruption became widespread throughout the government, civil service, and business community. Kenyatta and his family were tied up with this corruption as they enriched themselves through the mass purchase of property after 1963.Their acquisitions in the Central, Rift Valley, and Coast Provinces aroused great anger among landless Kenyans. His family used his presidential position to circumvent legal or administrative obstacles to acquiring property. The Kenyatta family also heavily invested in the coastal hotel business, with Kenyatta personally owning the Leonard Beach Hotel.JOURNAL, Boone, Catherine, April 2012, Land Conflict and Distributive Politics in Kenya, African Studies Review, 55, 1, 75–103, 10.1353/arw.2012.0010, 0002-0206, 2152/19778,weblink He ruled until his death on 22 August 1978.JOURNAL, Ndegwa, Stephen N., 1999, Multi-Party Politics in Kenya: the Kenyatta and Moi States and the Triumph of the System in the 1992 Election (review), Africa Today, 46, 2, 146–148, 10.1353/at.1999.0008, 1527-1978,

Moi era

{{Further|Daniel arap Moi|Presidency of Daniel Moi|1978 Kenyan presidential election|1988 Kenyan general election|1992 Kenyan general election}}Moi was Kenya's president from 1978 to 2002. At Kenyatta's death in 1978, Daniel arap Moi became President. Daniel arap Moi retained the Presidency, being unopposed in elections held in 1979, 1983 (snap elections) and 1988, all of which were held under the single party constitution. The 1983 elections were held a year early, and were a direct result of an abortive military coup attempt on 2 August 1982.File:Moi and Bush.jpg|thumb|Daniel arap MoiDaniel arap MoiThe abortive coup was masterminded by a low ranked Air Force serviceman, Senior Private Hezekiah Ochuka, and was staged mainly by enlisted men in the Air Force. The putsch was quickly suppressed by forces commanded by Chief of General Staff Mahamoud Mohamed, a veteran Somali military official.BOOK, Society, 1992, Nyamora Communications Limited, 12, {{google books, y, 3MctAQAAIAAJ, 12, }} They included the General Service Unit (GSU)—a paramilitary wing of the police—and later the regular police.On the heels of the Garissa Massacre of 1980, Kenyan troops committed the Wagalla massacre in 1984 against thousands of civilians in Wajir County. An official probe into the atrocities was later ordered in 2011.NEWS, Wagalla massacre: Raila Odinga orders Kenya probe,weblink 14 November 2013, BBC, 11 February 2011, The election held in 1988 saw the advent of the mlolongo (queuing) system, where voters were supposed to line up behind their favoured candidates instead of a secret ballot.Harden, Blaine (25 February 1988) weblink" title="">Many Voters Stay Home as Kenya Drops Secret Ballot in Parliamentary Election, The Washington Post. This was seen as the climax of a very undemocratic regime and it led to widespread agitation for constitutional reform. Several contentious clauses, including one that allowed for only one political party, were changed in the following years.BOOK,weblink Handbook on Religious Liberty Around the World, Kenya, Moreno, Pedro C., Charlottesville, VA, The Rutherford Institute, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 June 2010, dmy-all,

Birth of multiparty politics and the demise of Moi era

Kenya became a multiparty state in 1991 after 26 years of being a single party state. On 28 October 1992, president Moi dissolved parliament, five months before the end of his term. As a result, preparations began for all elective seats in parliament as well as the president. The elections were scheduled to take place on 7 December 1992, but delays led to its postponement to 29 December the same year. Apart from KANU, the ruling party, other parties represented in the elections included FORD Kenya and FORD Asili. This election was marked by large-scale intimidation of opponents, as well as harassment of election officials. It resulted in an economic crisis propagated by ethnic violence as the president was accused of rigging electoral results to sustain power.BOOK, Politics of the independence of Kenya, Keith., Kyle, 1999, Macmillan, 978-0333720080, 795968156, JOURNAL, Goldsworthy, David, March 1982, Ethnicity and Leadership in Africa: the 'Untypical' Case of Tom Mboya, The Journal of Modern African Studies, 20, 1, 107–126, 10.1017/s0022278x00000082, 0022-278X, WEB,weblink KENYA: parliamentary elections National Assembly, 1992,, 2019-01-29, This election was a turning point for Kenya as it signified the beginning of the end of Moi's leadership and the rule of KANU. Moi retained the presidency and George Saitoti became the vice president. Although it retained power, KANU won 100 seats and lost 88 seats to the six opposition parties.{| class="wikitable"|Round no 1 (29 December 1992): Elections results|Tally|Number of registered electors|7,900,366|Voters|5,486,768 (69.4%)|Blank or invalid ballot papers|61,173|Valid votes|5,425,595{| class="wikitable"|Round no 1: Distribution of seats|Political Group|Total|Kenya African National Union (KANU)|100|Forum for the Restoration of Democracy (FORD-Kenya)|31|Forum for the Restoration of Democracy (FORD-Asili)|31|Democratic Party (DP)|23|Kenya Social Congress (KSC)|1|Kenya National Congress (KNC)|1|Party of independent Candidates of Kenya (PICK)|1The elections of 1992 market the beginning of multiparty politics after more than 25 years rule by KANU. Following the skirmishes in the aftermath of the 1992 multiparty elections, 5,000 people were killed and a further 75,000 others displaced from their homes.WEB,weblink Clashes, elections and land - church keeps watch in Molo, 2007-07-19, IRIN, 2019-01-29, In the next five years, many political alliances were formed in preparation for the next elections. In 1994, Jaramogi Oginga Odinga died and several coalitions joined his FORD Kenya party to form a new party called United National Democratic Alliance. However, this party was plagued with disagreements. In 1995, Richard Leakey formed the Safina party, but it was denied registration until November 1997.NEWS,weblink Kenya profile, 2018-01-31, 2019-01-29, In 1996, KANU revised the constitution to allow Moi to remain president for another term. Subsequently, Moi stood for re-election and won a 5th term in 1997.WEB,weblink Kenya History Timeline - historic overview of Kenya, Africa, Crawfurd Homepage, 2019-01-29, His win was strongly criticised by his major opponents, Kibaki and Odinga as being fraudulent.JOURNAL, Anderson, David M., 2003, Kenya's Elections 2002 – The Dawning of a New Era?, African Affairs, 102, 407, 331–342, 10.1093/afraf/adg007, Following this win, Moi was constitutionally barred from vying for another presidential term at the end of his term. Beginning in 1998, Moi attempted to influence the country's succession politics to have Uhuru Kenyatta elected in the upcoming 2002 elections.WEB,weblink A look at Kenya's elections history since independence in 1964, AfricaNews, 2017-10-25, Africanews, 2019-01-29,

President Kibaki and the road to a new constitution

{{Further|Mwai Kibaki|Presidency of Mwai Kibaki|2002 Kenyan general election|2007 Kenyan general election}}File:Nairobi Kibera 04.JPG|thumb|View of Kibera, the largest urban slumslumMoi's plan to be replaced by Uhuru Kenyatta failed, and Mwai Kibaki, running for the opposition coalition "National Rainbow Coalition" (NARC), was elected President. Anderson (2003) reports the elections were judged free and fair by local and international observers, and seemed to mark a turning point in Kenya's democratic evolution.In 2005, Kenyans rejected a plan to replace the 1963 independence constitution with a new one.WEB,weblink Of Oranges and Bananas: The 2005 Kenya Referendum on the Constitution, CMI – Chr. Michelsen Institute, 13 May 2016, As a result, the elections of 2007 happened following the old constitution. Kibaki was re-elected in a highly contested political scene which was marked by political and ethnic violence. This resulted from accusations by the main opposition leader, Raila Odinga, that the election results were rigged and that he was the rightfully elected president. As a result, 1,500 people were killed and another 600,000 were internally displaced, making it the worst post-election violence in Kenya. To stop the death and displacement of people, Kibaki and Raila agreed to work together, with the latter taking the position of a prime minister.NEWS,weblink Deal to end Kenyan crisis agreed, 2008-04-12, 2019-01-29, This made Raila the second prime minister of Kenya.In July 2010, Kenya partnered with other East African countries to form the new East African Common Market within the East African Community.NEWS,weblink FACTBOX-East African common market begins, 2010-07-01, Reuters, 2019-01-29, In August 2010, Kenyans held a referendum and passed a new constitution, which limited presidential powers and devolved the central government.

Devolution of government and separation of powers

{{Further|Administrative divisions of Kenya|Constitution of Kenya|Presidency of Uhuru Kenyatta}}Following the passage of the new constitution, Kenya became a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Kenya is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. The new constitution also states that executive powers are exercised by the executive branch of government, headed by the President, who chairs the cabinet, that is composed of people chosen from outside parliament. Legislative power is vested exclusively in Parliament. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Mwai Kibaki became the first president to serve under this new constitution while Uhuru Kenyatta became the first president elected under this constitution.In 2011, Kenya began sending troops to Somalia to fight the Islamic terror group, Al-Shabaab.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2012-03-14, The Standard {{!, Online Edition :: Somalia government supports Kenyan forces' mission|date=2012-03-14|access-date=2019-01-29}}File:Secretary Kerry Jokes About HIs Height Standing With Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta at the State House in Nairobi (28534132883).jpg|thumb|Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta with U.S. Secretary of State John KerryJohn KerryIn mid-2011, two consecutive missed rainy seasons precipitated the worst drought in East Africa seen in 60 years. The northwestern Turkana region was especially affected,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 4 January 2012, Red Cross warns of catastrophe in Turkana,, 25 July 2011, 7 August 2011, Koech, Dennis, with local schools shut down as a result.WEB,weblink Kenya: schools close as famine takes hold in Turkana,, 28 July 2011, 7 August 2011, The crisis was reportedly over by early 2012 because of coordinated relief efforts. Aid agencies subsequently shifted their emphasis to recovery initiatives, including digging irrigation canals and distributing plant seeds.Gettleman, Jeffrey (3 February 2012) U.N. Says Famine in Somalia Is Over, but Risks Remain. The New York Times.In 2013, Kenya had its first general elections after the new constitution had been passed. Uhuru Kenyatta won in a disputed election result, leading to a petition by the opposition leader, Raila Odinga. The supreme court upheld the election results and President Kenyatta began his term with William Ruto as the deputy president. Despite the outcome of this ruling, the Supreme Court and the head of the Supreme Court were seen as a powerful institutions that could carry out its role of checking the powers of the president.WEB,weblink Supreme Court upholds Uhuru's election as president, Daily Nation, 2019-01-29, In 2017, Uhuru Kenyatta won a second term in office in another disputed election. Following the defeat, Raila Odinga again petitioned the results in the Supreme Court accusing the electoral commission of mismanagement of the elections and Uhuru Kenyatta and his party of rigging. The Supreme Court overturned the election results in what became a landmark ruling in Africa and one of the very few in the world in which the results of a presidential elections were annulled.NEWS,weblink Kenya election rerun to go ahead after court fails to rule on delay, Burke, Jason, 2017-10-25, The Guardian, 2019-01-29, 0261-3077, This ruling solidified the position of the Supreme Court as an independent body.WEB,weblink Kenya court decision demonstrates respect for rule of law {{!, IDLO||access-date=2019-01-29}} Consequently, Kenya had a second round of elections for the presidential position, in which Uhuru emerged the winner after Raila refused to participate citing irregularities.WEB,weblink President Uhuru Kenyatta declared winner of repeat presidential election, Team, Standard, The Standard, 2019-01-29, WEB,weblink President Uhuru Kenyatta declared winner of repeat presidential election, New York Times, 2019-01-29,

Geography and climate

(File:Un-kenya.png|thumb|A map of Kenya.)File:Koppen-Geiger Map KEN present.svg|thumb|A Köppen climate classificationKöppen climate classificationAt {{convert|580367|km2|sqmi|abbr=on}},WEB, Central Intelligence Agency, Central Intelligence Agency, The World Factbook, Kenya,weblink 2012, 28 May 2013, Kenya is the world's forty-seventh largest country (after Madagascar). It lies between latitudes 5°N and 5°S, and longitudes 34° and 42°E. From the coast on the Indian Ocean, the low plains rise to central highlands. The highlands are bisected by the Great Rift Valley, with a fertile plateau lying to the east.{{citation needed|date=November 2018}}The Kenyan Highlands are one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa.BOOK, The World Factbook, CIA, Potomac Books, Inc., 2010, 978-1-59797-541-4, 336, The highlands are the site of the highest point in Kenya and the second highest peak on the continent: Mount Kenya, which reaches {{convert|5199|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} and is the site of glaciers. Mount Kilimanjaro ({{convert|5895|m|ft|0|abbr=on|disp=or}}) can be seen from Kenya to the south of the Tanzanian border.


{{unreferenced section|date=December 2016}}Kenya's climate varies from tropical along the coast to temperate inland to arid in the north and northeast parts of the country. The area receives a great deal of sunshine every month, and summer clothes are worn throughout the year. It is usually cool at night and early in the morning inland at higher elevations.The "long rains" season occurs from March/April to May/June. The "short rains" season occurs from October to November/December. The rainfall is sometimes heavy and often falls in the afternoons and evenings. The temperature remains high throughout these months of tropical rain. The hottest period is February and March, leading into the season of the long rains, and the coldest is in July, until mid August.File:Giraffe - Skyline - Nairobi - Park.jpg|thumb|A giraffe at Nairobi National ParkNairobi National Park{|class="wikitable" style="text-align:right;"110%|Average annual temperatures}}!colspan="2" style="text-align:left;"| City! Elevation (m) !! Max (°C) !! Min (°C) Mombasa{{nbsp|2}} {{Smaller|Coastal town}}| 23.8 Nairobi {{Smaller|Capital city}}| 13.6 Kisumu {{Smaller|Lakeside city}}| 16.9 Eldoret {{Smaller|Rift Valley town}}| 9.5 Lodwar {{Smaller|Dry north plainlands}}| 23.7 Mandera {{Smaller|Dry north plainlands}}| 25.7


Kenya has considerable land area devoted to wildlife habitats, including the Masai Mara, where blue wildebeest and other bovids participate in a large scale (Wikt:migration|annual migration). More than 1 million wildebeest and 200,000 zebras participate in the migration across the Mara River.WEB,weblink Wildebeest Migration, Society, National Geographic, 19 January 2012, National Geographic Society, 13 May 2016, The "Big Five" game animals of Africa, that is the lion, leopard, buffalo, rhinoceros, and elephant, can be found in Kenya and in the Masai Mara in particular. A significant population of other wild animals, reptiles and birds can be found in the national parks and game reserves in the country. The annual animal migration occurs between June and September with millions of animals taking part, attracting valuable foreign tourism. Two million wildebeest migrate a distance of {{convert|2900|km|0|abbr=out}} from the Serengeti in neighbouring Tanzania to the Masai MaraWEB, Masai Mara,weblink in Kenya, in a constant clockwise fashion, searching for food and water supplies. This Serengeti Migration of the wildebeest is a curious spectacle listed among the Seven Natural Wonders of Africa.{{-}}

Government and politics

File:Mwai Kibaki, October 2003.jpg|thumb|Kenya's third president Mwai KibakiMwai KibakiKenya is a presidential representative democratic republic. The president is both the head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Assembly and the Senate. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. There was growing concern especially during former president Daniel arap Moi's tenure that the executive was increasingly meddling with the affairs of the judiciary.WEB,weblink The Criminal Justice System and Eroding Democracy After Independence – Page 12, Novak, Andrew,, 13 May 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 3 June 2016, dead, dmy-all, Kenya has a high degree of corruption according to Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index (CPI), a metric which attempts to gauge the prevalence of public sector corruption in various countries. In 2012, the nation placed 139th out of 176 total countries in the CPI, with a score of 27/100.WEB, Transparency International: CPI,weblink Transparency International, 29 May 2013, However, there are several rather significant developments with regards to curbing corruption from the Kenyan government, for instance, the establishment of a new and independent Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission (EACC).WEB, Business Corruption in Kenya,weblink Business Anti-Corruption Portal, 4 April 2014, File:JUDICIARY.JPG|thumb|The Supreme Court of KenyaSupreme Court of KenyaFollowing general elections held in 1997, the Constitution of Kenya Review Act designed to pave the way for more comprehensive amendments to the Kenyan constitution was passed by the national parliament.A short history of the 2010 Kenya constitution. kenyaconstitution.orgIn December 2002, Kenya held democratic and open elections, which were judged free and fair by most international observers.NEWS,weblink International observers declare Kenyan elections fair,, 13 May 2016, The 2002 elections marked an important turning point in Kenya's democratic evolution in that power was transferred peacefully from the Kenya African National Union (KANU), which had ruled the country since independence to the National Rainbow Coalition (NARC), a coalition of political parties.Under the presidency of Mwai Kibaki, the new ruling coalition promised to focus its efforts on generating economic growth, combating corruption, improving education, and rewriting its constitution. A few of these promises have been met. There is free primary education.WEB,weblink The Turning Point: Free Primary Education in Kenya – NORRAG,, 13 May 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 April 2016, dmy-all, In 2007, the government issued a statement declaring that from 2008, secondary education would be heavily subsidised, with the government footing all tuition fees.NEWS,weblink Africa | Free secondary schools for Kenya, BBC News, 11 February 2008, 26 February 2013,

2013 elections and new government

Under the new constitution and with President Kibaki prohibited by term limits from running for a third term, Deputy Prime Minister Uhuru Kenyatta ran for office. He won with 50.51% of the vote in March 2013.In December 2014, President Uhuru Kenyatta signed a Security Laws Amendment Bill, which supporters of the law suggested was necessary to guard against armed groups. Opposition politicians, human rights groups, and nine Western countries criticised the security bill, arguing that it infringed on democratic freedoms. The governments of the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and France also collectively issued a press statement cautioning about the law's potential impact. Through the Jubilee Coalition, the Bill was later passed on 19 December in the National Assembly under acrimonious circumstances.NEWS, Kenya president signs tough 'anti-terror' law,weblink 22 December 2014, Al Jazeera, 19 December 2014, dead,weblink 22 December 2014, dmy-all,

Foreign relations

File:President Obama visits Nairobi Kenya July 2015 (20848405843).jpg|thumb|President Barack ObamaBarack ObamaKenya has close ties with its fellow Swahili-speaking neighbours in the African Great Lakes region. Relations with Uganda and Tanzania are generally strong, as the three nations work toward economic and social integration through common membership in the East African Community.Relations with Somalia have historically been tense, although there has been some military co-ordination against Islamist insurgents. Kenya has good relations with the United Kingdom.Kenya – Foreign Relations. Retrieved on 16 January 2015. Kenya is one of the most pro-American nations in Africa, and the wider world.WEB,weblink Opinion of the United States,, 17 July 2016, With International Criminal Court trial dates scheduled in 2013 for both President Kenyatta and Deputy President William Ruto related to the 2007 election aftermath, US president Barack Obama chose not to visit the country during his mid-2013 African trip.Epatko, Larisa, "Why Obama Is Visiting Senegal, South Africa and Tanzania But Not Kenya", PBS NewsHour, 25 June 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2013. Later in the summer, Kenyatta visited China at the invitation of President Xi Jinping after a stop in Russia and not having visited the United States as president.Raghavan, Sudarsan, "In snub to Washington, Kenyan president visits China, Russia first", Washington Post, 17 August 2013. Ambassador Liu's comments at linked to Retrieved 18 August 2013. In July 2015 Obama visited Kenya, the first American president to visit the country while in office.WEB, GEORGE KEGORO More by this Author,weblink KEGORO: Circumstances created need that made visit possible,, 17 July 2016, The BATUK is used for the training of British infantry battalions in the arid and rugged terrain of the Great Rift Valley."Britain's secret killing fields". The Guardian. 1 July 2001WEB, The British Army in Africa,weblink, Ministry of Defence, 20 June 2016,

Armed forces

File:US Navy 060806-N-0411D-109 Kenyan Army Brig. Gen. and Natural Fire Commanding Officer, Leonard Ngondi, left, greets U.S. Marine Lt. Col. Steve Nichols, left, at Camp Lonestar.jpg|thumb|Kenyan Army Brig. Gen. Leonard Ngondi, left,{{clarify|date=April 2017}} greets U.S. Marine Lt. Col. Steve Nichols, left, at Camp LonestarCamp LonestarThe Kenya Defence Forces are the armed forces of the Republic of Kenya. The Kenya Army, Kenya Navy and Kenya Air Force compose the National Defence Forces. The current Kenya Defence Forces were established, and its composition laid out, in Article 241 of the 2010 Constitution of Kenya; the KDF is governed by the Kenya Defence Forces Act of 2012.WEB, Ministry of Defence, Kenya Defence Forces Act – No. 25 of 2012,weblink National Council for Law Reporting, 6 May 2014, The President of Kenya is the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces.The armed forces are regularly deployed in peacekeeping missions around the world. Further, in the aftermath of the national elections of December 2007 and the violence that subsequently engulfed the country, a commission of inquiry, the Waki Commission, commended its readiness and adjudged it to "have performed its duty well."Commission of Inquiry into the Post Election Violence {{webarchive |url= |date=20 December 2008 }} Nevertheless, there have been serious allegations of human rights violations, most recently while conducting counter-insurgency operations in the Mt Elgon areaKenya National Commission on Human Rights {{webarchive |url= |date=14 February 2012 }} and also in the district of Mandera central.Security men accused of torture and rape Daily Nation. 11 January 2008.File:Map showing Counties underthe new kenyan constitution..gif|thumb|Kenya's 47 counties.]]Kenya's armed forces, like many government institutions in the country, have been tainted by corruption allegations. Because the operations of the armed forces have been traditionally cloaked by the ubiquitous blanket of "state security", the corruption has been hidden from public view, and thus less subject to public scrutiny and notoriety. This has changed recently. In what are by Kenyan standards unprecedented revelations, in 2010, credible claims of corruption were made with regard to recruitmentThe Standard 31 October 2010 Activists give military 5 days to re-admit recruit INTERNET {{dead link|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Cited on 3 January 2011 and procurement of Armoured Personnel Carriers.The Standard Sh 1.6 billion tender rocks the DoD INTERNET {{dead link|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Cited on 3 January 2011 Further, the wisdom and prudence of certain decisions of procurement have been publicly questioned.For example the decision to acquire ex-Jordanian F5 fighter aircraft. See The Standard Kenya's 'new' fighter jets cannot take off INTERNET {{dead link|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Cited on 3 January 2011

Administrative divisions

Kenya is divided into 47 semi-autonomous counties that are headed by governors. These 47 counties now form the first-order divisions of Kenya.The smallest administrative units in Kenya are called locations. Locations often coincide with electoral wards. Locations are usually named after their central villages/towns. Many larger towns consist of several locations. Each location has a chief, appointed by the state.Constituencies are an electoral subdivision, with each county comprising a whole number of constituencies. An Interim Boundaries commission was formed in year 2010 to review the constituencies and in its report, it recommended creation of an additional 80 constituencies. Previous to the 2013 elections, there were 210 constituencies in Kenya.Kenya Roads Board weblink" title="">Constituency funding under the RMLF

Human rights

{{See also|Human rights in Kenya|LGBT rights in Kenya|Human trafficking in Kenya}}Homosexual acts are illegal in Kenya and punishable by up to 14 years in prison though the state often turns a blind eye on prosecuting homosexuals.WEB,weblink Laws on Homosexuality in African Nations, Library of Congress, 2015, NEWS,weblink Here are the 10 countries where homosexuality may be punished by death, The Washington Post, 16 June 2016, According to 2013 survey by the Pew Research Center, 90% of Kenyans believe that homosexuality should not be accepted by society."The Global Divide on Homosexuality." pewglobal. 4 June 2013. 4 June 2013. While addressing a joint press conference together with President Barack Obama in 2015, President Kenyatta declined to assure Kenya's commitment to gay rights saying that "the issue of gay rights is really a non-issue." "But there are some things that we must admit we don't share. Our culture, our societies don't accept."WEB, Scott, Holmes, Eugene, Kristen, Obama lectures Kenyan president on gay rights, CNN, 25 July 2017, In November 2008, WikiLeaks brought wide international attentionWEB, WikiLeaks, WikiLeaks, WikiLeaks wins Amnesty International 2009 Media Award, WikiLeaks, 2009-06-02,weblinkweblink 28 December 2010, dead, dmy-all, to The Cry of Blood report. In the report, the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights (KNCHR) reported these in their key finding "e)", stating that the forced disappearances and extrajudicial killings appeared to be official policy sanctioned by the political leadership, the Police.WEB, 'The Cry of Blood' — Report on Extra-Judicial Killings and Disappearances, Kenya National Commission on Human Rights/Enforced Disappearances Information Exchange Center, 2008-09-25,weblink 2010-12-29,weblink 28 December 2010, dead, dmy-all, The police often shoot suspected gangsters in public as a new "strategy" to fight the rising levels of crime in the country in total disregard of the laws.WEB,weblink Was extra-judicial killing of Eastleigh 'thugs' justified? Kenyans divided » Capital News, 1 April 2017,


(File:Kenya Export Treemap.jpg|thumb|upright=1.6|A proportional representation of Kenya's exports.)Kenya's macroeconomic outlook has steadily posted robust growth over the past few decades mostly from mega-infrastructure road and railway projects. However, much of this growth has come from cash flows diverted from ordinary Kenyan pockets at the microeconomic level through targeted monetary and fiscal measures coupled with poor management, corruption, massive theft of public funds, overlegislation and an ineffective judiciary resulting in diminished incomes in ordinary households and small businesses, unemployment, underemployment and general discontent across multiple sectors. Kenya ranks poorly on the Fragile States Index at number 25 out of 178 countries ranked in 2019 and is placed in the ALERT category. In 2014, the country's macroeconomic indicators were re-based causing the GDP to shift upwards to low-middle-income country status.Kenya has a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.555 (medium), ranked 145 out of 186 in the world. {{As of|2005}}, 17.7% of Kenyans lived on less than $1.25 a day. {{sfn|Ludeki Chweya|John Kithome Tuta|S. Kichamu Akivaga|2005}} In 2017, Kenya ranked 92nd in the World Bank ease of doing business rating from 113rd in 2016 (of 190 countries).WEB,weblink Doing Business in Kenya – World Bank Group,, 2017-01-14, The important agricultural sector is one of the least developed and largely inefficient, employing 75% of the workforce compared to less than 3% in the food secure developed countries. Kenya is usually classified as a frontier market or occasionally an emerging market, but it is not one of the least developed countries.The economy has seen much expansion, seen by strong performance in tourism, higher education and telecommunications, and acceptable{{POV statement|date=January 2015}} post-drought results in agriculture, especially the vital tea sector. Kenya's economy grew by more than 7% in 2007, and its foreign debt was greatly reduced. But this changed immediately after the disputed presidential election of December 2007, following the chaos which engulfed the country.Telecommunication and financial activity over the last decade now comprises 62% of GDP. 22% of GDP still comes from the unreliable agricultural sector which employs 75% of the labour force (a consistent characteristic of under-developed economies that have not attained food security—an important catalyst of economic growth) A small portion of the population relies on food aid.WEB,weblink Food Assistance Fact Sheet – Kenya,, 13 May 2016, Industry and manufacturing is the smallest sector, accounting for 16% of GDP. The service, industry and manufacturing sectors only employ 25% of the labour force but contribute 75% of GDP.WEB,weblink Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, Country Profile: Kenya, June 2007, 23 April 2011, Kenya also exports textiles worth over $400million under Agoa.Privatisation of state corporations like the defunct Kenya Post and Telecommunications Company, which resulted in East Africa's most profitable company—Safaricom, has led to their revival because of massive private investment.{{as of|2011|May}}, economic prospects are positive with 4–5% GDP growth expected, largely because of expansions in tourism, telecommunications, transport, construction and a recovery in agriculture. The World Bank estimated growth of 4.3% in 2012.WEB,weblink Kenya Economic Update, The World Bank, Fengler, Wolfgang, 5 December 2012, (File:Kenya, Trends in the Human Development Index 1970-2010.png|thumb|upright=1.6|Kenya, Trends in the Human Development Index 1970–2010.)In March 1996, the presidents of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda re-established the East African Community (EAC). The EAC's objectives include harmonising tariffs and customs regimes, free movement of people, and improving regional infrastructures. In March 2004, the three East African countries signed a Customs Union Agreement.Kenya has a relatively speaking a more developed financial services sector than its neighbours. The Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE) is ranked 4th in Africa in terms of market capitalisation. The Kenyan banking system is supervised by the Central Bank of Kenya (CBK). As of late July 2004, the system consisted of 43 commercial banks (down from 48 in 2001), several non-bank financial institutions, including mortgage companies, four savings and loan associations, and several core foreign-exchange bureaus.


File:Elephants at Amboseli national park against Mount Kilimanjaro.jpg|thumb|Amboseli National ParkAmboseli National ParkFile:Tsavo east panorama.jpg|thumb|Tsavo East National ParkTsavo East National ParkTourism in Kenya is the second-largest source of foreign exchange revenue following Blij, Harm. The World Today: Concepts and Regions in Geography 4th edition. Wiley Publishing: Hoboken, NJ The Kenya Tourism Board is responsible for maintaining information pertaining to tourism in Kenya.WEB,weblink Kenya Tourism Board,, 2 March 2017, WEB,weblink Kenya Law: January 2017,, 2 March 2017, The main tourist attractions are photo safaris through the 60 national parks and game reserves. Other attractions include the wildebeest migration at the Masaai Mara which is considered the 7th wonder of the world, historical mosques and colonial-era forts at Mombasa, Malindi, and Lamu; the renowned vast scenery like the snow white capped Mount Kenya, the Great Rift Valley; the tea plantations at Kericho; the coffee plantations at Thika; a splendid view of Mt. Kilimanjaro across the border into Tanzania;WEB,weblink Tourism, travel, and recreation - Kenya - area,, 2 March 2017, and the beaches along the Swahili Coast, in the Indian Ocean. Tourists, the largest number being from Germany and the United Kingdom, are attracted mainly to the coastal beaches and the game reserves, notably, the expansive East and Tsavo West National Park {{convert|20808|km2|abbr=out}} in the southeast.


File:Kenya-Tealand-Near-Kericho-2012.JPG|thumb|A Tea farm near Kericho, Kericho CountyKericho CountyAgriculture is the second largest contributor to Kenya's gross domestic product (GDP), after the service sector. In 2005 agriculture, including forestry and fishing, accounted for 24% of GDP, as well as for 18% of wage employment and 50% of revenue from exports. The principal cash crops are tea, horticultural produce, and coffee. Horticultural produce and tea are the main growth sectors and the two most valuable of all of Kenya's exports. The production of major food staples such as corn is subject to sharp weather-related fluctuations. Production downturns periodically necessitate food aid—for example, in 2004 aid for 1.8 million people because of one of Kenya's intermittent droughts.WEB,weblink Drought leaves two million Kenyans in need of food aid, United Nations World Food Programme, 26 April 2005, 5 August 2016, A consortium led by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) has had some success in helping farmers grow new pigeon pea varieties, instead of maize, in particularly dry areas. Pigeon peas are very drought resistant, so can be grown in areas with less than 650 mm annual rainfall. Successive projects encouraged the commercialisation of legumes, by stimulating the growth of local seed production and agro-dealer networks for distribution and marketing. This work, which included linking producers to wholesalers, helped to increase local producer prices by 20–25% in Nairobi and Mombasa. The commercialisation of the pigeon pea is now enabling some farmers to buy assets, ranging from mobile phones to productive land and livestock, and is opening pathways for them to move out of poverty.Pigeonpea in Eastern and Southern Africa {{webarchive|url= |date=18 July 2014 }}. ICRISAT Posted 10 October 2012. Downloaded 26 January 2014.Tea, coffee, sisal, pyrethrum, corn, and wheat are grown in the fertile highlands, one of the most successful agricultural production regions in Africa. Livestock predominates in the semi-arid savanna to the north and east. Coconuts, pineapples, cashew nuts, cotton, sugarcane, sisal, and corn are grown in the lower-lying areas. Kenya has not attained the level of investment and efficiency in agriculture that can guarantee food security and coupled with resulting poverty (53% of the population lives below the poverty line), a significant portion of the population regularly starves and is heavily dependent on food aid. Poor roads, an inadequate railway network, under-used water transport and expensive air transport have isolated mostly arid and semi-arid areas and farmers in other regions often leave food to rot in the fields because they cannot access markets. This was last seen in August and September 2011 prompting the Kenyans for Kenya initiative by the Red Cross.Towards Achieving Food Security in Kenya. Joseph Kinyua, Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture, Kenya; 1 April 2004, Kampala, Uganda(File:Kapsowar1.JPG|thumb|Agricultural countryside in Kenya)Kenya's irrigation sector is categorized into three organizational types: smallholder schemes, centrally-managed public schemes and private/commercial irrigation schemes.The smallholder schemes are owned, developed and managed by individuals or groups of farmers operating as water users or self-help groups. Irrigation is carried out on individual or on group farms averaging 0.1–0.4 ha. There are about 3,000 smallholder irrigation schemes covering a total area of 47,000 ha.The country has seven large, centrally managed irrigation schemes, namely Mwea, Bura, Hola, Perkera, West Kano, Bunyala and Ahero covering a total commanded area of 18,200 ha and averaging 2,600 ha per scheme. These schemes are managed by the National Irrigation Board and account for 18% of irrigated land area in Kenya.Large-scale private commercial farms cover 45,000 hectares accounting for 40% of irrigated land. They utilize high technology and produce high-value crops for the export market, especially flowers and vegetables.Republic of Kenya, Ministry of Water and Irrigation (2009) National Irrigation and Drainage Policy:3–4.Kenya is the world's 3rd largest exporter of cut flowers.WEB, Veselinovic, Milena,weblink Got roses this Valentine's Day? They probably came from Kenya,, 16 March 2015, 17 July 2016, Roughly half of Kenya's 127 flower farms are concentrated around Lake Naivasha, 90 kilometers northwest of Nairobi. To speed their export, Nairobi airport has a terminal dedicated to the transport of flowers and vegetables.

Industry and manufacturing

File:Orrling of Nairobi.jpg|thumb|300px|The Kenya Commercial Bank headquarters at KENCOM HouseKENCOM HouseAlthough Kenya is a low middle income country, manufacturing accounts for 14% of the GDP with industrial activity, concentrated around the three largest urban centres, Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu and is dominated by food-processing industries such as grain milling, beer production, sugarcane crushing, and the fabrication of consumer goods, e.g., vehicles from kits.There is a cement production industry.WEB,weblink Cement production keeps pace with growing demand, 5 September 2015, Construction Business Review, 13 May 2016, Kenya has an oil refinery that processes imported crude petroleum into petroleum products, mainly for the domestic market. In addition, a substantial and expanding informal sector commonly referred to as jua kali engages in small-scale manufacturing of household goods, auto parts, and farm implements.WEB,weblink Kenya: Employers' organizations taking the lead on linking the informal sector to formal Kenyan enterprises, 2 August 2005,, 13 May 2016, WEB,weblink Jua Kali sector plays key role in economic development and job creation, 13 November 2015, MyGov, 13 May 2016,weblink" title="">weblink 10 June 2016, dead, dmy-all, Kenya's inclusion among the beneficiaries of the US Government's African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) has given a boost to manufacturing in recent years. Since AGOA took effect in 2000, Kenya's clothing sales to the United States increased from US$44 million to US$270 million (2006).WEB,weblink Industry, Kamau, Pithon, Brand Kenya Board, 13 May 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 June 2016, dmy-all, Other initiatives to strengthen manufacturing have been the new government's favourable tax measures, including the removal of duty on capital equipment and other raw materials.WEB,weblink Kenya, 10 June 2016,


The country has an extensive network of paved and unpaved roads. Kenya's railway system links the nation's ports and major cities, connecting it with neighbouring Uganda. There are 15 airports which have paved runways.


The largest share of Kenya's electricity supply comes from geothermal energyElectricity in Kenya {{Webarchive|url= |date=11 August 2018 }}. IEA 2014 followed by hydroelectric stations at dams along the upper Tana River, as well as the Turkwel Gorge Dam in the west. A petroleum-fired plant on the coast, geothermal facilities at Olkaria (near Nairobi), and electricity imported from Uganda make up the rest of the supply. Kenya's installed capacity stood at 1,142 megawatts between 2001 and 2003. The state-owned Kenya Electricity Generating Company (KenGen), established in 1997 under the name of Kenya Power Company, handles the generation of electricity, while Kenya Power handles the electricity transmission and distribution system in the country. Shortfalls of electricity occur periodically, when drought reduces water flow. To become energy sufficient, Kenya aims to build a nuclear power plant by 2017.McGregor, Sarah (20 September 2010) Kenya Aims to Build a Nuclear Power Plant by 2017. Bloomberg L.P.File:Worker in Olkaria Kenya.jpg|thumb|upright|Workers at Olkaria Geothermal Power Plant ]]Kenya has proven deposits of oil in Turkana. Tullow Oil estimates Kenya's oil reserves to be around One billion barrels.Kenya From Nowhere Plans East Africa's First Oil Exports: Energy. Bloomberg L.P.. Exploration is still continuing to determine if there are more reserves. Kenya currently imports all crude petroleum requirements. Kenya has no strategic reserves and relies solely on oil marketers' 21-day oil reserves required under industry regulations. Petroleum accounts for 20% to 25% of the national import bill.Kenya plans strategic oil reserve. Reuters (10 November 2011).

Overall Chinese investment and trade

Published comments on Kenya's Capital FM website by Liu Guangyuan, China's ambassador to Kenya, at the time of President Kenyatta's 2013 trip to Beijing, said, "Chinese investment in Kenya ... reached $474 million, representing Kenya's largest source of foreign direct investment, and ... bilateral trade ... reached $2.84 billion" in 2012. Kenyatta was "[a]ccompanied by 60 Kenyan business people [and hoped to] ... gain support from China for a planned $2.5 billion railway from the southern Kenyan port of Mombasa to neighboring Uganda, as well as a nearly $1.8 billion dam", according to a statement from the president's office also at the time of the trip.Base Titanium, a subsidiary of Base resources of Australia, shipped its first major consignment of minerals to China. About 25,000 tonnes of ilmenite was flagged off the Kenyan coastal town of Kilifi. The first shipment was expected to earn Kenya about Kshs15{{en dash}}20 billion in earnings.WEB,weblink Standard Digital News : : Business – Kenya joins mineral exporters as first titanium cargo leaves port, Jackson Okoth, Philip Mwakio, 14 February 2014, Standard Digital News, 15 February 2015, Recently the Chinese contracted railway project from Nairobi to Mombasa was suspended due to dispute over compensation for land acquisition.WEB,weblink Construction of Kenyan standard-gauge line suspended, Shem Oirere, 15 February 2015,

Vision 2030

File:Vision2030 logo.svg|thumb|The official logo of Vision 2030.]]In 2007, the Kenyan government unveiled Vision 2030, an economic development programme it hopes will put the country in the same league as the Asian Economic Tigers by the year 2030. In 2013, it launched a National Climate Change Action Plan, having acknowledged that omitting climate as a key development issue in Vision 2030 was an oversight. The 200-page Action Plan, developed with support from the Climate & Development Knowledge Network, sets out the Government of Kenya's vision for a 'low carbon climate resilient development pathway'. At the launch in March 2013, the Secretary of the Ministry of Planning, National Development and Vision 2030 emphasised that climate would be a central issue in the renewed Medium Term Plan that would be launched in the coming months. This would create a direct and robust delivery framework for the Action Plan and ensure climate change is treated as an economy-wide issue.NEWS: Kenya's National Climate Change Action Plan is officially launched, Climate & Development Knowledge Network, 28 March 2013{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;" {{resize|120%|Economic summary}}!style="text-align:left;"| GDP| $41.84 billion (2012) at Market Price. $76.07 billion (Purchasing Power Parity, 2012)There exists an informal economy that is never counted as part of the official GDP figures.!style="text-align:left;"| Annual growth rate| 5.1% (2012)!style="text-align:left;"| Per capita income| Per Capita Income (PPP)= $1,800!style="text-align:left;"| Agricultural produce{{nbsp|2}}Maize>corn, wheat, sugarcane, fruit, vegetables, dairy products, beef, pork, poultry, eggs!style="text-align:left;"| Industry| small-scale consumer goods (plastic, furniture, batteries, textiles, clothing, soap, cigarettes, flour), agricultural products, horticulture, oil refining; aluminium, steel, lead; cement, commercial ship repair, tourism{| class="wikitable" style="font-size:90%;" Trade in 2012!style="text-align:left;"| Exports| $5.942 billion| tea, coffee, horticultural products, petroleum products, cement, fish!style="text-align:left;"| Major marketsUganda 9.9%, Tanzania 9.6%, Netherlands 8.4%, UK, 8.1%, US 6.2%, Egypt 4.9%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 4.2% (2012)!style="text-align:left;"| Imports| $14.39 billion| machinery and transportation equipment, petroleum products, motor vehicles, iron and steel, resins and plastics!style="text-align:left;"| Major suppliers China 15.3%, India 13.8%, UAE 10.5%, Saudi Arabia 7.3%, South Africa 5.5%, Japan 4.0% (2012)

Oil exploration

{{See also|Energy in Kenya#Petroleum|l1=Oil in Kenya}}File:Kenya Aerial 2009-08-27 14-26-44.JPG|thumb|upright=1.35|Lake TurkanaLake TurkanaKenya has proven oil deposits in Turkana County. President Mwai Kibaki announced on 26 March 2012 that Tullow Oil, an Anglo-Irish oil exploration firm, had struck oil but its commercial viability and subsequent production would take about three years to confirm.BBC News – Kenya oil discovery after Tullow Oil drilling. BBC. 26 March 2012.Early in 2006 Chinese president Hu Jintao signed an oil exploration contract with Kenya, part of a series of deals designed to keep Africa's natural resources flowing to China's rapidly expanding economy.The deal allowed for China's state-controlled offshore oil and gas company, CNOOC, to prospect for oil in Kenya, which is just beginning to drill its first exploratory wells on the borders of Sudan and the disputed area of North Eastern Province of the border with Somalia and in coastal waters. There are formal estimates of the possible reserves of oil discovered.NEWS,weblink China's scramble for Africa finds a welcome in Kenya, Barber, Lionel, England, Andrew, 10 August 2006, Financial Times, 27 June 2008,

Child labour and prostitution

File:Enfants Masai - Kenya décembre 1990.jpg|thumb|upright=1.35|Maasai peopleMaasai peopleChild labour is common in Kenya. Most working children are active in agriculture.WEB, Country profile report – Kenya, 2009, United Nations,weblink In 2006, UNICEF estimated that up to 30% of girls in the coastal areas of Malindi, Mombasa, Kilifi, and Diani were subject to prostitution. Most of the prostitutes in Kenya are aged 9–18. The Ministry of Gender and Child Affairs employed 400 child protection officers in 2009. The causes of child labour include poverty, the lack of access to education and weak government institutions. Kenya has ratified Convention No. 81 on labour inspection in industries and Convention No. 129 on labour inspection in agriculture.JOURNAL, The Invisible Child Worker in Kenya: The Intersection of Poverty, Legislation and Culture, Suda, Collette, Nordic Journal of African Studies, 10, 163–175, 2001,weblink 2, (File:African Kids working in the family farm.jpg|thumb|Child labour in Kenya)

Microfinance in Kenya

24 institutions offer business loans on a large scale, specific agriculture loans, education loans, and for any other purpose loans. Additionally there are:
  • emergency loans, which are more expensive in respect to interest rates, but are quickly available
  • group loans for smaller groups (4–5 members) and larger groups (up to 30 members)
  • women loans, which are also available to a group of women
Out of approximately 40 million Kenyans, about 14 million Kenyans are not able to receive financial service through formal loan application service and an additional 12 million Kenyans have no access to financial service institutions at all. Further, 1 million Kenyans are reliant on informal groups for receiving financial aid.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2015-09-25, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 June 2013, dmy-all, Conditions for microfinance products
  • Eligibility criteria: the general criteria might include gender as in the case for special women loans, to be at least 18 years old, to own a valid Kenyan ID, have a business, demonstrate the ability to repay the loan, and to be a customer of the institution.
  • Credit scoring: there is no advanced credit scoring system and the majority has not stated any official loan distribution system. However, some institutions require to have an existing business for at least 3 months, own a small amount of cash, provide the institution with a business plan or proposal, have at least one guarantor, or to attend group meetings or training. For group loans, almost half of the institutions require group members to guarantee for each other.
  • Interest rate: they are mostly calculated on a flat basis and some at a declining balance. More than 90% of the institutions require monthly interest payments. The average interest rate is 30–40% for loans up to 500,000 Kenyan Shilling. For loans above 500,000 Kenyan Shilling, interest rates go up to 71%.


File:Kikuyu woman traditional dress.jpg|thumb|upright|A Bantu Kikuyu woman in traditional attire]]{|class="wikitable" style="float: right; margin-left: 10px"! colspan="4" style="text-align:center; background:#cfb;"|Population{{UN_Population|ref}}! style="background:#cfb;"|Year! style="background:#cfb;"|Million1950 style="text-align:right;"|6.12000 style="text-align:right;"|31.4{{UN_Population{{#expr:{{formatnum:{{UN_PopulationR}}/1e6 round 1}}Kenya had a population of approximately 48 million people in January 2017. Kenya has a young population, with 73% of residents aged below 30 years because of rapid population growth;"Why a new president may slow population growth". The Christian Science Monitor. 14 January 2008.JOURNAL, Zinkina J., Korotayev A.,weblink Explosive Population Growth in Tropical Africa: Crucial Omission in Development Forecasts (Emerging Risks and Way Out), World Futures, 70, 2, 2014, 120–139, 10.1080/02604027.2014.894868,, from 2.9 million to 40 million inhabitants over the last century."Exploding population". The New York Times. 7 January 2008.Kenya's capital, Nairobi, is home to Kibera, one of the world's largest slums. The shanty town is believed to house between 170,000NEWS,weblink Myth shattered: Kibera numbers fail to add up, 3 September 2010, Daily Nation, Muchiri, Karanja, 4 September 2010, and 1 million locals.WEB,weblink World Water Day Focus on Global Sewage Flood, National Geographic, 22 March 2010, 10 February 2012, The UNHCR base in Dadaab in the north also currently houses around 500,000 people.The UN Refugee Agency.

Ethnic groups

File:A woman wearing traditional tribal beads in Turkana, Kenya, October 2012 (8405274783).jpg|thumb|upright=0.75|A Nilotic Turkana woman wearing traditional neck beads]]Kenya has a diverse population that includes most major ethnoracial and linguistic groups found in Africa. There are an estimated 47 different communities, with Bantus (67%) and Nilotes (30%) constituting the majority of local residents.BOOK, Asongu, J. J., Marr, Marvee, Doing Business Abroad: A Handbook for Expatriates, 2007, Greenview Publishing Co., 978-0-9797976-3-7, 12 & 112, Cushitic groups also form a small ethnic minority, as do Arabs, Indians and Europeans.BOOK, {{google books, y, bfT2njyPThgC, 60, |title=Peak Revision K.C.P.E. Social Studies|publisher=East African Publishers|isbn=9789966254504|language=en}}According to the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS), Kenya has a total population of 38,610,097 inhabitants. The largest native ethnic groups are the Kikuyu (6,622,576), Luhya (5,338,666), Kalenjin (4,967,328), Luo (4,044,440), Kamba (3,893,157), Somalis (3,510,757), Kisii (2,205,669), Mijikenda (1,960,574), Meru (1,658,108), Turkana (988,592), and Maasai (841,622). The North Eastern Province of Kenya, formerly known as NFD, is predominantly inhabited by the indigenous ethnic Somalis. Foreign-rooted populations include Somalis (from Somalia), Kenyan Arabs, Asians and Europeans.WEB,weblink The 2009 Kenya Population and Housing Census Volume II – Population and Household Distribution by Social Economic Characteristics p. 397-398., Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS),


Kenya's various ethnic groups typically speak their mother tongues within their own communities. The two official languages, English and Swahili, are used in varying degrees of fluency for communication with other populations. English is widely spoken in commerce, schooling and government.BOOK, Proquest Info & Learning (COR), Culturegrams: World Edition, 2009, Proquest/Csa Journal Div, 978-0-9778091-6-5, 98, Peri-urban and rural dwellers are less multilingual, with many in rural areas speaking only their native languages.BOOK, Brown, E. K., Asher, R. E., Simpson, J. M. Y., Encyclopedia of language & linguistics, Volume 1, Edition 2, 2006, Elsevier, 978-0-08-044299-0, 181, British English is primarily used in Kenya. Additionally, a distinct local dialect, Kenyan English, is used by some communities and individuals in the country, and contains features unique to it that were derived from local Bantu languages, such as Kiswahili and Kikuyu.WEB, Nyaggah, Lynette Behm, Cross-linguistic influence in Kenyan English: The impact of Swahili and Kikuyu on syntax, University of California,weblink 8 August 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 December 2016, dmy-all, It has been developing since colonisation and also contains certain elements of American English. Sheng is a Kiswahili-based cant spoken in some urban areas. Primarily consisting of a mixture of Kiswahili and English, it is an example of linguistic code-switching.BOOK, Derek Nurse, Gérard Philippson, Bantu Languages, 2006, Routledge, 978-1-135-79683-9, 197, {{google books, y, M8cHBAAAQBAJ, |accessdate=20 October 2014}}There are a total of 69 languages spoken in Kenya. Most belong to two broad language families: Niger-Congo (Bantu branch) and Nilo-Saharan (Nilotic branch), spoken by the country's Bantu and Nilotic populations, respectively. The Cushitic and Arab ethnic minorities speak languages belonging to the separate Afroasiatic family, with the Indian and European residents speaking languages from the Indo-European family.Languages of Kenya.

Urban centres

{{Largest cities of Kenya}}


(File:Catholic Church in Mombasa.JPG|thumb|Holy Ghost Roman Catholic Cathedral in Mombasa.)File:Mwingi mosque.JPG|thumb|Mosque in MwingiMwingiThe majority of Kenyans are Christian (83%), of whom 47.7% are Protestant and 23.5% are Roman Catholic.Wycliffe Ambetsa Oparanya (31 August 2010)WEB,weblink 2009 Population & Housing Census Results, 15 January 2013, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink 10 August 2013, dmy, . Ministry of State for Planning. The Presbyterian Church of East Africa has 3 million followers in Kenya and surrounding countries.Address data base of Reformed churches and institutions. Retrieved 16 April 2013. There are smaller conservative Reformed churches, the Africa Evangelical Presbyterian Church,weblink" title="">The World Reformed Fellowship – Promoting Reformed Partnerships Worldwide – News. Retrieved 16 April 2013. the Independent Presbyterian Church in Kenya, and the Reformed Church of East Africa. Orthodox Christianity counts 621,200 adherents.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 11 March 2008, Kenya,, 3 February 2008, 26 February 2013, Kenya has by far the highest number of Quakers of any country in the world, with around 146,300 members.WEB, Samuel, Bill, World Distribution of Quakers, 2012 -,weblink, 24 December 2018, The only Jewish synagogue in the country is located in Nairobi.Islam is the second largest religion, comprising 15% of the population. Sixty percent of Kenyan Muslims live in the Coastal Region, comprising 50% of the total population there, while the upper part of Kenya's Eastern Region is home to 10% of the country's Muslims, where they constitute the majority religious group.WEB,weblink Kenya: International Religious Freedom Report 2008, U.S. Department of State, 2008, 16 April 2010, Indigenous beliefs are practiced by 1.7% of the population, although many self-identifying Christians and Muslims maintain some traditional beliefs and customs. Nonreligious Kenyans make up 2.4% of the population.Kenya has one of Africa's largest Hindu populations (around 300,000), mostly of Indian origin. It also hosts among the largest number of adherents of the Baha'i Faith (430,000), about 1% of the population. There is also a small Buddhist community.


File:Kapsowarhospital1.jpg|thumb|Outpatient Department of AIC Kapsowar HospitalWEB,weblink AIC Mission Hospital Kapsowar Official Website, in KapsowarKapsowarPrivate health facilities are diverse, highly dynamic and difficult to classify unlike public health facilities which are easily grouped in classes that consist of community-based (level I) services which are run by community health workers, dispensaries (level II facilities) which are run by nurses, health centers (level III facilities) which are run by clinical officers, sub-county hospitals (level IV facilities) which may be run by a clinical officer or a medical officer, county hospitals (level V facilities) which may be run by a medical officer or a medical practitioner, and national referral hospitals (level VI facilities) which are run by fully qualified medical practitioners.(File:Table rco co mo medical practitioners.png|thumb|Table showing different grades of clinical officers, medical officers and medical practitioners in Kenya's public service)Nurses are by far the largest group of front-line health care providers in all sectors followed by clinical officers, medical officers and medical practitioners. According to the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, in 2011 there were 65,000 qualified nurses registered in the country; 8,600 clinical officers and 7,000 doctors for the population of 43 million people (These figures from official registers include those who have died or left the profession hence the actual number of these workers may be lower).WEB,weblink Kenya Facts, 10 June 2016, Traditional healers (Herbalists, witch doctors and faith healers) are readily available, trusted and widely consulted as practitioners of first or last choice by both rural and urban dwellers.Despite major achievements in the health sector, Kenya still faces many challenges. The life expectancy estimate has dropped to approximately 55 years in 2009—five years below 1990 levels.UNICEF Statistics: Kenya. The infant mortality rate is high at approximately 44 deaths per 1,000 children in 2012.Infant Mortality ranks. The World Factbook The WHO estimated in 2011 that only 42% of births were attended by a skilled health professional.WHO Health-Related Millennium Development Goals Report 2011.Diseases of poverty directly correlate with a country's economic performance and wealth distribution: Half of Kenyans live below the poverty level. Preventable diseases like malaria, HIV/AIDS, pneumonia, diarrhoea and malnutrition are the biggest burden, major child-killers, and responsible for much morbidity; weak policies, corruption, inadequate health workers, weak management and poor leadership in the public health sector are largely to blame. According to 2009 estimates, HIV/AIDS prevalence is about 6.3% of the adult population.CIA World Factbook: HIV/AIDS – Adult Prevalence Rate Rankings. Retrieved 23 April 2012. However, the 2011 UNAIDS Report suggests that the HIV epidemic may be improving in Kenya, as HIV prevalence is declining among young people (ages 15–24) and pregnant women.World AIDS Day Report 2011. UNAIDS Kenya had an estimated 15 million cases of malaria in 2006."Kenya", pp. 111–113 in World Malaria report 2009. WHO.


(File:Kenyan Women in Nairobi 01.jpg|thumb|Kenyan women in Nairobi)The total fertility rate in Kenya is estimated to be 4.49 children per woman in 2012.WEB,weblink IFs Forecast – Version 7.00 – Google Public Data Explorer, 15 February 2015, According to a 2008–09 survey by the Kenyan government, the total fertility rate was 4.6% and the contraception usage rate among married women was 46%.Kenya – Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008–09. Kenya National Data Archive (KeNADA) Maternal mortality is high, partly because of female genital mutilation, with about 27% of women having undergone it.WEB,weblink WHO – Female genital mutilation and other harmful practices, 15 February 2015, This practice is however on the decline as the country becomes more modernised, and the practice was also banned in the country in 2011.NEWS,weblink Boseley, Sarah, 7 January 2012, FGM: Kenya acts against unkindest cut, 8 September 2011, The Guardian, London, Women were economically empowered before colonialization. By colonial land alienation, women lost access and control of land.WEB
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, Median age at first marriage increases with increasing education.WEB, Demographic and Health Survey 2014,weblink Kenya National Bureau of Statistics, 2018-02-02, Rape, defilement and battering are not always seen as serious crimes.WEB,weblink MAKING JUSTICE WORK FOR WOMEN Kenya Country Report, Sydney eScholarship Repository, 2018-02-02, Reports of sexual assault are not always taken seriously.


(File:Community work in Kenya DVIDS342488.jpg|thumb|School children in a classroom.)File:MSc student at Kenyatta University.jpg|thumb|An MSc student at Kenyatta UniversityKenyatta UniversityChildren attend nursery school, or kindergarten in the private sector until they are five years old. This lasts one to three years (KG1, KG2 and KG3) and is financed privately because there has been no government policy regarding it until recently.WEB,weblink Government to review Early Childhood Development policy, Reporter, Standard, Standard Digital News, 23 June 2016, Basic formal education starts at age six years and lasts 12 years consisting of eight years in primary school and four years in high school or secondary school. Primary school is free in public schools and those attending can join a vocational youth/village polytechnic or make their own arrangements for an apprenticeship program and learn a trade such as tailoring, carpentry, motor vehicle repair, brick-laying and masonry for about two years.WEB,weblink Primary School Education in Kenya,, 10 June 2016, Those who complete high school can join a polytechnic or other technical college and study for three years, or proceed directly to the university and study for four years. Graduates from the polytechnics and colleges can then join the workforce and later obtain a specialized higher diploma qualification after a further one to two years of training, or join the university—usually in the second or third year of their respective course. The higher diploma is accepted by many employers in place of a bachelor's degree and direct or accelerated admission to post-graduate studies is possible in some universities.(File:Masai girl at school doing maths.jpg|thumb|A Maasai girl at school.)Public universities in Kenya are highly commercialized institutions and only a small fraction of qualified high school graduates are admitted on limited government-sponsorship into programs of their choice. Most are admitted into the social sciences, which are cheap to run, or as self-sponsored students paying the full cost of their studies. Most qualified students who miss out opt for middle-level diploma programs in public or private universities, colleges, and polytechnics.38.5 percent of the Kenyan adult population is illiterate.WEB,weblink Kenya National Adult Literacy Survey report,, 27 June 2016, There are very wide regional disparities; for example, Nairobi had the highest level of literacy, 87.1 per cent, compared to North Eastern Province, the lowest, at 8.0 per cent. Preschool, which targets children from age three to five, is an integral component of the education system and is a key requirement for admission to Standard One (First Grade). At the end of primary education, pupils sit the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE), which determines those who proceed to secondary school or vocational training. The result of this examination is needed for placement at secondary school.Primary school is for students aged 6/7-13/14 years. For those who proceed to the secondary level, there is a national examination at the end of Form Four â€“ the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE), which determines those proceeding to the universities, other professional training or employment. Students sit examinations in eight subjects of their choosing. However, English, Kiswahili and mathematics are compulsory subjects.The Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service (KUCCPS), formerly the Joint Admissions Board (JAB), is responsible for selecting students joining the public universities. Other than the public schools, there are many private schools, mainly in urban areas. Similarly, there are a number of international schools catering to various overseas educational systems.Despite its impressive commercial approach and interests in the country, Kenya's academia and higher education system is notoriously rigid and disconnected from the needs of the local labour market and is widely blamed for the high number of unemployable and "half-baked" university graduates who struggle to fit in the modern workplace.WEB,weblink Varsity expansion blamed for half-baked graduates,


(File:Kenyan dancers.jpg|thumb|Kenyan boys and girls performing a traditional dance)File:Nation media house.jpg|thumb|Nation Media House which hosts the Nation Media GroupNation Media GroupThe culture of Kenya consists of multiple traditions. Kenya has no single prominent culture that identifies it. It instead consists of the various cultures of the country's different communities.Notable populations include the Swahili on the coast, several other Bantu communities in the central and western regions, and Nilotic communities in the northwest. The Maasai culture is well known to tourism, despite constituting a relatively small part of Kenya's population. They are renowned for their elaborate upper body adornment and jewellery.Additionally, Kenya has an extensive music, television and theater scene.


{{Further|Media of Kenya}}Kenya has a number of media outlets that broadcast domestically and globally. They cover news, business, sports and entertainment.Popular Kenyan newspapers include: Television stations based in Kenya include: All of these terrestrial channels are transmitted via a DVB T2 digital TV signal.


File:Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o (signing autographs in London).jpg|thumb|Kenyan author Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'oNgũgĩ wa Thiong'oNgũgĩ wa Thiong'o is one of the best known writers of Kenya. His novel, Weep Not, Child, is an illustration of life in Kenya during the British occupation. The story details the effects of the Mau Mau on the lives of Kenyans. Its combination of themes—colonialism, education, and love—helped to make it one of the best-known novels in Africa.M.G. Vassanji's 2003 novel The In-Between World of Vikram Lall won the Giller Prize in 2003. It is the fictional memoir of a Kenyan of Indian heritage and his family as they adjust to the changing political climates in colonial and post-colonial Kenya.Since 2003, the literary journal Kwani? has been publishing Kenyan contemporary literature. Additionally, Kenya has also been nurturing emerging versatile authors such as Paul Kipchumba (Kipwendui, Kibiwott) who demonstrate pan-African outlook (see Africa in China's 21st Century: In Search of a Strategy (2017).BOOK, Africa in China's 21st Century: In Search of a Strategy, Independently published, December 3, 2017, 978-1973456803,


File:Juacali 2.jpg|thumb|Popular Kenyan musician Jua CaliJua CaliKenya has a diverse assortment of popular music forms, in addition to multiple types of folk music based on the variety over 40 regional languages.On the Beat – Tapping the Potential of Kenya's Music Industry, WIPO Magazine (July 2007).The drums are the most dominant instrument in popular Kenyan music. Drum beats are very complex and include both native rhythm and imported ones, especially the Congolese cavacha rhythm. Popular Kenyan music usually involves the interplay of multiple parts, and more recently, showy guitar solos as well. There are also a number of local hip-hop artists, including Jua Cali afro-pop bands such as Sauti Sol, and musicians who do local genres like benga, such as Akothee.Lyrics are most often in Kiswahili or English. There is also some emerging aspect of Lingala borrowed from Congolese musicians. Lyrics are also written in local languages. Urban radio generally only plays English music, though there also exist a number of vernacular radio stations.Zilizopendwa is a genre of local urban music that was recorded in the 1960s, 70s and 80s by musicians such as Daudi Kabaka, Fadhili William and Sukuma Bin Ongaro, and is particularly revered and enjoyed by older people—having been popularised by the Kenya Broadcasting Corporation's Kiswahili service (formerly called Voice of Kenya or VOK).The isukuti is a vigorous dance performed by the Luhya sub-tribes to the beat of a traditional drum called the Isukuti during many occasions such as the birth of a child, marriage and funerals. Other traditional dances include the Ohangla among the Luo, Nzele among the Mijikenda, Mugithi among the Kikuyu and Taarab among the Swahili.Additionally, Kenya has a growing Christian gospel music scene. Prominent local gospel musicians include the Kenyan Boys Choir.Benga music has been popular since the late 1960s, especially in the area around Lake Victoria. The word benga is occasionally used to refer to any kind of pop music. Bass, guitar and percussion are the usual instruments.


(File:2012 Olympics - Womens 5000m start 4.jpg|thumb|Jepkosgei Kipyego and Jepkemoi Cheruiyot at London 2012 Olympics 5,000 meters)Kenya is active in several sports, among them cricket, rallying, football, rugby union, field hockey and boxing. The country is known chiefly for its dominance in middle-distance and long-distance athletics, having consistently produced Olympic and Commonwealth Games champions in various distance events, especially in 800 m, 1,500 m, 3,000 m steeplechase, 5,000 m, 10,000 m and the marathon. Kenyan athletes (particularly Kalenjin) continue to dominate the world of distance running, although competition from Morocco and Ethiopia has reduced this supremacy. Kenya's best-known athletes included the four-time women's Boston Marathon winner and two-time world champion Catherine Ndereba, 800m world record holder David Rudisha, former Marathon world record-holder Paul Tergat, and John Ngugi.Kenya won several medals during the Beijing Olympics, six gold, four silver and four bronze, making it Africa's most successful nation in the 2008 Olympics. New athletes gained attention, such as Pamela Jelimo, the women's 800m gold medalist who went on to win the IAAF Golden League jackpot, and Samuel Wanjiru who won the men's marathon. Retired Olympic and Commonwealth Games champion Kipchoge Keino helped usher in Kenya's ongoing distance dynasty in the 1970s and was followed by Commonwealth Champion Henry Rono's spectacular string of world record performances. Lately, there has been controversy in Kenyan athletics circles, with the defection of a number of Kenyan athletes to represent other countries, chiefly Bahrain and Qatar.IAAF: Changes of Allegiance 1998 to 2005 {{webarchive|url= |date=9 May 2013 }}. The Kenyan Ministry of Sports has tried to stop the defections, but they have continued anyway, with Bernard Lagat the latest, choosing to represent the United States. Most of these defections occur because of economic or financial factors.NEWS,weblink Kenya examines track star defections, Mynott, Adam, 20 May 2005, BBC News, 10 June 2016, Decisions by the Kenyan government to tax athletes' earnings may also be a reason for defection.NEWS,weblink Furious Kenyans threaten to defect over taxes, 22 January 2014, Reuters, 10 June 2016, Some elite Kenyan runners who cannot qualify for their country's strong national team find it easier to qualify by running for other countries.WEB,weblink Why the defections?,, 10 June 2016, File:David Rudisha Daegu 2011.jpg|thumb|Kenyan Olympic and world record holder in the 800 meters, David RudishaDavid RudishaKenya has been a dominant force in women's volleyball within Africa, with both the clubs and the national team winning various continental championships in the past decade.WEB,weblink Kenya women's volleyball caps three decades of excellence {{!, Kenya Page Blog||access-date=10 June 2016}}WEB,weblink Volleyball: Champions Kenya Scoop Major Continental Awards {{!, ||access-date=10 June 2016}} The women's team has competed at the Olympics and World Championships though without any notable success. Cricket is another popular sport, also ranking as the most successful team sport. Kenya has competed in the Cricket World Cup since 1996. They upset some of the world's best teams and reached the semi-finals of the 2003 tournament. They won the inaugural World Cricket League Division 1 hosted in Nairobi and participated in the World T20. They also participated in the ICC Cricket World Cup 2011. Their current captain is Rakep Patel.WEB,weblink :: Cricket Kenya,, 10 June 2016, Kenya is represented by Lucas Onyango as a professional rugby league player who plays with the English club Oldham. Besides the former Super League team, he has played for the Widnes Vikings and rugby union with the Sale Sharks.WEB,weblink Nakuru upset KCB in Kenya Cup, Daily Nation, 25 July 2009, 16 April 2010, Rugby union is increasing in popularity, especially with the annual Safari Sevens tournament. The Kenya Sevens team ranked 9th in IRB Sevens World Series for the 2006 season. In 2016, the team beat Fiji at the Singapore Sevens finals, making Kenya the second African nation after South Africa to win a World Series championship.NEWS,weblink Kenya win Singapore Sevens title, 17 April 2016, SuperSport, 10 June 2016, WEB,weblink Kenya beat Fiji to win their first Sevens World Series title, BBC Sport, 10 June 2016, WEB,weblink HSBC World Rugby Sevens Series: Kenya shock Fiji and win maiden title in Singapore, The Telegraph, 10 June 2016, Kenya was also a regional powerhouse in football. However, its dominance has been eroded by wrangles within the now defunct Kenya Football Federation,New Vision, 3 June 2004: Wrangles land Kenya indefinite FIFA ban {{webarchive|url= |date=10 January 2008 }} leading to a suspension by FIFA which was lifted in March 2007.In the motor rallying arena, Kenya is home to the world-famous Safari Rally, commonly acknowledged as one of the toughest rallies in the world.The Auto Channel, 21 July 2001: FIA RALLY: Delecour takes points finish on Safari Rally debut It was a part of the World Rally Championship for many years until its exclusion after the 2002 event owing to financial difficulties. Some of the best rally drivers in the world have taken part in and won the rally, such as Björn WaldegÃ¥rd, Hannu Mikkola, Tommi Mäkinen, Shekhar Mehta, Carlos Sainz and Colin McRae. Although the rally still runs annually as part of the Africa rally championship, the organisers are hoping to be allowed to rejoin the World Rally championship in the next couple of years.Nairobi has hosted several major continental sports events, including the FIBA Africa Championship 1993 where Kenya's national basketball team finished in the top four, its best performance to date.1993 FIBA Africa Championship for Men, ARCHIVE.FIBA.COM. Retrieved 24 January 2016.


File:Ugali & Sukuma Wiki.jpg|thumb|Ugali and sukuma wikisukuma wikiKenyans generally have three meals in a day—breakfast in the morning (kiamsha kinywa), lunch in the afternoon (chakula cha mchana) and supper in the evening (chakula cha jioni or known simply as "chajio"). In between, they have the 10 o'clock tea (chai ya saa nne) and 4 p.m. tea (chai ya saa kumi). Breakfast is usually tea or porridge with bread, chapati, mahamri, boiled sweet potatoes or yams. Githeri is a common lunch time dish in many households while Ugali with vegetables, sour milk (Mursik), meat, fish or any other stew is generally eaten by much of the population for lunch or supper. Regional variations and dishes also exist.In western Kenya: among the Luo, fish is a common dish; among the Kalenjin who dominate much of the Rift Valley Region, mursik—sour milk—is a major drink.In cities such as Nairobi, there are fast food restaurants, including Steers, KFC,WEB,weblink Fast food finds fans in sub-Sahara Africa, where obesity problem is growing, NBC News, 24 October 2012, 26 February 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 January 2013, dmy-all, and Subway.US fast food chain to open first Kenya outlet in August – Money Markets. Retrieved 9 August 2013. There are also many fish and chip shops.WEB,weblink Sonford Fish And Chips – Sonford Fish And Chips in Kenya Info Provided by Postel Yellowpages,, 10 June 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 August 2016, dmy-all,

See also





  • {{citation |author1=Ludeki Chweya|author2=John Kithome Tuta|author3=S. Kichamu Akivaga|title=Control of Corruption in Kenya: Legal-political Dimensions|date=2005|publisher=The University of Michigan|isbn=978-9966-915-55-9|p=259|ref={{sfnref|Ludeki Chweya|John Kithome Tuta|S. Kichamu Akivaga|2005}}}}

External links

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