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Kuwait
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{{About|the modern country near the Persian Gulf|the former autonomous state in southern Arabia|Qu'aiti|the city|Kuwait City}}{{pp-pc1}}{{Use dmy dates|date=February 2019}} {{Coord|29|30|N|47|45|E|display=title}}{{short description|Country in Western Asia}}







factoids
''{{translDawlat al-Kuwait}}| image_flag = Flag of Kuwait.svg| image_coat = Emblem of Kuwait.svg| symbol_type = Emblem| national_anthem= Al-Nasheed Al-Watani''{{small|National Anthem}}(File:National anthem of Kuwait (instrumental).ogg)| image_map = KWT orthographic.svglocation_color= green}}| image_map2 = Kuwait - Location Map (2013) - KWT - UNOCHA.svg| capital = Kuwait City29N58type:city}}| largest_city = capitalModern Standard Arabic>Arabic| ethnic_groups =
{{unbulleted list
| 57.65% Arab (30.36% Kuwaiti, 27.29% other Arabs)
| 40.42% Asian
| 1.02% African
| 0.39% European
| 0.52% Other
}}WEB,weblink Nationality by Religion in Kuwait 2018, Statistic PACI, 4 February 2019,
Demographics of Kuwait>KuwaitiUnitary state>Unitary constitutional monarchyHTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/GEOS/KU.HTML >TITLE=KUWAIT THE WORLD FACTBOOK >PUBLISHER=CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE=2 JULY 2014, Emir of Kuwait>EmirSabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah>Sabah Ahmad al-SabahList of Speakers of Kuwait National Assembly>Speaker of the National Assembly| leader_name3 = Marzouq Al-GhanimList of Prime Ministers of Kuwait>Prime MinisterJaber Al-Mubarak Al-Hamad Al-Sabah>Jaber Mubarak al-SabahNational Assembly (Kuwait)>National AssemblyHistory of Kuwait>Establishment| established_event1 = Independence from the Emirate of Al Hasa| established_date1 = 1752Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913>Anglo-Ottoman Convention| established_date2 = 1913| established_event3 = End of treaties with the United Kingdom| established_date3 = 19 June 1961| area_km2 = 17,818| area_rank = 152nd | area_sq_mi = 6,880 | percent_water = negligible| population_estimate = 4,621,638WEBSITE=KUWAIT GOVERNMENT ONLINE URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=17 JANUARY 2013, | population_estimate_year = 2018| population_estimate_rank = 128th | population_census_year = 2005| population_density_km2 = 200.2| population_density_sq_mi = 518.4 | population_density_rank = 61stINTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND >URL=HTTP://WWW.IMF.ORG/EXTERNAL/PUBS/FT/WEO/2017/02/WEODATA/WEOREPT.ASPX?PR.X=51&PR.Y=15&SY=2015&EY=2022&SCSM=1&SSD=1&SORT=COUNTRY&DS=.&BR=1&C=443&S=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPPC&GRP=0&A=
, 1 April 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180224093441weblink">weblink 24 February 2018, | GDP_PPP_year = 2018| GDP_PPP_rank = | GDP_PPP_per_capita = $69,669| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 5th| GDP_nominal = $118.271 billion| GDP_nominal_year = 2018| GDP_nominal_rank = 55th| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $28,199| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 23rd| Gini = | Gini_year = | Gini_change = | Gini_ref = | Gini_rank = | HDI = 0.803 | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = decrease
YEAR=2018 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, | HDI_rank = 56th| currency = Kuwaiti dinar| currency_code = KWDArabia Standard Time>AST| utc_offset = +3| utc_offset_DST = | time_zone_DST = Common Era>CE)| drives_on = rightTelephone numbers in Kuwait>+965| cctld = .kw| official_website = www.e.gov.kwOrder of succession>succession within the House of Sabah.| footnote_b = Emirate| religion = Islam 74.36% Christianity 18.17% Other 7.47%}}Kuwait ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Kuwait.ogg|k|ÊŠ|ˈ|w|eɪ|t}};WEB,weblink Kuwait – definition of Kuwait in English, 5 May 2017, Oxford Dictionaries, live,weblink 22 August 2017, WEB,weblink Definition of Kuwait by Merriam-Webster, 5 May 2017, Merriam-Webster, live,weblink 1 May 2017, {{transl|ar|al-Kuwait}}, {{IPA-afb|ɪl‿ɪkweːt}} or {{IPA-afb|lɪkweːt|}}), officially the State of Kuwait ( {{Audio|Ar-State of Kuwait.oga|Dawlat al-Kuwait|help = no}}), is a country in Western Asia. Situated in the northern edge of Eastern Arabia at the tip of the Persian Gulf, it shares borders with Iraq and Saudi Arabia. {{As of|2016}}, Kuwait has a population of 4.5 million people: 1.3 million are Kuwaitis and 3.2 million are expatriates.WEB,weblink Public Authority for Civil Information, Government of Kuwait, 2015, 12 March 2016, Expatriates account for 70% of the population.WEB,weblink Kuwait steps up deportations of expat workers, 29 April 2016, The National (UAE), The National, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160628010717weblink">weblink 28 June 2016, Oil reserves were discovered in commercial quantities in 1938. From 1946 to 1982, the country underwent large-scale modernization. In the 1980s, Kuwait experienced a period of geopolitical instability and an economic crisis following the stock market crash. In 1990, Kuwait was invaded, and later annexed, by Saddam's Iraq. The Iraqi occupation of Kuwait came to an end in 1991 after military intervention by a military coalition led by the United States. Kuwait is a major non-NATO ally of the United States.WEB,weblink U.S. tightens military relationship with Kuwait, Associated Press, nl.newsbank.com, 23 May 2018, It is also a major ally of ASEAN, while maintaining a strong relationship with China.NEWS, Times, Global, KUNA : Kuwait calls for stronger GCC-ASEAN partnership – Politics – 28/09/2017,weblink www.kuna.net.kw, en, NEWS, KUNA : Kuwait calls for stronger GCC-ASEAN partnership – Politics – 28/09/2017,weblink www.kuna.net.kw, en, NEWS, China and Kuwait agree to establish strategic partnership,weblink GBTIMES,
Kuwait is a constitutional sovereign state with a semi-democratic political system. Kuwait has a high-income economy backed by the world's sixth largest oil reserves. The Kuwaiti dinar is the highest valued currency in the world. According to the World Bank, the country has the fourth highest per capita income. The Constitution was promulgated in 1962.WEB, Ibrahim Ahmed Elbadawi, Atif Abdallah Kubursi, American University of Beirut, Kuwaiti Democracy: Illusive or Resilient?, 7,weblink 12 March 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150923180135weblink">weblink 23 September 2015, WEB,weblink Kuwait, Reporters without Borders, 12 March 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160713142927weblink">weblink 13 July 2016, Kuwait is home to the largest opera house in the Middle East. The Kuwait National Cultural District is a member of the Global Cultural Districts Network.

History

Early history

In 1613, the town of Kuwait was founded in modern-day Kuwait City. Administratively, it was a sheikhdom, ruled by local sheikhs.BOOK, Al-Nakib, Farah, Kuwait Transformed: A History of Oil and Urban Life, Stanford University Press, 9780804798525, 13 April 2016, BOOK, Casey, Michael, The history of Kuwait - Greenwood histories of modern nations, Greenwood, 0313340730, 2007, In 1716, the Bani Utub settled in Kuwait, which at this time was inhabited by a few fishermen and primarily functioned as a fishing village.THESIS, Mohammad Khalid A., Al-Jassar, PhD thesis,weblink Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City: The Socio-cultural Dimensions of the Kuwait Courtyard and Diwaniyya, The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, May 2009, 64, 978-1-109-22934-9, In the eighteenth century, Kuwait prospered and rapidly became the principal commercial center for the transit of goods between India, Muscat, Baghdad and Arabia.BOOK,weblink Shadows on the Sand: The Memoirs of Sir Gawain Bell, Gawain, Sir, Bell, 222, 1983, 978-0-905838-92-2, live,weblink 12 April 2016, JOURNAL,weblink ʻAlam-i Nisvāṉ, 2, 1–2, University of Karachi, 1995, 18, Kuwait became an important trading port for import and export of goods from India, Africa and Arabia., live,weblink 24 February 2018, By the mid 1700s, Kuwait had already established itself as the major trading route from the Persian Gulf to Aleppo.During the Persian siege of Basra in 1775–79, Iraqi merchants took refuge in Kuwait and were partly instrumental in the expansion of Kuwait's boat-building and trading activities.BOOK, Bennis, Phyllis, Moushabeck, Michel, {{google books, Ki642LknOh0C, 42, yes, |title=Beyond the Storm: A Gulf Crisis Reader |publisher=Olive Branch Press |location=Brooklyn, New York |date=1991 |page=42 |isbn=978-0-940793-82-8}} As a result, Kuwait's maritime commerce boomed, as the Indian trade routes with Baghdad, Aleppo, Smyrna and Constantinople were diverted to Kuwait during this time.THESIS, Mohammad Khalid A., Al-Jassar, PhD thesis,weblink Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City: The Socio-cultural Dimensions of the Kuwait Courtyard and Diwaniyya, The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, May 2009, 66, BOOK, Elihu, Lauterpacht, C. J., Greenwood, Marc, Weller, {{google books, 5xVSkGtcT5YC, 4, yes, |title=The Kuwait Crisis: Basic Documents |series=Cambridge international documents series, Issue 1 |publisher=Research Centre for International Law, Cambridge University Press |location=Cambridge, UK |page=4 |date=1991 |isbn=978-0-521-46308-9}} The East India Company was diverted to Kuwait in 1792.THESIS, Mohammad Khalid A., Al-Jassar, PhD thesis,weblink Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City: The Socio-cultural Dimensions of the Kuwait Courtyard and Diwaniyya, The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 67, May 2009, The East India Company secured the sea routes between Kuwait, India and the east coasts of Africa. After the Persians withdrew from Basra in 1779, Kuwait continued to attract trade away from Basra.BOOK, {{google books, t6v2HHoWgbsC, 72, yes, |title=Merchants, Mamluks, and Murder: The Political Economy of Trade in Eighteenth-Century Basra |first=Thabit A. J. |last=Abdullah |date=2001 |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=Albany, New York |page=72 |isbn=978-0-7914-4807-6}}Kuwait was the center of boat building in the Persian Gulf region.THESIS, PhD, Sagher, Mostafa Ahmed,weblink The impact of economic activities on the social and political structures of Kuwait (1896–1946), Durham University, Durham, UK, 108, 12 March 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304053950weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, BOOK, Louise Elizabeth, Sweet, {{google books, l80DAQAAIAAJ, 156, yes, |title=Peoples and Cultures of the Middle East: Cultural depth and diversity |publisher=American Museum of Natural History, Natural History Press |date=1970 |page=156 |quote=The port of Kuwait was then, and is still, the principal dhow-building and trading port of the Persian Gulf, though offering little trade itself.}} During the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, vessels made in Kuwait carried the bulk of trade between the ports of India, East Africa and the Red Sea.BOOK, M., Nijhoff, 1974, {{google books, mJJuAAAAMAAJ, 111, yes, |title=Bijdragen tot de taal-, land- en volkenkunde |volume=Volume 130 |publisher=Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde |location=Leiden, Netherlands |page=111 |language=Dutch}}BOOK, Jatendra M., Aggarwal, {{google books, 9-MZAAAAMAAJ, 29, yes, |title=Indian Foreign Affairs |volume=Volume 8|page=29 |date=1965}}BOOK, {{google books, hcMmAQAAMAAJ, 150, yes, |title=The Arabian Peninsula |first=Richard Harlakenden |last=Sanger |publisher=Books for Libraries Press |page=150 |year=1970}} Kuwaiti ships were renowned throughout the Indian Ocean. Regional geopolitical turbulence helped foster economic prosperity in Kuwait in the second half of the 18th century.THESIS, Mohammad Khalid A., Al-Jassar, PhD thesis,weblink Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City: The Socio-cultural Dimensions of the Kuwait Courtyard and Diwaniyya, The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 68, Perhaps the biggest catalyst for much of Kuwait becoming prosperous was due to Basra's instability in the late 18th century.BOOK, {{google books, iT_8KzTECwMC, 18, yes, |title=Waqai-i manazil-i Rum: Tipu Sultan's mission to Constantinople |editor-first=Mohibbul |editor-last=Hasan |publisher=Aakar Books |location=Delhi, India |orig-year=First published 1968 |date=2007 |page=18 |isbn=9788187879565 |quote=For owing to Basra's misfortunes, Kuwait and Zubarah became rich.}} In the late 18th century, Kuwait partly functioned as a haven for Basra's merchants, who were fleeing Ottoman government persecution.BOOK, {{google books, g5MewSBHkG4C, 114, yes, |title=The Politics of Regional Trade in Iraq, Arabia, and the Gulf, 1745–1900 |first=Hala Mundhir |last=Fattah |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=Albany, New York |date=1997 |page=114 |isbn=978-0-7914-3113-9}} Kuwaitis developed a reputation as the best sailors in the Persian Gulf.BOOK, {{google books, DRtWm-UkS-oC, 48, yes, |title=Seafaring in the Arabian Gulf and Oman: People of the Dhow |first=Dionisius A. |last=Agius |publisher=Routledge |location=New York |date=2012 |page=48 |isbn=978-1-136-20182-0}}BOOK, Gábor, Ágoston, Bruce, Masters, {{google books, QjzYdCxumFcC, 321, yes, |title=Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire |publisher=Infobase Publishing |location=New York |date=2009 |page=321 |isbn=978-1-4381-1025-7}}

British Protectorate (1899-1961)

In the 1890s, Kuwait was threatened by the Ottoman Empire. In a bid to address its security issues, the then ruler, Sheikh Mubarak Al Sabah signed an agreement with the British government in India, subsequently known as the Anglo-Kuwaiti Agreement of 1899 and became a British protectorate. This gave Britain exclusivity of access and trade with Kuwait, and excluded Iraq to the north from a port on the Persian Gulf. The Sheikhdom of Kuwait remained a British protectorate from 1899 (until 1961).File:Kuwait1944.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|Celebration at Seif PalaceSeif PalaceFollowing the Kuwait–Najd War of 1919–20, Ibn Saud imposed a trade blockade against Kuwait from the years 1923 until 1937.THESIS, Mohammad Khalid A., Al-Jassar, PhD thesis,weblink Constancy and Change in Contemporary Kuwait City: The Socio-cultural Dimensions of the Kuwait Courtyard and Diwaniyya, The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, May 2009, 80, The goal of the Saudi economic and military attacks on Kuwait was to annex as much of Kuwait's territory as possible. At the Uqair conference in 1922, the boundaries of Kuwait and Najd were set; as a result of British interference, Kuwait had no representative at the Uqair conference. Ibn Saud persuaded Sir Percy Cox to give him two-thirds of Kuwait's territory. More than half of Kuwait was lost due to Uqair. After the Uqair conference, Kuwait was still subjected to a Saudi economic blockade and intermittent Saudi raiding.The Great Depression harmed Kuwait's economy, starting in the late 1920s. International trading was one of Kuwait's main sources of income before oil. Kuwaiti merchants were mostly intermediary merchants. As a result of the decline of European demand for goods from India and Africa, Kuwait's economy suffered. The decline in international trade resulted in an increase in gold smuggling by Kuwaiti ships to India. Some Kuwaiti merchant families became rich from this smuggling. Kuwait's pearl industry also collapsed as a result of the worldwide economic depression.BOOK, Casey, Michael S., {{google books, AwweY4yYSMIC, 57, yes, |title=The History of Kuwait |publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group |location=Westport, Connecticut |date=2007 |page=57 |isbn=978-0-313-34073-4}} At its height, Kuwait's pearl industry had led the world's luxury market, regularly sending out between 750 and 800 ships to meet the European elite's desire for pearls. During the economic depression, luxuries like pearls were in little demand. The Japanese invention of cultured pearls also contributed to the collapse of Kuwait's pearl industry.Historian Hanna Batatu explains how the British threatened to take the Kurdish area and Mosul out of Iraq provided that King Faisal granted Britain control of the oil in the region. In 1938 the Kuwaiti Legislative CouncilLSE and Michael Herb. March 2016. "The origins of Kuwait's National Assembly" unanimously approved a request for Kuwait's reintegration with Iraq. A year later an armed uprising which had raised the integration banner as its objective was put down by the British.Batatu, Hanna 1978. "The Old Social Classes and the Revolutionary Movements of Iraq: A Study of Iraq’s Old Landed and Commercial Classes and of its Communists, Ba’athists and Free Officers" Princeton p. 189

1962–1982: Golden Era

File:Stamp Kuwait 1957 15np.jpg|thumb|150px|Postage stamp with portrait of Queen Elizabeth IIQueen Elizabeth IIWith the end of the world war, and increasing need for oil across the world, Kuwait experienced a period of prosperity driven by oil and its liberal atmosphere. The period of 1946-82 is often termed "the golden period of Kuwait" by western academics.BOOK, Noura, Al Sager, {{google books, 201yBgAAQBAJ, 7, yes, |title=Acquiring Modernity: Kuwait's Modern Era Between Memory and Forgetting|date=2014 |page=7 |publisher=National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters |isbn=9789990604238}}JOURNAL, Farah, Al-Nakib,weblink Kuwait's Modernity Between Memory and Forgetting, Academia.edu, 2014, 7, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170806191942weblink">weblink 6 August 2017, Al-Nakib, Farah, WEB, Farid, Alia,weblink Acquiring Modernity: Kuwait at the 14th International Architecture Exhibition, aliafarid.net, 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161030085747weblink">weblink 30 October 2016, In popular discourse, the years between 1946 and 1982 are referred to as the "Golden Era".JOURNAL, Gonzales, Desi, November–December 2014, Acquiring Modernity: Kuwait at the 14th International Architecture Exhibition,weblink Art Papers, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141224135926weblink">weblink 24 December 2014, 21 February 2015, However, Kuwaiti academics argue that this period was marked by benefits accruing only to the wealthier and connected ruling classes. It saw an increased presence of British, American and French citizens connected with the new oil industry, wealth transfer to people connected with the Emir, the creation of a new privileged upper class of educated Kuwaitis, bankers, and a vast majority of Kuwaitis living a life of penury. This resulted in a growing gulf between the wealthy minority and the majority of common citizens. In 1950, a major public-work programme began to enable Kuwaitis to enjoy a modern standard of living. By 1952, the country became the largest oil exporter in the Persian Gulf region. This massive growth attracted many foreign workers, especially from Palestine, India, and Egypt – with the latter being particularly political within the context of the Arab Cold War.JOURNAL, Tsourapas, Gerasimos, 2 July 2016, Nasser's Educators and Agitators across al-Watan al-'Arabi: Tracing the Foreign Policy Importance of Egyptian Regional Migration, 1952–1967, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 43, 3, 324–341, 10.1080/13530194.2015.1102708, 1353-0194,weblink In June 1961, Kuwait became independent with the end of the British protectorate and the Sheikh Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah became Emir of Kuwait. Kuwait's national day, however, is celebrated on 25 February, the anniversary of the coronation of Sheikh Abdullah (it was originally celebrated on 19 June, the date of independence, but concerns over the summer heat caused the government to move it).BOOK, Bourisly, Nibal K., Al-hajji, Maher N., Fuller, Linda K., National Days/national Ways: Historical, Political, and Religious Celebrations Around the World,weblink 23 February 2018, 2004, Greenwood Publishing Group, 9780275972707, 125–126, Kuwait's National Day: Four Decades of Transformed Celebrations, live,weblink 14 February 2017, Under the terms of the newly drafted Constitution, Kuwait held its first parliamentary elections in 1963. Kuwait was the first of the Arab states of the Persian Gulf to establish a constitution and parliament.In the 1960s and 1970s, Kuwait was considered by some as the most developed country in the region.NEWS, Looking for Origins of Arab Modernism in Kuwait,weblink Hyperallergic, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150711090946weblink">weblink 11 July 2015, JOURNAL, Al-Nakib, Farah, Built Environment, Towards an Urban Alternative for Kuwait: Protests and Public Participation, 1 March 2014, 40, 1, 101–117,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170806165719weblink">weblink 6 August 2017, 10.2148/benv.40.1.101, WEB,weblink Cultural developments in Kuwait, March 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180224093441weblink">weblink 24 February 2018, Kuwait was the pioneer in the Middle East in diversifying its earnings away from oil exports.JOURNAL, Sam, Chee Kong,weblink What Can Nations Learn from Norway and Kuwait in Managing Sovereign Wealth Funds, Market Oracle, 1 March 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140913235403weblink">weblink 13 September 2014, The Kuwait Investment Authority is the world's first sovereign wealth fund. From the 1970s onward, Kuwait scored highest of all Arab countries on the Human Development Index. Kuwait University was established in 1966. Kuwait's theatre industry was well known throughout the Arab world. However, it also began to see the growth of plush gated properties, wherein the interiors resembled western villas and the streets were filled with roads marked with potholes.In the 1960s and 1970s, Kuwait's press was described as one of the freest in the world.NEWS, Farah, al-Nakib, 17 September 2014,weblink Understanding Modernity: A Review of the Kuwait Pavilion at the Venice Biennale, Jadaliyya, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141129095343weblink">weblink 29 November 2014, Kuwait was the pioneer in the literary renaissance in the Arab region. In 1958, Al-Arabi magazine was first published. The magazine went on to become the most popular magazine in the Arab world.NEWS, Valiya S., Sajjad,weblink Kuwait Literary Scene A Little Complex, Arab Times, A magazine, Al Arabi, was published in 1958 in Kuwait. It was the most popular magazine in the Arab world. It came out it in all the Arabic countries, and about a quarter million copies were published every month., dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141129040817weblink">weblink 29 November 2014, Many Arab writers moved to Kuwait because they enjoyed greater freedom of expression than elsewhere in the Arab world.BOOK, Barrie, Gunter, Roger, Dickinson, {{google books, t4DFAgAAQBAJ, 24, yes, |title=News Media in the Arab World: A Study of 10 Arab and Muslim Countries |publisher=Bloomsbury Publishing USA |location=New York |date=2013 |page=24 |isbn=978-1-4411-0239-3}}BOOK, Abdulaziz, Sager, Christian, Koch, Hasanain, Tawfiq Ibrahim,weblink Gulf Yearbook 2006–2007, I. B. Tauris, 2008, 39, The Kuwaiti press has always enjoyed a level of freedom unparalleled in any other Arab country., The Iraqi poet Ahmed Matar left Iraq in the 1970s to take refuge in the more liberal environment of Kuwait.Kuwaiti society embraced liberal and Western attitudes throughout the 1960s and 1970s.BOOK,weblink Muslim Education Quarterly, Islamic Academy, 1990, 8, 61, Kuwait is a primary example of a Muslim society which embraced liberal and Western attitudes throughout the sixties and seventies., For example, most Kuwaiti women did not wear the hijab in the 1960s and 70s.BOOK, Rubin, Barry, {{google books, wEih57-GWQQC, 306, yes, |title=Guide to Islamist Movements |volume=Volume 1 |publisher=M.E. Sharpe |location=Armonk, New York |date=2010 |page=306 |isbn=978-0-7656-4138-0}}BOOK, Deborah L., Wheeler, {{google books, v6aWc8fM1iEC, 99, yes, |title=The Internet in the Middle East: Global Expectations And Local Imaginations |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=Albany, New York |page=99 |isbn=978-0-7914-6586-8|year=2006 }}

1982 to present day

File:Jacckuwait.jpg|thumb|Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Cultural CentreSheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Cultural CentreIn the early 1980s, Kuwait experienced a major economic crisis after the Souk Al-Manakh stock market crash and decrease in oil price.WEB,weblink Kuwait's Souk al-Manakh Stock Bubble, Stock-market-crash.net, 23 June 2012, 14 January 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120519011132weblink">weblink 19 May 2012, During the Iran–Iraq War, Kuwait supported Iraq. Throughout the 1980s, there were several terror attacks in Kuwait, including the 1983 Kuwait bombings, hijacking of several Kuwait Airways planes and the attempted assassination of Emir Jaber in 1985. Kuwait was a regional hub of science and technology in the 1960s and 1970s up until the early 1980s; the scientific research sector significantly suffered due to the terror attacks.BOOK, Processing and Properties of Advanced Ceramics and Composites, {{google books, V_uTkJTa4NAC, 205, yes, |location=Hoboken, New Jersey|publisher=John Wiley & Sons|volume=240|page=205|isbn=978-1-118-74411-6|editor-first1=Narottam P.|editor-last1=Bansal|editor-first2=Jitendra P.|editor-last2=Singh|editor-first3=Song|editor-last3=Ko|editor-first4=Ricardo|editor-last4=Castro|editor-first5=Gary|editor-last5=Pickrell|editor-first6=Navin Jose|editor-last6=Manjooran|editor-first7=Mani|editor-last7=Nair|editor-first8=Gurpreet|editor-last8=Singh|date=1 July 2013}}After the Iran–Iraq War ended, Kuwait declined an Iraqi request to forgive its US$65 billion debt.WEB,weblink Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait; 1990, Acig.org, 28 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141006231817weblink">weblink 6 October 2014, An economic rivalry between the two countries ensued after Kuwait increased its oil production by 40 percent.BOOK, Derek, Gregory, {{google books, DejCbO1mvCYC, 156, yes, |title=The Colonial Present: Afghanistan, Palestine, Iraq |publisher=Wiley-Blackwell |accessdate=28 June 2010 |isbn=978-1-57718-090-6 |date=2004}} Tensions between the two countries increased further in July 1990, after Iraq complained to OPEC claiming that Kuwait was stealing its oil from a field near the border by slant drilling of the Rumaila field.In August 1990, Iraqi forces invaded and annexed Kuwait. After a series of failed diplomatic negotiations, the United States led a coalition to remove the Iraqi forces from Kuwait, in what became known as the Gulf War. On 26 February 1991, the coalition succeeded in driving out the Iraqi forces. As they retreated, Iraqi forces carried out a scorched earth policy by setting oil wells on fire.WEB,weblink Iraq and Kuwait: 1972, 1990, 1991, 1997, Earthshots: Satellite Images of Environmental Change, 14 January 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120429014811weblink">weblink 29 April 2012, During the Iraqi occupation, more than 1,000 Kuwaiti civilians were killed. In addition, more than 600 Kuwaitis went missing during Iraq's occupation;NEWS, Iraq and Kuwait Discuss Fate of 600 Missing Since Gulf War,weblink Los Angeles Times, Associated Press, 9 January 2003, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141006195140weblink">weblink 6 October 2014, remains of approximately 375 were found in mass graves in Iraq.File:POTD-September-5-2018.jpg|thumb|left|U.S. President Donald Trump welcomes the Amir of Kuwait Sabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-SabahSabah Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-SabahIn March 2003, Kuwait became the springboard for the US-led invasion of Iraq. Upon the death of the Emir Jaber in January 2006, Saad Al-Sabah succeeded him but was removed nine days later by the Kuwaiti parliament due to his ailing health. Sabah Al-Sabah was sworn in as Emir.From 2001 to 2009, Kuwait had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the Arab world.WEB,weblink Kuwait ranks top among Arab states in human development – UNDP report, KUNA, 2009, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160812063648weblink">weblink 12 August 2016, WEB,weblink Human Development Index 2009, Human Development Report, hdr.undp.org, 143, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140513140027weblink">weblink 13 May 2014, WEB,weblink Human Development Index 2007/2008, Human Development Report, 233, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140415124340weblink">weblink 15 April 2014, WEB,weblink Human Development Index 2006, Human Development Report, 283, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160310060002weblink">weblink 10 March 2016, In 2005, women won the right to vote and run in elections. In 2014 and 2015, Kuwait was ranked first among Arab countries in the Global Gender Gap Report. Sabah Al Ahmad Sea City was inaugurated in mid 2015.WEB,weblink Sea City achieves the impossible, March 2016, The Worldfolio, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161220081001weblink">weblink 20 December 2016, WEB,weblink Tamdeen Group's US$700 million Al Khiran development to bolster Kuwait's retail and tourism growth, Tamdeen Group, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161220081408weblink">weblink 20 December 2016, The Amiri Diwan is currently developing the new Kuwait National Cultural District (KNCD), which comprises Sheikh Abdullah Al Salem Cultural Centre, Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre, Al Shaheed Park, and Al Salam Palace.WEB,weblink Kuwait National Cultural District Museums Director, 28 August 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20180125015530weblink">weblink 25 January 2018, WEB, Kuwait National Cultural District,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170829035526weblink">weblink 29 August 2017, With a capital cost of more than US$1 billion, the project is one of the largest cultural investments in the world. In November 2016, the Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre opened.WEB,weblink Kuwait unveils $775M Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre, 7 December 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161227165043weblink">weblink 27 December 2016, WEB,weblink Opening of the Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre a milestone in the illustrious company's history, 7 December 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161227165255weblink">weblink 27 December 2016, It is the largest cultural centre in the Middle East.NEWS, UK Trade & Investment,weblink UK Trade & Investment, 3, June 2016, live,weblink 21 December 2016, The Kuwait National Cultural District is a member of the Global Cultural Districts Network.WEB, Current Members – Global Cultural Districts Network,weblink Global Cultural Districts Network, In 2016 Kuwait commenced a new national development plan, Kuwait Vision 2035, including plans to diversify the economy and become less dependent on oil.WEB, 2019-06-07, The Kuwait National Development Plan,weblink 30 July 2018, New Kuwait Summit,

Culture

Kuwaiti popular culture, in the form of theatre, radio, music, and television soap opera, flourishes and is even exported to neighboring states.BOOK, Clive Holes,weblink Modern Arabic: Structures, Functions, and Varieties, 2004, 75, Georgetown University Press, 978-1-58901-022-2, live,weblink 11 October 2017, WEB, Ali Alawi,weblink Ali's roadtrip from Bahrain to Kuwait (PHOTOS), The trip to Kuwait – a country that has built a deep connection with people in the Persian Gulf thanks to its significant drama productions in theater, television, and even music – started with 25 kilometers of spectacular sea view, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160417033320weblink">weblink 17 April 2016, Within the Persian Gulf Arab states, the culture of Kuwait is the closest to the culture of Bahrain; this is evident in the close association between the two states in theatrical productions and soap operas.BOOK, S.S., Zubir, C.A., Brebbia, {{google books, yeg8AwAAQBAJ, 599, yes, |title=The Sustainable City VIII (2 Volume Set): Urban Regeneration and Sustainability |series=Volume 179 of WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment |publisher=WIT Press |location=Ashurst, Southampton, UK |date=2014 |page=599 |isbn=978-1-84564-746-9}}

Society

Kuwaiti society is markedly more open than other Persian Gulf Arab societies.THESIS, Alazemi, Einas,weblink The role of fashion design in the construct of national identity of Kuwaiti women in the 21st century, University of Southampton, PhD, 140–199, live,weblink 22 August 2017, Kuwaiti citizens are ethnically diverse, consisting of both Arabs and Persians ('Ajam).BOOK, Noura, Al Sager, {{google books, 201yBgAAQBAJ, 13, yes, |title=Acquiring Modernity: Kuwait's Modern Era Between Memory and Forgetting|date=2014 |page=7 |publisher=National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters |isbn=9789990604238}} Kuwait stands out in the region as the most liberal in empowering women in the public sphere.WEB,weblink The Situation of Women in the Gulf States, 18, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170606133834weblink">weblink 6 June 2017, WEB,weblink Small Victories for GCC Women: More Educated, More Unemployed, Karen E. Young, The Arab Gulf States Institute, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170617032643weblink">weblink 17 June 2017, WEB,weblink More Educated, Less Employed: The Paradox of Women's Employment in the Gulf, Karen E. Young, 7–8, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170822093550weblink">weblink 22 August 2017, Kuwaiti women outnumber men in the workforce. Kuwaiti political scientist Ghanim Alnajjar sees these qualities as a manifestation of Kuwaiti society as a whole, whereby in the Persian Gulf region it is "the least strict about traditions".ARTICLE, Stephenson, Lindsey,weblink Women and the Malleability of the Kuwaiti Diwaniyya, 190, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170806162420weblink">weblink 6 August 2017,

Television and theatre

{{see|Cinema of Kuwait}}File:Abdulhussain Abdulredha 2009 (cropped) version.jpg|thumb|right|Abdulhussain AbdulredhaAbdulhussain AbdulredhaKuwait's television drama industry tops other Persian Gulf drama industries and produces a minimum of fifteen serials annually.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Andrew, Hammond,weblink Pop Culture in North Africa and the Middle East: Entertainment and Society Around the World, ABC-CLIO, California, 2017, 143–144, 9781440833847, NEWS,weblink Closer cultural relations between the two countries, The Kuwaiti television is considered the most active in the Persian Gulf region, as it has contributed to the development of television drama in Kuwait and the Persian Gulf region. Therefore, all the classics of the Gulf television drama are today Kuwaiti dramas by Kuwaiti actors, Oman Daily Observer, 20 February 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170415200332weblink">weblink 15 April 2017, Kuwait is the production centre of the Persian Gulf television drama and comedy scene. Most Persian Gulf television drama and comedy productions are filmed in Kuwait.NEWS,weblink Big plans for small screens, BroadcastPro Me, Around 90% of Khaleeji productions take place in Kuwait., live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160423065348weblink">weblink 23 April 2016, NEWS, Constantinos, Papavassilopoulos,weblink OSN targets new markets by enriching its Arabic content offering, IHS Inc., 10 April 2014, live,weblink 22 April 2016, Kuwaiti soap operas are the most-watched soap operas from the Gulf region.NEWS, Fahad, Al Mukrashi,weblink Omanis turn their backs on local dramas, Gulf News, 22 August 2015, Kuwait's drama industry tops other Gulf drama as it has very prominent actors and actresses, enough scripts and budgets, produces fifteen serials annually at least., live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160425210746weblink">weblink 25 April 2016, NEWS, Nawara, Fattahova,weblink First Kuwaiti horror movie to be set in 'haunted' palace, Kuwait's TV soaps and theatrical plays are among the best in the region and second most popular after Egypt in the Middle East., Kuwait Times, 26 March 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150518100511weblink">weblink 18 May 2015, WEB, Bjørn T. Asheim, An Innovation driven Economic Diversification Strategy for Kuwait,weblink Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences, 9, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170710120935weblink">weblink 10 July 2017, Soap operas are most popular during the time of Ramadan, when families gather to break their fast.NEWS,weblink Kuwaiti Drama Museum: formulating thoughts of the Gulf, 23 May 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160427062226weblink">weblink 27 April 2016, Although usually performed in the Kuwaiti dialect, they have been shown with success as far away as Tunisia.BOOK, Peter, Mansfield,weblink Kuwait: vanguard of the Gulf, Hutchinson, 1990, 113, live,weblink 16 April 2017, Kuwait is frequently dubbed the "Hollywood of the Gulf" due to the popularity of its television soap operas and theatre.NEWS,weblink Kuwait Cultural Days kick off in Seoul, Kuwait News Agency, Arabic, 18 December 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160713142819weblink">weblink 13 July 2016, Kuwait is known for its home-grown tradition of theatre.BOOK, Marshall, Cavendish,weblink World and Its Peoples, Volume 1, 2006, Marshall Cavendish, Singapore, 244, 978-0-7614-7571-2, live,weblink 2 January 2017, NEWS, Katie, Watson,weblink Reviving Kuwait's theatre industry, BBC News, 18 December 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141111041620weblink">weblink 11 November 2014, Kuwait is the only country in the Persian Gulf with a theatrical tradition.BOOK, Andrew, Hammond, {{google books, O06bOHRW7s8C, 277, yes, |title=Popular Culture in the Arab World: Arts, Politics, and the Media |publisher=American University in Cairo Press |location=Cairo, Egypt |date=2007 |page=277 |isbn=9789774160547}} The theatrical movement in Kuwait constitutes a major part of the country's cultural life. Theatrical activities in Kuwait began in the 1920s when the first spoken dramas were released.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Don, Rubin, {{google books, W63OCzel54IC, 132, yes, |title=Kuwait |encyclopedia=The World Encyclopedia of Contemporary Theatre |volume=Volume 4: The Arab world |publisher=Taylor & Francis |location=London |date=1999 |page=143 |isbn=978-0-415-05932-9}} Theatre activities are still popular today.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Ian, Herbert, Nicole, Leclercq, {{google books, TG2mP5KTDn8C, 147, yes, |encyclopedia=The World of Theatre |edition=2000 |title=An Account of the Theatre Seasons 1996–97, 1997–98 and 1998–99 |publisher=Taylor & Francis |location=London |date=2000 |page=147 |isbn=978-0-415-23866-3}} Abdulhussain Abdulredha is the most prominent actor.Kuwait is the main centre of scenographic and theatrical training in the Persian Gulf region.THESIS, PhD, Alhajri, Khalifah Rashed,weblink A Scenographer's Perspective on Arabic Theatre and Arab-Muslim Identity, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK, 207, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170304041302weblink">weblink 4 March 2017, In 1973, the Higher Institute of Theatrical Arts was founded by the government to provide higher education in theatrical arts.NEWS,weblink Shooting the Past, 11 July 2013, y-oman.com, Most Omanis who get to study drama abroad tend to go to Kuwait or Egypt. In the Persian Gulf, Kuwait has long been a pioneer in theatre, film and television since the establishment of its Higher Institute of Dramatic Arts (HIDA) in 1973. By contrast, there is no drama college or film school in Oman, although there is a drama course at Sultan Qaboos University., live,weblink 5 May 2016, The institute has several divisions. Many actors have graduated from the institute, such as Souad Abdullah, Mohammed Khalifa, Mansour Al-Mansour, along with a number of prominent critics such as Ismail Fahd Ismail.Theatre in Kuwait is subsidized by the government, previously by the Ministry of Social Affairs and now by the National Council for Culture, Arts, and Letters (NCCAL).ENCYCLOPEDIA, Ian, Herbert, Nicole, Leclercq, {{google books, pWqCAgAAQBAJ, 214, yes, |encyclopedia=The World of Theatre |edition=2003 |title=World of Theatre 2003 Edition: An Account of the World's Theatre Seasons |publisher=Taylor & Francis |location=London |date=2003 |page=214 |isbn=9781134402120}} Every urban district has a public theatre.WEB, Fiona MacLeod,weblink The London musician who found harmony in Kuwait, Financial Times, live,weblink 9 April 2017, The public theatre in Salmiya is named after Abdulhussain Abdulredha.

Arts

Kuwait has the oldest modern arts movement in the Arabian Peninsula.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Jonathan, Bloom, Blair, Sheila,weblink 2009, Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-Volume Set, Oxford University Press, London, 2009, 405, 978-0-19-530991-1, live,weblink 30 April 2016, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Sherifa, Zuhur,weblink 2001, Colors of Enchantment: Theater, Dance, Music, and the Visual Arts of the Middle East, American University in Cairo Press, New York, 2001, 383, 9781617974809, WEB, Bjørn T. Asheim, An Innovation driven Economic Diversification Strategy for Kuwait,weblink Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Sciences, 49–50, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170710120935weblink">weblink 10 July 2017, Beginning in 1936, Kuwait was the first Persian Gulf country to grant scholarships in the arts. The Kuwaiti artist Mojeb al-Dousari was the earliest recognized visual artist in the Persian Gulf region.NEWS, Sultan Sooud, Al Qassemi,weblink Correcting misconceptions of the Gulf's modern art movement, Al-Monitor: The Pulse of the Middle East, 22 November 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141129020838weblink">weblink 29 November 2014, He is regarded as the founder of portrait art in the region.WEB,weblink Kuwait, Atelier Voyage, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141129051742weblink">weblink 29 November 2014, The Sultan Gallery was the first professional Arab art gallery in the Gulf.WEB, Kristine Khouri, Mapping Arab Art through the Sultan Gallery,weblink ArteEast, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161011010704weblink">weblink 11 October 2016, WEB, The Sultan Gallery – Kristine Khouri,weblink live,weblink 18 January 2016, Kuwait is home to more than 30 art galleries.WEB, Culture of Kuwait,weblink Kuwait Embassy in Austria, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170402081106weblink">weblink 2 April 2017, WEB, Art Galleries and Art Museums in Kuwait,weblink Art Kuwait, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170503115416weblink">weblink 3 May 2017, In recent years, Kuwait's contemporary art scene has boomed.WEB, Egyptian Artist Fatma, talks about the gateway to human faces and equality for all,weblink Reconnecting Arts, live,weblink 22 August 2017, WEB, Kuwaiti Artist Rua AlShaheen tells us about recycling existing elements to tell a new narrative,weblink Reconnecting Arts, live,weblink 5 April 2017, WEB, Farah Behbehani & the Story of the letter Haa ',weblink Al Ostoura Magazine, live,weblink 22 August 2017, Khalifa Al-Qattan was the first artist to hold a solo exhibition in Kuwait. He founded a new art theory in the early 1960s known as "circulism".THESIS, Hussain, Muayad H., PhD thesis,weblink Modern Art from Kuwait: Khalifa Qattan and Circulism, University of Birmingham, 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161011005806weblink">weblink 11 October 2016, WEB,weblink Khalifa Qattan, Founder of Circulism, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141129023638weblink">weblink 29 November 2014, Other notable Kuwaiti artists include Sami Mohammad, Thuraya Al-Baqsami and Suzan Bushnaq.The government organizes various arts festivals, including the Al Qurain Cultural Festival and Formative Arts Festival.WEB,weblink Interview with Ali Al-Youha – Secretary General of Kuwait National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters (NCCAL), oxgaps.org, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170803012022weblink">weblink 3 August 2017, WEB,weblink Kuwait celebrates formative arts festival, Kuwait News Agency (KUNA), live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170331115755weblink">weblink 31 March 2017, WEB,weblink KAA honors winners of His Highness Amir formative arts award, Kuwait News Agency (KUNA), live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170331120238weblink">weblink 31 March 2017, The Kuwait International Biennial was inaugurated in 1967,WEB, 12th Kuwait International Biennial,weblink AsiaArt archive, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170331205003weblink">weblink 31 March 2017, more than 20 Arab and foreign countries have participated in the biennial. Prominent participants include Layla Al-Attar. In 2004, the Al Kharafi Biennial for Contemporary Arab Art was inaugurated.

Music

Kuwait is the birthplace of various popular musical genres, such as sawt.WEB,weblink The Cradle of Arabic Sawt Music: The Early Musician Generations in Kuwait, Rolf Killius, Qatar Digital Library, live,weblink 28 August 2017, Kuwaiti music has considerably influenced the music culture in other GCC countries.WEB,weblink Opportunity report for Dutch businesses in Gulf region – Creative Industries, 10, Netherlands, Government of Netherlands, live,weblink 20 September 2016, Traditional Kuwaiti music is a reflection of the country's seafaring heritage,WEB,weblink Kuwait's musical heritage: The heartbeat of a nation, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140904093725weblink">weblink 4 September 2014, which is known for genres such as fijiri.WEB,weblink Ya Bahr, Brownbook, Sophie Chamas, WEB,weblink The Innerworkings of Kuwaiti Pearl Diving: Ghazi AlMulaifi, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140606102911weblink">weblink 6 June 2014, WEB,weblink Hidden Treasures: Reflections on Traditional Music in Kuwait, Rolf Killius, Qatar Digital Library, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150323143437weblink">weblink 23 March 2015, Kuwait pioneered contemporary Khaliji music.WEB,weblink History of Recording in the Gulf area, Part 1, Mustafa Said, 12 March 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160715033243weblink">weblink 15 July 2016, WEB,weblink History of Recording in the Gulf area, Part 2, Mustafa Said, 12 March 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160527002135weblink">weblink 27 May 2016, Kuwaitis were the first commercial recording artists in the Gulf region.THESIS, PhD, Ulaby, Laith,weblink PDF, Performing the Past: Sea Music in the Arab Gulf States, University of California, Los Angeles, 99, The first known Kuwaiti recordings were made between 1912 and 1915.WEB,weblink A Gulfie record collector writes, The Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Cultural Centre contains the largest opera house in the Middle East.WEB, Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre,weblink jacc-kw.com, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170603003559weblink">weblink 3 June 2017, Kuwait is home to various music festivals, including the International Music Festival hosted by the National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters (NCCAL).WEB,weblink International Music Festival opens in Kuwait, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160913210506weblink">weblink 13 September 2016, WEB,weblink Int'l Music Festival opens in Kuwait, Kuwait News Agency, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160911034628weblink">weblink 11 September 2016, Kuwait has several academic institutions specializing in university-level music education.THESIS, Alderaiwaish, Ahmad,weblink Teaching the Clarinet in Kuwait: Creating A Curriculum for the Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, University of Southampton, PhD, 51–55, live,weblink 25 August 2017, The Higher Institute of Musical Arts was established by the government to provide bachelor's degrees in music.THESIS, Al-Faraj, Hamed,weblink Kuwait music educators' perspectives regarding the general goals for music education in Kuwait, Case Western Reserve University, PhD, 23–26, live,weblink 26 August 2017, In addition, the College of Basic Education offers bachelor's degrees in music education. The Institute of Musical Studies offers degrees equivalent to secondary school.THESIS, Alyoser, Abdulaziz Z,weblink Self-Reported Attitudes and Practices of Music Instructors in Kuwait regarding Adult Music Learners, Case Western Reserve University, PhD, 12, live,weblink 26 August 2017,

Literature

Kuwait has, in recent years, produced several prominent contemporary writers such as Ismail Fahd Ismail, author of over twenty novels and numerous short story collections.WEB, Kuwait Literature,weblink Fanack Chronicle, 7 May 2015, There is also evidence that Kuwaiti literature has long been interactive with English and French literature.WEB, Kuwaiti literature interacts with foreign literatures – study,weblink KUNA,

Museums

File:Beitalsadu.jpg|thumb|left|Sadu HouseSadu HouseThe new Kuwait National Cultural District (KNCD) consists of various cultural venues including Sheikh Abdullah Al Salem Cultural Centre, Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre, Al Shaheed Park, and Al Salam Palace. With a capital cost of more than US$1 billion, it is one of the largest cultural districts in the world. The Abdullah Salem Cultural Centre is the largest museum complex in the Middle East.WEB,weblink BECK – international museum fit-out: breaking the boundaries of what's possible, Adrian Murphy Main Image: a rain forest at the Sheikh Abdullah Al Salam Cultural Centre in, Kuwait, Museums + Heritage Advisor, WEB,weblink Kuwait Cultural Centre, The Kuwait National Cultural District is a member of the Global Cultural Districts Network.Several Kuwaiti museums are devoted to Islamic art, most notably the Tareq Rajab Museums and Dar al Athar al Islamiyyah cultural centres.WEB, About Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah,weblink darmuseum.org.kw, live,weblink 22 August 2017, The Dar al Athar al Islamiyyah cultural centres include education wings, conservation labs, and research libraries.WEB, Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah at Amricani Cultural Centre,weblink darmuseum.org.kw, live,weblink 14 April 2017, WEB, Dar al-Athar al-Islamiyyah at Yarmouk Cultural Centre,weblink darmuseum.org.kw, live,weblink 14 April 2017, There are several art libraries in Kuwait.WEB,weblink Abous Us – CAPKuwait, capkuwait.com, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170528050927weblink">weblink 28 May 2017, WEB,weblink Libraries – Dar al Athar al Islamiyyah, darmuseum.org.kw, live,weblink 14 April 2017, WEB,weblink First Art Library in Kuwait, artkuwait.org, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140222030020weblink">weblink 22 February 2014, Khalifa Al-Qattan's Mirror House is the most popular art museum in Kuwait.WEB, The Great Journey,weblink Ibraaz, live,weblink 27 January 2018, Many museums in Kuwait are private enterprises.BOOK, Karen, Excell, Sarina, Wakefield,weblink Museums in Arabia: Transnational Practices and Regional Processes, Taylor & Francis, 2016, 137–158, 9781317092766, live,weblink 16 April 2017, BOOK, Karen, Exell,weblink Modernity and the Museum in the Arabian Peninsula, Taylor & Francis, 2016, 147–179, 9781317279006, live,weblink 16 April 2017, In contrast to the top-down approach in other Gulf states, museum development in Kuwait reflects a greater sense of civic identity and demonstrates the strength of civil society in Kuwait, which has produced many independent cultural enterprises.BOOK, Karen, Exell,weblink Modernity and the Museum in the Arabian Peninsula, Taylor & Francis, 2016, 176, 9781317279006, live,weblink 16 April 2017, Sadu House is among Kuwait's most important cultural institutions. Bait Al-Othman is the largest museum specializing in Kuwait's history. The Scientific Center is one of the largest science museums in the Middle East. The Museum of Modern Art showcases the history of modern art in Kuwait and the region.WEB, Kuwait Museum of Modern Art,weblink myartguides.com, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170518235118weblink">weblink 18 May 2017, The National Museum, established in 1983, has been described as "underused and overlooked".JOURNAL
, Gonzales
, Desi
, November–December 2014
, Acquiring Modernity: Kuwait at the 14th International Architecture Exhibition
,weblink
, Art Papers
, dead
,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141224135926weblink">weblink
, 24 December 2014
, dmy-all
, 21 February 2015
,

Sport

Football is the most popular sport in Kuwait. The Kuwait Football Association (KFA) is the governing body of football in Kuwait. The KFA organises the men's, women's, and futsal national teams. The Kuwaiti Premier League is the top league of Kuwaiti football, featuring eighteen teams. They have been the champions of the 1980 AFC Asian Cup, runners-up of the 1976 AFC Asian Cup, and have taken third place of the 1984 AFC Asian Cup. Kuwait has also been to one FIFA World Cup, in 1982; they drew 1–1 with Czechoslovakia before losing to France and England, failing to advance from the first round. Kuwait is home to many football clubs including Al-Arabi, Al-Fahaheel, Al-Jahra, Al-Kuwait, Al-Naser, Al-Salmiya, Al-Shabab, Al Qadsia, Al-Yarmouk, Kazma, Khaitan, Sulaibikhat, Sahel, and Tadamon. The biggest football rivalry in Kuwait is between Al-Arabi and Al Qadsia.Basketball is one of the country's most popular sports. The Kuwait national basketball team is governed by the Kuwait Basketball Association (KBA). Kuwait made its international debut in 1959. The national team has been to the FIBA Asian Championship in basketball eleven times. The Kuwaiti Division I Basketball League is the highest professional basketball league in Kuwait. Cricket in Kuwait is governed by the Kuwait Cricket Association. Other growing sports include rugby union. Handball is widely considered to be the national icon of Kuwait, although football is more popular among the overall population.Ice hockey in Kuwait is governed by the Kuwait Ice Hockey Association. Kuwait first joined the International Ice Hockey Federation in 1985, but was expelled in 1992 due to a lack of ice hockey activity.WEB,weblink Story #42;Breakup of old Europe creates a new hockey world, International Ice Hockey Federation, 9 June 2009, 2008, Szemberg, Szymon, Podnieks, Andrew, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090615155631weblink">weblink 15 June 2009, Kuwait was re-admitted into the IIHF in May 2009.WEB,weblink Welcome, Georgia & Kuwait, 13 May 2009, International Ice Hockey Federation, 9 June 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20101228102759weblink">weblink 28 December 2010, In 2015, Kuwait won the IIHF Challenge Cup of Asia.WEB,weblink Kuwait wins IIHF Ice Hockey Challenge Cup of Asia, 12 June 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160204193348weblink">weblink 4 February 2016, WEB,weblink Kuwait top ice hockey Challenge Cup, 12 June 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160204123012weblink">weblink 4 February 2016,

Media

File:Kuwait Liberation Tower cropped.jpg|thumb|upright=0.7|The 372 m tall Kuwait Telecommunications TowerKuwait Telecommunications TowerKuwait's media is annually classified as "partly free" in the Freedom of Press survey by Freedom House.WEB,weblink Freedom of the Press – Scores and Status Data 1980–2014, Freedom House, 12 March 2016, live,weblink 17 March 2016, Since 2005,WEB,weblink Press Freedom, Since 2005, Kuwait has earned the highest ranking of all Arab countries on the annual Press Freedom Index of Reporters Without Borders., live,weblink 27 September 2015, Kuwait has frequently earned the highest ranking of all Arab countries in the annual Press Freedom Index by Reporters Without Borders.WEB,weblink Kuwait Press Freedom, live,weblink 27 September 2015, WEB,weblink Press Freedom Index 2011–2012, live,weblink 14 September 2016, WEB,weblink Press Freedom Index 2013, live,weblink 14 September 2016, WEB,weblink World Press Freedom Index 2014 – Reporters Without Borders, live,weblink 14 September 2016, WEB,weblink Press Freedom Index 2006, live,weblink 14 September 2016, WEB,weblink Press Freedom Index 2007, live,weblink 14 September 2016, WEB,weblink Press Freedom Index 2008, live,weblink 14 September 2016, WEB,weblink Press Freedom Index 2009, 2, live,weblink 14 September 2016, WEB,weblink Press Freedom Index 2010, live,weblink 14 September 2016, In 2009, 2011, 2013 and 2014, Kuwait surpassed Israel as the country with the greatest press freedom in the Middle East. Kuwait is also frequently ranked as the Arab country with the greatest press freedom in Freedom House's annual Freedom of Press survey.WEB,weblink Operation Roll Back Kuwaiti Freedom, Human Rights Watch, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150103212941weblink">weblink 3 January 2015, WEB,weblink Freedom of the Press 2010, 25, live,weblink 11 October 2016, WEB,weblink Freedom of the Press 2009, 20, live,weblink 27 December 2016, WEB,weblink Freedom of the Press 2008, 24, live,weblink 11 October 2016, WEB,weblink Freedom of the Press 2006, 15, live,weblink 30 December 2014, WEB,weblink Freedom of the Press 2007, 21, live,weblink 11 October 2016, WEB,weblink Freedom of the Press 2005, 15, live,weblink 30 December 2014, Kuwait produces more newspapers and magazines per capita than its neighbors.BOOK, Naomi Sakr, Women and Media in the Middle East: Power Through Self-Expression,weblink 2004, I.B.Tauris, 978-1-85043-545-7, 122, live,weblink 19 February 2016, BOOK, Ali Darwish, Social Semiotics of Arabic Satellite Television: Beyond the Glamour,weblink 2009, Writescope Publishers, 978-0-9757419-8-6, 120, live,weblink 29 May 2016, There are limits to Kuwait's press freedom; while criticism of the government and ruling family members is permitted, Kuwait's constitution criminalizes criticism of the Emir.The state-owned Kuwait News Agency (KUNA) is the largest media house in the country. The Ministry of Information regulates the media industry in Kuwait.Kuwait has 15 satellite television channels, of which four are controlled by the Ministry of Information. State-owned Kuwait Television (KTV) offered first colored broadcast in 1974 and operates five television channels. Government-funded Radio Kuwait also offers daily informative programming in several foreign languages including Arabic, Farsi, Urdu, and English on the AM and SW.

Politics

Kuwait is a constitutional emirate with a semi-democratic political system.WEB, Wall Street Journal, Kuwait's Democracy Faces Turbulence,weblink 12 March 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160626050847weblink">weblink 26 June 2016, JOURNAL, Selvik, Kjetil, Elite Rivalry in a Semi-Democracy: The Kuwaiti Press Scene, Middle Eastern Studies, 2011, 478,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170806181800weblink">weblink 6 August 2017, NEWS,weblink In Democracy Kuwait Trusts, but Not Much, New York Times, Robert F. Worth, 12 March 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160717184158weblink">weblink 17 July 2016, The Emir is the head of state. The hybrid political system is divided between an elected parliament and appointed government.JOURNAL, Selvik, Kjetil, Elite Rivalry in a Semi-Democracy: The Kuwaiti Press Scene, Middle Eastern Studies, 2011, 47, 3, 477–496, 10.1080/00263206.2011.565143, JOURNAL, Ulrichsen, Kristian Coates, Journal of Arabian Studies: Arabia, the Gulf, and the Red Sea, Politics and Opposition in Kuwait: Continuity and Change, 2014, 4, 2, 214–230, 10.1080/21534764.2014.974323, The Constitution of Kuwait was promulgated in 1962. Kuwait is among the Middle East's freest countries in civil liberties and political rights.WEB, Ibrahim Ahmed Elbadawi, Atif Abdallah Kubursi, American University of Beirut, Kuwaiti Democracy: Illusive or Resilient?, 6,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150923180135weblink">weblink 23 September 2015, Freedom House rates the country as "Partly Free" in the Freedom in the World survey.WEB,weblink Freedom in the World: Kuwait, 2011, Freedom House, 25 June 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130307034630weblink">weblink 7 March 2013,

Political culture

The Constitution of Kuwait is considered as a liberal constitution in the GCC.WEB,weblink The origins of Kuwait's National Assembly, London School of Economics, 7, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161116225625weblink">weblink 16 November 2016, It guarantees a wide range of civil liberties and rights. In contrast to other states in the region, the political process largely respects constitutional provisions. Kuwait has a robust public sphere and active civil society with political and social organizations that are parties in all but name.BOOK,weblink Oil Monarchies: Domestic and Security Challenges in the Arab Gulf States, F. Gregory Gause, 69–70, 978-0-87609-151-7, live,weblink 19 February 2016, 1994, Professional groups like the Chamber of Commerce maintain their autonomy from the government.File:Utzon Kuwait National Assembly.jpg|thumb|left|The Kuwait National Assembly BuildingKuwait National Assembly BuildingThe National Assembly is the legislature and has oversight authority. The National Assembly consists of fifty elected members, who are chosen in elections held every four years. Since the parliament can conduct inquiries into government actions and pass motions of no confidence, checks and balances are robust in Kuwait.WEB,weblink Kuwait Country Report, 17, Bertelsmann Foundation, live,weblink 16 November 2016, The parliament can be dissolved under a set of conditions based on constitutional provisions. The Constitutional Court and Emir both have the power to dissolve the parliament, although the Constitutional Court can invalidate the Emir's dissolution.Executive power is executed by the government. The Emir appoints the prime minister, who in turn chooses the ministers comprising the government. According to the constitution, at least one minister has to be an elected MP from the parliament. The parliament is often rigorous in holding the government accountable, government ministers are frequently interpellated and forced to resign.WEB,weblink Mechanisms of accountability in Arab governance: The present and future of judiciaries and parliaments in the Arab world, Nathan J. Brown, 8–18, 12 March 2016, Kuwait has more government accountability and transparency than other GCC countries.BOOK, Barry Rubin, Crises in the Contemporary Persian Gulf,weblink 2013, Routledge, 978-1-135-28882-2, 92, live,weblink 19 February 2016, The judiciary is nominally independent of the executive and the legislature, and the Constitutional Court is charged with ruling on the conformity of laws and decrees with the constitution. The judiciary's independence has come under question, although the Constitutional Court is widely regarded as one of the most judicially independent courts in the Arab world.NEWS,weblink Reuters, Kuwait court ruling may threaten economic recovery, 15 May 2013, 1 July 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130624125919weblink">weblink 24 June 2013, The Constitutional Court has the power to dissolve the parliament and invalidate the Emir's decrees, as happened in 2013 when the dissolved 2009 parliament resumed its role.Kuwaiti women outnumber men in the workforce.WEB,weblink Kuwait leads Gulf states in women in workforce, Gulf News, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160514103256weblink">weblink 14 May 2016, The political participation of Kuwaiti women has been limited,NEWS,weblink Academia.edu, Women and the Malleability of the Kuwaiti Diwaniyya, Lindsey Stephenson, 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170806162420weblink">weblink 6 August 2017, although Kuwaiti women are among the most emancipated women in the Middle East. In 2014 and 2015, Kuwait was ranked first among Arab countries in the Global Gender Gap Report.WEB,weblink Kuwait highest in closing gender gap: WEF, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160812070134weblink">weblink 12 August 2016, WEB,weblink The Global Gender Gap Index 2014 – World Economic Forum, World Economic Forum, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170414040242weblink">weblink 14 April 2017, WEB,weblink Global Gender Gap Index Results in 2015, World Economic Forum, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160605193255weblink">weblink 5 June 2016, In 2013, 53% of Kuwaiti women participated in the labor force.WEB,weblink Kuwait: Selected Issues, 17, Kuwait has higher female labor market participation than other GCC countries; further improvements in labor force participation can support future growth prospects. Kuwait's labor force participation rate for Kuwaiti women (53 percent) is slightly above the world average (51 percent) and much higher than the Middle East and North Africa, MENA average (21 percent)., live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141030072718weblink">weblink 30 October 2014, Kuwait has higher female citizen participation in the workforce than other GCC countries.BOOK,weblink Kuwait: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix, International Monetary Fund, 2012, 43, 978-1-4755-2741-4, Fund, International Monetary, Political groups and parliamentary voting blocs exist, although most candidates run as independents. Once elected, many deputies form voting blocs in the National Assembly. Kuwaiti law does not recognize political parties.WEB,weblink Kuwait: Security, Reform, and U.S. Policy, Congressional Research Service, 10, 30 August 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130914131913weblink">weblink 14 September 2013, However, numerous political groups function as de facto political parties in elections, and there are blocs in the parliament. Major de facto political parties include the National Democratic Alliance, Popular Action Bloc, Hadas (Kuwaiti Muslim Brotherhood), National Islamic Alliance and the Justice and Peace Alliance.

Legal system

Kuwait follows the "civil law system" modeled after the French legal system,WEB,weblink Kuwaiti Constitution, World Intellectual Property Organization, The Kuwait Legal system is based on civil law jurisdiction; it is derived from Egyptian and French laws., live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140812073056weblink">weblink 12 August 2014, WEB,weblink Doing business in Kuwait, Practical Law, Thomson Reuters, 12 March 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160304080006weblink">weblink 4 March 2016, WEB,weblink Doing Business in Kuwait: A tax and legal guide, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170714115827weblink">weblink 14 July 2017, Kuwait's legal system is largely secular.JOURNAL, Nyrop, Richard F.,weblink Persian Gulf states: Country Studies, 1985, 80, In addition, Kuwait has established a secular legal system, unique among the Gulf states., WEB, 4,weblink The Legal System of Kuwait: An Evaluation Of Its Applicability, academia.edu, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170806175845weblink">weblink 6 August 2017, BOOK, Maddex, Robert L., {{google books, WqMAAwAAQBAJ, 153, yes, |title=Constitutions of the World |publisher=Routledge |location=Abingdon, UK |page=153 |isbn=978-1-136-21789-0|date=5 March 2014 }} Sharia law governs only family law for Muslim residents,BOOK, Nicholas S., Hopkins, Saad Eddin, Ibrahim, {{google books, g6SzZK_xx4gC, 417, yes, |title=Arab Society: Class, Gender, Power, and Development |publisher=American University of Cairo |location=Cairo, Egypt |date=1997 |edition=3rd. |page=417 |isbn=9789774244049}}BOOK, Herbert J., Liebesny, {{google books, 2H-2EUJjOG0C, 110, yes, |title=The Law of the Near and Middle East: Readings, Cases, and Materials |publisher=State University of New York Press |location=Albany, New York |date=1974 |page=110 |isbn=978-0-87395-256-9}} while non-Muslims in Kuwait have a secular family law. For the application of family law, there are three separate court sections: Sunni, Shia, and non-Muslim. According to the United Nations, Kuwait's legal system is a mix of English common law, French civil law, Egyptian civil law and Islamic law.WEB,weblink PDF, State of Kuwait, Public Administration Country Profile, September 2004, 7, United Nations, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140810171642weblink">weblink 10 August 2014, The court system in Kuwait is secular.WEB,weblink State of Kuwait, London School of Economics, 21 March 2011, The court system in Kuwait is secular and tries both civil and criminal cases., live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141101085334weblink">weblink 1 November 2014, BOOK, David, Price, {{google books, cfN8AgAAQBAJ, 23, yes, |title=The Development of Intellectual Property Regimes in the Arabian Gulf States: Infidels at the Gates |publisher=Routledge-Cavendish |location=Abingdon, UK |date=2009 |page=23 |isbn=978-1-134-02496-4}} Unlike other Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Kuwait does not have Sharia courts. Sections of the civil court system administer family law. Kuwait has the most secular commercial law in the Gulf.BOOK, Zeeshan Javed, Hafeez, {{google books, BIqIy0Hss5IC, 10, yes, |title=Islamic Commercial Law and Economic Development |publisher=Heliographica |location=San Fabcisco, California |page=10 |isbn=978-1-933037-09-7}} The parliament criminalized alcohol consumption in 1983.WEB, Gulf parliaments' war on alcohol,weblink Gulf News, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161227165130weblink">weblink 27 December 2016, Kuwait's Code of Personal Status was promulgated in 1984.Citizenship, Faith, & Feminism: Jewish and Muslim Women Reclaim ... 1611680115 Jan Lynn Feldman – 2011

Human rights

Human rights in Kuwait has been the subject of criticism, particularly regarding foreign workers' rights. Expatriates account for 70% of Kuwait's total population. The kafala system leaves foreign workers prone to exploitation. Kuwait has the most liberal labor laws in the GCC.WEB, Human Rights Brief, Kuwait's Recent Efforts in Recognizing the Rights of Domestic Workers,weblink live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160703062955weblink">weblink 3 July 2016, WEB, Stratfor, Kuwait Stumbles Amid Critical Reform,weblink live,weblink 10 October 2017, As a result, the International Labour Organization (ILO) removed Kuwait from the list of countries violating workers rights.WEB,weblink International Labour Organization/Kuwait: Removal from List of Countries Violating Workers' Rights, Library of Congress, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20171010151729weblink">weblink 10 October 2017, Male homosexuality is illegal in Kuwait and punishable by up to 6 years in prison.WEB, State Sponsored Homophobia 2016: A world survey of sexual orientation laws: criminalisation, protection and recognition,weblink International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association, 17 May 2016, Kuwaiti activist and blogger Hamad al-Naqi, who is a Kuwaiti Shi'ite, was sentenced to 10 years in prison for "blasphemous tweets" and criticizing neighboring Saudi and Bahraini monarchs.WEB,weblink Kuwait: 10 Years for Criticizing Neighboring Rulers, 7 June 2012, Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International designated al-Naqi a prisoner of conscience and called for his immediate and unconditional release.WEB,weblink Kuwaiti man sentenced to 10 years' imprisonment for 'insulting' Tweets, 7 June 2012, Amnesty International, As of 2009, 20% of the youth in juvenile centres have dyslexia, as compared to the 6% of the general population.JOURNAL, Elbeheri, Gad, Everatt, John, Malki, Mohammad Al, 2009, The incidence of dyslexia among young offenders in Kuwait, Dyslexia, 15, 2, 86–104, 10.1002/dys.361, Data from a 1993 study found that there is a higher rate of psychiatric morbidity in Kuwaiti prisons than in the general population.JOURNAL, Fido, Abdullahi, Al-Jabally, Maher, 1993, Presence of psychiatric morbidity in prison population in Kuwait, Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 5, 2, 107–110, 10.3109/10401239309148971,

Foreign relations

(File:Diplomatic missions of Kuwait.png|thumb|upright=1.8|Location of diplomatic missions of Kuwait:{{legend|#ED1C24|Kuwait}}{{legend|#000080|Embassy}})Foreign affairs relations of Kuwait is handled at the level of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The first foreign affairs department bureau was established in 1961. Kuwait became the 111th member state of the United Nations in May 1963. It is a long-standing member of the Arab League and Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf.Before the Gulf War, Kuwait was the only "pro-Soviet" state in the Persian Gulf region.BOOK, Steve, Yetiv, {{google books, 8MLYm3JB8dMC, 51, yes, |title=America and the Persian Gulf: The Third Party Dimension in World Politics |publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group |location=Westport, Connecticut |date=1995 |page=51 |isbn=978-0-275-94973-0}} Kuwait acted as a conduit for the Soviets to the other Arab states of the Persian Gulf, and Kuwait was used to demonstrate the benefits of a pro-Soviet stance. In July 1987, Kuwait refused to allow U.S. military bases in its territory.NEWS, Wallace, Charles P.,weblink No Military Bases for U.S., Kuwait Says, Los Angeles Times, 20 July 1987, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140726220538weblink">weblink 26 July 2014, As a result of the Gulf War, Kuwait's relations with the U.S. have improved (Major non-NATO ally) and currently hosts thousands of US military personnel and contractors within active U.S. facilities. Kuwait is also a major ally of ASEAN, while enjoying good relationship with China, establishing cooperation model in numerous fields. According to Kuwaiti officials, Kuwait is the largest Arab investor in Germany, especially in the Mercedes-Benz company.WEB, Official: Kuwait largest Arab investor in Germany, Middle East Monitor, 8 November 2018, 8 November 2018,weblink

Military

The Military of Kuwait traces its original roots to the Kuwaiti cavalrymen and infantrymen that used to protect Kuwait and its wall since the early 1900s. These cavalrymen and infantrymen formed the defense and security forces in metropolitan areas; charged with protecting outposts outside the wall of Kuwait.The Military of Kuwait consists of several joint defense forces. The governing bodies are the Kuwait Ministry of Defense, the Kuwait Ministry of Interior, the Kuwait National Guard and the Kuwait Fire Service Directorate. The Emir of Kuwait is the commander-in-chief of all defense forces by default. Even in the most adverse of all times such as a war, the military is not allowed to make a single move without the Emir's consent.{{Citation needed|date=April 2018}}

Administrative divisions

(File:Kuwait governorates english.png|right|180px)Kuwait is divided into six governorates. The governorates are further subdivided into areas.
  1. Al Asimah
  2. Hawalli
  3. Farwaniya
  4. Mubarak Al-Kabeer
  5. Ahmadi
  6. Jahra

Geography

(File:Satellite image of Kuwait in November 2001.jpg|thumb|upright=1.0|A satellite image of Kuwait reveals its desert topography.)(File:Kuwait pol 06.jpg|thumb|upright=1.0|Kuwait shares land borders with Iraq and Saudi Arabia, and maritime borders with Iraq, Saudi Arabia, and Iran.)Located in the north-east corner of the Arabian Peninsula, Kuwait is one of the smallest countries in the world in terms of land area. Kuwait lies between latitudes 28° and 31° N, and longitudes 46° and 49° E. The flat, sandy Arabian Desert covers most of Kuwait. Kuwait is generally low lying, with the highest point being {{convert|306|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} above sea level.Kuwait has nine islands, all of which, with the exception of Failaka Island, are uninhabited.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Encyclopædia Britannica,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20081210093103weblink">weblink dead, 10 December 2008, Bubiyan (island, Kuwait), 28 June 2010, With an area of {{convert|860|km2|mi2|abbr=on}}, the Bubiyan is the largest island in Kuwait and is connected to the rest of the country by a {{convert|2380|m|ft|adj=mid|-long|0}} bridge.WEB,weblink Structurae [en]: Bubiyan Bridge (1983), En.structurae.de, 19 October 2002, 28 June 2010, 0.6% of Kuwaiti land area is considered arable with sparse vegetation found along its {{convert|499|km|mi|adj=mid|-long}} coastline. Kuwait City is located on Kuwait Bay, a natural deep-water harbor.Kuwait's Burgan field has a total capacity of approximately {{convert|70|Goilbbl|m3}} of proven oil reserves. During the 1991 Kuwaiti oil fires, more than 500 oil lakes were created covering a combined surface area of about {{convert|35.7|km2|mi2|abbr=on}}.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Daniel, Pendick, Kuwaiti Oil Lakes, Encarta,weblinkweblink 1 November 2009, dead, The resulting soil contamination due to oil and soot accumulation had made eastern and south-eastern parts of Kuwait uninhabitable. Sand and oil residue had reduced large parts of the Kuwaiti desert to semi-asphalt surfaces.WEB,weblink The Economic and Environmental Impact of the Gulf War on Kuwait and the Persian Gulf, American.edu, 28 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100729024343weblink">weblink 29 July 2010, The oil spills during the Gulf War also drastically affected Kuwait's marine resources.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Kuwait (country), Encarta,weblinkweblink 1 November 2009, dead,

Climate

The spring season in March is warm with occasional thunderstorms. The frequent winds from the northwest are cold in winter and hot in summer. Southeasterly damp winds spring up between July and October. Hot and dry south winds prevail in spring and early summer. The shamal, a northwesterly wind common during June and July, causes dramatic sandstorms.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Kuwait: Climate, Encyclopædia Britannica, 28 June 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080604090410weblink">weblink 4 June 2008, Summers in Kuwait are some of the hottest on earth (like Ahvaz). The highest recorded temperature was {{convert|53.9|C|F}} at Mitribah on 21 July 2016, which is the highest temperature recorded in Asia.WEB,weblink WMO verifies 3rd and 4th hottest temperature recorded on Earth, 18 June 2019, public.wmo.int/en, World Meteorological Organization, World Meteorological Organization (WMO), 5 July 2019, WEB,weblink 2012: Earth's 10th warmest year on record, and warmest with a La Niña – New country and territory hottest temperature records set in 2012, 18 August 2014, Masters, Jeff, 15 January 2012, Weather Underground (weather service), Weather Underground, Kuwait experiences colder winters than other GCC countries because of its location in a northern position near Iraq and Iran.In 2014 Kuwait was the third country in the world in term of CO2 per capita emissions after Qatar and Trinidad and Tobago according to the World Bank.CO2 emissions (metric tons per capita), according to the World Bank On average, every single inhabitant released that year 25.2 metric tons of CO2 in the atmosphere. In comparison, the world average was 5.0 tons per capita the same year.{{Weather box| collapsed = yes|metric first=yes|single line=yes|location=Kuwait|Jan record high C=|Feb record high C=|Mar record high C=|Apr record high C=|May record high C=|Jun record high C=|Jul record high C=|Aug record high C=|Sep record high C=|Oct record high C=|Nov record high C=|Dec record high C=|Jan high C=18|Feb high C=20|Mar high C=26|Apr high C=31|May high C=38|Jun high C=43|Jul high C=45|Aug high C=44|Sep high C=42|Oct high C=35|Nov high C=27|Dec high C=20|Jan mean C=12.7|Feb mean C=14.8|Mar mean C=19.3|Apr mean C=24.7|May mean C=30.4|Jun mean C=34.2|Jul mean C=36|Aug mean C=35.9|Sep mean C=32.7|Oct mean C=27.5|Nov mean C=20.3|Dec mean C=14.5|Jan low C=7|Feb low C=9|Mar low C=13|Apr low C=18|May low C=24|Jun low C=27|Jul low C=29|Aug low C=28|Sep low C=25|Oct low C=20|Nov low C=14|Dec low C=8|Jan record low C=|Feb record low C=|Mar record low C=|Apr record low C=|May record low C=|Jun record low C=|Jul record low C=|Aug record low C=|Sep record low C=|Oct record low C=|Nov record low C=|Dec record low C=|precipitation colour=green|Jan precipitation mm=26|Feb precipitation mm=16|Mar precipitation mm=14|Apr precipitation mm=15|May precipitation mm=4|Jun precipitation mm=0|Jul precipitation mm=0|Aug precipitation mm=0|Sep precipitation mm=0|Oct precipitation mm=2|Nov precipitation mm=16|Dec precipitation mm=20|Jan rain days=5|Feb rain days=4|Mar rain days=5|Apr rain days=3|May rain days=1|Jun rain days=0|Jul rain days=0|Aug rain days=0|Sep rain days=0|Oct rain days=1|Nov rain days=3|Dec rain days=5|Jan humidity=|Feb humidity=|Mar humidity=|Apr humidity=|May humidity=|Jun humidity=|Jul humidity=|Aug humidity=|Sep humidity=|Oct humidity=|Nov humidity=|Dec humidity=|year humidity=|Jand sun=7|Febd sun=8|Mard sun=8|Aprd sun=8|Mayd sun=9|Jund sun=11|Juld sun=11|Augd sun=11|Sepd sun=10|Octd sun=9|Novd sun=8|Decd sun=7PUBLISHER=WEATHER2TRAVEL, 25 April 2018, PUBLISHER=CLIMATE-DATA.ORG, 25 April 2018, }}

National parks

At present, there are five protected areas in Kuwait recognized by the IUCN. In response to Kuwait becoming the 169th signatory of the Ramsar Convention, Bubyan island's Mubarak al-Kabeer reserve was designated as the country's first Wetland of International Importance. The 50,948 ha reserve consists of small lagoons and shallow salt marshes and is important as a stop-over for migrating birds on two migration routes. The reserve is home to the world's largest breeding colony of crab-plover.WEB, Ramsar, Kuwait becomes Ramsar state,weblink BirdGuides, 7 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160219121906weblink">weblink 19 February 2016,

Biodiversity

More than 363 species of birds were recorded in Kuwait, 18 species of which breed in the country.WEB, Lepage, Denis,weblink Checklist of birds of Kuwait, Bird Checklists of the World, Avibase, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070929203751weblink">weblink 29 September 2007, Kuwait is situated at the crossroads of several major bird migration routes and between two and three million birds pass each year.WEB, National Biodiversity Strategy for the State of Kuwait,weblink 12, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160219121906weblink">weblink 19 February 2016, The marshes in northern Kuwait and Jahra have become increasingly important as a refuge for passage migrants. Kuwaiti islands are important breeding areas for four species of tern and the socotra cormorant.Kuwait's marine and littoral ecosystems contain the bulk of the country's biodiversity heritage. Twenty eight species of mammal are found in Kuwait; animals such as gerboa, desert rabbits and hedgehogs are common in the desert. Large carnivores, such as the wolf, caracal and jackal, are not found. Among the endangered mammalian species are the red fox and wild cat. Causes for wildlife extinction are habitat destruction and extensive unregulated hunting. Forty reptile species have been recorded although none are endemic to Kuwait.

Water and sanitation

File:Kuwait Water Towers.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|The Kuwait Water TowersKuwait Water TowersKuwait does not have any permanent rivers. It does have some wadis, the most notable of which is Wadi Al-Batin which forms the border between Kuwait and Iraq.Kuwait relies on water desalination as a primary source of fresh water for drinking and domestic purposes. There are currently more than six desalination plants.WEB,weblink Irrigation in the near east region in figures, Food and Agriculture Organization, 12 March 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161011071303weblink">weblink 11 October 2016, Kuwait was the first country in the world to use desalination to supply water for large-scale domestic use. The history of desalination in Kuwait dates back to 1951 when the first distillation plant was commissioned.JOURNAL, Mohamed, F. Hamoda, Desalination and water resource management in Kuwait, September 2001, 10.1016/S0011-9164(01)00259-4, 138, 1–3, Desalination, 165, In 1965, the Kuwaiti government commissioned the Swedish engineering company of VBB (Sweco) to develop and implement a plan for a modern water-supply system for Kuwait City. The company built five groups of water towers, thirty-one towers total, designed by its chief architect Sune Lindström, called "the mushroom towers". For a sixth site, the Emir of Kuwait, Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmed, wanted a more spectacular design. This last group, known as Kuwait Towers, consists of three towers, two of which also serve as water towers.Kultermann 1981 Water from the desalination facility is pumped up to the tower. The thirty-three towers have a standard capacity of 102,000 cubic meters of water. "The Water Towers" (Kuwait Tower and the Kuwait Water Towers) were awarded the Aga Khan Award for Architecture (1980 Cycle).Aga Khan AwardKuwait's fresh water resources are limited to groundwater, desalinated seawater, and treated wastewater effluents. There are three major municipal wastewater treatment plants. Most water demand is currently satisfied through seawater desalination plants. Sewage disposal is handled by a national sewage network that covers 98% of facilities in the country.WEB,weblink Regulations of Wastewater Treatment and Reuse in Kuwait, Beatona, 12 March 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160219121906weblink">weblink 19 February 2016,

Economy

(File:Kuwait Export Treemap.jpg|thumb|upright=1.6|A proportional representation of Kuwait's exports){{multiple image| align = right| direction = | width = | image1 = Alhamra Tower.jpg| width1 = 163| alt1 = | caption1 = Al Hamra Tower is the tallest sculpted tower in the world.| image2 = Arrayatower2.JPG| width2 = 180| alt2 = | caption2 = Arraya Tower}}Kuwait has a petroleum-based economy, petroleum is the main export product. The Kuwaiti dinar is the highest-valued unit of currency in the world.WEB,weblink 10 Most Valuable Currencies in the World, Silicon India, 21 March 2012, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150316093934weblink">weblink 16 March 2015, According to the World Bank, Kuwait is the seventh richest country in the world per capita. Kuwait is the second richest GCC country per capita (after Qatar)."GDP per capita, PPP (current international $)", World Development Indicators database {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20170228194132weblink |date=28 February 2017 }}, World Bank. Database updated on 14 April 2015.GDP – per capita (PPP) {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070613004710weblink |date=13 June 2007 }}, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency.Economic Outlook Database, October 2015 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160129191700weblink |date=29 January 2016 }}, International Monetary Fund. Database updated on 6 October 2015. Petroleum accounts for half of GDP and 90% of government income.WEB,weblink The World Factbook, CIA Factbook, live,weblink 20 December 2016, Non-petroleum industries include financial services.In the past five years, there has been a significant rise in entrepreneurship and small business start-ups in Kuwait.NEWS, Naeimah, Al-Kharafi,weblink Encouraging social entrepreneurship in Kuwait – Special report, Kuwait Times, 12 October 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141129082746weblink">weblink 29 November 2014, NEWS, Saltzman, Jason,weblink Keeping Up With Kuwaiti Connection: The Startup Circuit In Kuwait Is Up And At 'Em, Entrepreneur Middle East, 11 November 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141124080621weblink">weblink 24 November 2014, The informal sector is also on the rise,NEWS, Jamie, Etheridge,weblink What's behind the growth of Kuwait's informal economy, Kuwait Times, 27 February 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141129083014weblink">weblink 29 November 2014, mainly due to the popularity of Instagram businesses.NEWS, Greenfield, Rebecca,weblink In Kuwait, Instagram Accounts Are Big Business, The Wire: News for the Atlantic, 12 July 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141129145729weblink">weblink 29 November 2014, WEB, Kuo, Lily, Foxman, Simone,weblink A rising class of Instagram entrepreneurs in Kuwait is selling comics, makeup and sheep, Quartz (publication), Quartz, 16 July 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141123114438weblink">weblink 23 November 2014, WEB,weblink Kuwait's booming Instagram economy, kottke.org, 12 July 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141129171815weblink">weblink 29 November 2014, Kuwait is a major source of foreign economic assistance to other states through the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development, an autonomous state institution created in 1961 on the pattern of international development agencies. In 1974, the fund's lending mandate was expanded to include all developing countries in the world.In 2018 Kuwait enacted certain measures to regulate foreign labor. Citing security concerns, workers from Georgia will be subject to heightened scrutiny when applying for entry visas, and an outright ban was being imposed on the entry of domestic workers from Guinea-Bissau and Vietnam.WEB, Citing Security Concerns, Kuwait Bans Entry to These Nationalities, Al Bawaba, 8 November 2018, 8 November 2018,weblink Workers from Bangladesh are also banned.WEB, Kuwait Re-Activates Ban on Bangladeshi Workers, Al Bawaba, 8 November 2018, 5 March 2018,weblink

Petroleum

Despite its relatively small territory, Kuwait has proven crude oil reserves of 104 billion barrels, estimated to be 10% of the world's reserves. According to the constitution, all natural resources in the country are state property. Kuwait currently pumps 2.9 million bpd and its full production capacity is a little over 3 million bpd.

Finance

The Kuwait Investment Authority (KIA) is Kuwait's sovereign wealth fund specializing in foreign investment. The KIA is the world's oldest sovereign wealth fund. Since 1953, the Kuwaiti government has directed investments into Europe, United States and Asia Pacific. {{As of|2015}}, the holdings were valued at $592 billion in assets.WEB,weblink Kuwait Investment Authority Profile Page, Sovereign Wealth Fund Institute, 12 March 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160308013314weblink">weblink 8 March 2016, It is the 5th largest sovereign wealth fund in the world.Kuwait has a leading position in the financial industry in the GCC; the abyss that separates Kuwait from its Persian Gulf neighbors in terms of tourism, transport, and other measures of diversification is absent in the financial sector.BOOK, Michael Herb, The Wages of Oil: Parliaments and Economic Development in Kuwait and the UAE,weblink 2014, Cornell University Press, 978-0-8014-5468-4, live,weblink 19 May 2015, The Emir has promoted the idea that Kuwait should focus its energies, in terms of economic development, on the financial industry.The historical preeminence of Kuwait (among the Persian Gulf monarchies) in finance dates back to the founding of the National Bank of Kuwait in 1952. The bank was the first local publicly traded corporation in the Persian Gulf region. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, an alternative stock market, trading in shares of Persian Gulf companies, emerged in Kuwait, the Souk Al-Manakh. At its peak, its market capitalization was the third highest in the world, behind only the US and Japan, and ahead of the UK and France.Kuwait has a large wealth-management industry that stands out in the region. Kuwaiti investment companies administer more assets than those of any other GCC country, save the much larger Saudi Arabia. The Kuwait Financial Centre, in a rough calculation, estimated that Kuwaiti firms accounted for over one-third of the total assets under management in the GCC. The relative strength of Kuwait in the financial industry extends to its stock market. For many years, the total valuation of all companies listed on the Kuwait Stock Exchange far exceeded the value of those on any other GCC bourse, except Saudi Arabia. In 2011, financial and banking companies made up more than half of the market capitalization of the Kuwaiti bourse; among all the Persian Gulf states, the market capitalization of Kuwaiti financial-sector firms was, in total, behind only that of Saudi Arabia.In recent years, Kuwaiti investment companies have invested large percentages of their assets abroad, and their foreign assets have become substantially larger than their domestic assets.

Health and research

{{see|Health in Kuwait}}Kuwait has a state-funded healthcare system, which provides treatment without charge to Kuwaiti nationals. There are outpatient clinics in every residential area in Kuwait. A public insurance scheme exists to provide reduced cost healthcare to expatriates. Private healthcare providers also run medical facilities in the country, available to members of their insurance schemes. There are 29 public hospitals. Many new hospitals are under construction.WEB,weblink Mega-projects boost hospital capacity in Kuwait, Oxford Business Group, 2016, live,weblink 20 December 2016, The Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Hospital is the largest hospital in the Middle East.WEB,weblink MidEast's largest hospital to open in Kuwait by end of 2016, 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161213024255weblink">weblink 13 December 2016, Kuwait has a growing scientific research sector. To date, Kuwait has registered 384 patents, the second highest figure in the Arab world.WEB,weblink Patents By Country, State, and Year – All Patent Types, United States Patent and Trademark Office, 12 March 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160303212346weblink">weblink 3 March 2016, WEB,weblink Arab World to have more than 197 million Internet users by 2017, according to Arab Knowledge Economy Report, To date, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) have granted 858 patents to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, positioning it 29th in the world. Kuwait is at second place with 272 patents and Egypt at third with 212 patents, so far., live,weblink 29 November 2014, WEB,weblink Arab Economy Knowledge Report 2014, 20–22, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141129050446weblink">weblink 29 November 2014, WEB,weblink UNESCO Science Report 2005, 162, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141207161411weblink">weblink 7 December 2014, Kuwait produces the largest number of patents per capita in the Arab world and OIC.WEB,weblink Regional Profile of the Information Society in Western Asia, 53, live,weblink 22 August 2017, WEB,weblink Arab states, 264–265, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161011010006weblink">weblink 11 October 2016, WEB,weblink Science and Technology in the OIC Member Countries, 7, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141220061847weblink">weblink 20 December 2014, The government has implemented various programs to foster innovation resulting in patent rights.WEB,weblink Kuwait Sees Fastest Growth of GCC Countries in Obtaining U.S. Patents, Yahoo News, 12 March 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160409143121weblink">weblink 9 April 2016, Between 2010 and 2016, Kuwait registered the highest growth in patents in the Arab world.WEB,weblink A Mixed Bag of Scientific Commitment, MIT Technology Review, 12 March 2016, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160713142758weblink">weblink 13 July 2016, (File:UIS_Literacy_Rate_Kuwait_population_plus15_1975_2015.png|thumb|upright=0.95|Literacy rate)

Education

Kuwait has the highest literacy rate in the Arab world.WEB,weblink Arab World needs to rise to the literacy challenge, 28 July 2010, Emirates 247, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160204114145weblink">weblink 4 February 2016, The general education system consists of four levels: kindergarten (lasting for 2 years), primary (lasting for 5 years), intermediate (lasting for 4 years) and secondary (lasting for 3 years).{{citation|title= Ministry of Education.Education Indicators in the State of Kuwait 2004–2005 report}} Schooling at primary and intermediate level is compulsory for all students aged 6 – 14. All the levels of state education, including higher education, are free.{{citation|title= Kuwait Education Indicators Report 2007, Executive Summary}}The public school system is undergoing a revamp due to a project in conjunction with the World Bank.WEB,weblink New schools to meet growing demand in Kuwait, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160202090926weblink">weblink 2 February 2016, In 2013, the government launched a pilot project in 48 schools across the state called the National Curriculum Framework. The curriculum is set to be implemented in the next two or three years.WEB,weblink Kuwait's new curriculum to be ready in two years, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160204133407weblink">weblink 4 February 2016,

Tourism

Tourism accounts for 1.5 percent of the GDP.WEB,weblink Travel & Tourism Economic Impact 2015, World Travel & Tourism Council, live,weblink 11 October 2016, WEB,weblink Kuwait's investments in travel and tourism sector to grow by 4.3% per annum, BQ Magazine, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160921152716weblink">weblink 21 September 2016, In 2016, the tourism industry generated nearly $500 million in revenue.WEB,weblink Kuwait tenth in total Arab countries' tourism revenue, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160828133633weblink">weblink 28 August 2016, The annual "Hala Febrayer" festival attracts many tourists from neighboring GCC countries,WEB,weblink Hala February kicks off with a bang, Kuwait Times, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160913192534weblink">weblink 13 September 2016, and includes a variety of events including music concerts, parades, and carnivals.WEB,weblink Hala Febrayer 2016 Carnival attracts thousands of participants, Al Bawaba, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160911104642weblink">weblink 11 September 2016, WEB,weblink Ooredoo Sponsors Kuwait's Biggest Annual Festival, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161011005713weblink">weblink 11 October 2016, The festival is a month-long commemoration of the liberation of Kuwait, and runs from 1 to 28 February. Liberation Day itself is celebrated on 26 February.NEWS,weblink Flag-hoisting ceremony signals start of Kuwait national celebrations of 2017, 3 February 2017, Kuwait Times, 25 February 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170203194108weblink">weblink 3 February 2017, The Amiri Diwan is currently developing the new Kuwait National Cultural District (KNCD), which comprises Sheikh Abdullah Al Salem Cultural Centre, Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre, Al Shaheed Park, and Al Salam Palace. With a capital cost of more than US$1 billion, the project is one of the largest cultural investments in the world. In November 2016, the Sheikh Jaber Al Ahmad Cultural Centre opened. It is the largest cultural centre in the Middle East.WEB,weblink أمير الكويت يدشن أكبر مركز ثقافي في الشرق الأوسط.. Ùˆ4 جواهر تضيء شاطئ الخليج, Oman Daily, Arabic, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170829034751weblink">weblink 29 August 2017, The Kuwait National Cultural District is a member of the Global Cultural Districts Network.

Transport

Kuwait has an extensive and modern network of highways. Roadways extended {{convert|5749|km|0|abbr=on}}, of which {{convert|4887|km|0|abbr=on}} is paved. There are more than two million passenger cars, and 500,000 commercial taxis, buses, and trucks in use. On major highways the maximum speed is {{convert|120|km/h|0|abbr=on}}. Since there is no railway system in the country, most people travel by automobiles.(File:Kuwait highway.jpg|thumb|A highway in Kuwait City)The country's public transportation network consists almost entirely of bus routes. The state owned Kuwait Public Transportation Company was established in 1962. It runs local bus routes across Kuwait as well as longer distance services to other Gulf states. The main private bus company is CityBus, which operates about 20 routes across the country. Another private bus company, Kuwait Gulf Link Public Transport Services, was started in 2006. It runs local bus routes across Kuwait and longer distance services to neighbouring Arab countries.There are two airports in Kuwait. Kuwait International Airport serves as the principal hub for international air travel. State-owned Kuwait Airways is the largest airline in the country. A portion of the airport complex is designated as Al Mubarak Air Base, which contains the headquarters of the Kuwait Air Force, as well as the Kuwait Air Force Museum. In 2004, the first private airline of Kuwait, Jazeera Airways, was launched. In 2005, the second private airline, Wataniya Airways was founded.Kuwait has one of the largest shipping industries in the region. The Kuwait Ports Public Authority manages and operates ports across Kuwait. The country's principal commercial seaports are Shuwaikh and Shuaiba, which handled combined cargo of 753,334 TEU in 2006.WEB,weblink Kuwait's ports continue to break records – Transportation, ArabianBusiness.com, 4 June 2007, 28 June 2015, Mina Al-Ahmadi, the largest port in the country, handles most of Kuwait's oil exports.WEB, John Pike,weblink Mina Al Ahmadi, Kuwait, Globalsecurity.org, 28 June 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150720012056weblink">weblink 20 July 2015, Construction of another major port located in Bubiyan island started in 2007. The port is expected to handle 1.3 million TEU when operations start.

Demographics

(File:Kuwaityouth5020.jpg|thumb|Kuwaiti youth celebrating Kuwait's independence and liberation, 2011)Kuwait's 2018 population was 4.6 million people, of which 1.4 million were Kuwaitis, 1.2 million are other Arabs, 1.8 million Asian expatriates, and 47,227 Africans.NEWS,weblink Kuwait residency cap for expats touches off maelstrom, Gulf News, 1 February 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140206093236weblink">weblink 6 February 2014,

Ethnic groups

Expatriates in Kuwait account for around 70% of Kuwait's total population. In end of December 2018, 57.65% of Kuwait's total population are Arabs (including Arab expats). Indians and Egyptians are the largest expat communities respectively.WEB,weblink Expat Insider 2017: Comparing Expat Life in the GCC States, www.internations.org, en, 5 March 2018, NEWS, Kuwait MP seeks five-year cap on expat workers' stay,weblink Gulf News, 30 January 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140328170436weblink">weblink 28 March 2014,

Religion

Most Kuwaiti citizens are Muslim; it is estimated that 60%–65% are Sunni and 35%–40% are Shias.WEB,weblink How one country came together after a terror attack, BBC, 2015, 12 March 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160407192121weblink">weblink 7 April 2016, WEB,weblink The Evolution of U. S.-Turkish Relations in a Transatlantic Context, Strategic Studies Institute, 87, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150318173523weblink">weblink 18 March 2015, Most Shia Kuwaiti citizens are of Persian ancestry.BOOK,weblink Citizenship and the State in the Middle East: Approaches and Applications, Nils August Butenschøn, Uri Davis, Manuel Sarkis Hassassian, 2000, 190, 9780815628293, Butenschøn, Nils August, Davis, Uri, Hassassian, Manuel Sarkis, BOOK,weblink Ethnic Conflict and International Politics in the Middle East, 1999, 164, Unlike the Shi'a of Saudi Arabia or Bahrain, the Kuwaiti Shi'a mostly are of Persian descent., 9780813016870, Binder, Leonard, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131208101957weblink">weblink 8 December 2013, BOOK,weblink Business Politics in the Middle East, Rivka Azoulay, 2013, 71, live,weblink 20 August 2017, 9781849042352, Hertog, Steffen, Luciani, Giacomo, Valeri, Marc, BOOK,weblink Islam in the World Today: A Handbook of Politics, Religion, Culture, and Society, Werner Ende, Udo Steinbach, 2002, 533, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131231072600weblink">weblink 31 December 2013, 978-0801464898, Ende, Werner, Steinbach, Udo, BOOK,weblink Sectarian Politics in the Persian Gulf, Lawrence G. Potter, 135, 9780190237967, Potter, Lawrence G., 1 June 2014, BOOK,weblink Transnational Shia Politics: Religious and Political Networks in the Gulf, Laurence Louër, 47, 9781849042147, Louër, Laurence, 2011, WEB,weblink The Persian Dialects of the Ajam in Kuwait, The University of Iowa, Dénes Gazsi, The country includes a native Christian community, estimated to be composed of between 259 and 400 Christian Kuwaiti citizens.WEB,weblink International Religious Freedom Report, US State Department, 1999, 12 March 2016, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160310114405weblink">weblink 10 March 2016, Kuwait is the only GCC country besides Bahrain to have a local Christian population who hold citizenship. There is also a small number of Bahá'í Kuwaiti citizens.WEB,weblink International Religious Freedom Report for 2007, US State Department, 2007, 12 March 2016, NEWS, البهائيون في الكويت 100 منتمٍ... ومحفل يديره تسعة أشخاص, Al Rai (Kuwaiti newspaper), Al Rai,weblink Arabic, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150706204435weblink">weblink 6 July 2015, Kuwait also has a large community of expatriate Christians, Hindus, Buddhists, and Sikhs.Religion by Nationality in Kuwait (2018){| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:right"! Nationality! Islam! %! Christian! %! Other! %! Total! % style="background:#f0f8ff;" Kuwaiti| 1,402,801| 99.98%| 289| 0.02%| 23| 0.00%| 1,403,113| 30.36% style="background:#f0f8ff;" Non-Kuwaiti Arabs| 1,183,371| 93.84%| 69,855| 5.54%| 7,836| 0.62%| 1,261,062| 27.29% style="background:#f0f8ff;" Asian| 814,767| 43.61%| 725,316| 38.83%| 328,125| 17.56%| 1,868,208| 40.42% style="background:#f0f8ff;" African| 15,991| 33.86%| 24,679| 52.26%| 6,557| 13.88%| 47,227| 1.02% style="background:#f0f8ff;" European| 6,553| 36.26%| 10,352| 57.27%| 1,170| 6.47%| 18,076| 0.39% style="background:#f0f8ff;" American & Australian| 13,577| 56.83%| 8,995| 37.48%| 1,360| 5.60%| 23,892| 0.52% style="background:#9cef75;" KUWAIT| 3,437,061| 74.36%| 839,506| 18.17%| 345,071| 7.47%| 4,621,638| 100%Note:– Christians from Asia in Kuwait mostly come from the Philippines, South Korea, and some from Indonesia, Malaysia, India and other countries.– Muslims from Asia in Kuwait mostly come from Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and other countries.– Hindus from Asia in Kuwait mostly come from India, and Sri Lanka.– Buddhists from Asia in Kuwait mostly come from China, Thailand and Vietnam.

Languages

{{see also|Kuwaiti Arabic|Kuwaiti Persian}}Kuwait's official language is Modern Standard Arabic, but its everyday usage is limited to journalism and education. Kuwaiti Arabic is the variant of Arabic used in everyday life.page 19 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160713142832weblink |date=13 July 2016 }} English is widely understood and often used as a business language. Beside English, French is taught as a third language for the students of the humanities at schools, but for two years only. Kuwaiti Arabic is a variant of Gulf Arabic, sharing similarities with the dialects of neighboring coastal areas in Eastern Arabia.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150120084008weblink">weblink dead, 20 January 2015, خالد الرشيد: "اللهجة الكويتية" "مظلومة" في مدارسنا.. لأن أغلب معلمينا وافدون, 20 January 2015, Due to immigration during its early history as well as trade, Kuwaiti Arabic borrowed a lot of words from Persian, Indian languages, Balochi language, Turkish, English and Italian.WEB,weblink page 28, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160713142830weblink">weblink 13 July 2016, Due to historical immigration, Kuwaiti Persian is used among Ajam Kuwaitis.BOOK,weblink Ethnic Conflict and International Politics in the Middle East, 164, 1999, Unlike the Shi'a of Saudi Arabia or Bahrain, the Kuwaiti Shi'a mostly are of Persian descent., 978-0-8130-1687-0, Binder, Leonard, THESIS, Alhabib, Mohammad E.,weblink The Shia Migration from Southwestern Iran to Kuwait: Push-Pull Factors during the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries, Georgia State University, 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161227165722weblink">weblink 27 December 2016, THESIS, Taqi, Hanan, 2010, Two ethnicities, three generations: Phonological variation and change in Kuwait, PhD, Newcastle University,weblink live,weblink 19 October 2013, The Iranian sub-dialects of Larestani, Khonji, Bastaki and Gerashi also influenced the vocabulary of Kuwaiti Arabic.BOOK,weblink Lang & Linguistic in Bahrain, Al-Tajir, 2013, 11, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140105063055weblink">weblink 5 January 2014, 9781136136269, Al-Tajir,

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, {{google books, C4K9AAAAIAAJ, yes, |title=The Modern History of Kuwait: 1750–1965 |year=1983 |editor-first=Ahmad Mustafa |editor-last=Abu-Hakima |publisher=Luzac & Company |location=London |isbn=978-0-7189-0259-9}}
  • BOOK, {{google books, v_FtAAAAMAAJ, yes, |title=History of Eastern Arabia, 1750–1800: The rise and development of Bahrain and Kuwait |year=1965 |editor-first=Ahmad Mustafa |editor-last=Abu-Hakima |publisher=Khayats |location=Bahrain}}
  • BOOK, Tétreault, Mary Ann, {{google books, 91nH70iP_-gC, yes, |isbn=978-0-231-11488-2 |title=Stories of Democracy: Politics and Society in Contemporary Kuwait |date=2000 |publisher=Columbia University Press |location=New York }}

External links

{{Sister project links|Kuwait|collapsible=collapsed}}{{Wikivoyage|Kuwait}}
  • {{GovPubs|kuwait}}
  • {{curlie|Regional/Middle_East/Kuwait}}
  • {{wikiatlas|Kuwait}}
{{Kuwait topics}}{{Navboxes|list ={{Countries and territories of the Middle East}}{{Countries of Asia}}}}{{authority control}}

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