aesthetics  →
being  →
complexity  →
database  →
enterprise  →
ethics  →
fiction  →
history  →
internet  →
knowledge  →
language  →
licensing  →
linux  →
logic  →
method  →
news  →
perception  →
philosophy  →
policy  →
purpose  →
religion  →
science  →
sociology  →
software  →
truth  →
unix  →
wiki  →
essay  →
feed  →
help  →
system  →
wiki  →
critical  →
discussion  →
forked  →
imported  →
original  →
[ temporary import ]
please note:
- the content below is remote from Wikipedia
- it has been imported raw for GetWiki
{{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{EngvarB|date=October 2015}}{{Use British English|date=October 2018}}{{Use dmy dates|date=February 2017}}{{Coord|4|30|N|114|40|E|display=title}}{{short description|Southeast Asian coastal sovereign state}}

> {{small|(Jawi script)}}}}| image_flag = Flag of Brunei.svg| image_flag2 =| image_coat = Coat of arms of Brunei.svg| symbol_type = Emblem{{big{{nowrap}} >{{small|"Always in service with God's guidance"}}}}Allah Peliharakan Sultan "God Bless the Sultan"}}}}(File:United States Navy Band - Allah Peliharakan Sultan.oga|center)| image_map = Location Brunei ASEAN.svglocation_color=green ASEAN >region_color=dark grey |legend=Location Brunei ASEAN.svg}}| capital = Bandar Seri Begawan4N56.533type:city}}| largest_city = Bandar Seri BegawanMalay language>Malay{{ref labela|}}| languages_type = Recognised languages| languages_sub = yesEnglish language>English{{ref labelb|}}| languages2_type = Other languagesand local dialectsWEB,weblink Brunei, Ethnologue, 19 February 1999, 30 December 2013, WEB,weblink Call to add ethnic languages as optional subject in schools, 19 November 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 November 2013, dmy-all, Brunei Malay Tutong language>Tutong Kedayan >Belait language> Chinese languages (Hokkien, Hakka Chinese, Standard Chinese and Cantonese) >Indigenous languages Lun Bawang language>Murut Dusun language>Dusun Brunei Bisaya language>Brunei Bisaya }}

. The Brunei Times (22 October 2010)}}}}| ethnic_groups = {hide}vunblist
| 66% Malays
| 10% Chinese
| 24% others
PUBLISHER=CIA, 28 January 2018, | religion = Sunni Islam| demonym = BruneianUnitary state Islamic state>Islamic absolutemonarchy}}List of Sultans of Brunei>Sultan, Yang di-Pertuan Negara and Prime Minister of Brunei>Prime Minister| leader_name1 = Hassanal Bolkiah| leader_title2 = Crown Prince| leader_name2 = Al-Muhtadee BillahState Mufti of Brunei>State Mufti| leader_name3 = Abdul Aziz JunedLegislative Council of Brunei>Legislative CouncilHistory of Brunei>FormationMuhammad Shah of Brunei>Creation of the Sultanate| established_date1 = c. 1368| established_event2 = Bruneian Empire| established_date2 = 15th – 19th centuryBritish protected state}}| established_date3 = 17 September 1888Japanese occupation}}| established_date4 = 1941–1945Independence fromthe United Kingdom}}| established_date5 = 1 January 1984| established_event6 = ASEAN Declaration| established_date6 = 7 January 1984| area_km2 = 5,765| area_rank = 164th | area_sq_mi = 2,226 | percent_water = 8.6PUBLISHER=DEPD.GOV.BN ACCESSDATE=1 JULY 2015 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20161111141102/HTTP://WWW.DEPD.GOV.BN/SITEPAGES/NATIONAL%20STATISTICS.ASPX DF=DMY-ALL, | population_estimate_year = 2018| population_estimate_rank = 168th| population_density_km2 = 72.11| population_density_sq_mi = 186.75 | population_density_rank = 134thPUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND ACCESS-DATE=24 FEBRUARY 2019, | GDP_PPP_year = 2019| GDP_PPP_rank = 125th| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $83,777| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 4th| GDP_nominal = $13.325 billion| GDP_nominal_year = 2019| GDP_nominal_rank = 124th| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $30,290| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 29th| Gini = | Gini_year =| Gini_change = | Gini_ref =| Gini_rank =| HDI = 0.853 | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = decrease PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMEACCESSDATE=15 SEPTEMBER 2018, | HDI_rank = 39th| currency = Brunei dollar| currency_code = BNDTime in Brunei>Brunei Darussalam Time| utc_offset = +8| drives_on = left+673{{ref label>Calling Code}}.bnHTTP://WWW.IANA.ORG/DOMAINS/ROOT/DB/BN.HTML PUBLISHER=IANA, 6 November 2015, Malay}} Under Article 82: "Official language" of the Constitution of Brunei, Malay is the official language.English}} Under Article 82: "Official language" of the Constitution of Brunei, English language is used in official documents (official documents are bilingual; Malay and English).HTTP://WWW.AGC.GOV.BN/AGC1/IMAGES/LOB/CONS_DOC/CONSTITUTION_I.PDFPUBLISHER=ATTORNEY GENERAL'S CHAMBERS BRUNEI DARUSSALAMdate=August 2016}}Calling Code}} Also 080 from East Malaysia.}}Brunei ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Brunei.ogg|b|r|uː|ˈ|n|aɪ}} {{respell|broo|NY}}), officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of PeacePeter Haggett (ed). Encyclopedia of World Geography, Volume 1, Marshall Cavendish, 2001, p. 2913. (, Jawi: ), is a country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coastline with the South China Sea, the country is completely surrounded by the insular Malaysian state of Sarawak. It is separated into two parts by the Sarawak district of Limbang. Brunei is the only sovereign state completely on the island of Borneo; the remainder of the island's territory is divided between the nations of Malaysia and Indonesia. Brunei's population was {{UN Population|Brunei Darussalam}} in {{UN Population|Year}}.{{UN Population|ref}}At the peak of the Bruneian Empire, Sultan Bolkiah (reigned 1485–1528) is alleged to have had control over most regions of Borneo, including modern-day Sarawak and Sabah, as well as the Sulu Archipelago off the northeast tip of Borneo, Seludong (modern-day Manila), and the islands off the northwest tip of Borneo. The maritime state was visited by Spain's Magellan Expedition in 1521 and fought against Spain in the 1578 Castilian War.During the 19th century, the Bruneian Empire began to decline. The Sultanate ceded Sarawak (Kuching) to James Brooke and installed him as the White Rajah, and it ceded Sabah to the British North Borneo Chartered Company. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate and was assigned a British resident as colonial manager in 1906. After the Japanese occupation during World War II, in 1959 a new constitution was written. In 1962, a small armed rebellion against the monarchy was ended with the help of the British.BOOK, Pocock, Tom, Fighting General – The Public &Private Campaigns of General Sir Walter Walker, 1973, First, Collins, London, 0-00-211295-7, Brunei gained its independence from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984. Economic growth during the 1990s and 2000s, with the GDP increasing 56% from 1999 to 2008, transformed Brunei into an industrialised country. It has developed wealth from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields. Brunei has the second-highest Human Development Index among the Southeast Asian nations, after Singapore, and is classified as a "developed country".WEB, Human Development Reports, United Nations,weblink 5 October 2009, According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Brunei is ranked fifth in the world by gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity. The IMF estimated in 2011 that Brunei was one of two countries (the other being Libya) with a public debt at 0% of the national GDP. Forbes also ranks Brunei as the fifth-richest nation out of 182, based on its petroleum and natural gas fields.WEB,weblink Forbes ranks Brunei fifth richest nation, 25 February 2012, dead,weblink 26 February 2012, dmy,


According to local historiography, Brunei was founded by Awang Alak Betatar, later to be Sultan Muhammad Shah, reigning around AD 1400. He moved from Garang in the Temburong District{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=26}} to the Brunei River estuary, discovering Brunei. According to legend, upon landing he exclaimed, Baru nah (loosely translated as "that's it!" or "there"), from which the name "Brunei" was derived.BOOK, Marie-Sybille de Vienne, Brunei: From the Age of Commerce to the 21st Century,weblink 2015, NUS Press, 978-9971-69-818-8, 27–, He was the first Muslim ruler of Brunei.WEB,weblink Treasuring Brunei's past, Southeast Asian Archaeology, 8 March 2007, 19 September 2011, Before the rise of the Bruneian Empire under the Muslim Bolkiah Dynasty, Brunei is believed to have been under Buddhist rulers.BOOK, Robert Nicholl, Notes on Some Controversial Issues in Brunei History,weblink 1980, 32–37, It was renamed "Barunai" in the 14th century, possibly influenced by the Sanskrit word "{{transl|sa|varuṇ}}" (), meaning "seafarers".BOOK, James B. Minahan, Ethnic Groups of South Asia and the Pacific: An Encyclopedia: An Encyclopedia,weblink 2012, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-59884-660-7, 75, The word "Borneo" is of the same origin. In the country's full name, ', ' () means "abode of peace", while means "country" in Malay.The earliest recorded documentation by the West about Brunei is by an Italian known as Ludovico di Varthema, who also said the "Bruneian people have fairer skin tone than the peoples he met in Maluku Islands". On his documentation back to 1550;We arrived at the island of Bornei (Brunei or Borneo), which is distant from the Maluch about two hundred miles, and we found that it was somewhat larger than the aforesaid and much lower. The people are pagans and are men of goodwill. Their colour is whiter than that of the other sort ... in this island justice is well administered ...BOOK, Bilcher Bala, Thalassocracy: a history of the medieval Sultanate of Brunei Darussalam,weblink 2005, School of Social Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 978-983-2643-74-6,


Early history

{{stack |float=left |File:The Tomb of the King of Boni (Brunei) Nanjing.JPG|thumb|left|The tomb of a ruler of Po-ni in Nanjing, JiangsuJiangsu}}The settlement known as Vijayapura was a colony to the Buddhist Srivijaya empire and was thought to be located in Borneo's Northwest which flourished in the 7th Century.BOOK, Wendy Hutton, Adventure Guides: East Malaysia,weblink 26 May 2013, 2000, Tuttle Publishing, 978-962-593-180-7, 31–57, In the aftermath of the Indian Chola invasion of Srivijaya, Datu Puti lead some dissident datus from Sumatra and Borneo in a rebellion against Rajah Makatunao who was a Chola appointed local Rajah. The dissidents and their retinue tried to revive Srivijaya in a new country called Madja-as in the Visayas islands (an archipelago named after Srivijaya) in the Philippines. One of the earliest Chinese records of an independent kingdom in Borneo is the 977 AD letter to Chinese emperor from the ruler of Po-ni, which some scholars believe to refer to Borneo.BOOK, Wendy Hutton, Adventure Guides: East Malaysia,weblink 2000, Tuttle Publishing, 978-962-593-180-7, 30, In 1225, a Chinese official, Chau Ju-Kua (Zhao Rugua), reported that Po-ni had 100 warships to protect its trade, and that there was a lot of wealth in the kingdom.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=43}}In the 14th century, the Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Prapanca in 1365, mentioned Barune as the constituent state of Hindu Majapahit,WEB, Naskah Nagarakretagama, Perpustakaan Nasional Republik Indonesia,weblink Indonesian, 13 October 2014,weblink" title="">weblink 23 May 2017, dead, dmy-all, which had to make an annual tribute of 40 katis of camphor. In 1369, Sulu which was also formerly part of Majapahit, had successfully rebelled and then attacked Po-ni, looting it of treasure and gold. A fleet from Majapahit succeeded in driving away the Sulus, but Po-ni was left weaker after the attack.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=44}} A Chinese report from 1371 described Po-ni as poor and totally controlled by Majapahit.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=45}}During the 15th century, Po-ni had seceded from Majapahit and then converted to Islam. Thus transforming into the independent Sultanate of Brunei. Brunei became a Hashemite state when she allowed the Arab Emir of Mecca, Sharif Ali, to become her third sultan. Scholars claim that the power of the Sultanate of Brunei was at its peak between the 15th and 17th centuries, with its power extending from northern Borneo to the southern Philippines (Sulu) and even in the northern Philippines (Manila) which Brunei incorporated via territorial acquisition accomplished through royal marriages.JOURNAL,weblink Brunei, CIA World Factbook, 2011, 13 January 2011, harv, Sultan Bolkiah had extended Brunei's power to its greatest extent when it conquered Manila and Sulu as he even attempted but failed to conquer the Visayas islands even though Sultan Bolkiah was half-Visayan himself being descended from a Visayan mother and he was famously known as Sultan Ragam "The Singing Captain", his powerful musical voice was a trait he inherited from his Visayan lineage since Visayans were culturally obsessed with singing, with the best Visayan singers often also being members of their warrior castes too.Cf. William Henry Scott (1903). "Barangay: Sixteenth Century Philippine Culture and Society". (1 January 1994) pp. 109-110. However, Islamic Brunei's power was not uncontested in Borneo since it had a Hindu rival in a state founded by Indians called Kutai in the south which they overpowered but didn't destroy. Brunei's dominance in the Philippines was also challenged by two Indianized kingdoms, the Rajahanates of Cebu and Butuan which were also coincidentally allied with Kutai and were also at war with Brunei's dependencies; Sulu and Manila as well as their mutual ally, the Sultanate of Maguindanao. The Kedatuans of Madja-as and Dapitan were also belligerent against Brunei due to them being the targets of constant Muslim attacks organized from Maguindanao and Ternate, a Papuan speaking state in the vicinity of Oceania that grew wealthy by monopolizing spice production. Nevertheless, by the 16th century, Islam was firmly rooted in Brunei, and the country had built one of its biggest mosques. In 1578, Alonso Beltrán, a Spanish traveller, described it as being five stories tall and built on the water.{{Harvnb|Nicholl|2002|pp=47–51}}

War with Spain and decline

(File:Brunei territorial lose (1400–1890).gif|thumb|left|Brunei territorial losses from 1400 to 1890) Brunei briefly rose to prominence in Southeast Asia when the Portuguese occupied Malacca and thereby forced the wealthy and powerful but displaced Muslim refugees there to relocate to nearby Sultanates such as Aceh and Brunei. However, European influence gradually brought an end to the regional power, as Brunei entered a period of decline compounded by internal strife over royal succession. In the face of these invasions by European Christian powers, the Ottoman Caliphate aided the beleaguered Southeast Asian Sultanates by making Aceh a protectorate and sending expeditions to reinforce, train and equip the local mujahideen.Kayadibi, Saim. “Ottoman Connections to the Malay World: Islam, Law and Society,” (Kuala Lumpur: The Other Press, 2011) Spain declared war in 1578, planning to attack and capture Kota Batu, Brunei's capital at the time. This was based in part on the assistance of two Bruneian noblemen, Pengiran Seri Lela and Pengiran Seri Ratna. The former had travelled to Manila, then the centre of the Spanish colony. Manila itself was captured from Brunei, Christianised and made a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain which was centered in Mexico City. Pengiran Seri Lela came to offer Brunei as a tributary to Spain for help to recover the throne usurped by his brother, Saiful Rijal.{{harvnb|Melo Alip|1964|pp=201, 317}} The Spanish agreed that if they succeeded in conquering Brunei, Pengiran Seri Lela would be appointed as the sultan, while Pengiran Seri Ratna would be the new Bendahara.(File:Control of the island of Borneo.png|thumb|right|Boundaries of Brunei (green) since 1890)In March 1578, a fresh Spanish fleet had arrived from Mexico and settled at the Philippines, they were led by De Sande, acting as Capitán-General, he organised an expedition from Manila for Brunei. The expedition consisted of 400 Spaniards and Mexicans, 1,500 Filipino natives and 300 Borneans.{{Harvnb|United States War Dept|1903|p=379}} The campaign was one of many, which also included action in Mindanao and Sulu.{{Harvnb|McAmis|2002|p=33}}WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 27 March 2012, Letter from Francisco de Sande to Felipe II, 1578, 17 October 2009,, The racial make-up of the Christian side was diverse since it were usually made up of Mestizos, Mulattoes and Amerindians (Aztecs, Mayans and Incans) who were gathered and sent from Mexico and were led by Spanish officers who had worked together with native Filipinos in military campaigns across the Southeast Asia.Letter from Fajardo to Felipe III From Manila, August 15 1620. (From the Spanish Archives of the Indies)("The infantry does not amount to two hundred men, in three companies. If these men were that number, and Spaniards, it would not be so bad; but, although I have not seen them, because they have not yet arrived here, I am told that they are, as at other times, for the most part boys, mestizos, and mulattoes, with some Indians (Native Americans). There is no little cause for regret in the great sums that reënforcements of such men waste for, and cost, your Majesty. I cannot see what betterment there will be until your Majesty shall provide it, since I do not think, that more can be done in Nueva Spaña, although the viceroy must be endeavoring to do so, as he is ordered.") The Muslim side though was also equally racially diverse. In addition to the native Malay warriors, the Ottomans had repeatedly sent military expeditions to nearby Aceh. The expeditions were composed mainly of Turks, Egyptians, Swahilis, Somalis, Sindhis, Gujaratis and Malabars.The Cambridge History of Southeast Asia by Nicholas Tarling p. 39 These expeditionary forces had also spread to other nearby Sultanates such as Brunei and had taught new fighting tactics and techniques on how to forge cannons.Cambridge illustrated atlas, warfare: Renaissance to revolution, 1492–1792 by Jeremy Black p. 16 weblinkEventually, the Spanish invaded the capital on 16 April 1578, with the help of Pengiran Seri Lela and Pengiran Seri Ratna. The Sultan Saiful Rijal and Paduka Seri Begawan Sultan Abdul Kahar were forced to flee to Meragang then to Jerudong. In Jerudong, they made plans to chase the conquering army away from Brunei. Suffering high fatalities due to a cholera or dysentery outbreak,{{Harvnb|Frankham|2008|p=278}}{{Harvnb|Atiyah|2002|p=71}} the Spanish decided to abandon Brunei and returned to Manila on 26 June 1578, after 72 days. Before doing so, they burned the mosque, a high structure with a five-tier roof.{{Harvnb|Saunders|2002|pp=54–60}}Pengiran Seri Lela died in August or September 1578, probably from the same illness suffered by his Spanish allies. There was suspicion that he the legitimate Sultan could have been poisoned by the ruling sultan. Seri Lela's daughter, a Bruneian princess, "Putri", had left with the Spanish, she abandoned her claim to the crown and bravely defied the Quranic punishment of stoning to death women who marry non-Muslims and then she married a Christian Tagalog, named Agustín de Legazpi de Tondo.{{Harvnb|Saunders|2002|p=57}}The local Brunei accounts{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=41}} differ greatly from the generally accepted view of events. What was called the Castilian War was seen as a heroic episode, with the Spaniards being driven out by Bendahara Sakam, purportedly a brother of the ruling sultan, and a thousand native warriors. Most historians consider this to be a folk-hero account, which probably developed decades or centuries after.{{Harvnb|Saunders|2002|pp=57–58}}Brunei eventually descended into anarchy. The country suffered a civil war from 1660 to 1673.

British intervention

{{See also|British Brunei Administrators|British Borneo}}File:The signing of the Treaty of Labuan on 18 December 1846.jpg|thumb|British adventurer James Brooke negotiating with the Sultan of Brunei, which led to the signing of the Treaty of LabuanTreaty of LabuanThe British have intervened in the affairs of Brunei on several occasions. Britain attacked Brunei in July 1846 due to internal conflicts over who was the rightful Sultan.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=52}}In the 1880s, the decline of the Bruneian Empire continued. The sultan granted land (now Sarawak) to James Brooke, who had helped him quell a rebellion and allowed him to establish the Kingdom of Sarawak. Over time, Brooke and his nephews (who succeeded him) leased or annexed more land. Brunei lost much of its territory to him and his dynasty, known as the White Rajahs.Sultan Hashim Jalilul Alam Aqamaddin appealed to the British to stop further encroachment by the Brookes.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=3}} The "Treaty of Protection" was negotiated by Sir Hugh Low and signed into effect on 17 September 1888. The treaty said that the sultan "could not cede or lease any territory to foreign powers without British consent"; it provided Britain effective control over Brunei's external affairs, making it a British protected state (which continued until 1984). But, when the Kingdom of Sarawak annexed Brunei's Pandaruan District in 1890, the British did not take any action to stop it. They did not regard either Brunei or the Kingdom of Sarawak as 'foreign' (per the Treaty of Protection). This final annexation by Sarawak left Brunei with its current small land mass and separation into two parts.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=58}}British residents were introduced in Brunei under the Supplementary Protectorate Agreement in 1906.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=59}} The residents were to advise the sultan on all matters of administration. Over time, the resident assumed more executive control than the sultan. The residential system ended in 1959.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=67}}

Discovery of oil

Petroleum was discovered in 1929 after several fruitless attempts.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=12}} Two men, F. F. Marriot and T. G. Cochrane, smelled oil near the Seria river in late 1926.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=13}} They informed a geophysicist, who conducted a survey there. In 1927, gas seepages were reported in the area. Seria Well Number One (S-1) was drilled on 12 July 1928. Oil was struck at {{convert|297|m}} on 5 April 1929. Seria Well Number 2 was drilled on 19 August 1929, and, {{As of|2009|lc=y}}, continues to produce oil.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=14}} Oil production was increased considerably in the 1930s with the development of more oil fields. In 1940, oil production was at more than six million barrels.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=14}} The British Malayan Petroleum Company (now Brunei Shell Petroleum Company) was formed on 22 July 1922.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=15}} The first offshore well was drilled in 1957.BOOK, Macmillan Atlas, 1-4202-0995-7, 15, Oil and natural gas have been the basis of Brunei's development and wealth since the late 20th century.

Japanese occupation

{{more citations needed|section|date=December 2017}}File:Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin (AWM P10841.001).JPG|thumb|Ahmad Tajuddin, the 27th Sultan of Brunei, with members of his court in April 1941, eight months before the Japanese invaded Brunei]]The Japanese invaded Brunei on 16 December 1941, eight days after their attack on Pearl Harbor and the United States Navy. They landed 10,000 troops of the Kawaguchi Detachment from Cam Ranh Bay at Kuala Belait. After six days' fighting, they occupied the entire country. The only Allied troops in the area were the 2nd Battalion of the 15th Punjab Regiment based at Kuching, Sarawak."Brunei under the Japanese occupation", Rozan Yunos, Brunei Times, Bandar Seri Begawan, 29 June 2008Once the Japanese occupied Brunei, they made an agreement with Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin over governing the country. Inche Ibrahim (known later as Pehin Datu Perdana Menteri Dato Laila Utama Awang Haji Ibrahim), a former Secretary to the British Resident, Ernest Edgar Pengilly, was appointed Chief Administrative Officer under the Japanese Governor. The Japanese had proposed that Pengilly retain his position under their administration, but he declined. Both he and other British nationals still in Brunei were interned by the Japanese at Batu Lintang camp in Sarawak. While the British officials were under Japanese guard, Ibrahim made a point of personally shaking each one by the hand and wishing him well."The Japanese Interregnum...," Graham Saunders, A history of Brunei, Edition 2, illustrated, reprint, Routledge, 2002, p. 129, {{ISBN|070071698X|978-0700716982}}The Sultan retained his throne and was given a pension and honours by the Japanese. During the later part of the occupation, he resided at Tantuya, Limbang and had little to do with the Japanese. Most of the Malay government officers were retained by the Japanese. Brunei's administration was reorganised into five prefectures, which included British North Borneo. The Prefectures included Baram, Labuan, Lawas, and Limbang. Ibrahim hid numerous significant government documents from the Japanese during the occupation. Pengiran Yusuf (later YAM Pengiran Setia Negara Pengiran Haji Mohd Yusuf), along with other Bruneians, was sent to Japan for training. Although in the area the day of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima, Yusuf survived.The British had anticipated a Japanese attack, but lacked the resources to defend the area because of their engagement in the war in Europe. The troops from the Punjab Regiment filled in the Seria oilfield oilwells with concrete in September 1941 to deny the Japanese their use. The remaining equipment and installations were destroyed when the Japanese invaded Malaya. By the end of the war, 16 wells at Miri and Seria had been restarted, with production reaching about half the pre-war level. Coal production at Muara was also recommenced, but with little success.(File:Japanese battleships at Brunei, Borneo, in October 1944 (NH 73090).jpg|thumb|left|Japanese battleships at Brunei in October 1944)During the occupation, the Japanese had their language taught in schools, and Government officers were required to learn Japanese. The local currency was replaced by what was to become known as duit pisang (banana money). From 1943 hyper-inflation destroyed the currency's value and, at the end of the war, this currency was worthless. Allied attacks on shipping eventually caused trade to cease. Food and medicine fell into short supply, and the population suffered famine and disease.The airport runway was constructed by the Japanese during the occupation, and in 1943 Japanese naval units were based in Brunei Bay and Labuan. The naval base was destroyed by Allied bombing, but the airport runway survived. The facility was developed as a public airport. In 1944 the Allies began a bombing campaign against the occupying Japanese, which destroyed much of the town and Kuala Belait, but missed Kampong Ayer."Japanese occupation", Historical Dictionary of Brunei Darussalam, Jatswan S. Sidhu, Edition 2, illustrated, Scarecrow Press, 2009, p. 115, {{ISBN|0810870789|978-0810870789}}File:Japanese Surrender, Labuan (AWM 115989).JPG|right|thumb|Major-General Wootten of the Australian 9th Division with Lieutenant-General Masao Baba (signing) of the Japanese 37th Division at the surrender ceremony at Labuan on 10 September 1945]]On 10 June 1945, the Australian 9th Division landed at Muara under Operation Oboe Six to recapture Borneo from the Japanese. They were supported by American air and naval units. Brunei town was bombed extensively and recaptured after three days of heavy fighting. Many buildings were destroyed, including the Mosque. The Japanese forces in Brunei, Borneo, and Sarawak, under Lieutenant-General Masao Baba, formally surrendered at Labuan on 10 September 1945. The British Military Administration took over from the Japanese and remained until July 1946.

Post-World War II

After World War II, a new government was formed in Brunei under the British Military Administration (BMA). It consisted mainly of Australian officers and servicemen.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=79}} The administration of Brunei was passed to the Civil Administration on 6 July 1945. The Brunei State Council was also revived that year.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=80}} The BMA was tasked to revive the Bruneian economy, which was extensively damaged by the Japanese during their occupation. They also had to put out the fires on the wells of Seria, which had been set by the Japanese prior to their defeat.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=80}}Before 1941, the Governor of the Straits Settlements, based in Singapore, was responsible for the duties of British High Commissioner for Brunei, Sarawak, and North Borneo (now Sabah).{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=81}} The first British High Commissioner for Brunei was the Governor of Sarawak, Sir Charles Ardon Clarke. The Barisan Pemuda ("Youth Movement") (abbreviated as BARIP) was the first political party to be formed in Brunei, on 12 April 1946. The party intended to "preserve the sovereignty of the Sultan and the country, and to defend the rights of the Malays".BOOK, A History of Brunei, A History of Brunei, 2002, Routledge, 0-7007-1698-X, 131,weblink 14 October 2013, BARIP also contributed to the composition of the country's national anthem. The party was dissolved in 1948 due to inactivity.In 1959, a new constitution was written declaring Brunei a self-governing state, while its foreign affairs, security, and defence remained the responsibility of the United Kingdom. A small rebellion erupted against the monarchy in 1962, which was suppressed with help of the UK. Known as the Brunei Revolt, it contributed to the failure to create the North Borneo Federation. The rebellion partially affected Brunei's decision to opt out of the Malaysian Federation.Brunei gained its independence from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984. The official National Day, which celebrates the country's independence, is held by tradition on 23 February.WEB,weblink Brunei National Day, Lonely Planet, 21 February 2017, dead,weblink 22 February 2017, dmy-all,

Writing of the Constitution

File:Omar Ali Saifuddien III.jpg|thumb|Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien IIIOmar Ali Saifuddien IIIIn July 1953, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III formed a seven-member committee named Tujuh Serangkai, to find out the citizens' views regarding a written constitution for Brunei. In May 1954, the Sultan, Resident and High Commissioner met to discuss the findings of the committee. They agreed to authorise the drafting of a constitution. In March 1959 Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III led a delegation to London to discuss the proposed Constitution.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=98}} The British delegation was led by Sir Alan Lennox-Boyd, Secretary of State for the Colonies. The British Government later accepted the draft constitution.On 29 September 1959, the Constitution Agreement was signed in Bandar Seri Begawan. The agreement was signed by Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III and Sir Robert Scott, the Commissioner-General for Southeast Asia.It included the following provisions:{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=59}}
  • The Sultan was made the Supreme Head of State.
  • Brunei was responsible for its internal administration.
  • The British Government was responsible for foreign and defence affairs only.
  • The post of Resident was abolished and replaced by a British High Commissioner.
Five councils were set up:{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=100}}

National development plans

A series of National Development Plans was initiated by the 28th Sultan of Brunei, Omar Ali Saifuddien III.The first was introduced in 1953.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=92}} A total sum of B$100 million was approved by the Brunei State Council for the plan. E.R. Bevington, from the Colonial Office in Fiji, was appointed to implement it.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=129}} A $US14 million Gas Plant was built under the plan. In 1954, survey and exploration work were undertaken by the Brunei Shell Petroleum on both offshore and onshore fields. By 1956, production reached 114,700 bpd.File:THE BRITISH ARMY IN BRUNEI, JANUARY 1963.jpg|thumb|British soldiers in the British protectorate of Brunei on guard in the Seria oilfield, January 1963]]The plan also aided the development of public education. By 1958, expenditure on education totalled at $4 million.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=129}} Communications were improved, as new roads were built and reconstruction at Berakas Airport was completed in 1954.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=21}}The second National Development Plan was launched in 1962.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=21}} A major oil and gas field was discovered in 1963, with this discovery, liquefied natural gas became important. Developments in the oil and gas sector have continued, and oil production has steadily increased since then.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=96}} The plan also promoted the production of meat and eggs for consumption by citizens. The fishing industry increased its output by 25% throughout the course of the plan. The deepwater port at Muara was also constructed during this period. Power requirements were met, and studies were made to provide electricity to rural areas.{{sfn|History for Brunei Darussalam|2009|p=96}} Efforts were made to eradicate malaria, an endemic disease in the region, with the help of the World Health Organization. Malaria cases were reduced from 300 cases in 1953 to only 66 cases in 1959.BOOK, A History of Brunei, A History of Brunei, 2002, Routledge, 0-7007-1698-X, 130,weblink 14 October 2013, The death rate was reduced from 20 per thousand in 1947 to 11.3 per thousand in 1953. Infectious disease has been prevented by public sanitation and improvement of drainage, and the provision of piped pure water to the population.


On 14 November 1971, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah left for London to discuss matters regarding the amendments to the 1959 constitution. A new agreement was signed on 23 November 1971 with the British representative being Anthony Royle.BOOK, Ministry of Education, Brunei, History for Brunei Darussalam, 2008, EBP Pan Pacific, 9991725458, 101, The Nation Building Years 150–1984, Under this agreement, the following terms were agreed upon:
  • Brunei was granted full internal self-government
  • The UK would still be responsible for external affairs and defence.
  • Brunei and the UK agreed to share the responsibility for security and defence.
This agreement also caused Gurkha units to be deployed in Brunei, where they remain up to this day.File:Sultan of Brunei with Janin Erih.jpg|thumb|Sultan Hassanal BolkiahHassanal BolkiahOn 7 January 1979, another treaty was signed between Brunei and the United Kingdom. It was signed with Lord Goronwy-Roberts being the representative of the UK. This agreement granted Brunei to take over international responsibilities as an independent nation. Britain agreed to assist Brunei in diplomatic matters.BOOK, Ministry of Education, Brunei, History for Brunei Darussalam, 2008, EBP Pan Pacific, 9991725458, 102, The Nation Building Years 150–1984, In May 1983, it was announced by the UK that the date of independence of Brunei would be 1 January 1984.{{citation needed|date=September 2017}}On 31 December 1983, a mass gathering was held on main mosques on all four of the districts of the country and at midnight, on 1 January 1984, the Proclamation of Independence was read by Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah. The sultan subsequently assumed the title "His Majesty", rather than the previous "His Royal Highness".NEWS,weblink Reminiscing Brunei's independence proclamation, Brunei Times,weblink" title="">weblink 21 March 2016, 20 November 2013, Brunei was admitted to the United Nations on 22 September 1984, becoming the organisation's 159th member.Brunei is Greeted as the 159th U.N. Member, The New York TimesRelations with the Philippines which Brunei has been in a love-hate dynamic with due to the constant wars they waged against each other, in their territories; like when Arab led Malay-Bruneians destroyed Panay's Court of Nobles and in some time later, Spanish lead Latinos and Filipinos burned Brunei's Great Mosque, historically, was then symbolically patched up when Filipino Visayan architect Leandro V. Locsin, helped design and build the Istana Nurul Iman Palace, a name taken from Malay Istana and Arabic Nur-ol Imaan and means Palace of the Light of Faith which is now the largest residential Palace in the world."WEB, Largest residential palace,weblink Guinness World Records, 30 May 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 30 May 2015,

21st century

In October 2013, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah announced his intention to impose Penal Code from the Sharia law on the country's Muslims, which make up roughly two thirds of the country's population.WEB, Brunei's sultan to implement Sharia penal code,weblink USA Today, 6 December 2015, This would be implemented in three phases, culminating in 2016, and making Brunei the first and only country in East Asia to introduce Sharia law into its penal code.WEB, The Implications of Brunei’s Sharia Law,weblink The Diplomat, 6 December 2015, The move attracted international criticism,NEWS, Brunei's Sharia law creates backlash in Beverly Hills, McNew, David, MSNBC, 7 May 2014, 12 June 2016,weblink the United Nations expressing "deep concern".NEWS, Brunei introduces tough Islamic penal code, BBC News, 30 April 2014, 12 June 2016,weblink


Brunei is a southeast Asian country consisting of two unconnected parts with a total area of {{convert|5765|km2|sqmi|0}} on the island of Borneo. It has {{convert|161|km|mi|0}} of coastline next to the South China Sea, and it shares a {{convert|381|km|abbr=on}} border with Malaysia. It has {{convert|500|km2|sqmi|0}} of territorial waters, and a {{convert|200|nmi|adj=on}} exclusive economic zone.About 97% of the population lives in the larger western part (Belait, Tutong, and Brunei-Muara), while only about 10,000 people live in the mountainous eastern part (Temburong District). The total population of Brunei is approximately 408,000 {{As of|July 2010|lc=y}}, of which around 150,000 live in the capital Bandar Seri Begawan.2001 Summary Tables of the Population Census. Department of Statistics, Brunei Darussalam Other major towns are the port town of Muara, the oil-producing town of Seria and its neighbouring town, Kuala Belait. In Belait District, the Panaga area is home to large numbers of Europeans expatriates, due to Royal Dutch Shell and British Army housing, and several recreational facilities are located there.WEB, Outpost Seria Housing Information, Outpost Seria,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 13 January 2012, 20 December 2011, dead, dmy-all, Most of Brunei is within the Borneo lowland rain forests ecoregion, which covers most of the island. Areas of mountain rain forests are located inland.WEB, Brunei Darussalam Country Profile,weblink 20 December 2011, UK Foreign & Commonwealth Office, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 5 January 2012, {{wide image|Panorama Bandar Seri Begawan 19.05.2018.jpg|800px|align-cap=center|The panorama of Bandar Seri Begawan, capital and largest city of Brunei.}}


The climate of Brunei is tropical equatorial that is a Tropical rainforest climate more subject to the Intertropical Convergence Zone than the trade winds and with no or rare cyclones. Brunei is exposed to the risks stemming from climate change along with other ASEAN member states.WEB, Indra Overland, 2017, Impact of Climate Change on ASEAN International Affairs: Risk and Opportunity Multiplier, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI) and Myanmar Institute of International and Strategic Studies (MISIS),weblink

Politics and government

File:Hassanal Bolkiah.jpg|thumb|upright|Hassanal Bolkiah, Sultan of BruneiSultan of BruneiBrunei's political system is governed by the constitution and the national tradition of the Malay Islamic Monarchy (Melayu Islam Beraja; MIB). The three components of MIB cover Malay culture, Islamic religion, and the political framework under the monarchy. It has a legal system based on English common law, although Islamic law (shariah) supersedes this in some cases. Brunei has a parliament but there are no elections; the last election was held in 1962.WEB,weblink Brunei Darussalam : Constitution and politics,, Under Brunei's 1959 constitution, His Majesty Paduka Seri Baginda Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Mu'izzaddin Waddaulah is the head of state with full executive authority. Since 1962, this authority has included emergency powers, which are renewed every two years. Brunei has technically been under martial law since the Brunei Revolt of 1962. Hassanal Bolkiah also serves as the state's Prime Minister, Finance Minister and Defence Minister.WEB, PMO Organisation Chart, Organisation Chart at the Prime Minister's Office,weblink 14 January 2012, The Royal family retains a venerated status within Brunei.{{Failed verification|date=April 2015}}

Foreign relations

File:Pres. Obama and HM Bolkiah APEC 2015.jpg|thumb|Brunei's Sultan and Foreign Minister Hassanal Bolkiah meets with U.S. President Barack ObamaBarack ObamaFile:Keroncong Kemayoran di Perayaan 50 Tahun Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Bertakhta (2c).jpg|thumb|Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah with Indonesian President Joko WidodoJoko WidodoUntil 1979, Brunei's foreign relations were managed by the UK government. After that, they were handled by the Brunei Diplomatic Service. After independence in 1984, this Service was upgraded to ministerial level and is now known as the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.WEB,weblink About Us, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 20 November 2013, dead,weblink 17 October 2013, dmy, Officially, Brunei's foreign policy is as follows:BOOK, Ministry of Education, History for Brunei Darussalam, 2008, EBP Pan Pacific, 9991725458, 104,
  • Mutual respect of others' territorial sovereignty, integrity and independence;
  • The maintenance of friendly relations among nations;
  • Non-interference in the internal affairs of other countries; and
  • The maintenance and the promotion of peace, security and stability in the region.
With its traditional ties with the United Kingdom, Brunei became the 49th member of the Commonwealth immediately on the day of its independence on 1 January 1984.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 28 January 2010, MOFAT, Commonwealth, 30 March 2010, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Brunei Darussalam, As one of its first initiatives toward improved regional relations, Brunei joined ASEAN on 7 January 1984, becoming the sixth member. To achieve recognition of its sovereignty and independence, it joined the United Nations as a full member on 21 September of that same year.WEB,weblink" title="">weblink 18 February 2008, MOFAT, UN, 30 March 2010, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Brunei Darussalam,weblink As an Islamic country, Brunei became a full member of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation) in January 1984 at the Fourth Islamic Summit held in Morocco.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 18 June 2008, MOFAT, OIC, 30 March 2010, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Brunei Darussalam, After its accession to the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum (APEC) in 1989, Brunei hosted the APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting in November 2000 and the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF) in July 2002.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 21 March 2010, APEC, 2000 Leaders' Declaration, 30 March 2010, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation, Brunei became a founding member of the World Trade Organization (WTO) on 1 January 1995,WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 25 June 2008, MOFAT, WTO, 30 March 2010, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, and is a major player in BIMP-EAGA, which was formed during the Inaugural Ministers' Meeting in Davao, Philippines, on 24 March 1994.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 21 June 2008, MOFAT, BIMP-EAGA, 30 March 2010, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Brunei shares a close relationship with Singapore and the Philippines. In April 2009, Brunei and the Philippines signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) that seeks to strengthen the bilateral co-operation of the two countries in the fields of agriculture and farm-related trade and investments.Marvyn N. Benaning (29 April 2009) RP, "Brunei seal agri cooperation deal"{{dead link|date=October 2013}}, Manila BulletinBrunei is one of many nations to lay claim to some of the disputed Spratly Islands. The status of Limbang as part of Sarawak has been disputed by Brunei since the area was first annexed in 1890.WEB,weblink Disputes – International, CIA, 4 January 2011, The issue was reportedly settled in 2009, with Brunei agreeing to accept the border in exchange for Malaysia giving up claims to oil fields in Bruneian waters.NEWS,weblink Brunei drops all claims to Limbang, Brunei Times, 17 December 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 July 2014, dmy, The Brunei government denies this and says that their claim on Limbang was never dropped.WEB, Brunei Denies Limbang Story, Azlan Othman,weblink 19 December 2011, WEB,weblink 19 March 2009, Brunei Denies Limbang Story, 19 December 2011, MySinchew, Brunei was the chair for ASEAN in 2013.WEB,weblink Brunei's ASEAN Chairmanship Scorecard, State Department, United States, cogitASIA CSIS Asia Policy Blog, 17 December 2013, It also hosted the ASEAN summit on that same year.WEB,weblink Brunei to host ASEAN Summit 2013, Rano Iskandar, 17 December 2013,


Brunei maintains three infantry battalions stationed around the country. The Brunei navy has several "Ijtihad"-class patrol boats purchased from a German manufacturer. The United Kingdom also maintains a base in Seria, the centre of the oil industry in Brunei. A Gurkha battalion consisting of 1,500 personnel is stationed there. United Kingdom military personnel are stationed there under a defence agreement signed between the two countries.A Bell 212 operated by the air force crashed in Kuala Belait on 20 July 2012 with the loss of 12 of the 14 crew on board. The cause of the accident has yet to be ascertained.NEWS, CNN, 21 July 2012,weblink 12 killed in Brunei helicopter crash, 21 July 2012, The crash is the worst aviation incident in the history of Brunei.The Army is currently acquiring new equipment,NEWS,weblink RBAF stages large-scale exercise using new military equipment, vehicles, Brunei Times, 10 July 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 January 2015, dmy-all, including UAVs and S-70i Black Hawks.NEWS,weblink Black Hawks expected to arrive in 2014, Brunei Times, 10 July 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 January 2015, dmy-all, Brunei's Legislative Council proposed an increase of the defence budget for the 2016–17 fiscal year of about five percent to 564 million Brunei dollars ($408 million). This amounts to about ten per cent of the state's total national yearly expenditure and represents around 2.5 per cent of GDP.WEB,weblink Brunei defense budget to be raised by 5% {{!, Investvine|last=Maierbrugger|first=Arno|website=Investvine|access-date=20 March 2016}}

Administrative divisions

Brunei is divided into four districts (daerahs)BOOK, District Statistics, Brunei Darussalam Statistical Yearbook, 2010, Brunei Government,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2012-03-07, and 38 subdistricts (mukims).The daerah of Temburong is physically separated from the rest of Brunei by the Malaysian state of Sarawak.{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:left;" style="background:#f2f2f2; font-weight:bold;"Capital}} {{smallerArea (km2)}}Belait District>Belait {{smallerKuala Belait}} >60,744}} {{smaller|2,724}}Brunei-Muara District>Brunei-Muara{{nbspBandar Seri Begawan}} {{smaller571}}Temburong District>Temburong {{smallerBangar, Brunei>Pekan Bangar}} {{smaller1,304}}Tutong District>Tutong {{smallerPekan Tutong}} >43,852}} {{smaller|1,166}}{{Brunei Labelled Map}}The daerah of Brunei-Muara includes Brunei's capital city, Bandar Seri Begawan, whose suburbs dominate 15 of the 18 mukims in this daerah.Over 90% of Brunei's total population lives in 15 of the 38 mukims:{| class="wikitable sortable"! Rank! Mukim! Population! Large Towns! Daerah| 1Sengkurong, Brunei-Muara>Sengkurong| 62,400| Jerudong and Bandar Seri Begawan| Brunei-Muara| 2Gadong B, Brunei-Muara>Gadong B| 59,610| Bandar Seri Begawan| Brunei-Muara| 3Berakas A, Brunei-Muara>Berakas A| 57,500| Bandar Seri Begawan| Brunei-Muara| 4Kuala Belait, Belait>Kuala Belait| 35,500| Kuala Belait Town| Belait| 5Seria, Belait>Seria| 32,900| Seria Town| Belait| 6Berakas B, Brunei-Muara>Berakas B| 23,400| Bandar Seri Begawan| Brunei-Muara| 7Liang, Belait>Sungai Liang| 18,100Kampung#Southeast Asia>kampongs (villages)| Belait| 8Pengkalan Batu, Brunei-Muara>Pengkalan Batu approx. 15,000| small kampongs| Brunei-Muara| 9Kilanas, Brunei-Muara>Kilanas approx. 14,000| Bandar Seri Begawan| Brunei-Muara| 10Kota Batu, Brunei-Muara>Kota Batu| 12,600| Bandar Seri Begawan| Brunei-Muara| 11Mukim Pekan Tutong>Pekan Tutong| 12,100Tutong (town)>Tutong Town| Tutong| 12Mentiri, Brunei-Muara>Mentiri| 10,872| small kampongs| Brunei-Muara| 13Serasa, Brunei-Muara>Serasa approx. 10,000Muara, Brunei>Muara Town| Brunei-Muara| 14Kianggeh, Brunei-Muara>Kianggeh| 8,540| Bandar Seri Begawan| Brunei-Muara| 15Burong Pinggai Ayer, Brunei>Burong Pinggai Ayer approx. 8,200| Bandar Seri Begawan| Brunei-Muara

Legal system

Brunei has numerous courts in its judicial branch. The highest court is the Supreme Court, which consists of the Court of Appeal and High Court. Both of these have a chief justice and two judges.

Women and children

File:US Navy 111004-N-VP123-071 Lt. j.g. Artemas Richardson, a public affairs officer aboard the Arleigh Burke-class guided-missile destroyer USS Dewey.jpg|thumb|Headscarves called tudongtudongThe U.S. Department of State has stated that discrimination against women is a problem in Brunei.2010 Human Rights Report: Brunei Darussalam. US Department of State The law prohibits sexual harassment and stipulates that whoever assaults or uses criminal force, intending thereby to outrage or knowing it is likely to outrage the modesty of a person, shall be punished with imprisonment for as much as five years and caning. The law stipulates imprisonment of up to 30 years, and caning with not fewer than 12 strokes for rape. The law does not criminalise spousal rape; it explicitly states that sexual intercourse by a man with his wife, as long as she is not under 13 years of age, is not rape. Protections against sexual assault by a spouse are provided under the amended Islamic Family Law Order 2010 and Married Women Act Order 2010. The penalty for breaching a protection order is a fine not exceeding BN$2,000 ($1,538) or imprisonment not exceeding six months.Citizenship is derived through one's parents rather than through birth within the country's territory. Parents with stateless status are required to apply for a special pass for a child born in the country; failure to register a child may make it difficult to enroll the child in school. By law, sexual intercourse with a female under 14 years of age constitutes rape and is punishable by imprisonment for not less than eight years and not more than 30 years and not less than 12 strokes of the cane. The intent of the law is to protect girls from exploitation through prostitution and "other immoral purposes", including pornography.

LGBT rights

Male and female homosexuality is illegal in Brunei. However, as of 6 May 2019, Sultan of Brunei in his titah for Ramadan declared that Brunei will not impose Penal Code of the Sharia Law.WEB,weblink Brunei says it will not enforce death penalty for gay sex in dramatic U-turn, Oppenheim, Maya, 2019-05-05, The Independent, en, 2019-07-02,

Religious rights

(File:Brunei International Airport Surau.jpg|thumb|Brunei International Airport Mosque)In The Laws of Brunei, the right of non-Muslims to practice their faith is guaranteed by the 1959 Constitution. However, celebrations and prayers must be confined to places of worship and private residences.{{citation needed|date=January 2019}} Upon adopting Sharia Penal Code, the Ministry of Religious Affairs banned Christmas decorations in public places, but did not forbid celebration of Christmas in places of worship and private premises.WEB,weblink Minister: Brunei unfairly hurt by unverified news on Christmas ban, 26 December 2015, The international media reports of a “Christmas ban” which spread in 2014 in Brunei were exaggerated, failing to mention that celebrations continue within churches and among the different Christian communities.{{citation needed|date=January 2019}}On 25 December 2015, 4,000 out of 18,000 estimated local Catholics attended the mass of Christmas Day and Christmas Eve.Christians celebrate X'mas in Brunei | The Brunei Times {{webarchive|url= |date=31 December 2015 }} In 2015, the head of the Catholic Church in Brunei told The Brunei Times, "To be quite honest there has been no change for us this year; no new restrictions have been laid down, although we fully respect and adhere to the existing regulations that our celebrations and worship be [confined] to the compounds of the church and private residences".Brunei's revised penal code came into force in phases, commencing on 22 April 2014 with offences punishable by fines or imprisonment.WEB,weblink 30.04.14 Implementation of the Shari'ah Penal Code Order, 2013, April 30, 2014, April 3, 2019, NEWS,weblink Brunei announces implementation of Sharia law, Deutsche Welle, April 30, 2014, April 3, 2019, The complete code, due for final implementation later, stipulated the death penalty for numerous offenses (both violent and non-violent), such as insult or defamation of Muhammad, insulting any verses of the Quran and Hadith, blasphemy, declaring oneself a prophet or non-Muslim, robbery, rape, adultery, sodomy, extramarital sexual relations for Muslims, and murder. Stoning to death was the specified "method of execution for crimes of a sexual nature". Rupert Colville, spokesperson for the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) declared that, "Application of the death penalty for such a broad range of offences contravenes international law."{{citation |url= |title=UN concerned at broad application of death penalty in Brunei’s revised penal code |date=11 April 2014 |accessdate=5 August 2015 }}

Animal rights

Brunei is the first country in Asia to have banned shark finning nationwide.WEB,weblink Brunei Institutes Asia's First Nationwide Shark Fin Ban, WildAid, 31 October 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 October 2015, dmy-all, Brunei has retained most of its forests, compared to its neighbours that share Borneo island. There is a public campaign calling to protect pangolins which are considered threatened treasure in Brunei.NEWS, Hii, Robert, Saving Pangolins From Extinction: Brunei,weblink 2015-10-03, Huffpost,


(File:Brunei Export Treemap.jpg|thumb|Graphical depiction of Brunei's product exports)File:SBY dan para pemimpin ASEAN 25-04-2013.jpg|thumb|right|BIMP-EAGA meeting in the office of Brunei Prime Minister on 25 April 2013. From left: Brunei Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, Malaysian Representative and Filipino President Benigno Aquino IIIBenigno Aquino IIIBrunei's small, wealthy economy is a mixture of foreign and domestic entrepreneurship, government regulation, welfare measures, and village tradition.WEB, Brunei Darussalam – Programme and Management,weblink WHO Western Pacific Region, 1 April 2012, Crude oil and natural gas production account for about 90% of its GDP. About {{convert|167000|oilbbl}} of oil are produced every day, making Brunei the fourth-largest producer of oil in Southeast Asia. It also produces approximately {{convert|25.3|e6m3|e6cuft}} of liquified natural gas per day, making Brunei the ninth-largest exporter of the substance in the world.Substantial income from overseas investment supplements income from domestic production. Most of these investments are made by the Brunei Investment Agency, an arm of the Ministry of Finance. The government provides for all medical services,WEB, Brunei Healthcare Info, Brunei Healthcare,weblink 23 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 December 2011, dmy-all, and subsidises riceWEB, Bandar Seri Begawan, 16 May 2008, Subsidy on rice, sugar to stay,weblink Brunei Times via Chinese Embassy, 23 December 2011, and housing.WEB, Background Note: Brunei,weblink US Department of State, 23 December 2011, The national air carrier, Royal Brunei Airlines, is trying to develop Brunei as a modest hub for international travel between Europe and Australia/New Zealand. Central to this strategy is the position that the airline maintains at London Heathrow Airport. It holds a daily slot at the highly capacity-controlled airport, which it serves from Bandar Seri Begawan via Dubai. The airline also has services to major Asian destinations including Shanghai, Bangkok, Singapore and Manila.Brunei depends heavily on imports such as agricultural products (e.g. rice, food products, livestock, etc.),WEB, Department of Agriculture, Brunei Darussalam,weblink 1 April 2012, motorcars and electrical products from other countries.BOOK, Brunei Statistical Year Book, 2010, Brunei Government, 5,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2012-03-07, Brunei imports 60% of its food requirements; of that amount, around 75% come from the ASEAN countries.Brunei's leaders are very concerned that steadily increased integration in the world economy will undermine internal social cohesion. But, it has become a more prominent player by serving as chairman for the 2000 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum. Leaders plan to upgrade the labour force, reduce unemployment, which was at 6.9% in 2014;NEWS, Brunei unemployment rate in 2014 at 6.9%,weblink The Brunei Times, 1 July 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 June 2016, dmy-all, strengthen the banking and tourism sectors, and, in general, broaden the economic base.WEB, Sultanate Moves to reduce unemployment,weblink BruDirect, 20 December 2011, 14 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 January 2012, The government of Brunei has also promoted food self-sufficiency, especially in rice. Brunei renamed its Brunei Darussalam Rice 1 as Laila Rice during the launch of the "Padi Planting Towards Achieving Self-Sufficiency of Rice Production in Brunei Darussalam" ceremony at the Wasan padi fields in April 2009.WEB, Ubaidillah Masli, Goh De No and Faez Hani Brunei-Muapa,weblink 'Laila Rice' to Brunei's rescue,, 28 April 2009, 30 December 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 January 2010, dmy, In August 2009, the Royal Family reaped the first few Laila padi stalks, after years of attempts to boost local rice production, a goal first articulated about half a century ago.WEB, Ubaidillah Masli, Deno Goh and Faez Hani Brunei-Muapa,weblink HM inaugurates Laila harvest,, 4 August 2009, 30 December 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 January 2010, dmy, In July 2009 Brunei launched its national halal branding scheme, Brunei Halal, with a goal to export to foreign markets.NEWS,weblink Brunei pioneers national halal branding, Hadi Dp Mahmud, Brunei Times, 1 August 2009, 19 September 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 August 2009, dmy,


(File:Brunei International Airport departure.jpg|thumb|right|Brunei International Airport)File:V8-DLA Boeing 787 of Royal Brunei at Heathrow (11400528073).jpg|thumb|Royal Brunei Boeing 787 Dreamliner at London Heathrow Airport.]]The population centres in the country are linked by a network of {{convert|2800|km}} of road. The {{convert|135|km|adj=on}} highway from Muara Town to Kuala Belait is being upgraded to a dual carriageway.Brunei is accessible by air, sea, and land transport. Brunei International Airport is the main entry point to the country. Royal Brunei AirlinesWEB,weblink Welcome to Royal Brunei Airlines, Bruneiair, 4 January 2011, is the national carrier. There is another airfield, the Anduki Airfield, located in Seria. The ferry terminal at Muara services regular connections to Labuan (Malaysia). Speedboats provide passenger and goods transportation to the Temburong district.NEWS, Speedboat services to and from Temburong,weblink 20 December 2011, Borneo Bulletin, 3 September 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 6 January 2012, The main highway running across Brunei is the Tutong-Muara Highway. The country's road network is well developed. Brunei has one main sea port located at Muara.The airport in Brunei is currently being extensively upgraded.NEWS,weblink Airport upgrade to start soon, Brunei Times, 22 November 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 September 2015, dmy-all, Changi Airport International is the consultant working on this modernisation, which planned cost is currently $150 million.NEWS,weblink Brunei International Airport's new arrival hall, Brunei Times, 22 November 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 December 2013, dmy-all, WEB,weblink Brunei airport upgrade, Joe, Bates, Aviation Media, 22 November 2013, This project is slated to add {{convert|14000|m2}} of new floorspace and includes a new terminal and arrival hall.NEWS,weblink 'More opportunities at airport after upgrade works', Masli, Ubaidiallah, Brunei Times, 22 November 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 December 2013, dmy-all, With the completion of this project, the annual passenger capacity of the airport is expected to double from 1.5 to 3 million.With one private car for every 2.09 persons, Brunei has one of the highest car ownership rates in the world. This has been attributed to the absence of a comprehensive transport system, low import tax, and low unleaded petrol price of B$0.53 per litre.A new {{convert|30|km|adj=on}} roadway connecting the Muara and Temburong districts of Brunei is slated to be completed in 2019.WEB,weblink 2 Temburong Bridge contracts inked – The Brunei Times, Fourteen kilometres (9 mi) of this roadway would be crossing the Brunei Bay.NEWS,weblink Temburong bridge ready 2018, Rabiatul, Kamit, 10 May 2013, Brunei Times, 10 July 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 3 December 2013, dmy-all, The bridge cost is $1.6 billion.


Bank of China received permission to open a branch in Brunei in April 2016. Citibank, which entered in 1972, closed its operations in Brunei in 2014. HSBC, which had entered in 1947, was in the process of closing its operations in the country in April 2016.Financial Times, Thursday 21 April 2016, p. 17.{{update inline|date=March 2019}}


File:Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque 02.jpg|thumb|Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin MosqueSultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque{|class="wikitable" style="float: right; margin-left: 10px"! colspan="4" style="text-align:center; background:#cfb;"|Population{{UN_Population|ref}}! style="background:#cfb;"|Year! style="background:#cfb;"|Million1950 style="text-align:right;"|0.052000 style="text-align:right;"|0.33{{UN_Population{{#expr:{{formatnum:{{UN_PopulationR}}/1e6 round 1}}Ethnicities indigenous to Brunei include the Belait, Brunei Bisaya (not to be confused with the Bisaya/Visaya of the nearby Philippines), indigenous Bruneian Malay, Dusun, Kedayan, Lun Bawang, Murut and Tutong.The population of Brunei in {{UN_Population|Year}} was {{UN_Population|Brunei Darussalam}} of which 76% live in urban areas. The rate of urbanisation is estimated at 2.13% per year from 2010 to 2015. The average life expectancy is 77.7 years.{{Harvnb|Oxford Business Group|2013|p=100}} In 2014, 65.7% of the population were Malay, 10.3% are Chinese, 3.4% are indigenous, with 20.6% smaller groups making up the rest.BOOK, Brunei Demographics Profile 2014, 2015, Brunei Government,weblink There is a relatively large expatriate community.BOOK, Brunei Statistical Yearbook, 13,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2012-03-07, Most expats come from non-Muslim countries such as Australia, United Kingdom, South Korea, Japan, The Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and India.


{{Pie chart|thumb = right|caption = Religion in Brunei|label1 = Islam 296,408|value1 = 67|color1 = green|label2 = Buddhism 57,512|value2 = 13|color2 = orange|label3 = Christianity 44,240|value3 = 10|color3 = blue|label4 = indigenous beliefs and non-religious, Atheist or Agnostic 44,240|value4 = 10|color4 = grey}}Islam is the official religion of Brunei, specifically that of the Sunni denomination and the Shafi‘i school of Islamic jurisprudence. Two-thirds of the population, including the majority of Bruneian Malays identify as Muslim. Other faiths practised are Buddhism (13%, mainly by the Chinese) and Christianity (10%). Freethinkers, mostly Chinese, form about 7% of the population. Although most of them practise some form of religion with elements of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism, they prefer to present themselves as having practised no religion officially, hence labelled as atheists in official censuses. Followers of indigenous religions are about 2% of the population.BOOK, 2010 Brunei Statistical Yearbook, 2010, Brunei Government, 19,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 2012-03-07,


The official language of Brunei is Standard Malay, for which both the Latin alphabet and the Arabic alphabet are used. The Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports supports for a lingual movement aimed at the increased use of the language in Brunei.{{why|date=May 2013}}Expand Use of Malay Language {{Webarchive|url= |date=8 February 2013 }}. (18 October 2010)The principal spoken language is Melayu Brunei (Brunei Malay). Brunei Malay is rather divergent from standard Malay and the rest of the Malay dialects, being about 84% cognate with standard Malay,P.W. Martin and G. Poedjosoedarmo (1996). An overview of the language situation in Brunei Darussalam. In P.W. Martin, C. Ozog & G. Poedjosoedarmo (Eds.), Language use & language change in Brunei Darussalam (pp. 1–23). Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies. p. 7. and is mostly mutually unintelligible with it.JOURNAL, A. Clynes and D. Deterding, 2011, Standard Malay (Brunei), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 41, 2, 259–68,weblink 10.1017/S002510031100017X, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 October 2015, dmy-all, English is widely used as a business and official language and it is spoken by a majority of the population in Brunei. English is used in business as a working language and as the language of instruction from primary to tertiary education.BOOK, Mouton De Gruyter, Wei, Li: Applied Linguistics Review. 2011 2,weblink 27 February 2013, 31 May 2011, Walter de Gruyter, 978-3-11-023933-1, 100–, Change in medium of instruction cause of poor Maths results | The Brunei Times {{webarchive|url= |date=5 November 2014 }}. (22 September 2010). Retrieved on 27 February 2013.A.C.K. Ozog (1996). The unplanned use of English: The case of Brunei Darussalam. In P.W. Martin, C. Ozog & G. Poedjosoedarmo (Eds.), Language use & language change in Brunei Darussalam (pp. 156–66). Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies.K. Dunseath (1996). Aspects of language maintenance and language shift among the Chinese community in Brunei. In P.W. Martin, C. Ozog & G. Poedjosoedarmo (Eds.), Language use & language change in Brunei Darussalam (pp. 280–301). Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies {{ISBN|0896801934}}.Chinese languages are also widely spoken, and the Chinese minority in Brunei speak a number of varieties of Chinese.Arabic is the religious language of Muslims. Therefore, Arabic is taught in schools, particularly religious schools, and also in institutes of higher learning. As of 2004, there are six Arabic schools and one religious teachers' college in Brunei. A majority of Brunei's Muslim population has had some form of formal or informal education in the reading, writing and pronunciation of the Arabic language as part of their religious education.Other languages and dialects spoken include Kedayan Malay dialect, Tutong Malay dialect, Murut, and Dusun.


(File:Royal Regalie (1).JPG|thumb|right|Royal Regalia Museum)The culture of Brunei is predominantly Malay (reflecting its ethnicity), with heavy influences from Islam, but is seen as much more conservative than Indonesia and Malaysia.For a discussion of religious freedom, see Brunei. International Religious Freedom Report 2006, United States Department of State. Influences to Bruneian culture come from the Malay cultures of the Malay Archipelago. Four periods of cultural influence have occurred, animist, Hindu, Islamic, and Western. Islam had a very strong influence, and was adopted as Brunei's ideology and philosophy. Brunei's official main language is Malay but English is also widely spoken as it is a compulsory subject in the majority of the schools.weblink" title="">Language and Culture. (28 May 2009)As a Sharia country, the sale and public consumption of alcohol is banned.weblink" title="">Brunei Tourism Website (Government appointed). Non-Muslims are allowed to bring in a limited amount of alcohol from their point of embarkation overseas for their own private consumption.


Media in Brunei are said to be pro-government. The country has been given "Not Free" status by Freedom House; press criticism of the government and monarchy is rare.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 11 May 2008, Freedom of the Press – Brunei (2006),, 30 December 2009, Nonetheless, the press is not overtly hostile toward alternative viewpoints and is not restricted to publishing only articles regarding the government. The government allowed a printing and publishing company, Brunei Press PLC, to form in 1953. The company continues to print the English daily Borneo Bulletin. This paper began as a weekly community paper and became a daily in 1990WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 23 June 2002, About Brunei,, 30 July 1998, 23 March 2012, dmy-all, Apart from The Borneo Bulletin, there is also the Media Permata and Pelita Brunei, the local Malay newspapers which are circulated daily. The Brunei Times is another English independent newspaper published in Brunei since 2006.WEB, Brunei Times Website,weblink 15 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 December 2011, dmy-all, The Brunei government owns and operates six television channels with the introduction of digital TV using DVB-T (RTB 1, RTB 2, RTB 3 (HD), RTB 4, RTB 5 and RTB New Media (Game portal)) and five radio stations (National FM, Pilihan FM, Nur Islam FM, Harmony FM and Pelangi FM). A private company has made cable television available (Astro-Kristal) as well as one private radio station, Kristal FM.It also has an online campus radio station, UBD FM that streams from its first university, Universiti Brunei Darussalam.WEB, UBD Radio Website, UBD Radio,weblink 23 December 2011,


The most popular sport in Brunei is association football. The Brunei national football team joined FIFA in 1969, but has not had much success. The top two football leagues are the Brunei Super League and the Brunei Premier League.Brunei debuted at the Olympics in 1996; it has competed at all subsequent Summer Olympics except 2008. The country has competed in badminton, shooting, swimming, and track-and-field, but is yet to win any medals. Brunei has had slightly more success at the Asian Games, winning four bronze medals. The first major international sporting event to be hosted in Brunei was the 1999 Southeast Asian Games. According to the all-time Southeast Asian Games medal table, Bruneian athletes have won a total of 11 gold medals at the games; only East Timor has won fewer.

See also


  • {{CIA World Factbook}}
  • BOOK, History for Brunei Darussalam: Sharing our Pastpublisher=Curriculum Development Department, Ministry of Education, 99917-2-372-2
History for Brunei Darussalam, 2009, }}
  • BOOK, Atiyah, Jeremy, Rough guide to Southeast Asia,weblink
publisher=Rough Guide, 978-1-85828-893-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Frankham, Steve, Footprint Borneo,weblink
publisher=Footprint Guides, 978-1-906098-14-8, harv,
  • JOURNAL, Gudgeon, L.W.W., British North Borneo
publisher=Adam and Charles Black: London, harv,
  • BOOK, Nicholl, Robert, European sources for the history of the Sultanate of Brunei in the Sixteenth Century,weblink
publisher=Special Publications, no. 9. Muzium Brunei, 978-0-8028-4945-8, harv,
  • BOOK, McAmis, Robert Day, Malay Muslims: the history and challenge of resurgent Islam in Southeast Asia,weblink
publisher=Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 978-0-8028-4945-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Melo Alip, Eufronio, Political and cultural history of the Philippines, Volumes 1–2,weblink 1964, harv
  • BOOK, Oxford Business Group, The Report: Brunei Darussalam 2009,weblink
publisher=Oxford Business Group, 978-1-907065-09-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Saunders, Graham E., A history of Brunei,weblink
publisher=Routledge, 978-0-7007-1698-2, harv,
  • JOURNAL, United States War Dept, Annual reports, Volume 3,weblink
publisher=Government Printing Office, harv,
  • BOOK, Oxford Business Group, The Report: Brunei Darussalam 2013
publisher=Oxford Business Group, 978-1-907065-78-1, harv,

External links

{{Sister project links|voy=Brunei}}Government General information Travel
  • weblink" title="">Brunei Tourism website
{{Brunei topics}}{{Navboxes|title = Articles relating to Brunei|list ={{Asia topic}}{{Commonwealth of Nations}}{{Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)}}{{East Asia Summit (EAS)}}{{Organisation of Islamic Cooperation|state=collapsed}}{{Monarchies}}}}{{Authority control}}

- content above as imported from Wikipedia
- "Brunei" does not exist on GetWiki (yet)
- time: 11:14pm EST - Wed, Nov 13 2019
[ this remote article is provided by Wikipedia ]
LATEST EDITS [ see all ]
Eastern Philosophy
History of Philosophy
M.R.M. Parrott