South Africa

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South Africa
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{{about|the modern state|the geographical area|Southern Africa|other uses}}{{pp-vandalism|small=yes}}{{pp-move-indef|small=yes}}{{short description|Republic in the southernmost part of Africa}}{{Use dmy dates|date=March 2017}}{{Use South African English|date=September 2013}}

conventional_long_name Republic of South Africa| common_name = South Africa| native_name = {hide}collapsible list



{edih}| image_flag = Flag of South Africa.svg| alt_flag = | flag2_border = | image_coat = Coat of arms of South Africa.svg| alt_coat = | symbol_type = Coat of arms! Province! Provincial capital! Largest city! Area (km2)BOOK, Stats in Brief, 2010,weblink Statistics South Africa, Pretoria, 2010, 978-0-621-39563-1, 3, ! Population (2016)WEB,weblink Community Survey 2016 In Brief, Statistics South Africa, 28 April 2018,
(Ç€Xam language)}}{{small>"Unity in Diversity"}}| national_anthem = "National anthem of South Africa" (File:South Africa National Anthem.ogg)| image_map = Location South Africa AU Africa.svgcountryprefix=region=the African Union|region_color=light blue}}| image_map2 = South Africa - Location Map (2013) - ZAF - UNOCHA.svgPretoria {{smallBloemfontein {{smallCape Town {{small|(legislative)}}}}JohannesburgHTTP://WWW.CITYPOPULATION.DE/WORLD.HTML >TITLE=PRINCIPAL AGGLOMERATIONS OF THE WORLD ACCESSDATE=30 OCTOBER 2011, }}Languages of South Africa>11 languages:The Khoi languages, Nama language>Nama and San languages languages, South African Sign Language, German, Greek, Gujarati language>Gujarati, Hindi language, Portuguese, Telugu language>Telugu, Tamil language, Urdu language>Urdu, Arabic, Hebrew language, Sanskrit language>Sanskrit and "other languages used for religious purposes in South Africa" have a special status (Chapter 1, Article 6 of the South African Constitution). {{hlist | Zulu | Xhosa | Afrikaans | |English | Northern Sotho | Tswana | Southern Sotho | Tsonga | Swazi | Venda | Southern Ndebele}}DutchGujarati language>Gujarati|Hindi|UrduNorthern Ndebele language>Northern NdebelePhuthi language>PhuthiPortuguese language>PortugueseTamil language>TamilTelugu language>Telugu}}| languages2_type = | languages2 = | ethnic_groups = {{unbulleted list
| {{nowrap|80.2% Black}}
| 8.8% Coloured
| 8.4% White
| 2.5% Asian
URL-STATUS=DEADTITLE=MID-YEAR POPULATION ESTIMATES 2014LOCATION=SOUTH AFRICAACCESS-DATE=8 AUGUST 2014, | religion = See Religion in South AfricaSouth Africans>South AfricanUnitary state>Unitary Dominant-party system Parliamentary system>parliamentary constitutional republicPresident of South Africa>President| leader_name1 = Cyril RamaphosaDeputy President of South Africa>Deputy President| leader_name2 = David MabuzaParliament of South Africa>ParliamentNational Council of Provinces>National CouncilNational Assembly of South Africa>National Assembly| sovereignty_type = Independencefrom the United Kingdom}}Union of South Africa>Union| established_date1 = 31 May 1910Statute of Westminster 1931>Self-governance| established_date2 = 11 December 1931South African referendum, 1960>Republic| established_date3 = 31 May 1961Constitution of South Africa>Current constitution| established_date4 = 4 February 1997| area_km2 = 1,221,037| area_footnote = | area_rank = 24th| area_sq_mi = 471,443| percent_water = 0.380DATE=2018-07-23 ACCESS-DATE=2018-07-23, 18}}| population_estimate_year = 2018| population_estimate_rank = 24th| population_census_year = 2011| population_density_km2 = 42.4| population_density_sq_mi = | population_density_rank = 169th$813.100 billionHTTPS://WWW.IMF.ORG/EXTERNAL/PUBS/FT/WEO/2019/01/WEODATA/WEOREPT.ASPX?SY=2019&EY=2024&SCSM=1&SSD=1&SORT=COUNTRY&DS=.&BR=1&PR1.X=68&PR1.Y=5&C=199&S=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPPC&GRP=0&A= >TITLE=SOUTH AFRICA - REPORT FOR SELECTED COUNTRIES AND SUBJECTS DATE= APRIL 2019, 29 June 2019, }}| GDP_PPP_year = 2019| GDP_PPP_rank = 30th| GDP_PPP_per_capita = $13,865| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 89th$371.298 billion}}| GDP_nominal_year = 2019| GDP_nominal_rank = 33rd| GDP_nominal_per_capita = $6,331| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 86th| Gini = 63.0 | Gini_year = 2014| Gini_change = decrease PUBLISHER=WORLD BANK, 25 September 2018, | Gini_rank = | HDI = 0.699 | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = increase YEAR=2018 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, | HDI_rank = 113th| currency = South African rand| currency_code = ZARSouth African Standard Time>SAST| utc_offset = +2| utc_offset_DST = | DST_note = | time_zone_DST = | antipodes = | date_format = Right- and left-hand traffic>left| calling_code = +27| iso3166code = | cctld = .za}}South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by {{convert|2,798|km|mi}} of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans;WEB,weblink South African Maritime Safety Authority, South African Maritime Safety Authority, 16 June 2008, WEB,weblink The World Factbook, Coastline, CIA, 16 June 2008, WEB,weblink South Africa Fast Facts,, April 2007, 14 June 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 July 2008, dmy-all, to the north by the neighbouring countries of Namibia, Botswana, and Zimbabwe; and to the east and northeast by Mozambique and Eswatini (Swaziland); and it surrounds the enclaved country of Lesotho.WEB, Guy Arnold,weblink Lesotho: Year In Review 1996 â€“ Britannica Online Encyclopedia, Encyclopædia Britannica, 30 October 2011, South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation. It is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Old World or the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Bantu ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status. The remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European, Asian (Indian),"Into that Heaven of Freedom: The impact of apartheid on an Indian family's diasporic history", Mohamed M Keshavjee, 2015, by Mawenzi House Publishers, Ltd., Toronto, ON, Canada, {{ISBN|978-1-927494-27-1}} and multiracial (Coloured) ancestry.South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures, languages, and religions. Its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, which is the fourth-highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans; English reflects the legacy of British colonialism, and is commonly used in public and commercial life, though it is fourth-ranked as a spoken first language. The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, and regular elections have been held for almost a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to claim more rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics. The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress (ANC) and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in the mid-1980s.Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is often referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity, especially in the wake of apartheid.NEWS,weblink Rainbow Nation – dream or reality?, 10 August 2013, BBC News, 18 July 2008, The World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, and a newly industrialised country.WEB,weblink South Africa, World Bank, 30 October 2011, BOOK, David Waugh, Geography: An Integrated Approach,weblink 24 August 2013, 2000, Nelson Thornes, 978-0-17-444706-1, 563, 576–579, 633, 640, Manufacturing industries (chapter 19), World development (chapter 22), Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, and the 33rd-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa. However, poverty and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day.NEWS,weblink South Africa's Unemployment Rate Increases to 23.5%, Bloomberg, 5 May 2009, 30 May 2010, WEB,weblink HDI, UNDP, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 December 2008, South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, and maintains significant regional influence.JOURNAL, Cooper, Andrew F, Antkiewicz, Agata, Shaw, Timothy M, Lessons from/for BRICSAM about South-North Relations at the Start of the 21st Century: Economic Size Trumps All Else?, International Studies Review, 10 December 2007, 9, 4, 675, 687, 10.1111/j.1468-2486.2007.00730.x, BOOK, David A. Lynch, Trade and Globalization: An Introduction to Regional Trade Agreements,weblink 25 August 2013, 2010, Rowman & Littlefield, Southern Africa is home to the other of sub-Saharan Africa's regional powers: South Africa. South Africa is more than just a regional power; it is currently the most developed and economically powerful country in Africa, and now it is able to use that influence in Africa more than during the days of apartheid (white rule), when it was ostracised., 978-0-7425-6689-7, 51,


{{See also|Official names of South Africa}}The name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English and Unie van Zuid-Afrika in Dutch, reflecting its origin from the unification of four formerly separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long formal name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa" and Republiek van Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans. Since 1994, the country has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages.Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa,BOOK, Sarah, Achille, Livermon, Xavier, Johannesburg: The Elusive Metropolis, Sounds in the City, 2008, Duke University Press, Durham, 978-0-8223-8121-1, 283,weblink Mzansi is another black urban vernacular term popular with the youth and standing for South Africa., Nuttall, Mbembé, WEB, Mzansi DiToloki,weblink Deaf Federation of South Africa, 15 January 2014, uMzantsi in Xhosa means 'south', Mzansi means this country, South Africa, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 January 2014, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".NEWS,weblink South African Party Says Call Their Country ‘Azania’, Taylor, Darren, VOA, 18 February 2017, en,


Prehistoric archaeology

South Africa contains some of the oldest archaeological and human-fossil sites in the world.BOOK, Wymer, John, Singer, R, 1982, The Middle Stone Age at Klasies River Mouth in South Africa, Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-76103-9, WEB, Guide to Klasies River, 11, 2001,weblink Deacon, HJ, Stellenbosch University, 5 September 2009, WEB,weblink Fossil Hominid Sites of Sterkfontein, Swartkrans, Kromdraai, and Environs, Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province. The area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include Sterkfontein, one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Swartkrans, Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child (found near Taung) in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province, Cornelia and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point, Elandsfontein and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province.These finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus.WEB,weblink Hominid Evolution, Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute, Stephen P. Broker, 19 June 2008, There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans (Homo sapiens). Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years.File:South Africa - population migrations.svg|thumb|Migrations that formed the modern Rainbow nationRainbow nationVarious researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley.BOOK, An Encyclopedia of World History, Langer, William L., 5th, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1972, 978-0-395-13592-1, 9,weblink BOOK, Leakey, Louis Seymour Bazett, Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey, Stone Age cultures of South Africa, Stone age Africa: an outline of prehistory in Africa,weblink reprint, Negro Universities Press, 1936, 79, 2018-02-21, In 1929, during a brief visit to the Transvaal, I myself found a number of pebble tools in some of the terrace gravels of the Vaal River, and similar finds have been recorded by Wayland, who visited South Africa, and by van Riet Lowe and other South African prehistorians., 1936,

Bantu expansion

File:MapungubweHill.jpg|thumb|Mapungubwe Hill, the site of the former capital of the Kingdom of MapungubweKingdom of MapungubweSettlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were already present south of the Limpopo River (now the northern border with Botswana and Zimbabwe) by the 4th or 5th century CE (see Bantu expansion). They displaced, conquered and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu slowly moved south. The earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people. The Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations displaced or assimilated earlier peoples.In Mpumalanga Province, several stone circles have been found along with the stone arrangement that has been named Adam's Calendar.{{citation needed|date=November 2017}}

Portuguese contacts

At the time of European contact, the dominant ethnic group were Bantu-speaking peoples who had migrated from other parts of Africa about one thousand years before. The two major historic groups were the Xhosa and Zulu peoples.In 1487, the Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias led the first European voyage to land in southern Africa.BOOK, Domville-Fife, C.W., The encyclopedia of the British Empire the first encyclopedic record of the greatest empire in the history of the world ed, 1900, Rankin, London, 25,weblink On 4 December, he landed at Walfisch Bay (now known as Walvis Bay in present-day Namibia). This was south of the furthest point reached in 1485 by his predecessor, the Portuguese navigator Diogo Cão (Cape Cross, north of the bay). Dias continued down the western coast of southern Africa. After 8 January 1488, prevented by storms from proceeding along the coast, he sailed out of sight of land and passed the southernmost point of Africa without seeing it. He reached as far up the eastern coast of Africa as, what he called, Rio do Infante, probably the present-day Groot River, in May 1488, but on his return he saw the Cape, which he first named Cabo das Tormentas (Cape of Storms). His King, John II, renamed the point Cabo da Boa Esperança, or Cape of Good Hope, as it led to the riches of the East Indies.BOOK, Mackenzie, W. Douglas, Stead, Alfred, South Africa: Its History, Heroes, and Wars, The Co-Operative Publishing Company, Chicago, 1899, Dias' feat of navigation was later immortalised in Luís de Camões' Portuguese epic poem, The Lusiads (1572).

Dutch colonisation

File:Charles Bell - Jan van Riebeeck se aankoms aan die Kaap.jpg|thumb|Charles Davidson Bell's 19th-century painting of Jan van Riebeeck, who founded the first European settlement in South Africa, arrives in Table BayTable BayBy the early 17th century, Portugal's maritime power was starting to decline, and English and Dutch merchants competed to oust Lisbon from its lucrative monopoly on the spice trade.BOOK, Pakeman, SA, Nations of the Modern World: Ceylon, 1964, 18–19, Frederick A Praeger, Publishers, B0000CM2VW, Representatives of the British East India Company did call sporadically at the Cape in search of provisions as early as 1601, but later came to favour Ascension Island and St. Helena as alternative ports of refuge.BOOK, Alexander Wilmot, John Centlivres Chase, yes, History of the Colony of the Cape of Good Hope: From Its Discovery to the Year 1819, 2010, 1–548, Claremont: David Philip (Pty) Ltd, 978-1-144-83015-9, Dutch interest was aroused after 1647, when two employees of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) were shipwrecked there for several months. The sailors were able to survive by obtaining fresh water and meat from the natives. They also sowed vegetables in the fertile soil.BOOK, Kaplan, Irving, Area Handbook for the Republic of South Africa, 46–771,weblink Upon their return to Holland, they reported favourably on the Cape's potential as a "warehouse and garden" for provisions to stock passing ships for long voyages.In 1652, a century and a half after the discovery of the Cape sea route, Jan van Riebeeck established a {{Wikt-lang|en|victual|victualling}} station at the Cape of Good Hope, at what would become Cape Town, on behalf of the Dutch East India Company.WEB,weblink African History Timeline, West Chester University of Pennsylvania, BOOK, Hunt, John, Campbell, Heather-Ann, Dutch South Africa: Early Settlers at the Cape, 1652–1708, 2005, 13–35, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 978-1-904744-95-5, In time, the Cape became home to a large population of "vrijlieden", also known as "vrijburgers" ({{Lit.}} free citizens), former company employees who stayed in Dutch territories overseas after serving their contracts. Dutch traders also imported thousands of slaves to the fledgling colony from Indonesia, Madagascar, and parts of eastern Africa.BOOK, Worden, Nigel, Slavery in Dutch South Africa, 2010, 40–43, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-15266-2, 2010-08-05, Some of the earliest mixed race communities in the country were formed through unions between vrijburgers, their slaves, and various indigenous peoples.BOOK, Nelson, Harold, Zimbabwe: A Country Study, 237–317, This led to the development of a new ethnic group, the Cape Coloureds, most of whom adopted the Dutch language and Christian faith.The eastward expansion of Dutch colonists ushered in a series of wars with the southwesterly migrating Xhosa tribe, known as the Xhosa Wars, as both sides competed for the pastureland necessary to graze their cattle near the Great Fish River.BOOK, Stapleton, Timothy, A Military History of South Africa: From the Dutch-Khoi Wars to the End of Apartheid, 2010, 4–6, Praeger Security International, Santa Barbara, 978-0-313-36589-8, Vrijburgers who became independent farmers on the frontier were known as Boers, with some adopting semi-nomadic lifestyles being denoted as trekboers. The Boers formed loose militias, which they termed commandos, and forged alliances with Khoisan groups to repel Xhosa raids. Both sides launched bloody but inconclusive offensives, and sporadic violence, often accompanied by livestock theft, remained common for several decades.

British colonisation

Great Britain occupied Cape Town between 1795 and 1803 to prevent it from falling under the control of the French First Republic, which had invaded the Low Countries. Despite briefly returning to Dutch rule under the Batavian Republic in 1803, the Cape was occupied again by the British in 1806.BOOK, Keegan, Timothy, Colonial South Africa and the Origins of the Racial Order, 1996, 85–86, David Philip Publishers (Pty) Ltd, 978-0-8139-1735-1, Following the end of the Napoleonic Wars, it was formally ceded to Great Britain and became an integral part of the British Empire.BOOK, Lloyd, Trevor Owen, The British Empire, 1558–1995, 1997, 201–203, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 978-0-19-873133-7, British emigration to South Africa began around 1818, subsequently culminating in the arrival of the 1820 Settlers. The new colonists were induced to settle for a variety of reasons, namely to increase the size of the European workforce and to bolster frontier regions against Xhosa incursions.File:Charles Bell - Zoeloe-aanval op 'n Boerelaer - 1838.jpg|thumb|Depiction of a Zulu attack on a Boer camp in February 1838]]In the first two decades of the 19th century, the Zulu people grew in power and expanded their territory under their leader, Shaka.WEB,weblink Shaka: Zulu Chieftain,, 30 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 February 2008, Shaka's warfare indirectly led to the Mfecane ("crushing"), in which 1,000,000 to 2,000,000 people were killed and the inland plateau was devastated and depopulated in the early 1820s.WEB,weblink Shaka (Zulu chief), Encyclopædia Britannica, 30 October 2011, BOOK, W. D. Rubinstein, Genocide: A History,weblink 26 June 2013, 2004, Pearson Longman, 978-0-582-50601-5, 22, An offshoot of the Zulu, the Matabele people created a larger empire that included large parts of the highveld under their king Mzilikazi.During the early 1800s, many Dutch settlers departed from the Cape Colony, where they had been subjected to British control. They migrated to the future Natal, Orange Free State, and Transvaal regions. The Boers founded the Boer Republics: the South African Republic (now Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga and North West provinces), the Natalia Republic (KwaZulu-Natal), and the Orange Free State (Free State).The discovery of diamonds in 1867 and gold in 1884 in the interior started the Mineral Revolution and increased economic growth and immigration. This intensified British efforts to gain control over the indigenous peoples. The struggle to control these important economic resources was a factor in relations between Europeans and the indigenous population and also between the Boers and the British.BOOK, Williams, Garner F, The Diamond Mines of South Africa, Vol II, 1905, B. F Buck & Co., New York, Chapter XX,weblink The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the United Kingdom and the Zulu Kingdom. Following Lord Carnarvon's successful introduction of federation in Canada, it was thought that similar political effort, coupled with military campaigns, might succeed with the African kingdoms, tribal areas and Boer republics in South Africa. In 1874, Sir Henry Bartle Frere was sent to South Africa as the British High Commissioner to bring such plans into being. Among the obstacles were the presence of the independent states of the Boers and the Kingdom of Zululand and its army. The Zulu nation defeated the British at the Battle of Isandlwana. Eventually, though, the war was lost, resulting in the termination of the Zulu nation's independence.File:Boers 1881.gif|thumb|The First Boer War was a rebellion of Boers against the British rule in the Transvaal that re-established their independence.]]The Boer Republics successfully resisted British encroachments during the First Boer War (1880–1881) using guerrilla warfare tactics, which were well suited to local conditions. The British returned with greater numbers, more experience, and new strategy in the Second Boer War (1899–1902) but suffered heavy casualties through attrition; nonetheless, they were ultimately successful. Over 27,000 Boer women and children perished in the British concentration camps.NEWS, 5 of the worst atrocities carried out by the British Empire,weblink The Independent, 19 January 2016,


Within the country, anti-British policies among white South Africans focused on independence. During the Dutch and British colonial years, racial segregation was mostly informal, though some legislation was enacted to control the settlement and movement of native people, including the Native Location Act of 1879 and the system of pass laws.BOOK, Bond, Patrick, Cities of gold, townships of coal: essays on South Africa's new urban crisis, Africa World Press, 1999, 140, 978-0-86543-611-4, JOURNAL, Cape of Good Hope (South Africa). Parliament House., 1906, Report of the Select Committee on Location Act, Cape Times Limited,weblink 30 July 2009, JOURNAL, Godley, Godfrey Archibald, Welsh, William Thomson, Hemsworth, H. D, 1920, Report of the Inter-departmental committee on the native pass laws,weblink Cape Times Limited, government printers, 2, JOURNAL, Great Britain Colonial Office; Transvaal (Colony). Governor (1901–1905: Milner), January 1902, Papers relating to legislation affecting natives in the Transvaal, His Majesty's Stationery Office,weblink BOOK, De Villiers, John Abraham Jacob, The Transvaal, Chatto & Windus, London, 1896, 30 (n46),weblink 30 July 2009, Eight years after the end of the Second Boer War and after four years of negotiation, an act of the British Parliament (South Africa Act 1909) granted nominal independence, while creating the Union of South Africa on 31 May 1910. The Union was a dominion that included the former territories of the Cape, Transvaal and Natal colonies, as well as the Orange Free State republic.EB1911, Frank Richardson, Cana, South Africa, 25, 467, The Natives' Land Act of 1913 severely restricted the ownership of land by blacks; at that stage natives controlled only seven percent of the country. The amount of land reserved for indigenous peoples was later marginally increased.WEB,weblink Native Land Act, South African Institute of Race Relations, 19 June 1913, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 October 2010, In 1931, the union was fully sovereign from the United Kingdom with the passage of the Statute of Westminster, which abolished the last powers of the British Government on the country. In 1934, the South African Party and National Party merged to form the United Party, seeking reconciliation between Afrikaners and English-speaking whites. In 1939, the party split over the entry of the Union into World War II as an ally of the United Kingdom, a move which the National Party followers strongly opposed.

Beginning of apartheid

File:ApartheidSignEnglishAfrikaans.jpg|thumb|"For use by white persons" â€“ apartheid sign in English and AfrikaansAfrikaansIn 1948, the National Party was elected to power. It strengthened the racial segregation begun under Dutch and British colonial rule. Taking Canada's Indian Act as a framework,Gloria Galloway, "Chieft Reflect on Apartheid", The Globe and Mail, 11 December 2013 the nationalist government classified all peoples into three races and developed rights and limitations for each. The white minority (less than 20%)Beinart, William (2001). Twentieth-century South Africa. Oxford University Press. p. 202. {{ISBN|978-0-19-289318-5}}. controlled the vastly larger black majority. The legally institutionalised segregation became known as apartheid. While whites enjoyed the highest standard of living in all of Africa, comparable to First World Western nations, the black majority remained disadvantaged by almost every standard, including income, education, housing, and life expectancy. The Freedom Charter, adopted in 1955 by the Congress Alliance, demanded a non-racial society and an end to discrimination.


On 31 May 1961, the country became a republic following a referendum in which white voters narrowly voted in favour thereof (the British-dominated Natal province rallied against the issue).WEB, Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd,weblink South African History Online, On 5 October 1960 a referendum was held in which White voters were asked: "Do you support a republic for the Union?" – 52 percent voted 'Yes'., 9 March 2013, Queen Elizabeth II was stripped of the title Queen of South Africa, and the last Governor-General, Charles Robberts Swart, became State President. As a concession to the Westminster system, the presidency remained parliamentary-appointed and virtually powerless until P. W. Botha's Constitution Act of 1983, which eliminated the office of Prime Minister and instated a near-unique "strong presidency" responsible to parliament. Pressured by other Commonwealth of Nations countries, South Africa withdrew from the organisation in 1961 and rejoined it only in 1994.Despite opposition both within and outside the country, the government legislated for a continuation of apartheid. The security forces cracked down on internal dissent, and violence became widespread, with anti-apartheid organisations such as the African National Congress (ANC), the Azanian People's Organisation (AZAPO), and the Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC) carrying out guerrilla warfareBOOK, Gibson, Nigel, Alexander, Amanda, Mngxitama, Andile, Biko Lives! Contesting the Legacies of Steve Biko, 2008, 138, Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, 978-0-230-60649-4, and urban sabotage.BOOK,weblink South Africa's Resistance Press: Alternative Voices in the Last Generation Under Apartheid. Issue 74 of Research in international studies: Africa series, Ohio University Press, Switzer, Les, 2000, 2, 978-0-89680-213-1, The three rival resistance movements also engaged in occasional inter-factional clashes as they jockeyed for domestic influence.BOOK, Mitchell, Thomas, Native vs Settler: Ethnic Conflict in Israel/Palestine, Northern Ireland and South Africa, 2008, 194–196, Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport, 978-0-313-31357-8, Apartheid became increasingly controversial, and several countries began to boycott business with the South African government because of its racial policies. These measures were later extended to international sanctions and the divestment of holdings by foreign investors.BOOK, Fred, Bridgland, The War for Africa: Twelve months that transformed a continent, 1990, Ashanti Publishing, Gibraltar, 32, 978-1-874800-12-5, BOOK, Signe, Landgren, Embargo Disimplemented: South Africa's Military Industry, 1989, 6–10, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-829127-5, 1989,weblink File:Frederik de Klerk with Nelson Mandela - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos 1992.jpg|thumb|FW de Klerk and Nelson MandelaNelson MandelaIn the late 1970s, South Africa initiated a programme of nuclear weapons development. In the following decade, it produced six deliverable nuclear weapons.WEB,weblink South Africa Profile,, 30 October 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 2 October 2011, dead, WEB, John Pike,weblink Nuclear Weapons Program (South Africa),, 30 October 2011,

End of apartheid

The Mahlabatini Declaration of Faith, signed by Mangosuthu Buthelezi and Harry Schwarz in 1974, enshrined the principles of peaceful transition of power and equality for all, the first of such agreements by black and white political leaders in South Africa. Ultimately, FW de Klerk opened bilateral discussions with Nelson Mandela in 1993 for a transition of policies and government.In 1990, the National Party government took the first step towards dismantling discrimination when it lifted the ban on the ANC and other political organisations. It released Nelson Mandela from prison after 27 years' serving a sentence for sabotage. A negotiation process followed. With approval from the white electorate in a 1992 referendum, the government continued negotiations to end apartheid. South Africa also destroyed its nuclear arsenal and acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. South Africa held its first universal elections in 1994, which the ANC won by an overwhelming majority. It has been in power ever since. The country rejoined the Commonwealth of Nations and became a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC).File:Nelson Mandela-2008 (edit).jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|Nelson Mandela, first black African President of Republic of South Africa ]]In post-apartheid South Africa, unemployment has been extremely high as the country has struggled with many changes. While many blacks have risen to middle or upper classes, the overall unemployment rate of black people worsened between 1994 and 2003 by official metrics, but declined significantly using expanded definitions. Poverty among whites, previously rare, increased.WEB,weblink Zuma surprised at level of white poverty, Mail & Guardian, 18 April 2008, 30 May 2010, In addition, the current government has struggled to achieve the monetary and fiscal discipline to ensure both redistribution of wealth and economic growth. The United Nations (UN) Human Development Index (HDI) of South Africa fell from 1995 to 2005, while it was steadily rising until the mid-1990s,WEB,weblink South Africa, 2006, United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Report, 28 November 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 November 2007, before recovering its 1995 peak in 2013.WEB,weblink 2015 United Nations Human Development Report, This is in large part attributable to the South African HIV/AIDS pandemic which saw South African life expectancy fall from a high point of 62.25 years in 1992 to a low of 52.57 in 2005,WEB,weblink South African Life Expectancy at Birth, World Bank, and the failure of the government to take steps to address it in the early years.WEB,weblink Ridicule succeeds where leadership failed on AIDS, South African Institute of Race Relations, 10 November 2006, {{dead link|date=May 2019|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}In May 2008, riots left over 60 people dead.WEB,weblink Broke-on-Broke Violence, 6 July 2011, The Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions estimates over 100,000 people were driven from their homes.WEB,weblink COHRE statement on Xenophobic Attacks, 6 July 2011, The targets were mainly legal and illegal migrants and refugees seeking asylum, but a third of the victims were South African citizens. In a 2006 survey, the South African Migration Project concluded that South Africans are more opposed to immigration than anywhere else in the world.BOOK, Southern African Migration Project, Institute for Democracy in South Africa, Queen's University, Jonathan Crush, The perfect storm: the realities of xenophobia in contemporary South Africa,weblink 26 June 2013, 2008, Idasa, 978-1-920118-71-6, 1, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 July 2013, The UN High Commissioner for Refugees in 2008 reported over 200,000 refugees applied for asylum in South Africa, almost four times as many as the year before.WEB, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees,weblink UNHCR Global Appeal 2011 â€“ South Africa, UNHCR, 30 October 2011, These people were mainly from Zimbabwe, though many also come from Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Eritrea, Ethiopia and Somalia. Competition over jobs, business opportunities, public services and housing has led to tension between refugees and host communities. While xenophobia in South Africa is still a problem, recent violence has not been as widespread as initially feared. Nevertheless, as South Africa continues to grapple with racial issues, one of the proposed solutions has been to pass legislation, such as the pending Hate Crimes and Hate Speech Bill, to uphold South Africa's ban on racism and commitment to equality.Harris, Bronwyn (2004). Arranging prejudice: Exploring hate crime in post-apartheid South Africa. Cape Town.Traum, Alexander (2014). "Contextualising the hate speech debate: the United States and South Africa". The Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa. 47 (1): 64–88.


File:Southern African Central Plateau.jpg|thumb|left|upright=1.35|A map of South Africa showing the main topographic features: the Central Plateau edged by the Great Escarpment, and the Cape Fold BeltCape Fold BeltFile:Regions of South Africa 1.png|thumb|right|upright=1.35|Important geographical regions in South Africa. The thick line traces the course of the Great Escarpment which edges the central plateau. The eastern portion of this line, coloured red, is the Drakensberg. The Escarpment rises to its highest point, at over {{convert|abbr=on|3000|m|ft}}, where the Drakensberg forms the border between KwaZulu-Natal and LesothoLesothoSouth Africa is located at the southernmost region of Africa, with a long coastline that stretches more than {{convert|abbr=on|2500|km|mi|0}} and along two oceans (the South Atlantic and the Indian). At {{convert|abbr=on|1219912|km2|sqmi}},WEB,weblink Country Comparison, World Factbook, CIA, according to the UN Demographic Yearbook,WEB,weblink United Nations Statistics Division – Demographic and Social Statistics,, 2017-12-12, South Africa is the 25th-largest country in the world. It is about the same size as Colombia, twice the size of France, three times as big as Japan, four times the size of Italy and five times the size of the United Kingdom.NEWS,weblink How big is South Africa?, 2017-11-23, South Africa Gateway, 2017-12-12, en-GB, dead,weblink 12 December 2017, dmy-all, Mafadi in the Drakensberg at {{convert|abbr=on|3450|m|ft}} is the highest peak in South Africa. Excluding the Prince Edward Islands, the country lies between latitudes 22° and 35°S, and longitudes 16° and 33°E.The interior of South Africa consists of a vast, in most places almost flat, plateau with an altitude of between {{convert|abbr=on|1000|m|ft}} and {{convert|abbr=on|2100|m|ft}}, highest in the east and sloping gently downwards towards the west and north, and slightly less noticeably so to the south and south-west.McCarthy, T. & Rubidge, B. (2005). The story of earth and life. p. 263, 267–268. Struik Publishers, Cape Town. This plateau is surrounded by the Great EscarpmentAtlas of Southern Africa. (1984). p. 13. Readers Digest Association, Cape Town whose eastern, and highest, stretch is known as the Drakensberg.Encyclopædia Britannica (1975); Micropaedia Vol. III, p. 655. Helen Hemingway Benton Publishers, Chicago.The south and south-western parts of the plateau (at approximately 1100{{ndash}}1800{{nbsp}}m above sea level), and the adjoining plain below (at approximately 700{{ndash}}800{{nbsp}}m above sea level{{snds}}see map on the right) is known as the Great Karoo, which consists of sparsely populated scrubland. To the north, the Great Karoo fades into the even drier and more arid Bushmanland, which eventually becomes the Kalahari desert in the very north-west of the country. The mid-eastern, and highest part of the plateau is known as the Highveld. This relatively well-watered area is home to a great proportion of the country's commercial farmlands and contains its largest conurbation (Gauteng). To the north of Highveld, from about the 25°{{nbsp}}30'{{nbsp}}S line of latitude, the plateau slopes downwards into the Bushveld, which ultimately gives way to the Limpopo lowlands or Lowveld.File:Karoo Koppies.png|thumb|left|upright=2|Flat topped hills (called Karoo Koppies) are highly characteristic of the southern and southwestern Karoo landscape. These hills are capped by hard, erosion-resistant dolerite sills. This is solidified lava that was forced under high pressure between the horizontal strata of the sedimentary rocks that make up most of the Karoo's geology about 180{{nbsp}}million years ago. Since then, Southern Africa has undergone a prolonged period of erosion removing the relatively soft Karoo rocks, except where they are protected by a cap of dolerite. This photograph was taken near Cradock in the Eastern Cape]]The coastal belt, below the Great Escarpment, moving clockwise from the northeast, consists of the Limpopo Lowveld, which merges into the Mpumalanga Lowveld, below the Mpumalanga Drakensberg (the eastern portion of the Great Escarpment).Atlas of Southern Africa. (1984). p. 186. Readers Digest Association, Cape Town This is hotter, drier and less intensely cultivated than the Highveld above the escarpment. The Kruger National Park, located in the provinces of Limpopo and Mpumalanga in northeastern South Africa, occupies a large portion of the Lowveld covering 19,633 square kilometres (7,580 sq mi.) WEB, Kruger National Park,weblink, 16 December 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 December 2014, South of the Lowveld the annual rainfall increases as one enters KwaZulu-Natal Province, which, especially near the coast, is subtropically hot and humid. The KwaZulu-Natal–Lesotho international border is formed by the highest portion of the Great Escarpment, or Drakensberg, which reaches an altitude of over {{convert|abbr=on|3000|m|ft}}.Atlas of Southern Africa. (1984). p. 151. Readers Digest Association, Cape Town The climate at the foot of this part of the Drakensberg is temperate.File:South Africa - Drakensberg (16261357780).jpg|thumb|alt=Image depicting the Drakensberg|Drakensberg, the eastern and highest portion of the Great Escarpment which surrounds the east, south and western borders of the central plateau of Southern Africa]]The coastal belt below the south and south-western stretches of the Great Escarpment contains several ranges of Cape Fold Mountains which run parallel to the coast, separating the Great Escarpment from the ocean.McCarthy, T. & Rubidge, B. (2005). The story of earth and life. p. 194. Struik Publishers, Cape Town.Geological map of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland (1970). Council for Geoscience, Geological Survey of South Africa. (These parallel ranges of fold mountains are shown on the map, above left. Note the course of the Great Escarpment to the north of these mountain ranges.) The land (at approximately 400{{ndash}}500{{nbsp}}m above sea level) between two of these ranges of fold mountains in the south (i.e. between the Outeniqua and Langeberg ranges to the south and the Swartberg range to the north) is known as the Little Karoo, which consists of semi-desert scrubland similar to that of the Great Karoo, except that its northern strip along the foothills of the Swartberg Mountains, has a somewhat higher rainfall and is, therefore, more cultivated than the Great Karoo. The Little Karoo is historically, and still, famous for its ostrich farming around the town of Oudtshoorn. The lowland area (700{{ndash}}800{{nbsp}}m above sea level) to the north of the Swartberg mountain range up to the Great Escarpment is the lowland part of the Great Karoo (see map at top right), which is climatically and botanically almost indistinguishable from the Karoo above the Great Escarpment. The narrow coastal strip between the most seaward Cape Fold Mountain range (i.e., the Langeberg{{ndash}}Outeniqua mountains) and the ocean has a moderately high year-round rainfall, especially in the George-Knysna-Plettenberg Bay region, which is known as the Garden Route. It is famous for the most extensive areas of indigenous forests in South Africa (a generally forest-poor country).In the south-west corner of the country, the Cape Peninsula forms the southernmost tip of the coastal strip which borders the Atlantic Ocean and ultimately terminates at the country's border with Namibia at the Orange River. The Cape Peninsula has a Mediterranean climate, making it and its immediate surrounds the only portion of Africa south of the Sahara which receives most of its rainfall in winter.Encyclopædia Britannica (1975); Micropaedia Vol. VI, p. 750. Helen Hemingway Benton Publishers, Chicago.Atlas of Southern Africa. (1984). p. 19. Readers Digest Association, Cape Town The greater Cape Town metropolitan area is situated on the Cape Peninsula and is home to 3.7{{nbsp}}million people according to the 2011 population census. It is the country's legislative capital.File:Namaqualand, Goegap 0035.jpg|thumb|left|Spring flowers in NamaqualandNamaqualandThe coastal belt to the north of the Cape Peninsula is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean and the first row of north-south running Cape Fold Mountains to the east. The Cape Fold Mountains peter out at about the 32°{{nbsp}}S line of latitude, after which the coastal plain is bounded by the Great Escarpment itself. The most southerly portion of this coastal belt is known as the Swartland and Malmesbury Plain, which is an important wheat growing region, relying on winter rains. The region further north is known as Namaqualand,Atlas of Southern Africa. (1984). p. 113. Readers Digest Association, Cape Town which becomes more and more arid as one approaches the Orange River. The little rain that falls tends to fall in winter, which results in one of the world's most spectacular displays of flowers carpeting huge stretches of veld in spring (August{{ndash}}September).File:Cape Floral Region Protected Areas-114212.jpg|thumb|Cape Floral Region Protected AreasCape Floral Region Protected AreasSouth Africa also has one possession, the small sub-Antarctic archipelago of the Prince Edward Islands, consisting of Marion Island ({{convert|abbr=on|290|km2|sqmi|disp=or}}) and Prince Edward Island ({{convert|abbr=on|45|km2|sqmi|disp=or}}) (not to be confused with the Canadian province of the same name).


File:Koppen-Geiger Map ZAF present.svg|thumb|Köppen climate types of South Africa]]South Africa has a generally temperate climate, due in part to being surrounded by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans on three sides, by its location in the climatically milder Southern Hemisphere and due to the average elevation rising steadily towards the north (towards the equator) and further inland. Due to this varied topography and oceanic influence, a great variety of climatic zones exist. The climatic zones range from the extreme desert of the southern Namib in the farthest northwest to the lush subtropical climate in the east along the border with Mozambique and the Indian Ocean. Winters in South Africa occur between June and August.The extreme southwest has a climate remarkably similar to that of the Mediterranean Sea with wet winters and hot, dry summers, hosting the famous fynbos biome of shrubland and thicket. This area also produces much of the wine in South Africa. This region is also particularly known for its wind, which blows intermittently almost all year. The severity of this wind made passing around the Cape of Good Hope particularly treacherous for sailors, causing many shipwrecks. Further east on the south coast, rainfall is distributed more evenly throughout the year, producing a green landscape. This area is popularly known as the Garden Route.The Free State is particularly flat because it lies centrally on the high plateau. North of the Vaal River, the Highveld becomes better watered and does not experience subtropical extremes of heat. Johannesburg, in the centre of the Highveld, is at {{convert|abbr=on|1740|m|ft|0}} above sea level and receives an annual rainfall of {{convert|abbr=on|760|mm|in|1}}. Winters in this region are cold, although snow is rare.The high Drakensberg mountains, which form the south-eastern escarpment of the Highveld, offer limited skiing opportunities in winter. The coldest place on mainland South Africa is Sutherland in the western Roggeveld Mountains, where midwinter temperatures can reach as low as {{convert|abbr=on|-15|C|F}}. The Prince Edward Islands have colder average annual temperatures, but Sutherland has colder extremes. The deep interior of mainland South Africa has the hottest temperatures: a temperature of {{convert|abbr=on|51.7|C|F|2}} was recorded in 1948 in the Northern Cape Kalahari near Upington,WEB,weblink South Africa's geography,, 30 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 8 June 2010, but this temperature is unofficial and was not recorded with standard equipment, the official highest temperature is {{convert|abbr=on|48.8|C|F|2}} at Vioolsdrif in January 1993.BOOK, South Africa yearbook,weblink 1997, South African Communication Service, 3,


{{See also|Wildlife of South Africa|Protected areas of South Africa|Marine biodiversity of South Africa}}South Africa signed the Rio Convention on Biological Diversity on 4 June 1994, and became a party to the convention on 2 November 1995.WEB,weblink List of Parties, 8 December 2012, It has subsequently produced a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, which was received by the convention on 7 June 2006.WEB,weblink South Africa's National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, 10 December 2012, The country is ranked sixth out of the world's seventeen megadiverse countries.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 1 November 2010, Biodiversity of the world by countries,, 30 May 2010, dead, Ecotourism in South Africa has become more prevalent in recent years, as a possible method of maintaining and improving biodiversity.


File:South African Giraffes, fighting.jpg|thumb|South African giraffeSouth African giraffeFile:African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) male with Oxpecker.jpg|alt=African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) male with red-billed oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorhynchus), Phinda Private Game Reserve, KwaZulu Natal, South Africa|thumb|African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) male with red-billed oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorhynchus), Phinda Private Game ReservePhinda Private Game ReserveNumerous mammals are found in the Bushveld including lions, African leopards, South African cheetahs, southern white rhinos, blue wildebeest, kudus, impalas, hyenas, hippopotamuses and South African giraffes. A significant extent of the Bushveld exists in the north-east including Kruger National Park and the Sabi Sand Game Reserve, as well as in the far north in the Waterberg Biosphere. South Africa houses many endemic species, among them the critically endangered riverine rabbit (Bunolagus monticullaris) in the Karoo.


Up to 1945, more than 4900 species of fungi (including lichen-forming species) had been recorded.JOURNAL, Rong, I. H., Baxter, A. P., 10.3114/sim.55.1.1, The South African National Collection of Fungi: Celebrating a centenary 1905–2005, Studies in Mycology, 55, 1–12, 2006, 18490968, 2104721, In 2006, the number of fungi in South Africa was estimated at about 200,000 species, but did not take into account fungi associated with insects.JOURNAL, 10.3114/sim.55.1.13
first1 = P. W. first2 = I. H. first3 = A. first4 = S. first5 = H. first6 = W. l first7 = B. first8 = W. Z. first9 = M. J. first10 = D. L., How many species of fungi are there at the tip of Africa?, Studies in Mycology, 55, 13–33, 2006, 18490969, 2104731, If correct, then the number of South African fungi dwarfs that of its plants. In at least some major South African ecosystems, an exceptionally high percentage of fungi are highly specific in terms of the plants with which they occur.WEB,weblink Marincowitz, S., Crous, P.W., Groenewald J.Z., Wingfield, M.J., yes, Microfungi occurring on Proteaceae in the fynbos. CBS Biodiversity Series 7, 2008, 26 June 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 July 2013, The country's Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan does not mention fungi (including lichen-forming fungi).


File:Forest outside of Durban.jpg|thumb|Subtropical forest near DurbanDurbanFile:KNP Landscape.jpg|thumb|Lowveld vegetation of the Kruger National ParkKruger National ParkWith more than 22,000 different higher plants, or about 9% of all the known species of plants on Earth,BOOK, Marco Lambertini, A Anturalist's Guide to the Tropics, University Of Chicago Press, 978-0-226-46828-0, 46, Revised edition (May 15, 2000), English, The Flora / The Richest Botany in the World, 2000-05-15, South Africa is particularly rich in plant diversity. The most prevalent biome in South Africa is the grassland, particularly on the Highveld, where the plant cover is dominated by different grasses, low shrubs, and acacia trees, mainly camel-thorn (Vachellia erioloba). Vegetation becomes even more sparse towards the northwest due to low rainfall. There are several species of water-storing succulents, like aloes and euphorbias, in the very hot and dry Namaqualand area. The grass and thorn savannah turns slowly into a bush savannah towards the north-east of the country, with denser growth. There are significant numbers of baobab trees in this area, near the northern end of Kruger National Park.WEB,weblink Plants and Vegetation in South Africa,, 30 October 2011, The fynbos biome, which makes up the majority of the area and plant life in the Cape floristic region, one of the six floral kingdoms, is located in a small region of the Western Cape and contains more than 9,000 of those species, making it among the richest regions on earth in terms of plant diversity.{{Citation needed|date=July 2013}} Most of the plants are evergreen hard-leaf plants with fine, needle-like leaves, such as the sclerophyllous plants. Another uniquely South African flowering plant group is the genus Protea. There are around 130 different species of Protea in South Africa.While South Africa has a great wealth of flowering plants, only one percent of South Africa is forest, almost exclusively in the humid coastal plain of KwaZulu-Natal, where there are also areas of Southern Africa mangroves in river mouths. There are even smaller reserves of forests that are out of the reach of fire, known as montane forests. Plantations of imported tree species are predominant, particularly the non-native eucalyptus and pine.

Conservation issues

South Africa has lost a large area of natural habitat in the last four decades, primarily due to overpopulation, sprawling development patterns and deforestation during the 19th century. South Africa is one of the worst affected countries in the world when it comes to invasion by alien species with many (e.g., black wattle, Port Jackson willow, Hakea, Lantana and Jacaranda) posing a significant threat to the native biodiversity and the already scarce water resources. The original temperate forest found by the first European settlers was exploited ruthlessly until only small patches remained. Currently, South African hardwood trees like real yellowwood (Podocarpus latifolius), stinkwood (Ocotea bullata), and South African black ironwood (Olea laurifolia) are under government protection. Statistics from the South African Department of Environmental Affairs show a record 1,215 rhinos have been killed in 2014.NEWS, Environmental Affairs,weblink Progress in the war against poaching, Environmental Affairs, 22 January 2015, 22 January 2015, South Africa, dead,weblink 23 January 2015, dmy-all, Climate change is expected to bring considerable warming and drying to much of this already semi-arid region, with greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as heat waves, flooding and drought. According to computer-generated climate modelling produced by the South African National Biodiversity Institute,WEB,weblink South African National Biodiversity Institute,, 30 September 2011, 30 October 2011, parts of southern Africa will see an increase in temperature by about {{Convert|1|C-change|}} along the coast to more than {{Convert|4|C-change|}} in the already hot hinterland such as the Northern Cape in late spring and summertime by 2050. The Cape Floral Kingdom, being identified as one of the global biodiversity hotspots, will be hit very hard by climate change. Drought, increased intensity and frequency of fire, and climbing temperatures are expected to push many rare species towards extinction.{{multiple image| align = center| direction = horizontal| header=Biodiversity of South Africa| image1=Protea cynaroides 5.jpg| alt1=
Protea cynaroides>King protea, national flower| width1={{#expr: (120 * 666 / 599) round 0}}| image2=Fynbos.jpg| alt2=| caption2=Fynbos, Cape Floristic Region| width2={{#expr: (120 * 512 / 384) round 0}}| image3= Blue crane SA.jpg| alt3=| caption3=Blue crane, national bird| width3={{#expr: (120 * 800 / 555) round 0}}| image4=Weskus Nasionale Park.jpg| alt4=| caption4=Flowers in the West Coast National Park| width4={{#expr: (120 * 520 / 390) round 0}}}}

Politics and government

File:Uniegebou.jpg|thumb|alt=Photo of the Union Buildings|Union BuildingsUnion BuildingsFile:Houses of Parliament (Cape Town).jpg|thumb|Houses of Parliament in Cape Town, seat of the legislaturelegislatureSouth Africa is a parliamentary republic, although unlike most such republics the President is both head of state and head of government, and depends for his tenure on the confidence of Parliament. The executive, legislature and judiciary are all subject to the supremacy of the Constitution, and the superior courts have the power to strike down executive actions and acts of Parliament if they are unconstitutional.The National Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, consists of 400 members and is elected every five years by a system of party-list proportional representation. The National Council of Provinces, the upper house, consists of ninety members, with each of the nine provincial legislatures electing ten members.After each parliamentary election, the National Assembly elects one of its members as President; hence the President serves a term of office the same as that of the Assembly, normally five years. No President may serve more than two terms in office.NEWS,weblink Term Limits in Africa, The Economist, 6 April 2006, 26 June 2013, The President appoints a Deputy President and Ministers, who form the Cabinet which consists of Departments and Ministries. The President and the Cabinet may be removed by the National Assembly by a motion of no confidence.In the most recent election, held on 8 May 2019, the ANC won 57.5% of the vote and 230 seats, while the main opposition, the Democratic Alliance (DA) won 20.77% of the vote and 84 seats. The Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF), founded by Julius Malema, former President of the ANC's Youth Wing (ANC Youth League) who was later expelled from the ANC, won 10.79% of the vote and 44 seats. The ANC has been the governing political party in South Africa since the end of apartheid.South Africa has no legally defined capital city. The fourth chapter of the Constitution of South Africa, states that "The seat of Parliament is Cape Town, but an Act of Parliament enacted in accordance with section 76(1) and (5) may determine that the seat of Parliament is elsewhere."NEWS,weblink Chapter 4 – Parliament, 19 August 2009, 3 August 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 May 2013, The country's three branches of government are split over different cities. Cape Town, as the seat of Parliament, is the legislative capital; Pretoria, as the seat of the President and Cabinet, is the administrative capital; and Bloemfontein, as the seat of the Supreme Court of Appeal, is the judicial capital, while the Constitutional Court of South Africa sits in Johannesburg. Most foreign embassies are located in Pretoria.Since 2004, South Africa has had many thousands of popular protests, some violent, making it, according to one academic, the "most protest-rich country in the world".WEB, Abahlali baseMjondolo,weblink Mercury: Rethinking the crisis of local democracy,, 30 October 2011, There have been a number of incidents of political repression as well as threats of future repression in violation of the constitution, leading some analysts and civil society organisations to conclude that there is or could be a new climate of political repression,WEB, J. Duncan,weblink The Return of State Repression, South African Civil Society Information Services, 31 May 2010, 26 June 2013,weblink" title="">weblink 30 June 2013, dead, WEB,weblink Increasing police repression highlighted by recent case, Freedom of Expression Institute, 2006, 26 June 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 January 2013, dmy-all, or a decline in political tolerance.WEB, Imraan Buccus,weblink Political tolerance on the wane in South Africa, SA Reconciliation Barometer, 2011, 26 June 2013, In 2008, South Africa placed fifth out of 48 sub-Saharan African countries on the Ibrahim Index of African Governance. South Africa scored well in the categories of Rule of Law, Transparency and Corruption, and Participation and Human Rights, but was let down by its relatively poor performance in Safety and Security.WEB, South Africa's recent performance in the Ibrahim Index of African Governance,weblink Mo Ibrahim Foundation, 16 February 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 February 2013, In November 2006, South Africa became the first African country to legalise same-sex marriage.NEWS,weblink SA marriage law signed, BBC News, 30 November 2006, 26 June 2013,


{{See also|Crime in South Africa}}File:ConstitutionalCourtofSouthAfrica-entrance-20070622.jpg|thumb|alt=Photo of the Constitutional Court|Constitutional Court in Johannesburg]]The Constitution of South Africa is the supreme rule of law in the country. The primary sources of South African law are Roman-Dutch mercantile law and personal law with English Common law, as imports of Dutch settlements and British colonialism.WEB,weblink Researching South African Law, 23 June 2008, Pamela Snyman, Amanda Barratt, yes, 2 October 2002, w/ Library Resource Xchange, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 June 2008, The first European based law in South Africa was brought by the Dutch East India Company and is called Roman-Dutch law. It was imported before the codification of European law into the Napoleonic Code and is comparable in many ways to Scots law. This was followed in the 19th century by English law, both common and statutory. After unification in 1910, South Africa had its own parliament which passed laws specific for South Africa, building on those previously passed for the individual member colonies.The judicial system consists of the magistrates' courts, which hear lesser criminal cases and smaller civil cases; the High Court, which has divisions that serve as the courts of general jurisdiction for specific areas; the Supreme Court of Appeal, and the Constitutional Court, which is the highest court.File:Dying For Justice (8036294736).jpg|thumb|Soweto Pride 2012 participants protest against violence against lesbians. The country has strong human rights laws but some groups are still discriminated against. It is the first country in Africa to recognise same sex marriagesame sex marriageFrom April 2017 to March 2018, on average 57 murders were committed each day in South Africa.WEB,weblink Here’s how South Africa’s crime rate compares to actual warzones, Writer, Staff,, en-US, 2019-07-19, In the year ended March 2017, there were 20,336 murders and the murder rate was 35.9 per 100,000 – over five times higher than the global average of 6.2 per 100,000.WEB,weblink Global Study on Homicide - Statistics and Data,, 2019-07-19, Middle-class South Africans seek security in gated communities.WEB, K Landman, Gated communities in South Africa: Comparison of four case studies in Gauteng,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 21 October 2012, Wits University, 5 March 2013, The private security industry in South Africa is the largest in the world,WEB, South Africa has world's largest private security industry; needs regulation – Mthethwa,weblink DefenceWeb, 3 May 2013, with nearly 9,000 registered companies and 400,000 registered active private security guards, more than the South African police and army combined.NEWS, Bigger than the army: South Africa's private security forces,weblink CNN, 3 May 2013, 8 February 2013, Many emigrants from South Africa also state that crime was a major factor in their decision to leave.WEB, Afrikaner Farmers Migrating to Georgia,weblink VOA, 3 May 2013, 14 September 2011, Crime against the farming community has continued to be a major problem.NEWS, Adriana Stuijt,weblink Two more S. African farmers killed: death toll now at 3,037, Digital Journal, 17 February 2009, 24 May 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 20 May 2011, In an attempt to reduce crime rate, the police arrested over 500 undocumented foreigners in a raid on August, 2019.WEB,weblink Police in South Africa arrest 560 'undocumented' foreigners in raid, CNN, Bukola Adebayo, CNN, 2019-08-14, South Africa has a high rape rate, with 43,195 rapes reported in 2014/15, and an unknown number of sexual assaults going unreported.WEB,weblink GUIDE: Rape statistics in South Africa – Africa Check, A 2009 survey of 1,738 men in KwaZulu-Natal and the Eastern Cape by the Medical Research Council found one in four men admitted to raping someoneNEWS,weblink BBC News, South African rape survey shock, 18 June 2009, 23 May 2010, and another survey of 4,000 women in Johannesburg by CIET Africa found one in three said they had been raped in the past year.NEWS,weblink South Africa's rape shock, BBC News, 19 January 1999, 30 May 2010, Rapes are also perpetrated by children (some as young as ten).WEB,weblink Child rape in South Africa, Medscape, 31 December 2010, The incidence of child and infant rape is among the highest in the world, largely as a result of the virgin cleansing myth, and a number of high-profile cases (sometimes as young as eight months) have outraged the nation.NEWS, Perry, Alex,weblink Oprah scandal rocks South Africa, Time, 5 November 2007, 15 May 2011, Between 1994 and 2018, there were more than 500 xenophobic attacks against foreigners in South Africa.NEWS, After a Week of Xenophobic Attacks, South Africa Grapples for Answers,weblink VOA News, 6 September 2019, The 2019 Johannesburg riots were similar in nature and origin to the 2008 xenophobic riots that also occurred in Johannesburg.WEB,weblink Gauteng xenophobia attacks akin to 2008 crisis - Institute of Race Relations, 5 September 2019, News24, en,

Foreign relations

File:BRICS leaders family photo, 2018 (2).jpg|thumb|Leaders of the BRICS nations at the 10th BRICS summit10th BRICS summitAs the Union of South Africa, the country was a founding member of the UN. The then Prime Minister Jan Smuts wrote the preamble to the UN Charter.JOURNAL,weblink Virginia Gildersleeve: Opening the Gates (Living Legacies), Rosalind Rosenberg, Summer 2001, Columbia Magazine, BOOK, Schlesinger, Stephen E., Act of Creation: The Founding of the United Nations: A Story of Superpowers, Secret Agents, Wartime Allies and Enemies, and Their Quest for a Peaceful World, Westview, Perseus Books Group, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2004, 236–7, 978-0-8133-3275-8, South Africa is one of the founding members of the African Union (AU), and has the second largest economy of all the members. It is also a founding member of the AU's New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD).South Africa has played a key role as a mediator in African conflicts over the last decade, such as in Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the Comoros, and Zimbabwe. After apartheid ended, South Africa was readmitted to the Commonwealth of Nations. The country is a member of the Group of 77 and chaired the organisation in 2006. South Africa is also a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, Southern African Customs Union (SACU), Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), World Trade Organization (WTO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), G20, G8+5, and the Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa.Former South African President Jacob Zuma and former Chinese President Hu Jintao upgraded bilateral ties between the two countries on 24 August 2010, when they signed the Beijing Agreement, which elevated South Africa's earlier "strategic partnership" with China to the higher level of "comprehensive strategic partnership" in both economic and political affairs, including the strengthening of exchanges between their respective ruling parties and legislatures.WEB,weblink China, South Africa upgrade relations to "comprehensive strategic partnership",, 25 August 2010, 26 June 2013, WEB,weblink New era as South Africa joins BRICS,, 11 April 2011, 26 June 2013, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink 18 April 2011, dmy-all, In April 2011, South Africa formally joined the Brazil-Russia-India-China (BRICS) grouping of countries, identified by Zuma as the country's largest trading partners, and also the largest trading partners with Africa as a whole. Zuma asserted that BRICS member countries would also work with each other through the UN, the Group of Twenty (G20) and the India, Brazil South Africa (IBSA) forum.WEB,weblink SA brings 'unique attributes' to BRICS,, 14 April 2011, 26 June 2013, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink 9 July 2011, dmy-all,


File:Roodewal Weapons Range - (8724689015).jpg|thumb|SANDF soldiers]]The South African National Defence Force (SANDF) was created in 1994,WEB,weblink Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Act 200 of 1993 (Section 224), 23 June 2008, 1993, South African Government, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 June 2008, WEB,weblink Rationalisation in the SANDF: The Next Challenge, 23 June 2008, 1997, Col L B van Stade, Senior Staff Officer Rationalisation, SANDF, Institute for Security Studies, dead,weblink 16 March 2016, as an all-volunteer military composed of the former South African Defence Force, the forces of the African nationalist groups (Umkhonto we Sizwe and Azanian People's Liberation Army), and the former Bantustan defence forces. The SANDF is subdivided into four branches, the South African Army, the South African Air Force, the South African Navy, and the South African Military Health Service.WEB,weblink Defence Act 42 of 2002, 23 June 2008, 12 February 2003, South African Government, 18,weblink" title="">weblink 24 June 2008, dead, In recent years, the SANDF has become a major peacekeeping force in Africa,WEB,weblink Address by the Minister of Defence at a media breakfast at Defence Headquarters, Pretoria, 23 June 2008, Mosiuoa Lekota, 5 September 2005, Department of Defence, and has been involved in operations in Lesotho, the DRC, and Burundi, amongst others. It has also served in multinational UN peacekeeping forces such as the UN Force Intervention Brigade for example.South Africa is the only African country to have successfully developed nuclear weapons. It became the first country (followed by Ukraine) with nuclear capability to voluntarily renounce and dismantle its programme and in the process signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1991. South Africa undertook a nuclear weapons programme in the 1970sWEB,weblink Out of (South) Africa: Pretoria's Nuclear Weapons Experience, 23 June 2008, Lieutenant Colonel Roy E. Horton III (BS, Electrical Engineering; MS, Strategic Intelligence), October 1999, USAF Institute for National Security Studies, According to former state president FW de Klerk, the decision to build a "nuclear deterrent" was taken "as early as 1974 against a backdrop of a Soviet expansionist threat."BOOK, Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, Inc., Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists,weblink 26 June 2013, May 1993, Educational Foundation for Nuclear Science, Inc., 3–4, South Africa comes clean, 0096-3402, South Africa is alleged to have conducted a nuclear test over the Atlantic in 1979,WEB,weblink South Atlantic Nuclear Event (National Security Council, Memorandum), 23 June 2008, Christine Dodson, 22 October 1979, George Washington University under Freedom of Information Act Request, although this is officially denied. Former president, FW de Klerk, maintained that South Africa had "never conducted a clandestine nuclear test." Six nuclear devices were completed between 1980 and 1990, but all were dismantled before South Africa signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1991. In 2017, South Africa signed the UN treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons.WEB,weblink Chapter XXVI: Disarmament â€“ No. 9 Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons, United Nations Treaty Collection, 7 July 2017,

Administrative divisions

File:Map of South Africa with English labels.svg|thumb|right|upright=1.6|Provinces of South AfricaProvinces of South AfricaEach of the nine provinces is governed by a unicameral legislature, which is elected every five years by party-list proportional representation. The legislature elects a Premier as head of government, and the Premier appoints an Executive Council as a provincial cabinet. The powers of provincial governments are limited to topics listed in the Constitution; these topics include such fields as health, education, public housing and transport.The provinces are in turn divided into 52 districts: 8 metropolitan and 44 district municipalities. The district municipalities are further subdivided into 205 local municipalities. The metropolitan municipalities, which govern the largest urban agglomerations, perform the functions of both district and local municipalities.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align: right;"
Eastern Cape align="left"Bhisho >Port Elizabeth 168,966 6,996,976
Free State (South African province) >Bloemfontein align="left"| 2,834,714
Gauteng align="left"Johannesburg >Johannesburg 18,178 13,399,724
KwaZulu-Natal align="left"Pietermaritzburg >Durban 94,361 11,065,240
Limpopo align="left"Polokwane >Polokwane 125,754 5,799,090
Mpumalanga align="left"Mbombela >Mbombela 76,495 4,335,964
North West (South African province) >Mahikeng align="left"Klerksdorp >| 3,748,435
Northern Cape align="left"Kimberley, South Africa>Kimberley align="left"| 1,193,780
Western Cape align="left"Cape Town >Cape Town 129,462 6,279,730


File:Annual per capita personal income by race group in South Africa relative to white levels.svg|lang=en|upright=1.7|thumb|right|Annual per capita personal incomeper capita personal incomeFile:Johannesburg Stock Exchange.jpg|thumb|upright|The Johannesburg Stock Exchange (JSE) is the largest stock exchange on the AfricaAfricaSouth Africa has a mixed economy, the second largest in Africa after Nigeria. It also has a relatively high gross domestic product (GDP) per capita compared to other countries in sub-Saharan Africa (US$11,750 at purchasing power parity as of 2012). Despite this, South Africa is still burdened by a relatively high rate of poverty and unemployment, and is also ranked in the top ten countries in the world for income inequality,WEB,weblink Inequality in income or expenditure / Gini index, Human Development Report 2007/08,, 4 November 2010, 26 June 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 January 2013, WEB,weblink Distribution of family income – Gini index,, 26 June 2013, WEB,weblink South Africa has highest gap between rich and poor, Business Report, 28 September 2009, 7 November 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 October 2011, measured by the Gini coefficient.Unlike most of the world's poor countries, South Africa does not have a thriving informal economy. Only 15% of South African jobs are in the informal sector, compared with around half in Brazil and India and nearly three-quarters in Indonesia. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) attributes this difference to South Africa's widespread welfare system.NEWS, South Africa's economy: How it could do even better.,weblink The Economist, 17 October 2011, 22 July 2010, World Bank research shows that South Africa has one of the widest gaps between per capita GDP versus its Human Development Index (HDI) ranking, with only Botswana showing a larger gap.WEB, DEPWeb: Beyond Economic Growth,weblink The World Bank Group, 17 October 2011, After 1994, government policy brought down inflation, stabilised public finances, and some foreign capital was attracted, however growth was still subpar.WEB,weblink Economic Assessment of South Africa 2008: Achieving Accelerated and Shared Growth for South Africa, OECD, dead,weblink" title="">weblinkdocument63//0%2C3343%2Cen_2649_34577_40981951_1_1_1_1%2C00.html, 9 August 2009, From 2004 onward, economic growth picked up significantly; both employment and capital formation increased. During the presidency of Jacob Zuma, the government increased the role of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Some of the biggest SOEs are Eskom, the electric power monopoly, South African Airways (SAA), and Transnet, the railroad and ports monopoly. Some of these SOEs have not been profitable, such as SAA, which has required bailouts totaling R30 billion (${{To USD|30|ZAF}} billion) over 20 years."Commanding Plights." The Economist 29 August 2015: 37–38. Print.Principal international trading partners of South Africa—besides other African countries—include Germany, the United States, China, Japan, the United Kingdom and Spain.WEB,weblink South Africa, The World Factbook, CIA, The South African agricultural industry contributes around 10% of formal employment, relatively low compared to other parts of Africa, as well as providing work for casual labourers and contributing around 2.6% of GDP for the nation.BOOK, Unequal protection the state response to violent crime on South African farms, 2001, Human Rights Watch, 978-1-56432-263-0,weblink Due to the aridity of the land, only 13.5% can be used for crop production, and only 3% is considered high potential land.BOOK, Mohamed, Najma, Ben Cousins, At the Crossroads: Land and Agrarian Reform in South Africa Into the 21st Century, 2000, Programme for Land and Agrarian Studies (PLAAS), 978-1-86808-467-8, Greening Land and Agrarian Reform: A Case for Sustainable Agriculture, In August 2013, South Africa was ranked as the top African Country of the Future by fDi magazine based on the country's economic potential, labour environment, cost-effectiveness, infrastructure, business friendliness, and foreign direct investment strategy.WEB,weblink African Countries of the Future 2013/14,, 4 December 2013, The Financial Secrecy Index (FDI) ranks South Africa as the 50th safest tax haven in the world.


South Africa is a popular tourist destination, and a substantial amount of revenue comes from tourism.WEB,weblink SA Economic Research â€“ Tourism Update, 23 June 2008, October 2005, m/ Investec,weblink" title="">weblink 24 June 2008, dead,

Labour market

File:Graaff Fruit-Ceres packing.jpg|thumb|Workers packing pears for export in the Ceres Valley, Western Cape]]During 1995–2003, the number of formal jobs decreased and informal jobs increased; overall unemployment worsened.WEB,weblink Post-Apartheid South Africa: the First Ten Years â€“ Unemployment and the Labor Market, IMF, The government's Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) policies have drawn criticism from Neva Makgetla, lead economist for research and information at the Development Bank of Southern Africa, for focusing "almost exclusively on promoting individual ownership by black people [which] does little to address broader economic disparities, though the rich may become more diverse."WEB,weblink Inequality on scale found in SA bites like acid, Neva Makgetla, Business Day, South Africa, 31 March 2010, 26 June 2013, Official affirmative action policies have seen a rise in black economic wealth and an emerging black middle class.WEB,weblink Black middle class boosts car sales in South Africa â€“ Business â€“ Mail & Guardian Online, Mail & Guardian, 15 January 2006, 30 October 2011, Other problems include state ownership and interference, which impose high barriers to entry in many areas.WEB,weblink Economic Assessment of South Africa 2008, OECD, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 April 2009, Restrictive labour regulations have contributed to the unemployment malaise.Along with many African nations, South Africa has been experiencing a "brain drain" in the past 20 years.JOURNAL,weblink World Bank, IMF study 2004, 10.1093/jae/ejh042, 3 December 2004, 30 May 2010, Collier, P., Journal of African Economies, 13, ii15–ii54,, and is almost certainly detrimental for the wellbeing of those reliant on the healthcare infrastructure.WEB,weblink Health Personnel in Southern Africa: Confronting maldistribution and brain drain, 30 May 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 April 2011, dmy-all, The skills drain in South Africa tends to demonstrate racial contours given the skills distribution legacy of South Africa and has thus resulted in large white South African communities abroad.WEB, Haroon Bhorat,weblink Skilled Labour Migration from Developing Countries: Study on South and Southern Africa, International Labour Office, 2002, 26 June 2013, etal, However, the statistics which purport to show a brain drain are disputed and also do not account for repatriation and expiry of foreign work contracts. According to several surveys,NEWS, South Africa's brain-drain generation returning home,weblink CNN World, 4 June 2011, 22 April 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 16 December 2010, WEB, South Africa's brain drain reversing,weblink Times Live, 4 June 2011, there has been a reverse in brain drain following the global financial crisis of 2008–2009 and expiration of foreign work contracts. In the first quarter of 2011, confidence levels for graduate professionals were recorded at a level of 84% in a Professional Provident Society (PPS) survey.WEB, Graduates confident about SA,weblink Times Live, 4 June 2011, Illegal immigrants are involved in informal trading.JOURNAL,weblink Strategic Perspectives on Illegal Immigration into South Africa, African Security Review, 5, 4, 1996, Solomon, Hussein, 10.1080/10246029.1996.9627681, 3, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 October 2005, Many immigrants to South Africa continue to live in poor conditions, and the immigration policy has become increasingly restrictive since the year 1994.WEB,weblink The Brain Gain: Skilled Migrants and Immigration Policy in Post-Apartheid South Africa, Mattes, Robert, Crush, Jonathan, Richmond, Wayne, yes, Southern African Migration Project, Queens College, Canada, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 November 2005, The Human Rights Watch reported on 26 August 2019 about foreign national trucks drivers being subjected to deadly attacks carried out by South African truck drivers. The organization urged the South African government to take immediate actions ensuring the safety of the foreign national truck drivers putting up with violence, harassment, intimidation, stoning, bombing, and shooting, by local truck drivers in the country._WEB,weblink South Africa: Deadly Attacks on Foreign Truck Drivers, 26 August 2019, Human Rights Watch,

Science and technology

File:Mark Shuttleworth NASA.jpg|thumb|Mark ShuttleworthMark ShuttleworthSeveral important scientific and technological developments have originated in South Africa. The first human-to-human heart transplant was performed by cardiac surgeon Christiaan Barnard at Groote Schuur Hospital in December 1967, Max Theiler developed a vaccine against yellow fever, Allan McLeod Cormack pioneered X-ray computed tomography (CT scan), and Aaron Klug developed crystallographic electron microscopy techniques. With the exception of that of Barnard, all of these advancements were recognised with Nobel Prizes. Sydney Brenner won most recently, in 2002, for his pioneering work in molecular biology.Mark Shuttleworth founded an early Internet security company Thawte, that was subsequently bought out by world-leader VeriSign. Despite government efforts to encourage entrepreneurship in biotechnology, information technology and other high technology fields, no other notable groundbreaking companies have been founded in South Africa. It is the expressed objective of the government to transition the economy to be more reliant on high technology, based on the realisation that South Africa cannot compete with Far Eastern economies in manufacturing, nor can the republic rely on its mineral wealth in perpetuity.South Africa has cultivated a burgeoning astronomy community. It hosts the Southern African Large Telescope, the largest optical telescope in the Southern Hemisphere. South Africa is currently building the Karoo Array Telescope as a pathfinder for the €1.5 billion Square Kilometre Array project.WEB,weblink SKA announces Founding Board and selects Jodrell Bank Observatory to host Project Office, SKA 2011, 2 April 2011, 14 April 2011, On 25 May 2012, it was announced that hosting of the Square Kilometer Array Telescope will be split over both the South African and the Australia and New Zealand sites.NEWS,weblink Africa and Australasia to share Square Kilometre Array, BBC, 25 May 2012,

Water supply and sanitation

Two distinctive features of the South African water sector are the policy of free basic water and the existence of water boards, which are bulk water supply agencies that operate pipelines and sell water from reservoirs to municipalities. These features have led to significant problems concerning the financial sustainability of service providers, leading to a lack of attention to maintenance. Following the end of apartheid, the country had made improvements in the levels of access to water as those with access increased from 66% to 79% from 1990 to 2010.WHO/UNICEF:Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation:Data table South Africa {{webarchive|url= |date= 9 February 2014 }}, 2010. Retrieved 3 November 2012 Sanitation access increased from 71% to 79% during the same period. However, water supply and sanitation in South Africa has come under increasing pressure in recent years despite a commitment made by the government to improve service standards and provide investment subsidies to the water industry.WEB,weblink Professor Says Cape Town Crisis Should Serve as a 'Wakeup Call to All Major U.S. Cities',, 2018-06-14, The eastern parts of South Africa suffer from periodic droughts linked to the El Niño weather phenomenon.WEB,weblink Why Cape Town's drought was so hard to forecast, Bruce, Hewitson, In early 2018, Cape Town, which has different weather patterns to the rest of the country, faced a water crisis as the city's water supply was predicted to run dry before the end of June. Water-saving measures were in effect that required each citizen to use less than {{Convert|50|l|gal}} a day."The 11 cities most likely to run out of drinking water – like Cape Town" 11 February 2018. BBC News..


(File:South Africa population density map.svg|thumb|Map of population density in South Africa{{Clear}}{{Columns|col1 ={{legend|#ffffcc|<1 /km2}}{{legend|#ffeda0|1–3 /km2}}{{legend|#fed976|3–10 /km2}}{{legend|#feb24c|10–30 /km2}}{{legend|#fd8d3c|30–100 /km2}}|col2={{legend|#fc4e2a|100–300 /km2}}{{legend|#e31a1c|300–1000 /km2}}{{legend|#bc0026|1000–3000 /km2}}{{legend|#800026|>3000 /km2}}}}){|class="wikitable" style="float: right; margin-left: 10px"! colspan="4" style="text-align:center; background:#cfb;"|Population{{UN_Population|ref}}! style="background:#cfb;"|Year! style="background:#cfb;"|Million1950 style="text-align:right;"|13.62000 style="text-align:right;"|45.7{{UN_Population{{#expr:{{formatnum:{{UN_PopulationR}}/1e6 round 1}}South Africa is a nation of about 55 million (2016) people of diverse origins, cultures, languages, and religions. The last census was held in 2011, with a more recent intercensal national survey conducted in 2016.WEB,weblink Community Survey 2016, Statistics South Africa, 2 May 2018, South Africa is home to an estimated five million illegal immigrants, including some three million Zimbabweans.WEB,weblink Anti-immigrant violence spreads in South Africa, with attacks reported in Cape Town â€“ The New York Times, International Herald Tribune, 23 May 2008, 30 October 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 21 February 2009, WEB,weblink Escape From Mugabe: Zimbabwe's Exodus, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 24 January 2016, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 14 February 2009, More illegals set to flood SA, Fin24, 30 October 2011, dead, A series of anti-immigrant riots occurred in South Africa beginning on 11 May 2008.NEWS,weblink South African mob kills migrants, BBC, 19 May 2008, 12 May 2008, NEWS, Barry Bearak, Immigrants Fleeing Fury of South African Mobs, 23 May 2008, The New York Times,weblink 5 August 2008, Statistics South Africa asks people to describe themselves in the census in terms of five racial population groups.NEWS, Lehohla, Pali, Debate over race and censuses not peculiar to SA,weblink 5 May 2005, Business Report, 25 August 2013, Others pointed out that the repeal of the Population Registration Act in 1991 removed any legal basis for specifying 'race'. The Identification Act of 1997 makes no mention of race. On the other hand, the Employment Equity Act speaks of 'designated groups' being 'black people, women and people with disabilities'. The Act defines 'black' as referring to 'Africans, coloureds and Indians'. Apartheid and the racial identification which underpinned it explicitly linked race with differential access to resources and power. If the post-apartheid order was committed to remedying this, race would have to be included in surveys and censuses, so that progress in eradicating the consequences of apartheid could be measured and monitored. This was the reasoning that led to a 'self-identifying' question about 'race' or 'population group' in both the 1996 and 2001 population censuses, and in Statistics SA's household survey programme., dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 August 2007, The 2011 census figures for these groups were: Black African at 79.2%, White at 8.9%, Coloured at 8.9%, Asian at 2.5%, and Other/Unspecified at 0.5%.{{rp|21}} The first census in South Africa in 1911 showed that whites made up 22% of the population; this had declined to 16% by 1980.BOOK, Study Commission on U.S. Policy toward Southern Africa (U.S.), South Africa: time running out: the report of the Study Commission on U.S. Policy Toward Southern Africa,weblink University of California Press, 1981, 42, 978-0-520-04547-7, South Africa hosts a sizeable refugee and asylum seeker population. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, this population numbered approximately 144,700 in 2007. Groups of refugees and asylum seekers numbering over 10,000 included people from Zimbabwe (48,400), the DRC (24,800), and Somalia (12,900). These populations mainly lived in Johannesburg, Pretoria, Durban, Cape Town, and Port Elizabeth.NEWS, World Refugee Survey 2008, U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, 19 June 2008,weblink dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 October 2014,


File:South Africa dominant language map.svg|right|thumb|Map showing the dominant South African languages by area{{legend|#80b1d3|Zulu (22.7%)}}{{legend|#fb8072|Xhosa (16.0%)}}{{legend|#8dd3c7|⁠Afrikaans (13.5%)}}{{legend|#ffffb3|English (9.6%)}}{{legend|#fdb462|Northern Sotho (9.1%)}}{{legend|#fccde5|Tswana (8.0%)}}{{legend|#b3de69|Southern Sotho (7.6%)}}{{legend|#ffed6f|Tsonga (4.5%)}}{{legend|#bc80bd|Swazi (2.5%)}}{{legend|#ccebc5|Venda (2.4%)}}{{legend|#bebada|Southern NdebeleSouthern NdebeleSouth Africa has 11 official languages:WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 13 November 2012, Constitution of South Africa, Chapter 1, Section 6,, 30 May 2010, dead, Zulu, Xhosa, Afrikaans, English, Northern Sotho, Tswana, Southern Sotho, Tsonga, Swazi, Venda, and Southern Ndebele (in order of first language speakers). In this regard it is fourth only to Bolivia, India, and Zimbabwe in number. While all the languages are formally equal, some languages are spoken more than others. According to the 2011 census, the three most spoken first languages are Zulu (22.7%), Xhosa (16.0%), and Afrikaans (13.5%).BOOK, Census 2011: Census in brief,weblink Statistics South Africa, Pretoria, 2012, 978-0621413885,weblink" title="">weblink 13 May 2015, live, 23–25, Despite the fact that English is recognised as the language of commerce and science, it is ranked fourth, and was listed as the first language of only 9.6% of South Africans in 2011; but it remains the de facto lingua franca of the nation.The country also recognises several unofficial languages, including Fanagalo, Khoe, Lobedu, Nama, Northern Ndebele, Phuthi, and South African Sign Language.WEB,weblink The languages of South Africa,, 4 February 1997, 7 November 2010, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2011, dmy-all, These unofficial languages may be used in certain official uses in limited areas where it has been determined that these languages are prevalent.Many of the unofficial languages of the San and Khoikhoi people contain regional dialects stretching northwards into Namibia and Botswana, and elsewhere. These people, who are a physically distinct population from other Africans, have their own cultural identity based on their hunter-gatherer societies. They have been marginalised to a great extent, and the remainder of their languages are in danger of becoming extinct.White South Africans may also speak European languages, including Italian, Portuguese (also spoken by black Angolans and Mozambicans), German, and Greek, while some Indian South Africans speak Indian languages, such as Gujarati, Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, and Urdu. French is spoken in South Africa by migrants from Francophone Africa.

Urban centres

{{Largest cities of South Africa}}


File:Wolmaransstad-NG Kerk-001.jpg|thumb|left|Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk in WolmaransstadWolmaransstad{{bar boxWEBSITE=WWW.GLOBALRELIGIOUSFUTURES.ORG, |titlebar=|left1=religion|right1=percent|float=right|bars={{bar percent|Protestant|#B57EDC|73.2}}{{bar percent|No religion|black|14.9}}{{bar percent|Catholic|darkblue|7.4}}{{bar percent|Muslim|green|1.7}}{{bar percent|Hindu|orange|1.1}}{{bar percent|Other faith|silver|1.7}}}}According to the 2001 census, Christians accounted for 79.8% of the population, with a majority of them being members of various Protestant denominations (broadly defined to include syncretic African initiated churches) and a minority of Roman Catholics and other Christians. Christian category includes Zion Christian (11.1%), Pentecostal (Charismatic) (8.2%), Roman Catholic (7.1%), Methodist (6.8%), Dutch Reformed (; 6.7%), and Anglican (3.8%). Members of remaining Christian churches accounted for another 36% of the population. Muslims accounted for 1.5% of the population, Hindus 1.2%, traditional African religion 0.3% and Judaism 0.2%. 15.1% had no religious affiliation, 0.6% were "other" and 1.4% were "unspecified."WEB,weblink South Africa â€“ Section I. Religious Demography, U.S. Department of State, 15 July 2006, BOOK, Wessel Bentley, Dion Angus Forster, Methodism in Southern Africa: A Celebration of Wesleyan Mission, 2008, AcadSA, 978-1-920212-29-2, 97–98, God's mission in our context, healing and transforming responses, African initiated churches formed the largest of the Christian groups. It was believed that many of the persons who claimed no affiliation with any organised religion adhered to traditional African religion. There are an estimated 200,000 indigenous traditional healers in South Africa, and up to 60% of South Africans consult these healers,BOOK, van Wyk, Ben-Erik and van Oudtshoorn, Gericke N, 1999, Medicinal Plants of South Africa, Pretoria, Briza Publications, 978-1-875093-37-3, 10, generally called sangomas or inyangas. These healers use a combination of ancestral spiritual beliefs and a belief in the spiritual and medicinal properties of local fauna and flora, commonly known as muti, to facilitate healing in clients. Many peoples have syncretic religious practices combining Christian and indigenous influences.WEB,weblink South Africa,, 15 September 2006, 30 October 2011, South African Muslims comprise mainly of those who are described as Coloureds and those who are described as Indians. They have been joined by black or white South African converts as well as others from other parts of Africa. South African Muslims claim that their faith is the fastest-growing religion of conversion in the country, with the number of black Muslims growing sixfold, from 12,000 in 1991 to 74,700 in 2004.WEB,weblink In South Africa, many blacks convert to Islam / The Christian Science Monitor, The Christian Science Monitor, 30 October 2011, WEB,weblink Muslims say their faith growing fast in Africa,, 7 November 2010, South Africa is also home to a substantial Jewish population, descended from European Jews who arrived as a minority among other European settlers. This population peaked in the 1970s at 120,000, though only around 67,000 remain today, the rest having emigrated, mostly to Israel. Even so, these numbers make the Jewish community in South Africa the twelfth largest in the world.{{Citation | editor-last = Rebecca Weiner | editor-first = Rebecca Weiner |year=2010 | publisher = Jewish Virtual Library | title = South African Jewish History and Information | format = PDF | url= | accessdate = 13 August 2010 }}


File:Mitchells-plain-schoolkids.jpg|thumb|Schoolchildren in Mitchell's PlainMitchell's PlainThe adult literacy rate in 2007 was 88.7%.WEB, National adult literacy rates (15+), youth literacy rates (15–24) and elderly literacy rates (65+),weblink UNESCO Institute for Statistics, South Africa has a three-tier system of education starting with primary school, followed by high school and tertiary education in the form of (academic) universities and universities of technology. Learners have twelve years of formal schooling, from grade 1 to 12. Grade R, or grade 0, is a pre-primary foundation year.WEB,weblink A parent's guide to schooling, 31 August 2010, Primary schools span the first seven years of schooling.WEB,weblink Education in South Africa,, 20 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 June 2010, High school education spans a further five years. The National Senior Certificate (NSC) examination takes place at the end of grade 12 and is necessary for tertiary studies at a South African university.Public universities in South Africa are divided into three types: traditional universities, which offer theoretically oriented university degrees; universities of technology (formerly called "technikons"), which offer vocational oriented diplomas and degrees; and comprehensive universities, which offer both types of qualification. There are 23 public universities in South Africa: 11 traditional universities, 6 universities of technology and 6 comprehensive universities.Under apartheid, schools for black people were subject to discrimination through inadequate funding and a separate syllabus called Bantu Education which was only designed to give them sufficient skills to work as labourers.WEB,weblink Bantu Education, Overcoming Apartheid, 20 June 2010, In 2004, South Africa started reforming its tertiary education system, merging and incorporating small universities into larger institutions, and renaming all tertiary education institutions "university". By 2015, 1.4 million students in higher education have benefited from a financial aid scheme which was promulgated in 1999.NEWS, Cele, S'thembile; Masondo, Sipho, Shocking cost of SA’s universities,weblink 19 January 2015, City Press,, 18 January 2015,


File:Life expectancy in select Southern African countries 1960-2012.svg|thumb|upright=1.6|Life expectancy in select Southern African countries, 1960–2012. HIV/AIDSHIV/AIDSAccording to the South African Institute of Race Relations, the life expectancy in 2009 was 71 years for a white South African and 48 years for a black South African.Peoples Budget Coalition Comments on the 2011/12 Budget {{webarchive |url= |date=16 May 2012 }} The healthcare spending in the country is about 9% of GDP.WEB, 'Clinic-in-a-Box' seeks to improve South African healthcare,weblink SmartPlanet, 25 August 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 July 2013, About 84% of the population depends on the public healthcare system, which is beset with chronic human resource shortages and limited resources.WEB, South Africa,weblink ICAP at Columbia University, 25 August 2013, About 20% of the population uses private healthcare. Only 16% of the population is covered by medical aid schemes.WEB, What does the demand for healthcare look like in SA?,weblink Mediclinic Southern Africa, 25 August 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 October 2013, The rest pay for private care "out of pocket" or through in-hospital-only plans.WEB, Motsoaledi to reform private health care,weblink Financial Mail, 25 August 2013, The three dominant hospital groups, Mediclinic, Life Healthcare and Netcare, together control 75% of the private hospital market.South Africa is home to the third largest hospital in the world, the Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital.WEB,weblink The Biggest Hospitals in the World, 2 January 2013,


According to the 2015 UNAIDS Report, South Africa has an estimated seven million people living with HIV â€“ more than any other country in the world.WEB,weblink HIV and AIDS estimates (2015), A 2008 study revealed that HIV/AIDS infection in South Africa is distinctly divided along racial lines: 13.6% of blacks are HIV-positive, whereas only 0.3% of whites have the disease.WEB, South Africa HIV & AIDS Statistics,weblink, 6 May 2013, Most deaths are experienced by economically active individuals, resulting in many AIDS orphans who in many cases depend on the state for care and financial support.WEB,weblink AIDS orphans, Avert, 8 October 2006, It is estimated that there are 1,200,000 orphans in South Africa.The link between HIV, a virus spread primarily by sexual contact, and AIDS was long denied by former president Thabo Mbeki and his health minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, who insisted that the many deaths in the country are due to malnutrition, and hence poverty, and not HIV.WEB,weblink Sack SA Health Minister â€“ world's AIDS experts, afrol News, 8 October 2006, In 2007, in response to international pressure, the government made efforts to fight AIDS.WEB,weblink Situation Analysis. HIV & AIDS and STI Strategic Plan 2007–2011,, 26 June 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 May 2013, After the 2009 general elections, former president Jacob Zuma appointed Dr Aaron Motsoaledi as the new health minister and committed his government to increasing funding for and widening the scope of HIV treatment,WEB,weblink Zuma announces AIDS reforms, UNPAN, 9 March 2010, and by 2015, South Africa had made significant progress, with the widespread availability of antiretroviral drugs resulted in an increase in life expectancy from 52.1 years to 62.5 years.WEB,weblink South Africa has excelled in treating HIV – prevention remains a disaster, Saiqa, Mullick,


The South African black majority still has a substantial number of rural inhabitants who lead largely impoverished lives. It is among these people that cultural traditions survive most strongly; as blacks have become increasingly urbanised and Westernised, aspects of traditional culture have declined. Members of the middle class, who are predominantly white but whose ranks include growing numbers of black, coloured and Indian people,NEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 22 August 2007, Black middle class explodes, 22 May 2007, FIN24, dead, have lifestyles similar in many respects to that of people found in Western Europe, North America and Australasia.


File:San Painting, Ukalamba Drakensberge 1.JPG|thumb|Rock painting of an eland, DrakensbergDrakensbergSouth African art includes the oldest art objects in the world, which were discovered in a South African cave, and dated from 75,000 years ago.NEWS,weblink World's Oldest Jewellery Found in Cave,, 16 April 2011, London, Tim, Radford, 16 April 2004, The scattered tribes of Khoisan peoples moving into South Africa from around 10,000 BC had their own fluent art styles seen today in a multitude of cave paintings. They were superseded by Bantu/Nguni peoples with their own vocabularies of art forms. New forms of art evolved in the mines and townships: a dynamic art using everything from plastic strips to bicycle spokes. The Dutch-influenced folk art of the Afrikaner trekboers and the urban white artists, earnestly following changing European traditions from the 1850s onwards, also contributed to this eclectic mix which continues to evolve today.File:Olive Schreiner.jpg|thumb|upright|Olive SchreinerOlive SchreinerSouth African literature emerged from a unique social and political history. One of the first well known novels written by a black author in an African language was Solomon Thekiso Plaatje's Mhudi, written in 1930. During the 1950s, Drum magazine became a hotbed of political satire, fiction, and essays, giving a voice to urban black culture.Notable white South African authors include Alan Paton, who published the novel Cry, the Beloved Country in 1948. Nadine Gordimer became the first South African to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, in 1991. JM Coetzee won the Nobel Prize for Literature, in 2003. When awarding the prize, the Swedish Academy stated that Coetzee "in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider."NEWS,weblink The Nobel Prize in Literature: John Maxwell Coetzee, 2 October 2003, Swedish Academy, 2 August 2009, The plays of Athol Fugard have been regularly premiered in fringe theatres in South Africa, London (Royal Court Theatre) and New York. Olive Schreiner's The Story of an African Farm (1883) was a revelation in Victorian literature: it is heralded by many as introducing feminism into the novel form.Breyten Breytenbach was jailed for his involvement with the guerrilla movement against apartheid. André Brink was the first Afrikaner writer to be banned by the government after he released the novel A Dry White Season.

Popular culture

The South African media sector is large, and South Africa is one of Africa's major media centres. While South Africa's many broadcasters and publications reflect the diversity of the population as a whole, the most commonly used language is English. However, all ten other official languages are represented to some extent or another.There is great diversity in South African music. Black musicians have developed a unique style called Kwaito, that is said to have taken over radio, television, and magazines.NEWS,weblink South African music after Apartheid: kwaito, the "party politic," and the appropriation of gold as a sign of success, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 13 June 2013, Of note is Brenda Fassie, who launched to fame with her song "Weekend Special", which was sung in English. More famous traditional musicians include Ladysmith Black Mambazo, while the Soweto String Quartet performs classic music with an African flavour. South Africa has produced world-famous jazz musicians, notably Hugh Masekela, Jonas Gwangwa, Abdullah Ibrahim, Miriam Makeba, Jonathan Butler, Chris McGregor, and Sathima Bea Benjamin. Afrikaans music covers multiple genres, such as the contemporary Steve Hofmeyr, the punk rock band Fokofpolisiekar and the singer-songwriter Jeremy Loops. South African popular musicians that have found international success include Johnny Clegg, as well as Seether.Although few South African film productions are known outside South Africa itself, many foreign films have been produced about South Africa. Arguably, the most high-profile film portraying South Africa in recent years was District 9. Other notable exceptions are the film Tsotsi, which won the Academy Award for Foreign Language Film at the 78th Academy Awards in 2006, as well as U-Carmen e-Khayelitsha, which won the Golden Bear at the 2005 Berlin International Film Festival. In 2015, the Oliver Hermanus film The Endless River became the first South African film selected for the Venice Film Festival.


missing image!
- Quarter Mutton Bunny Chow.jpg -
An example of bunny chow served in Durban, originated in the Indian South African communityBOOK, From Curries to Kebabs: Recipes from the Indian Spice Trail, 184,weblink Jaffrey, Madhur, 2003, 28 September 2015, 978-0609607046,
South African cuisine is diverse; foods from many cultures are enjoyed by all and especially marketed to tourists who wish to sample the large variety.South African cuisine is heavily meat-based and has spawned the distinctively South African social gathering known as the braai, a variation of the barbecue. South Africa has also developed into a major wine producer, with some of the best vineyards lying in valleys around Stellenbosch, Franschhoek, Paarl and Barrydale.WEB,weblink South African Wine Guide: Stellenbosch, Constantia, Walker Bay and more,, 30 October 2011,


South Africa's most popular sports are association football, rugby union and cricket.WEB,weblink Sport in South Africa,, 28 June 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 June 2010, dmy-all,
missing image!
- KAGISO RABADA (15520328880).jpg -
alt=Kagiso Rabada, South African cricketer|Kagiso Rabada, South African cricketer
Other sports with significant support are swimming, athletics, golf, boxing, tennis, ringball, and netball. Although football (soccer) commands the greatest following among the youth, other sports like basketball, surfing and skateboarding are increasingly popular.Footballers who have played for major foreign clubs include Steven Pienaar, Lucas Radebe and Philemon Masinga, Benni McCarthy, Aaron Mokoena, and Delron Buckley. South Africa hosted the 2010 FIFA World Cup, and FIFA president Sepp Blatter awarded South Africa a grade 9 out of 10 for successfully hosting the event.WEB, Cooper, Billy, South Africa gets 9/10 for World Cup,weblink Mail & Guardian, 12 July 2010, 9 September 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 July 2010, File:Springbok parade.jpg|thumb|right|The Springboks in a bus parade after winning the 2007 Rugby World Cup2007 Rugby World CupFamous boxing personalities include Baby Jake Jacob Matlala, Vuyani Bungu, Welcome Ncita, Dingaan Thobela, Gerrie Coetzee and Brian Mitchell. Durban surfer Jordy Smith won the 2010 Billabong J-Bay Open making him the highest ranked surfer in the world. South Africa produced Formula One motor racing's 1979 world champion Jody Scheckter. Famous current cricket players include Kagiso Rabada, AB de Villiers, Hashim Amla, Dale Steyn, Vernon Philander, and Faf du Plessis; most also participate in the Indian Premier League.South Africa has also produced numerous world class rugby players, including Francois Pienaar, Joost van der Westhuizen, Danie Craven, Frik du Preez, Naas Botha, and Bryan Habana. South Africa hosted and won the 1995 Rugby World Cup, and won the 2007 Rugby World Cup in France. It followed the 1995 Rugby World Cup by hosting the 1996 African Cup of Nations, with the national team, the Springboks, going on to win the tournament. It also hosted the 2003 Cricket World Cup, the 2007 World Twenty20 Championship. South Africa's national cricket team, the Proteas, has also won the inaugural edition of the 1998 ICC KnockOut Trophy by defeating West Indies in the final. South Africa's national blind cricket team also went on to win the inaugural edition of the Blind Cricket World Cup in 1998.In 2004, the swimming team of Roland Schoeman, Lyndon Ferns, Darian Townsend and Ryk Neethling won the gold medal at the Olympic Games in Athens, simultaneously breaking the world record in the 4×100 freestyle relay. Penny Heyns won Olympic Gold in the 1996 Atlanta Olympic Games. In 2012, Oscar Pistorius became the first double amputee sprinter to compete at the Olympic Games in London. In golf, Gary Player is generally regarded as one of the greatest golfers of all time, having won the Career Grand Slam, one of five golfers to have done so. Other South African golfers to have won major tournaments include Bobby Locke, Ernie Els, Retief Goosen, Tim Clark, Trevor Immelman, Louis Oosthuizen and Charl Schwartzel.

See also

{{Wikipedia books}} {{clear}}





Further reading

  • A History of South Africa, Third Edition. Leonard Thompson. Yale University Press. 2001. 384 pages. {{ISBN|0-300-08776-4}}.
  • Economic Analysis and Policy Formulation for Post-Apartheid South Africa: Mission Report, Aug. 1991. International Development Research Centre. IDRC Canada, 1991. vi, 46 p. Without ISBN
  • Emerging Johannesburg: Perspectives on the Postapartheid City. Richard Tomlinson, et al. 2003. 336 pages. {{ISBN|0-415-93559-8}}.
  • Making of Modern South Africa: Conquest, Segregation and Apartheid. Nigel Worden. 2000. 194 pages. {{ISBN|0-631-21661-8}}.
  • South Africa: A Narrative History. Frank Welsh. Kodansha America. 1999. 606 pages. {{ISBN|1-56836-258-7}}.
  • South Africa in Contemporary Times. Godfrey Mwakikagile. New Africa Press. 2008. 260 pages. {{ISBN|978-0-9802587-3-8}}.
  • The Atlas of Changing South Africa. A. J. Christopher. 2000. 216 pages. {{ISBN|0-415-21178-6}}.
  • The Politics of the New South Africa. Heather Deegan. 2000. 256 pages. {{ISBN|0-582-38227-0}}.
  • Twentieth-Century South Africa. William Beinart Oxford University Press 2001, 414 pages, {{ISBN|0-19-289318-1}}

External links

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