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Ghana
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{{about|the modern country of Ghana|the unrelated Ghana Empire ({{circa}} 700–1240) further northwest of modern Ghana|Ghana Empire|other uses|}}{{EngvarB|date=August 2014}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2018}}{{Coord|7|49|N|1|03|W|display=title}}







factoids
>noicon|center)}}|image_map = Ghana (orthographic projection).svg|capital = Accra|largest_city = capital5N12type:city}}English language>EnglishENGLISH IS THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF GHANA AND IS UNIVERSALLY USED IN SCHOOLS IN ADDITION TO NINE OTHER LOCAL LANGUAGES. THE MOST WIDELY SPOKEN LOCAL LANGUAGES ARE, GA, DAGOMBA, AKAN AND EWE.>URL=HTTP://WWW.GHANAEMBASSY.ORG/INDEX.PHP?PAGE=LANGUAGE-AND-RELIGIONPUBLISHER=GHANA EMBASSY, 8 January 2017, Asante dialect>Asante Twi, Akuapem dialect, Abron dialect>Bono, Dagaare, Dagomba language, Adangme language>Dangme, Ewe language, Ga language>Ga, Gonja language, Kasem language>Kasem, Fante dialect, Nzema language>Nzema, Wasa language, Talensi language>Talensi, Frafra language, Hausa language>Hausa, Ghanaian Sign Language}}|languages_type = National languages|ethnic_groups =
{{unbulleted list
| {{nowrap|47.5% Akans (11.5 mln)}}
| 16.6% Dagbani{{}}Mole (4 mln)
| 13.9% Ewe (2.9 mln)
| 7.4% Ga-Adangbe (1.8 mln)
| 5.7% Gurma (0.7 mln)
| 5.0% Fulani (0.5 mln)
| 3.7% Guan{{}}Gonja (0.3 mln)
| 2.5% Gurunsi (0.1 mln)
| 1.1% Bissa{{}}Mande (0.1 mln)
| 1.6% Other (0.1 mln)
}}
WORK=GOVERNMENT OF GHANAACCESSDATE=1 JUNE 2013, HTTP://WWW.NATIONMASTER.COM/COUNTRY-INFO/STATS/PEOPLE/ETHNIC-GROUPS>TITLE=PEOPLE > ETHNIC GROUPS: COUNTRIES COMPAREDACCESSDATE=22 JULY 2014, |demonym = Ghanaian|membership =|membership_type =Unitary state Presidential system>presidentialconstitutional republic}}President of Ghana>President|leader_name1 = Nana Akufo-AddoVice President of the Republic of Ghana>Vice-President|leader_name2 = Mahamudu Bawumia|leader_title3 =|leader_name3 =Parliament of Ghana>Parliamentfrom the United Kingdom}}Gold Coast legislative election, 1956>Declared|established_date1 = 6 March 1957|established_event2 = Republic|established_date2 = 1 July 1960Constitution of Ghana>Current constitution|established_date3 = 28 April 1992|area_km2 = 239,567|area_rank = 80th|area_sq_mi = 92,099 4.61 (11,000 km{{smallsup2}})}}URL=HTTP://WWW.STATSGHANA.GOV.GH/POP_STATS.HTML, 2 May 2018, ARCHIVEDATE=15 JUNE 2011 VERSION=4 FEBRUARY 2011 YEAR=2010 AUTHOR=ANTOINETTE I. MINTAH DF=, |population_estimate_year = 2016|population_estimate_rank = 45th|population_census_year = 2010|population_density_km2 = 101.5|population_density_sq_mi = 258.8 |population_density_rank = 103rdPUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, |GDP_PPP_year = 2018|GDP_PPP_rank = 70th|GDP_PPP_per_capita = $4,982|GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 126th|GDP_nominal = $49.226 billion|GDP_nominal_year = 2018|GDP_nominal_rank = 69th|GDP_nominal_per_capita = $1,697|GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 126th|Gini = 42.8|Gini_year = 2006|Gini_change = PUBLISHER=WORLD BANK, 15 December 2014, |Gini_rank =|HDI = 0.579|HDI_year = 2015|HDI_change = increaseYEAR=2016PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, |HDI_rank = 139th|currency = Ghana cedi (GH₵)|currency_code = GHS|time_zone = GMT|utc_offset = +0Right- and left-hand traffic#Ghana>rightTelephone numbers in Ghana>+233|cctld = .gh|area_magnitude = 1 E11|country_code = GH|official_website = www.ghana.gov.gh/}}Ghana ({{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Ghana.ogg|ˈ|É¡|ɑː|n|É™}}), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Spanning a land mass of {{convert|238,535|km2|abbr=on}}, Ghana is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east and the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in the south. Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language.Jackson, John G. (2001) Introduction to African Civilizations, Citadel Press, p. 201, {{ISBN|0-8065-2189-9}}.The first permanent state in the territory of present-day Ghana dates back to the 11th century. Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful was the Kingdom of Ashanti.WEB, Asante Kingdom,weblink Afrika-Studiecentrum, Leiden, 8 June 2014, Beginning in the 15th century, numerous European powers contested the area for trading rights, with the British ultimately establishing control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders were established by the 1900s as the British Gold Coast. It became independent of the United Kingdom on 6 March 1957.VIDEO, 1957, Video: A New Nation: Gold Coast becomes Ghana In Ceremony, 1957/03/07 (1957),weblink Universal Newsreel, 20 February 2012, WEB,weblink First For Sub-Saharan Africa, BBC, 29 February 2012, WEB,weblink Exploring Africa – Decolonization, exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu, 29 February 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130602212136weblink">weblink 2 June 2013, Ghana's population of approximately 28 million spans a variety of ethnic, linguistic and religious groups.WEB,weblink Ghana Population (2018) - Worldometers, www.worldometers.info, en, 6 March 2018, Five percent of the population practices traditional faiths, 67.2% adhere to Christianity and 23.6% are Muslim. Its diverse geography and ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical rain forests.Ghana is a democratic country led by a president who is both head of state and head of the government.WEB, CIA World FactBook, Ghana,weblink CIA World FactBook, CIA World FactBook, 20 May 2016, Ghana's growing economic prosperity and democratic political system have made it a regional power in West Africa. It is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Group of 24 (G24) and the Commonwealth of Nations.WEB,weblink United States Department of State, Ghana-US relations, 13 February 2013, 1 June 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130405184830weblink">weblink 5 April 2013,

Etymology

The etymology of the word Ghana means "warrior king" and was the title accorded to the kings of the medieval Ghana Empire in West Africa, but the empire was further north than the modern country of Ghana, in the region of Guinea.WEB, Etymology of Ghana,weblink Douglas Harper, 12 May 2012,

History

Medieval kingdoms

File:Akan face.jpg|thumb|left|upright|16th century Akan Terracotta, Metropolitan Museum of ArtMetropolitan Museum of ArtGhana was already recognized as one of the great kingdoms in Bilad el-Sudan by the ninth century.BOOK, Levtzion, Nehemia, Ancient Ghana and Mali, 1973, Methuen & Co Ltd, New York, 0841904316, 3, Ghana was inhabited in the Middle Ages and the Age of Discovery by a number of ancient predominantly Akan kingdoms in the Southern and Central territories. This included the Ashanti Empire, the Akwamu, the Bonoman, the Denkyira, and the Mankessim Kingdom.Title: Africa a Voyage of Discovery with Basil Davidson, Language: English Type: Documentary Year: 1984 Length: 114 min.Although the area of present-day Ghana in West Africa has experienced many population movements, the Akans were firmly settled by the 5th century BC.WEB,weblink Pre-Colonial Period, Ghanaweb.com, 13 December 2010, WEB,weblink Pre-European Mining at Ashanti, Ghana, PDF, Pdmhs.com, October 1996, 24 January 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141122214748weblink">weblink 22 November 2014, By the early 11th century, the Akans were firmly established in the Akan state called Bonoman, for which the Brong-Ahafo Region is named.BOOK, Tvedten, Ige, Hersoug, Bjørn, Fishing for Development: Small Scale Fisheries in Africa,weblink 1992, Nordic Africa Institute, 978-91-7106-327-4, 60–, From the 13th century, Akans emerged from what is believed to have been the Bonoman area, to create several Akan states of Ghana, mainly based on gold trading.The Techiman-Bono of Ghana: an ethnography of an Akan society Kendall/Hunt Pub. Co., 1975 These states included Bonoman (Brong-Ahafo Region), Ashanti (Ashanti Region), Denkyira (Central region), Mankessim Kingdom (Western region), and Akwamu Eastern region. By the 19th century, the territory of the southern part of Ghana was included in the Kingdom of Ashanti, one of the most influential states in sub-saharan Africa prior to the onset of colonialism.File:Guinea from Milner's Atlas.jpg|thumb|An 1850 map showing the Akan Kingdom of Ashanti within the Guinea region and surrounding regions in West Africa]]The Kingdom of Ashanti government operated first as a loose network, and eventually as a centralised kingdom with an advanced, highly specialised bureaucracy centred in the capital city of Kumasi. Prior to Akan contact with Europeans, the Akan Ashanti people created an advanced economy based on principally gold and gold bar commodities then traded with the states of Africa.WEB,weblink A Short History of Ashanti Gold Weights, Rubens.anu.edu.au, 24 January 2015, The earliest known kingdoms to emerge in modern Ghana were the Mole-Dagbani states. The Mole-Dagomba came on horseback from present-day Burkina Faso under a single leader, Naa Gbewaa.WEB,weblink Invasion of the Peoples of the North, GhanaNation, 15 November 2011, 22 June 2014, Jessica W, With their advanced weapons and based on a central authority, they easily invaded and occupied the lands of the local people ruled by the Tendamba (land god priests), established themselves as the rulers over the locals, and made Gambaga their capital.WEB,weblink Ghana Articles: Dagomba, GhanaNation.com, 19 November 2011, 22 August 2014, Curtis M., yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141019101858weblink">weblink 19 October 2014, The death of Naa Gbewaa caused civil war among his children, some of whom broke off and founded separate states including Dagbon, Mamprugu, Mossi, Nanumba and Wala.WEB,weblink Dagomba: Background, BristolDrumming, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140714121340weblink">weblink 14 July 2014, WEB,weblink Mamprusi, Sim.org, 22 June 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140714184651weblink">weblink 14 July 2014,

European contact (15th century)

(File:Lidded Vessel (Kuduo) MET DP108293.jpg|thumb|18th Century Ashanti kuduo. Gold dust and nuggets were kept in kuduo, as were other items of personal value and significance. As receptacles for their owners' kra, or life force, kuduo were prominent features of ceremonies designed to honor and protect that individual.)Akan trade with European states began after contact with Portuguese in the 15th century.WEB,weblink History of the Ashanti People, Modern Ghana, 9 May 2013, Early European contact by the Portuguese people, who came to the Gold Coast region in the 15th century to trade and then established the Portuguese Gold Coast (Costa do Ouro), focused on the extensive availability of gold. The Portuguese built a trading lodge at a coastal settlement called Anomansah (the perpetual drink) which they renamed Elmina.WEB,weblink History of Ghana, TonyX, 20 May 2012, In 1481, King John II of Portugal commissioned Diogo d'Azambuja to build Elmina Castle, which was completed in three years. By 1598, the Dutch had joined the Portuguese in the gold trade, establishing the Dutch Gold Coast (Nederlandse Bezittingen ter Kuste van Guinea) and building forts at Fort Komenda and Kormantsi.BOOK, Levy, Patricia, Wong, Winnie, Ghana, Marshall Cavendish, 24, 2010, 978-0-7614-4847-1, In 1617, the Dutch captured the Olnini Castle from the Portuguese, and Axim in 1642 (Fort St Anthony).Other European traders had joined in gold trading by the mid-17th century, most notably the Swedes, establishing the Swedish Gold Coast (Svenska Guldkusten), and Denmark-Norway, establishing the Danish Gold Coast (Danske Guldkyst or Dansk Guinea). Portuguese merchants, impressed with the gold resources in the area, named it Costa do Ouro or Gold Coast.WEB,weblink History of Ghana, ghanaweb.com, 10 January 2011, File:Aschanti Gefecht 11 july 1824 300dpi.jpg|thumb|The first Anglo-Ashanti war, 1823–31]]File:Kwame Nkrumah (JFKWHP-AR6409-A).jpg|alt=Kwame Nkrumah|thumb|Kwame NkrumahKwame NkrumahMore than thirty forts and castles were built by the Portuguese, Swedish, Dano-Norwegians, Dutch and German merchants; the latter Germans establishing the German Gold Coast (Brandenburger Gold Coast or Groß Friedrichsburg).WEB,weblink Bush Praises Strong Leadership of Ghanaian President Kufuor, iipdigital.usembassy.gov, 15 September 2008, 26 June 2010, In 1874 Great Britain established control over some parts of the country, assigning these areas the status of British Gold Coast.MacLean, Iain (2001) Rational Choice and British Politics: An Analysis of Rhetoric and Manipulation from Peel to Blair, p. 76, {{ISBN|0-19-829529-4}}. Many military engagements occurred between the British colonial powers and the various Akan nation-states. The Akan Kingdom of Ashanti defeated the British a few times in the 100-year-long Anglo-Ashanti wars but eventually lost with the War of the Golden Stool in the early 1900s.BOOK, Puri, Jyoti, Encountering Nationalism,weblink 2008, Wiley, 978-0-470-77672-8, 76–, Chronology of world history:a calendar of principal events from 3000 BC to AD 1973, Part 1973, Rowman & Littlefield, 1975, {{ISBN|0-87471-765-5}}.Ashanti Kingdom, Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2009, Archived 31 October 2009.

Transition to independence

{{See also|Dominion of Ghana}}(File:Ghana Independence overprint on Gold Coast 1s stamp 1957.jpg|thumb|A postage stamp of Gold Coast overprinted for Ghanaian independence in 1957)(File:Ghana (1957-03-07 A New Nation).ogg|thumbtime=0:55|thumb|Celebrations marking Ghana's independence on 6 March 1957)In 1947, the newly formed United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC) by The Big Six called for "self-government within the shortest possible time" following the Gold Coast legislative election, 1946.BOOK, Gocking, Roger, The History of Ghana,weblink 2005, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-313-31894-8, 92–, Kwame Nkrumah was the first Prime Minister of Ghana and President of Ghana and formed the Convention People's Party (CPP) with the motto "self-government now".Nkrumah won a majority in the Gold Coast legislative election, 1951 for the Gold Coast Legislative Assembly in 1952. Nkrumah was appointed leader of the Gold Coast's government business. The Gold Coast region declared independence from the United Kingdom on 6 March 1957 and established the nation of Ghana.On 6 March 1957 at 12 a.m. Nkrumah declared Ghana's establishment and autonomy. On 1 July 1960, following the Ghanaian constitutional referendum, 1960 and Ghanaian presidential election, 1960 Nkrumah declared Ghana as a republic as the first President of Ghana. 1 July is now celebrated as Republic Day.WEB,weblink What is Republic Day in Ghana?, Oquaye, Mike, 10 January 2018, GhanaWeb, en, 29 June 2018, At the time of independence Nkrumah declared, "My first objective is to abolish from Ghana poverty, ignorance, and disease. We shall measure our progress by the improvement in the health of our people; by the number of children in school, and by the quality of their education; by the availability of water and electricity in our towns and villages; and by the happiness which our people take in being able to manage their own affairs. The welfare of our people is our chief pride, and it is by this that the government will ask to be judged.".WEB, Ghana: Problems and Progress,weblink In 1966, a group of military officers overthrew Nkrumah in a coup d’état and placed Ghana under the authority of the National Liberation Council.WEB, Williams, J. “The ‘Rawlings Revolution’ and Rediscovery of the African Diaspora in Ghana (1983-2015)”,weblink The flag of Ghana, consisting of the colours red, gold, green, and a black star, became the new flag in 1957 when Gold Coast gained its name Ghana. It was designed by Theodosia Salome Okoh; the red represents the blood that was shed towards independence, the gold represents the industrial minerals wealth of Ghana, the green symbolises the rich grasslands of Ghana, and the black star is the symbol of the Ghanaian people and African emancipation.WEB,weblink Ghana Flag, Ghanaweb.com, 26 June 2010, Nkrumah was the first African head of state to promote the concept of Pan-Africanism, which he had been introduced to during his studies at Lincoln University, Pennsylvania in the United States, at the time when Marcus Garvey was becoming famous for his "Back to Africa Movement". Nkrumah merged the teachings of Marcus Garvey, Martin Luther King, Jr. and the naturalised Ghanaian scholar W. E. B. Du Bois into the formation of 1960s Ghana.Osagyefo Dr. Kwame Nkrumah, as he became known, played an instrumental part in the founding of the Non-Aligned Movement, and in establishing the Kwame Nkrumah Ideological Institute to teach his ideologies of communism and socialism.WEB, Of Nkrumah's Political Ideologies: Communism, Socialism, Nkrumaism,weblink Ghana Web, 20 September 2006, 9 June 2015, His life achievements were recognised by Ghanaians during his centenary birthday celebration, and the day was instituted as a public holiday in Ghana (Founder's Day).WEB, When it was made a Holiday,weblink Modern Ghana, 22 September 2012, 9 May 2014, {{clear left}}

Operation Cold Chop and aftermath

The government of Nkrumah was subsequently overthrown by a coup by the Ghana Armed Forces codenamed "Operation Cold Chop." This occurred while Nkrumah was abroad with Zhou Enlai in the People's Republic of China, on a fruitless mission to Hanoi in Vietnam to help end the Vietnam War. The coup took place on 24 February 1966, led by Col. Emmanuel K. Kotoka. National Liberation Council (N.L.C.) formed and chaired by Lt. General Joseph A. Ankrah.WEB,weblink The political and social thought of Kwame Nkrumah, PDF, 2011, 28 April 2014, Libyadiary, A series of alternating military and civilian governments, often affected by economic instabilities,BOOK, A Country Study: Ghana, David, Owusu-Ansah, La Verle Berry, 1994, from 1966 to 1981 ended with the ascension to power of Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings of the Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC) in 1981.NEWS,weblink Ghana: Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings (J.J Rawlings), Africa Confidential, 1 June 2013, These changes resulted in the suspension of the Constitution of Ghana in 1981, and the banning of political parties in Ghana.NEWS,weblink Rawlings: The legacy, BBC News, 1 December 2000, 1 June 2013, The economy soon declined, so Rawlings negotiated a structural adjustment plan changing many old economic policies, and economic growth soon recovered during the mid–1980s. A new Constitution of Ghana restoring multi-party system politics was promulgated in Ghanaian presidential election, 1992; Rawlings was elected as president of Ghana then, and again in Ghanaian general election, 1996.{{clear left}}

21st century

File:Kpetoee.jpg|thumb|Traditional chiefs in Ghana in 2015]]Winning the 2000 Ghanaian elections, John Agyekum Kufuor of the New Patriotic Party (NPP) was sworn into office as president of Ghana on 7 January 2001, and attained the presidency again in the 2004 Ghanaian elections, thus also serving two terms (the term limit) as president of Ghana and thus marking the first time under the fourth republic that power was transferred from one legitimately elected head of state and head of government to another.Kufuor was succeeded to the presidency of the Republic of Ghana by John Atta Mills of the National Democratic Congress (NDC) following the Ghanaian presidential election, 2008. and John Atta Mills was inaugurated as the third president of the fourth republic of Ghana and eleventh president of Ghana on 7 January 2009,NEWS, Kokutse, Francis, Opposition leader wins presidency in Ghana, Associated Press, 3 January 2009,weblink USA Today, 9 May 2014, prior to John Atta Mills being succeeded as president of Ghana by then vice-president of Ghana John Dramani Mahama on 24 July 2012.NEWS, Atta Mills dies,weblink The New York Times, 25 July 2012, 9 May 2014, Following the Ghanaian presidential election, 2012, John Dramani Mahama became President-elect and was inaugurated as the 4th President of the Fourth Republic of Ghana and 7th President of Ghana on 7 January 2013, to serve one term of office of four-year term length as President of Ghana until 7 January 2017,NEWS,weblink Ghanaian President John Dramani Mahama sworn in, Sina Corp, 7 January 2013, maintaining Ghana's status as a stable democracy.WEB, Elections in Ghana,weblink Africanelections.tripod.com, 1 June 2013, As a result of the Ghanaian presidential election, 2016, Nana Akufo-Addo became President-elect and was inaugurated as the 5th President of the Fourth Republic of Ghana and 8th President of Ghana on 7 January 2017, to serve one term of office of four-year term length as President of Ghana, until 7 January 2021.WEB, 2016 Presidential Results,weblink Ghana Electoral Commission, Ghana Electoral Commission, 18 March 2017,

Historical timeline

ImageSize = width:800 height:auto barincrement:20PlotArea = top:10 bottom:50 right:130 left:20AlignBars = lateDateFormat = dd/mm/yyyyPeriod = from:01/01/1960 till:31/12/2020TimeAxis = orientation:horizontalScaleMajor = unit:year increment:10 start:1960Colors =
id:military value:rgb(0,1,1) legend: Military
id:liberal value:rgb(0,0,1) legend: Liberal
id:democrat value:rgb(1,0.6,0) legend: Social_Democrat
id:socialist value:rgb(1,0,0) legend: _Socialist
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text:"Political parties:"
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from: 01/07/1960 till: 24/02/1966 color:socialist text:"Osagyefo-Kwame Nkrumah" fontsize:10
from: 24/02/1966 till: 02/04/1969 color:military text:"Major-Joseph Arthur Ankrah" fontsize:10
from: 02/04/1969 till: 07/08/1970 color:military text:"Brigadier Akwasi Amankwa Afrifa" fontsize:10
from: 07/08/1970 till: 31/08/1970 color: liberal text:"Nii Amaa Ollennu" fontsize:10
from: 31/08/1970 till: 13/01/1972 color: liberal text:"Edward Akufo-Addo" fontsize:10
from: 13/01/1972 till: 05/07/1978 color:military text:" Colonel Ignatius Kutu Acheampong" fontsize:10
from: 05/07/1978 till: 04/06/1979 color: military text:"Lieutenant-General Frederick Fred William Kwasi Akuffo" fontsize:10
from: 04/06/1979 till: 24/09/1979 color: military text:"Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings" fontsize:10
from: 24/09/1979 till: 31/12/1981 color:democrat text:"Hilla Limann" fontsize:10
from: 31/12/1981 till: 07/01/1992 color:military text:"Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings" fontsize:10
from: 07/01/1992 till: 07/01/2001 color: democrat text:"Flight Lieutenant Jerry John Rawlings" fontsize:10
from: 07/01/2001 till: 07/01/2009 color:liberal text:"John Agyekum Kufuor" fontsize:10
from: 07/01/2009 till: 24/07/2012 color: democrat text:"Professor John Evans Atta Mills" fontsize:10
from: 24/07/2012 till: 07/01/2016 color: democrat text:"John Dramani Mahama" fontsize:10
from: 07/01/2016 till: end color: liberal text:"Nana_Akufo-Addo" fontsize:10
{{clear}}

Geography

(File:Ghana map of Köppen climate classification.svg|thumb|Ghana map of Köppen climate classification.)Ghana is located on the Gulf of Guinea, only a few degrees north of the Equator, therefore giving it a warm climate. Ghana spans an area of {{convert|238535|km2|sqmi|0|abbr=on}}, and has an Atlantic coastline that stretches {{convert|560|km|mi|abbr=off}} on the Gulf of Guinea in Atlantic Ocean to its south.WEB,weblink Ghana: Geography Physical, photius.com, 24 June 2013, , WEB,weblink Ghana: Location and Size, photius.com, 24 June 2013, It lies between latitudes 4°45'N and 11°N, and longitudes 1°15'E and 3°15'W. The Prime Meridian passes through Ghana, specifically through the industrial port town of Tema.Ghana is geographically closer to the "centre" of the Earth geographical coordinates than any other country; even though the notional centre, (0°, 0°) is located in the Atlantic Ocean approximately {{convert|614|km|mi|0|abbr=on}} off the south-east coast of Ghana on the Gulf of Guinea.Grasslands mixed with south coastal shrublands and forests dominate Ghana, with forest extending northward from the south-west coast of Ghana on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean {{convert|320|km|mi|abbr=off}} and eastward for a maximum of about {{convert|270|km|mi|abbr=off}} with the Kingdom of Ashanti or the southern part of Ghana being a primary location for mining of industrial minerals and timber.Ghana encompasses plains, waterfalls, low hills, rivers, Lake Volta, the world's largest artificial lake, Dodi Island and Bobowasi Island on the south Atlantic Ocean coast of Ghana.WEB,weblink Ghana low plains, photius.com, 24 June 2013, The northernmost part of Ghana is Pulmakong and the southernmost part of Ghana is Cape Three Points.{{clear}}

Climate

The climate of Ghana is tropical and there are two main seasons: the wet season and the dry season.{{Weather box|location = Ghana|collapsed = yes|metric first = yes|single line = yes|Jan high C = 30.1|Feb high C = 31.2|Mar high C = 31.6|Apr high C = 31.0|May high C = 30.0|Jun high C = 28.3|Jul high C = 27.1|Aug high C = 26.8|Sep high C = 27.4|Oct high C = 28.6|Nov high C = 30.0|Dec high C = 29.5|year high C = 29.2|Jan low C = 24.5|Feb low C = 25.8|Mar low C = 26.2|Apr low C = 26.2|May low C = 25.4|Jun low C = 24.6|Jul low C = 23.5|Aug low C = 23.2|Sep low C = 23.6|Oct low C = 24.2|Nov low C = 24.3|Dec low C = 24.1|year low C = 24.6|rain colour=green|Jan rain mm = 13.6|Feb rain mm = 40.3|Mar rain mm = 88.2|Apr rain mm = 115.7|May rain mm = 160.7|Jun rain mm = 210.4|Jul rain mm = 121.3|Aug rain mm = 88.9|Sep rain mm = 133.0|Oct rain mm = 128.1|Nov rain mm = 56.5|Dec rain mm = 24.6|year rain mm = 1184.1|Jan rain days = 2|Feb rain days = 2|Mar rain days = 5|Apr rain days = 7|May rain days = 11|Jun rain days = 14|Jul rain days = 7|Aug rain days = 6|Sep rain days = 8|Oct rain days = 9|Nov rain days = 4|Dec rain days = 2|year rain days =|humidity colour=|Jan humidity= 79|Feb humidity= 77|Mar humidity= 77|Apr humidity= 80|May humidity= 82|Jun humidity= 85|Jul humidity= 85|Aug humidity= 83|Sep humidity= 82|Oct humidity= 83|Nov humidity= 80|Dec humidity= 79|year humidity= 85|Jan sun = 214|Feb sun = 204|Mar sun = 223|Apr sun = 213|May sun = 211|Jun sun = 144|Jul sun = 142|Aug sun = 155|Sep sun = 171|Oct sun = 220|Nov sun = 240|Dec sun = 235|year sun =ACCESSDATE=1 JUNE 2013, |date=June 2013}}{{clear}}

Rivers

Ghana has a vast river system with an array of tributaries.{{wide image|Volta lake from the Saint Barbara Church.JPG|900px|align-cap=center|Panorama and landscape view of Lake Volta in Volta Basin and Eastern Region of Ghana. Lake Volta by artificial surface area is the largest reservoir in the world. Lake Volta drains into the Gulf of Guinea on the Atlantic Ocean. Volta River has three main tributaries—the Black Volta, White Volta and Red Volta.}}

Wildlife

Ghana has an array of wildlife that can be seen at zoos and national parks in Ghana, although populations have been drastically reduced by habitat loss and poaching.

Government

{{Further|Politics of Ghana}}{{multiple image|align = right|header =Parliament House of Ghana seat of the Government of Ghana, the Supreme Court of Ghana and Judiciary of Ghana buildings, Osu Castle is the de facto residence of presidency and The Flagstaff House is the official residence and presidential palace. First President of the Republic of Ghana Kwame Nkrumah>Nkrumah and Presidents of the 4th Republic of Ghana Jerry Rawlings; John Kufuor>Kufuor; John Evans Atta Mills and John Dramani Mahama>Mahama.|width1 = 265|image1 = Ghana Parliament House – Ghana Supreme Court – Osu Castle.JPG|alt1 =|caption1 =|width2 = 220|image2 = Presidents of Ghana and of the 4th Republic of Ghana.JPG|alt2 =|caption2 =}}Ghana is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy with a parliamentary multi-party system. Ghana alternated between civilian and military governments until January 1993, when the military government gave way to the Fourth Republic of Ghana after presidential and parliamentary elections in late 1992. The 1992 constitution of Ghana divides powers among a Commander-in-Chief of the Ghana Armed Forces (President of Ghana), parliament (Parliament of Ghana), cabinet (Cabinet of Ghana), council of state (Ghanaian Council of State), and an independent judiciary (Judiciary of Ghana). The Government of Ghana is elected by universal suffrage after every four years."Government and Politics". A Country Study: Ghana (La Verle Berry, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (November 1994). ''This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Lcweb2.loc.gov.Nana Akufo-Addo won the Presidency in the Ghanaian general election held on 7 December 2016, defeating incumbent John Mahama. He was sworn in on 7 January 2017.The 2012 Fragile States Index indicated that Ghana is ranked the 67th least fragile state in the world and the 5th least fragile state in Africa after Mauritius, 2nd Seychelles, 3rd Botswana, and 4th South Africa. Ghana ranked 112th out of 177 countries on the index.WEB,weblink Foreignpolicy.com – Failed States List 2012, 2012, 1 June 2013, Ghana ranked as the 64th least corrupt and politically corrupt country in the world out of all 174 countries ranked and Ghana ranked as the 5th least corrupt and politically corrupt country in Africa out of 53 countries in the 2012 Transparency International Corruption Perception Index.WEB,weblink Corruption Perceptions Index 2012, Corruption Perceptions Index, Transparency International Corruption Perception Index, 2012, 1 June 2013, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080510115831weblink">weblink 10 May 2008, Curbing Corruption and Improving Economic Governance: The Case of Ghana, Ghana Center for Democratic Development, 1 June 2013, 5, Agyeman-Duah, Baffour, Ghana was ranked 7th in Africa out of 53 countries in the 2012 Ibrahim Index of African Governance. The Ibrahim Index is a comprehensive measure of African government, based on a number of different variables which reflect the success with which governments deliver essential political goods to its citizens.WEB,weblink Mo Ibrahim Foundation – 2012 Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG), Moibrahimfoundation.org, 2012, 1 June 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130530015728weblink">weblink 30 May 2013, Nkrumah was a Ghanaian nationalist leader who led the country from 1957 to 1966. Nkrumah’s political journey started when he entered Lincoln University in Pennsylvania in 1935. He graduated with master's degrees from Lincoln University and the University of Pennsylvania. He formed the Convention Peoples’ Party. The party initiated a “positive action” campaign involving non-violent protests, strikes and non-cooperation with the British authorities. Nkrumah was arrested and sentenced to one year imprisonment during this time. In the Gold Coast’s February 1951 general election, he was elected to Parliament and released from prison to become leader of government business. He became Prime Minister of the Gold Coast in 1952s leadership was authoritarian but he improved the infrastructure of the country and his Africanisation policies created better career opportunities for Ghanaians. He was deposed in a coup in 1966.

Foreign relations

File:800px-Oyw kofi.jpg|thumb|left|Kofi AnnanKofi AnnanSince independence, Ghana has been devoted to ideals of nonalignment and is a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement. Ghana favours international and regional political and economic co-operation, and is an active member of the United Nations and the African Union.WEB,weblink Official page of Nations Permanent Mission of Ghana to the United Nations, 20 May 2012, 20 September 2011, United Nations, Ghana has a strong relationship with the United States. Three recent US presidents--Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama—made diplomatic trips to Ghana. Many Ghanaian diplomats and politicians hold positions in international organisations, including Ghanaian diplomat and former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, International Criminal Court Judge Akua Kuenyehia, and former President Jerry John Rawlings and former President John Agyekum Kuffour, who both served as diplomats of the United Nations.In September 2010, Ghana's former President John Atta Mills visited China on an official visit. Mills and China's former President Hu Jintao, marked the 50th anniversary of diplomatic ties between the two nations, at the Great Hall of the People on 20 September 2010.WEB,weblink Hu Jintao Holds Talks with President of Ghana Mills, 4 January 2012, 20 September 2010, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China, China reciprocated with an official visit in November 2011, by the Vice-Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of China, Zhou Tienong who visited Ghana and met with Ghana's President John Dramani Mahama.NEWS,weblink Visiting senior Chinese official lauds Ghana for political stability, national unity, Xinhua News Agency, 12 November 2011, 13 November 2011, Deng, Shasha, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130909155705weblink">weblink 9 September 2013, The Islamic Republic of Iran and the 6th President of Iran, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad met with the 12th President of Ghana, John Dramani Mahama on 16 April 2013 to hold discussions with President John Dramani Mahama on strengthening the Non-Aligned Movement and also co–chair a bilateral meeting between Ghana and Iran at the Ghanaian presidential palace Flagstaff House.WEB,weblink Ahmadinejad: Iran's populist and pariah leaves the stage, 10 May 2014, 4 June 2013, BBCNews, WEB,weblink Iranian leader Ahmadinejad's West Africa tour defended, 10 May 2014, 17 April 2013, BBC News, NEWS,weblink CPP welcomes President Ahmadinejad visit to Ghana, 10 May 2014, 18 April 2013, Ghana News Agency, WEB,weblink Ghana welcomed Iran's President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, 10 May 2014, 17 April 2013, iafrica.tv, yes,weblink 12 May 2014, WEB,weblink President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad To Visit Ghana, 10 May 2014, 2013, Government of Ghana, The Government of Ghana reciprocated with an official state visit on 5 August 2013 by the Vice-President of Ghana, Kwesi Amissah-Arthur, who met with the Vice-President of Iran, Eshaq Jahangiri on the basis of autarky and possible bilateral trade at the Islamic Republic of Iran's presidential palace, Sa'dabad Palace.WEB,weblink Iran welcomes expansion of trade ties with Ghana: Vice president, 10 May 2014, 5 August 2013, Press TV, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130821230307weblink">weblink 21 August 2013, {{clear}}File:Fokker F-28-3000 Fellowship, Ghana - Air Force AN0193478.jpg|Fokker F28 Fellowship of the President of Ghana arrives on State visit at the Beijing Capital International Airport in Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaFile:Vladimir Putin with Kofi Annan-3.jpg|Diplomat Kofi Annan meeting with Vladimir Putin in Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation.File:LuladaSilvaeJohnKufuor.JPG|Presidents John Kufuor of Ghana and Lula da Silva of Brazil meet in Accra.File:Obama family departure from Ghana.jpg|Barack Obama and Michelle Obama, along with Malia Obama and Sasha Obama, participate in State Arrival Ceremony at Kotoka International Airport.File:Map of diplomatic missions of Ghana (3).PNG|Diplomatic missions of Ghana.

Law enforcement and police

{{Further|Law enforcement in Ghana}}{{multiple image
| align = right
| width1 = 295
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| image1 = Ghana Police Service Motorbikes.jpg
| image2 = Ghana Police Service Boat P-1 & P-2 (Marine Police Unit).jpg
| image3 = Ghana Police Service Mowag Piranha.jpg
| caption1 = Police Motorcycle Highway Patrol Unit of the Ghana Police Service.
| caption2 = Water Police Unit of the Ghana Police Service.
| caption3 = Militarized Police Unit of the Ghana Police Service in Mowag Piranhas and armoured fighting vehicles.
}}The Ghana Police Service (GPS) and the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) are the main law enforcement agencies of the Republic of Ghana, and are responsible for the detection of crime, maintenance of law and order and the maintenance of internal peace and security.WEB, The Ghana Police Service,weblink mint.gov.gh, 1 June 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140512222320weblink">weblink 12 May 2014, The Ghana Police Service has eleven specialised police units including a Militarized Police Rapid deployment force (RDF) and Marine Police Unit (MPU).WEB, Ghana Police Service sets up Marine Police Unit,weblink modernghana.com, 1 June 2013, The Ghana Police Service operates in 12 divisions: ten covering the ten regions of Ghana, one assigned specifically to the seaport and industrial hub of Tema, and the twelfth being the Railways, Ports and Harbours Division.WEB, Police Administration,weblinkweblink" title="archive.is/20130218115805weblink">weblink yes, 18 February 2013, ghanapolice.info, 19 June 2013, The Ghana Police Service's Marine Police Unit and Division handles issues that arise from the country's offshore oil and gas industry.The Ghana Prisons Service and the sub-division Borstal Institute for Juveniles administers incarceration in Ghana.WEB, Ghana Prisons Service General Information,weblink ghanaprisons.gov.gh, 31 July 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131024072237weblink">weblink 24 October 2013, Ghana retains and exercises the death penalty for treason, corruption, robbery, piracy, drug trafficking, rape, and homicide.WEB, Ghana – Death Penalty,weblink handsoffcain.info, 31 July 2013, WEB, Ghana Criminal Code and Courts,weblink country-data.com, 31 July 2013, 27 convicts (all men) were sentenced to death in Ghana in 2012 and the Ghana Prisons Service statistics of the total number of convicts sentenced to death in Ghana as of December 2012 was 162 men and 4 women, with a total prison inmate population of 13,983 convicts as of 22 July 2013.WEB, Ghana Prisons Service Inmate Statistics,weblink ghanaprisons.gov.gh, 31 July 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131024072238weblink">weblink 24 October 2013, "The new sustainable development goals adopted by the United Nations call for the international community to come together to promote the rule of law; support equal access to justice for all; reduce corruption; and develop effective, accountable, and transparent institutions at all levels."WEB, Perriello, Promoting Peace, Justice, and Strong Institutions in the Great Lakes,weblink DIPNote, US Department of state, 20 May 2016, yes,weblink 20 May 2016, {{clear}}

Ghanaian Drug War and The Narcotic Control Board

File:Drugtrade.png|thumb|Ghana is among the sovereign states of West Africa used by drug carteldrug cartelGhana is used as a key narcotics industry transshipment point by traffickers, usually from South America as well as some from other African nations. "West Africa is completely weak in terms of border control and the big drug cartels from Colombia and Latin America have chosen Africa as a way to reach Europe."WEB, Gerra, Illegal drug use on the rise in Africa,weblink DW Made for minds, Deutsche Welle, 20 May 2016, There is not a wide or popular knowledge about the narcotics industry and intercepted narcotics within Ghana itself, due to the industry's operations and involvement in the underground economy. The social context within which narcotic trafficking, storage, transportation, and repacking systems exist in Ghana and the state's location along the Gulf of Guinea within the Atlantic Ocean{{spaced ndash}}only a few degrees north of the Equator{{spaced ndash}}makes Ghana an attractive country for the narcotics business.WEB,weblink Ghana hit by illegal drug trade, Gulf News, 28 September 2013, 4 December 2013, WEB,weblink Ghana could be taken over by drug barons if, myjoyonline.com, 20 November 2013, 4 December 2013, The Narcotic Control Board (NACOB) has impounded container ships at the Sekondi Naval Base in the Takoradi Harbour. These ships were carrying thousands of kilograms of cocaine, with a street value running into billions of Ghana cedis. However, drug seizures saw a decline in 2011.Drug cartels are using new methods in narcotics production and narcotics exportation, to avoid Ghanaian security agencies. Underdeveloped institutions, porous open borders, and the existence of established smuggling organisations contribute to Ghana's position in the narcotics industry. John Atta Mills, president between 2009 and 2012, initiated ongoing efforts to reduce the role of airports in Ghana's drug trade.

Military

{{multiple image
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| image1 = Ghanaian air force special forces team.jpg
| image2 = Ghana Air Force Harbin Z9EH.JPG
| image3 = Ghana Airforce Reccep Tayyip Erdogan Honor Guard at Flagstaff House.jpg
| caption1 = Ghana Air Force Light infantry clears an area on a flight line before takeoff on Mil Mi-17 Military Transport Helicopter.
| caption2 = Ghana Air Force Commando Harbin Z-9EH Medium Multi-Purpose Military Utility Helicopter.
| caption3 = Turkish President Recep Tayyip ErdoÄŸan inspects Honor Guards mounted by the Ghana Air Force at the Flagstaff House the Presidential Palace of Ghana in Greater Accra on 1 March 2016.
}}In 1957, the Ghana Armed Forces (GAF) consisted of its headquarters, support services, three battalions of infantry and a reconnaissance squadron with armoured vehicles.Kilford, Christopher R. (2010), The Other Cold War: Canada's Military Assistance to the Developing World 1945–75, Kingston, Ontario: Canadian Defence Academy Press, p. 138, {{ISBN|1-100-14338-6}}. Ghanaian Prime Minister and President Kwame Nkrumah aimed at rapidly expanding the GAF to support the United States of Africa ambitions. Thus in 1961, 4th and 5th Battalions were established, and in 1964 6th Battalion was established, from a parachute airborne unit originally raised in 1963.Baynham, Simon (1988), The Military and Politics in Nkumrah's Ghana, Westview, Chapter 4, {{ISBN|0-8133-7063-9}}.Today, Ghana is a regional power and regional hegemon.BOOK, Arie M., Kacowicz, 1998, Zones of Peace in the Third World: South America and West Africa, SUNY Press, 978-0-7914-3957-9, 144, In his book Shake Hands with the Devil, Canadian Forces commander Roméo Dallaire highly rated the GAF soldiers and military personnel.The military operations and military doctrine of the GAF are conceptualised on the Constitution of Ghana, Ghana's Law on Armed Force Military Strategy, and Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre (KAIPTC) agreements to which GAF is attestator.NEWS,weblink Defence, Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (Ghana), Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, 10 May 2014, WEB,weblink Ghana's Regional Security Policy: Costs, Benefits and Consistency, 33, PDF, 10 May 2014, Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140508150900weblink">weblink 8 May 2014, NEWS,weblink KAIPTC, Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre, 10 May 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140512214613weblink">weblink 12 May 2014, GAF military operations are executed under the auspices and imperium of the Ministry of Defense (MoD) Minister for Defence.WEB,weblink Vision and Mission of the Ministry of Defence (MoD), 10 May 2014, gaf.mil.gh, Ghana Armed Forces, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110721032203weblink">weblink 21 July 2011, Although Ghana is relatively peaceful and is often considered to be one of the least violent countries in the region, but Ghana has experienced political violence in the past and 2017 has thus far seen an upward trend in incidents motivated by political grievances.WEB,weblink

Administrative divisions

Ghana is divided into 10 administrative regions, sub-divided into 275 districts:WEB,weblink SOCIAL:EC has done no wrong – Dr Afari-Gyan, Ghana News Agengy, 13 March 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140512223809weblink">weblink 12 May 2014, dmy-all, WEB,weblink MPs demand 24/7 police security for 275 members, myjoyonline.com, 13 March 2014, All Districts {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131031082356weblink |date=31 October 2013 }}. ghanadistricts.com{| class="wikitable"!Regions of Ghana!Area (km2)!Regional capitals!!!Ashanti Region24,389Kumasi {{Regions of Ghana Image Map}}{{nowrap|Ghana regional map}} (File:Ghana Topography.png230px) {{nowrap|Ghana topography−topographic map}} (File:Ghana sat.png230px) {{nowrapSatellite imagery>satellite image from outer space}}Brong-Ahafo Region39,557SunyaniCentral Region9,826Cape CoastEastern Region19,323KoforiduaGreater Accra Region3,245AccraNorthern Region70,384TamaleUpper East Region8,842BolgatangaUpper West Region18,476WaVolta Region20,570HoWestern Region23,941Sekondi-Takoradi{{clear}}

Human rights

{{See also|LGBT rights in Ghana}}Homosexual acts are prohibited by law in Ghana.WEB,weblink Here are the 10 countries where homosexuality may be punished by death, The Washington Post, 16 June 2016, Sometimes old women are accused of witchcraft, particularly in rural Ghana. Issues of witchcraft mainly remain as speculations based on superstitions within families. In some parts of northern Ghana, there exists what is called a witch camp. This is said to house a total of around 1,000 people accused of witchcraft. The Ghanaian government has announced that it intends to close the camps.WEB,weblink Ghana witch camps: Widows' lives in exile, BBC, 1 September 2012,

Transportation

Transport and modes of transport in Ghana is accomplished by road transport (bus-based mass transit system), railway, air transport (civil aviation) and water transport (ferry).

Economy

Key sectors

{{double image|right|Ghana Vision 2020.jpg|250||211|Ghana Vision 2020 logo}}(File:Accra Market (3106526668).jpg|thumb|Accra market scene)Ghana is an average natural resource enriched country possessing industrial minerals, hydrocarbons and precious metals. It is an emerging designated digital economy with mixed economy hybridisation and an emerging market with 8.7% GDP growth in 2012. It has an economic plan target known as the "Ghana Vision 2020". This plan envisions Ghana as the first African country to become a developed country between 2020 and 2029 and a newly industrialised country between 2030 and 2039.{{clarify|reason=industrialization has come before developed status for every other country; currently, no "newly industrialized country" is considered developed|date=August 2017}} This excludes fellow Group of 24 member and Sub-Saharan African country South Africa, which is a newly industrialised country.WEB,weblink Is Ghana the next African economic tiger?, standardmedia.co.ke, 4 September 2012, 5 September 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150403174443weblink">weblink 3 April 2015, Ghana's economy also has ties to the Chinese yuan renminbi along with Ghana's vast gold reserves. In 2013, the Bank of Ghana began circulating the renminbi throughout Ghanaian state-owned banks and to the Ghana public as hard currency along with the national Ghana cedi for second national trade currency.WEB,weblink BoG introduce Chinese Yuan onto the FX market, Bank of Ghana, 2013, 22 September 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130926191724weblink">weblink 26 September 2013, Between 2012-2013, 37.9 percent of rural dwellers were experiencing poverty whereas only 10.6 percent of urban dwellers were.=.WEB,weblink Urban areas hold greater opportunity for employment, particularly in informal trade, while nearly all (94 percent) of rural poor households participate in the agricultural sector.WEB,weblink The state-owned Volta River Authority and Ghana National Petroleum Corporation are the two major electricity producers. The Akosombo Dam, built on the Volta River in 1965, along with Bui Dam, Kpong Dam, and several other hydroelectric dams provide hydropower.WEB,weblink A new era of transformation in Ghana, ifpri.org, 16 February 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120409195949weblink">weblink 9 April 2012, {{rp|12}}WEB,weblink New fuel for faster development, worldfolio.co.uk, 31 May 2013, In addition, the Government of Ghana has sought to build the second nuclear power plant in Africa.The Ghana Stock Exchange is the 5th largest on continental Africa and 3rd largest in sub-saharan Africa with a market capitalisation of GH¢ 57.2 billion or CN¥ 180.4 billion in 2012 with the South Africa JSE Limited as first.WEB,weblink Ghana Market Update, Intercontinental Bank, 26 March 2012, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120704014602weblink">weblink 4 July 2012, {{rp|13}} The Ghana Stock Exchange (GSE) was the 2nd best performing stock exchange in sub-saharan Africa in 2013.WEB,weblink Top-Performing African Stock Markets in 2013, africastrictlybusiness.com, 2013, 20 July 2014, Ghana also produces high-quality cocoa,WEB,weblink Is Ghana Entering A Sweet, Golden Era?, African Business, 10 May 2014, is the 2nd largest producer of cocoa globally,JOURNAL, Jedwab, Rémi, Moradi, Alexander, 2012, Revolutionizing Transport: Modern Infrastructure, Agriculture and Development in Ghana,weblink London School of Economics, 15 June 2013, Two railway lines were built between 1901 and 1923 to connect the coast to mining areas and the large hinterland city of Kumasi. This unintendedly opened vast expanses of tropical forest to cocoa cultivation, allowing Ghana to become the world's largest producer., and is projected to become the world's largest producer of cocoa in 2015.WEB,weblink Ghana will reclaim top spot in cocoa production -Prez Mahama, Daily Graphic (Ghana), Daily Graphic, 5 November 2013, 16 May 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140302131433weblink">weblink 2 March 2014, Ghana is classified as a middle income country.BOOK,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120704014602weblink">weblink 4 July 2012, Ghana Market Update, Forrest, Paul, icbuk.com, Intercontinental Bank, September 2011, 26 March 2012, 13, Services account for 50% of GDP, followed by manufacturing (24.1%), extractive industries (5%), and taxes (20.9%).

Manufacturing

The Ghana economy is an emerging digital-based mixed economy hybrid similarly to that of Taiwan with an increasing primary manufacturing and exportation of digital technology goods along with assembling and exporting automobiles and ships, diverse resource rich exportation of industrial minerals, agricultural products primarily cocoa, petroleum and natural gas,NEWS,weblink Reuters, Ghana's Jubilee oil field nears output plateau -operator, 31 May 2013, and industries such as information and communications technology primarily via Ghana's state digital technology corporation Rlg Communications which manufactures tablet computers with smartphones and various consumer electronics.WEB, Ghana – Gross Domestic Product,weblink statsghana.gov.gh, 13 June 2012, WEB,weblink The Top 5 Countries for ICT4D in Africa, ictworks.org, 3 May 2013,

Petroleum and natural gas production

Ghana produces and exports an abundance of hydrocarbons such as sweet crude oil and natural gas.WEB,weblink Five Countries to Watch, individual.troweprice.com, 27 April 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130412023853weblink">weblink 12 April 2013, WEB,weblink Africa, Aluworks.com, 26 June 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110903210059weblink">weblink 3 September 2011, The 100% state-owned filling station company of Ghana, Ghana Oil Company (GOIL) is the number 1 petroleum and gas filling station of Ghana and the 100% state-owned state oil company Ghana National Petroleum Corporation (GNPC) oversees hydrocarbon exploration and production of Ghana's entire petroleum and natural gas reserves. Ghana aims to further increase output of oil to {{convert|2.2|e6oilbbl}} per day and gas to {{convert|1.2|e9cuft|m3|order=flip}} per day.Clark, Nancy L. "Petroleum Exploration". A Country Study: Ghana (La Verle Berry, editor). Library of Congress Federal Research Division (November 1994). ''This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Lcweb2.loc.gov.Ghana's Jubilee Oilfield which contains up to {{convert|3|Goilbbl|m3}} of sweet crude oil was discovered in 2007, among the many other offshore and inland oilfields in Ghana.WEB,weblink Ghana leader: Oil reserves at 3B barrels, Yahoo News, 22 December 2007, 21 December 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20071226200944weblink">weblink 26 December 2007, Ghana is believed to have up to {{convert|5|Goilbbl|m3}} to {{convert|7|Goilbbl|m3}} of petroleum in reserves,McLure, Jason. Ghana Oil Reserves to Be {{convert|5|Goilbbl|m3}} in 5 years as fields develop. Bloomberg Television. 1 December 2010. which is the fifth largest in Africa and the 21st to 25th largest proven reserves in the world. It also has up to {{convert|6|e12cuft|m3|order=flip}} of natural gas in reserves,WEB,weblink Atuabo gas project to propel more growth, Daily Graphic (Ghana), Daily Graphic, 13 May 2013, 27 October 2013,weblink" title="archive.is/20140503021413weblink">weblink 3 May 2014, yes, which is the sixth largest in Africa and the 49th largest natural gas proven reserves in the world. Oil and gas exploration off Ghana's eastern coast on the Gulf of Guinea is ongoing, and the amount of both crude oil and natural gas continues to increase. The Government of Ghana has drawn up plans to nationalise Ghana's entire petroleum and natural gas reserves to increase government revenue.WEB,weblink Ghana: Why Privatise Ghana Oil?, allafrica.com, 22 September 2013,

Industrial minerals mining

Known for its industrial minerals, Ghana is the world's 7th largest producer of gold; producing over 102 metric tons of gold and the 10th largest producer of gold in the world in 2012; producing 89 metric tons of gold. Ghana is the 2nd largest producer of gold on the Africa continent behind South Africa.WEB,weblink Top 10 Gold Producers, Brown, Dave, 15 November 2010, Gold Investing News, 8 March 2012, Ghana has the 9th largest reserves, and is the 9th largest producer, of diamonds in the world.WEB,weblink Top 10 Countries with the Most Diamonds Found, Said, Sammy, 15 June 2013, therichest.com, 27 October 2013, Industrial minerals and exports from South Ghana are gold, silver, timber, diamonds, bauxite, and manganese. South Ghana also has great deposits of barite, basalt, clay, dolomite, feldspar, granite, gravel, gypsum, iron ore, kaolin, laterite, limestone, magnesite, marble, mica, phosphates, phosphorus, rocks, salts, sand, sandstone, silver, slate, talc, and uranium that are yet to be fully exploited.BOOK,weblink Ghana Mineral and Mining Sector Investment and Business Guide, Ibpus.com, 16 May 2014, 9781433017759, Publications, U.S.A. International Business, 7 February 2007, The Government of Ghana has drawn up plans to nationalise Ghana's entire mining industry to increase government revenues.BOOK,weblink Ghana Mineral and Mining Sector Investment and Business Guide, Ibpus.com, International Business Publications, 24 June 2013, 978-1-4330-1775-9, 2007, WEB,weblink Ghana Minerals and Mining Act, ghanalegal.com, 16 May 2014,

Real estate

File:Luxury Villa House (South Ghana).jpg|thumb|A villa in East Ridge ]]The real estate and housing market of Ghana has become an important and strategic economic sector, particularly in the urban centres of south Ghana such as Accra, Kumasi, Sekondi-Takoradi and Tema.WEB,weblink Real Estate Market in Ghana, orelghana.com, 23 July 2012, 25 July 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130702190939weblink">weblink 2 July 2013, WEB,weblink Property market faces brighter growth prospects, ghanabizmedia.com, 25 July 2013, Kumasi is growing at a faster rate than Accra, and there is less competition in its real estate market. The gross rental income tax of Ghana is withheld at 10%, capital gains are taxed at 15% with a 5% gift tax imposed on the transfer of properties and Ghana's real estate market is divided into 3 areas: public sector real estate development, emerging private sector real estate development, and private individuals. The activities of these 3 groups are facilitated by the Ghanaian banks and the primary mortgage market which has demonstrated enormous growth potential. Recent developments in the Ghanaian economy has given birth to a boom in the construction sector, including the housing and public housing sector generating and injecting billions of dollars annually into the Ghanaian economy. The real estate market investment perspective and attraction comes from Ghana's tropical location and robust political stability. An increasing number of the Ghanaian populace are investing in properties and the Ghana government is empowering the private sector inthe real estate direction.WEB,weblink Economic Update – Ghana: Private opportunities in real estate, oxfordbusinessgroup.com, 12 April 2012, 25 July 2013,

Trade and exports

(File:2014 Ghana Products Export Treemap.png|thumb|Ghana Export Treemap by Product (2014) from Harvard Atlas of Economic ComplexityWEB,weblink What did Ghana export in 2014? – The Atlas Of Economic Complexity, atlas.cid.harvard.edu, ){{double image|right|Tema Harbour, Greater Accra.jpg|315||146|■ 1st image: Container ships and Merchant ships being loaded and unloaded at Intermodal freight transport of Tema Harbour.■ 2nd image: The Takoradi Harbour seaport was established in 1928 and is Ghana's main export outlet. Ghana maintains one of the world's fastest growing and expanding shipping industry.}}In July 2013, International Enterprise Singapore opened its 38th global office in Accra, to develop trade and investment on logistics, oil and gas, aviation, transportation and consumer sectors. Singapore and Ghana also signed four bilateral agreements to promote public sector and private sector collaboration, as Ghana aims to predominantly shift its economic trade partnership to East Asia and Southeast Asia. The economic centre is IE Singapore's second office in Africa, coming six months after opening in Johannesburg, South Africa in January 2013.WEB,weblink IE S'pore opens second Africa office in Ghana, business.asiaone.com, AsiaOne, 27 July 2013, 10 May 2014, Ghana's labour force in 2008 totalled 11.5 million Ghanaian citizens.Annex 1: Political and Administrative System {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120501234849weblink |date=1 May 2012 }}. World Bank. Retrieved 29 December 2011.WEB,weblink Republic of Ghana Country Strategy Paper 2012–2016, afdb.org, 31 May 2013, {{rp|12–40}} Tema Harbour is Africa's largest harbour and Takoradi Harbour along with Tema harbour in Ghana handles goods and exports for Ghana. They are also traffic junctions where goods are transhipped; the Tema harbour handles the majority of the nation's export cargo and most of the country's chief exports is shipped from Takoradi harbour. The Takoradi harbour and Tema harbour are operated by the state-owned Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority.Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority: Port of Takoradi {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140228112618weblink |date=28 February 2014 }}. ghanaports.gov.gh. Retrieved 1 January 2012.Ghana Ports and Harbours Authority: Port of Tema {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140228113034weblink |date=28 February 2014 }}. ghanaports.gov.gh. Retrieved 1 January 2012.

Electricity generation sector

Shortages of electricity have led to dumsorWEB,weblink I've been named 'Mr Dumsor' in Ghana – Prez Mahama tells Ghanaians in Germany – See more at:, Graphic Communications Group Ltd (GCGL), 21 January 2015, 2 March 2015, Graphic Online, (persistent, irregular and unpredictable electric power outages), increasing the interest in renewables.WEB,weblink Ghana's power crisis: What about renewable energy?, graphic.com.gh, 10 April 2014, 8 February 2015, Agbenyega, E., Ghana plans to become a major regional exporter of electrical power using oil from the Jubilee oil field.WEB, Reuters Editorial,weblink Ghana's Jubilee oil field nears output plateau, Reuters, 23 April 2013, 30 May 2015,

Economic transparency

According to Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index of 2013, out of 177 countries, Ghana ranked 63rd with Cuba and Saudi Arabia. Ghana had a score of 46 on a scale where a 0–9 score means highly corrupt, and a 90–100 score means very clean. This was based on perceived levels of public sector corruption.WEB, Corruption Perceptions Index 2013,weblink Transparency International, 24 January 2014, Previously in 2012, the country ranked 64 and scored 45. Thus, Ghana's public sector scored lower in 2013 than in 2012, according to CPI's scores.Local reports have claimed that Ghana loses US$4.5 billion annually from nominal gross domestic product (Nominal GDP) growth as a result of economic corruption and economic crime by the incumbent National Democratic Congress (NDC) government of Ghana led by John Dramani Mahama.WEB,weblink Ghana Loses $4b Annually To Corruption, businessguideghana.com, 3 December 2013, It is also said Ghana has lost an additional US$2.5 billion from nominal gross domestic product (Nominal GDP) growth between the months of January 2013 to October 2013 through economic corrupt practices under the Mahama administration.WEB,weblink Impeach Mahama over GYEEDA, SUBAH scandals – Group, vibeghana.com, 30 October 2013, 3 December 2013, The incumbent president is however seen to be fighting corruption by some government members,WEB, Mahama more committed to fighting corruption than any past president – Apaak,weblink My Joy Online, 24 January 2014, and a fellow politician of an opposition party,WEB, Mahama committed to fighting corruption – Mornah,weblink GhanaWeb, 24 January 2014, after ordering investigations into scandals. Nonetheless others believe his actions are not sufficient in some cases.WEB, Mahama Fighting Corruption? NO ACTION ON ¢8BN MAPUTO SCANDAL-Over Three Years After Damning Report of malfeasance,weblink New Statesman, 24 January 2014, John Addo Kufuor, son of former President John Agyekum Kufuor, and Kojo Annan, son of former Secretary-General of the United Nations Kofi Annan, have been named in association with the Panama Papers.NEWS,weblink Africa loses more money to illicit financial flows than it receives in foreign aid, Lily Kuo, 4 April 2016, 24 April 2016, Quartz, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160417060158weblink">weblink 17 April 2016,

Science and technology

Ghana was the first sub-Saharan African country to launch a cellular mobile network (1992). It was one of the first countries in Africa to be connected to the internet and to introduce ADSL broadband services.WEB, Science & Technology,weblink Ghanaweb, 24 June 2015, 24 June 2016,

Space and satellite programmes

The Ghana Space Science and Technology Centre (GSSTC) and Ghana Space Agency (GhsA) oversee the space exploration and space programmes of Ghana. GSSTC and GhsA worked to have a national security observational satellite launched into orbit in 2015.WEB,weblink Africa's journey to space begins on the ground, 2012, BBC News, United Kingdom, 24 June 2013, WEB,weblink Ghana's Home-Grown Space Program Takes Off, 2013, Voice of America, United States, 24 June 2013, The first practical step in its endeavor was a CanSat launched on 15 May 2013, a space programme spearheaded by the All Nations University College (ANUC) in Koforidua. The CanSat was deployed {{convert|200|m|abbr=off}} high from a helium-filled balloon and took some aerial images as well as temperature readings. As its next step in advancing space science and satellite technology in the sub-region, an amateur ground station has been designed and built by the university. It has successfully tracked and communicated with several amateur radio satellites in orbit including the International Space Station, receiving slow-scan TV images on 18 and 20 December 2014. The miniaturized earth observational satellite is to be launched into orbit in 2017.{{Citation|url=http://www.voanews.com/a/1686704.html|title=Ghana's Home-Grown Space Program Takes Off|year=2013|publisher=Voice of America|accessdate=24 June 2013}}Ghana's annual space exploration expenditure has been 1% of its gross domestic product (GDP), to support research in science and technology. In 2012 Ghana was elected to chair the Commission on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development in the South (Comsats); Ghana has a joint effort in space exploration with South Africa's South African National Space Agency (SANSA).

Cybernetics and cyberwarfare

{{See also|Sakawa}}File:Wikimedia Outreach in Ghana 6.jpeg|thumb|Ghana education system's implementation of information and communications technology at the University of GhanaUniversity of GhanaThe use of computer technology for teaching and learning began to receive government of Ghana's attention from the late 1990s. The information and communications technology in education policy of Ghana requires the use of information and communications technology for teaching and learning at all levels of the education of Ghana system. The Ministry of Education (MOE) supports institutions in teaching of information and communications technology literacy. Majority of secondary, and some basic schools of Ghana have computer laboratories.K. D. MEREKU, I. Yidana, W. H. K. HORDZI, I. Tete-Mensah; Williams, J. B. (2009). Pedagogical Integration of ICT: Ghana Report. weblinkGhana's intention to become the information technology hub of West Africa has led the government of Ghana to enact cyber crime legislation and enhance cyber security practices. Acting on that goal, in 2008 Ghana passed the Electronic Communications Act and the Electronic Transactions Act, which established the legal framework for governing information technology. In November 2011, the Deputy Minister for Communications and Technology announced the development of a national cyber security strategy, aimed at combating cyber crime and securing critical infrastructure.In June 2012, the National Information Technology Agency (NITA) announced a national computer emergency response team "strategy" designed to co-ordinate government response to cyberattacks, both internal and external. The agency also established computer emergency response teams for each municipal, metropolitan, and district assembly to improve co-ordination and information-sharing on cyberspace threats.WEB,weblink The Cyber Index – International Security Trends and Realities, unidir.org, PDF, 63–64, 2013, 22 July 2014, Ghana is ranked 2nd on continental Africa and 7th globally in cyber warfare, cyberterrorism, cyber crime, and internet crime.WEB,weblink Cyber crime:Ghana 2nd in Africa, 7th in the world, 1 August 2013, GhanaWeb, 13 July 2017,

Health and biotechnology

The Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine is an agency of the Ministry of Health that was set up in the 1970s for both R&D and as a practical resource (product production & distribution/provision) primarily in areas of biotechnology related to medicinal plants. This includes both herbal medicine and work on more advanced applications. It also has a secondary role as an educational resource for foreign students in health, biotechnology and related fields.{{clear left}}

Education

Overview

Ghanaian education system is divided in three parts: "Basic Education", secondary cycle and tertiary education. "Basic Education" lasts 11 years (ages 4‒15). It is divided into Kindergarten (2 years), Primary School (2 module of 3 years) and Junior High (3 years). Junior High School (JHS) ends with the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE).WEB,weblink Basic Education Curriculum, Ghana Education Service, 6 June 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140525195225weblink">weblink 25 May 2014, WEB,weblink Basic curriculum Education: The junior High Education, Ghana Education Service, 6 June 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140605133413weblink">weblink 5 June 2014, Once the BECE achieved, the pupil can pursue into secondary cycle.WEB,weblink BECE, 6 June 2014, West African Examinations Council(corporate site: Ghana), yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140519130523weblink">weblink 19 May 2014, Hence, the pupil has the choice between general education (assumed by Senior High School) and vocational education (assumed by technical Senior High School, Technical and Vocational Institutes, completed by a massive private and informal offer). Senior High School lasts three years and ends on the West African Secondary School Certificate Examination (WASSCE). The WASSCE is needed to join a university bachelor's degree programme.{{sfn|NUFFIC|2013|page=7}} Polytechnics are opened to vocational students, from SHS or from TVI.WEB,weblink Vocational Education in Ghana, UNESCO-UNEVOC, July 2012, 23 May 2014, A Bachelor's degree usually lasts 4 years, can be followed by a 1- or 2-year master's degree, which can be concluded in 3 years by a Ph.D.{{sfn|NUFFIC|2013|page=9}} A polytechnic lasts 2 or 3 years. Ghana also possesses numerous colleges of education.{{sfn |Atuahene, Ansah|2013|p=2}} The Ghanaian education system from Kindergarten up to an undergraduate degree level takes 20 years.The academic year usually goes from August to May inclusive.{{sfn|NUFFIC|2013|pages=4–5}} The school year in primary education lasts 40 weeks in Primary School and SHS, and 45 weeks in JHS.{{sfn|NUFFIC|2013|pages=5}}

Enrollment

{{multiple image| footer =| header =| align = right| image1 = Ghana Ratio of Girls to Boys in Primary and Secondary Education.png| width1 = 273| alt1 =| caption1 = Ratio of females to males in education system.| image2 = Ghana Children Out Of School.png| width2 = 273| alt2 =| caption2 = Females and males out of education system.}}With over 95% of its children in school, Ghana currently has one of the highest school enrollment rates in all of Africa.WEB,weblink UNICEF – Basic Education and Gender Equality, unicef.org, 1 April 2012, NEWS,weblink Africa, The Globe and Mail, 26 June 2010, Toronto, The ratio of females to males in the total education system was 0.98, in 2014.WEB,weblink Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education, World Bank, 21 July 2013,

Foreign students

Ghana's education system annually attracts a large number of foreign students particularly in the university sector.WEB,weblink Plight of Foreign Students in Ghana, modernghana.com, 2 November 2013, 10 May 2014, One noted product of the Ghana education system is Robert Mugabe who completed both his elementary school education and high school education at the prestigious Achimota School.Nyarota, Geoffrey; Against the Grain; pp. 101–102.

Funding of education

The government largely funds basic education comprising public primary schools and public junior high schools. Senior high schools are highly subsidised by the government. At the higher education level, the government funds more than 80% of resources provided to public universities, polytechnics and teacher training colleges.

Provision of educational material

As part of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education, Fcube, the government supplies all basic education schools with all their textbooks and other educational supplies like exercise books. Senior high schools are also provided with all their textbook requirement by the government. Private schools acquire their educational material from private suppliers.Ghana has the largest bookshop in Africa, EPP Books Services located at the University of Ghana.

Kindergarten and education structure

(File:Ghana Education Structure.gif|thumb|Education structure of Ghana)The female and male ages 15–24 years literacy rate in Ghana was 81% in 2010, with males at 82%,WEB,weblink Literacy rate, youth male (% of males ages 15–24), World Bank, 29 July 2013, and females at 80%.WEB,weblink Literacy rate, youth female (% of females ages 15–24), World Bank, 29 July 2013, Ghanaian children begin their education at the age of three or four starting from kindergarten (nursery school and preschool), then to elementary school (primary school), high school (junior high school and senior high school) and finally university. The average age at which a Ghanaian child enters primary school is 6 years.Ghana has a free education 6-year primary school education system beginning at age six,WEB,weblink Ghana Lauded for Free Primary School Program, Voice of America, 16 February 2012, 6 June 2014, and, under the educational reforms implemented in 1988 and reformed in 2007, they pass on to a 3-year junior high school system. At the end of the third year of junior high, there is a mandatory "Basic Education Certificate Examination". Those continuing must complete the 4-year senior high school programme (which has been changed to three years) and take an admission exam to enter any university or tertiary programme. The Ghanaian education system from nursery school up to an undergraduate degree level takes 20 years.In 2005, Ghana had 12,130 primary schools, 5,450 junior secondary schools, 503 senior secondary schools, 21 public training colleges, 18 technical institutions, two diploma-awarding institutions and 6 universities.Education in Ghana. ghanaweb.comWEB,weblink Country module Ghana, 18 May 2013, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120605171810weblink">weblink 5 June 2012, . nuffic.nl. What to know about the National Accreditation Board (NAB). NAB.gov.gh. Retrieved 27 April 2010.In 2010, there were relatively more females (53.0%) than males (40.5%) with primary school and JSS (junior secondary school) / JHS (junior high school) as their highest level of education.

Elementary

The Ghanaian Ministry of Education and the Ghanaian National Accreditation Board provide free education at the elementary school (primary school) level, and most Ghanaians have relatively easy access to high school education (junior high school and senior high school). These numbers can be contrasted with the single university and handful of secondary and primary schools that existed at the time of independence in 1957. Ghana's spending on education has varied between 28–40% of its annual budget in the past decade. All teaching is done in English, mostly by qualified Ghanaian educators.The courses taught at the primary or basic school level include English, Ghanaian language and culture, mathematics, environmental studies, social studies, Mandarin and French as an OIF associated-member,WEB,weblink Le français, enjeu du XXI Sisécle (french), francophonie.org, 17 December 2010, integrated or general science, pre-vocational skills and pre-technical skills, religious and moral education, and physical activities such as Ghanaian music and dance, and physical education.{{clear}}

High school

{{Further|List of senior secondary schools in Ghana}}The senior high level school curriculum has core subjects and elective subjects of which students must take four the core subjects of English language, mathematics, integrated science (including science, agriculture and environmental studies) and social studies (economics, geography, history and government).High school students also choose four elective subjects from five available programmes: agriculture programme, general programme (arts or science option), business programme, vocational programme and technical programme.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110809071841weblink">weblink 9 August 2011, A Brief History of the Ghanaian Educational System, TobeWorldwide.org, Apart from most primary and secondary schools which choose the Ghanaian system of schooling, there are also international schools such as the Takoradi International School, Tema International School, Galaxy International School, The Roman Ridge School, Lincoln Community School, Faith Montessori School, American International School, Alpha Beta Christian College, Association International School, New Nation School, SOS Hermann Gmeiner International College, Vilac International School, Akosombo International School (which offers Cambridge O level certificate), North Legon Little Campus and International Community School, which offer the International Baccalaureat, Advanced Level General Certificate of Education and the International General Certificate of Secondary Education (IGCSE).

University

{{Further|List of universities in Ghana}}{{multiple image| align = right| header =| image1 = University of Education, Winneba (UEW) North Campus.jpg| alt1 =| width1 = 150| caption1 = Front view of the University of Education, Winneba (UEW) North Campus in Winneba| image2 = College of Engineering, KNUST Auditorium.JPG| alt2 =| width2 = 150| caption2 = Ghanaian college students at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) in Kumasi, February 2011| image3 = Badme Library of University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.JPG| alt3 =| width3 = 150| caption3 = Main entrance to the University of Ghana's Balme Library in Accra}}There are eight national public universities in Ghana: the University of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University of Cape Coast, University of Education, University for Development Studies, University of Mines and Technology, University of Professional Studies, Accra, University of Energy and Natural Resources, and University of Health and Allied Sciences.Ghana public universities. nab.gov.gh. Retrieved 2 January 2011.Ghana has a growing number of accredited private universities including Lancaster University, Ghana, Ghana Technology University College, Ashesi University College, Methodist University College Ghana, Central University College, Accra Institute of Technology, Regent University College of Science and Technology, Valley View University, Catholic University College, Presbyterian university college, and Zenith University College.Ghana private tertiary institutions offering degree program {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20131002212350weblink |date=2 October 2013 }}. nab.gov.gh. Retrieved 2 January 2011.The oldest university in Ghana, the University of Ghana, was founded in 1948. It had 29,754 students in 2008. Its programmes in the arts, humanities, business, and the social sciences, as well as medicine, are among the best in the country.{{citation needed|date=July 2017}} Many universities—including Harvard University, Cornell University, and Oxford University—have special study-abroad programmes with Ghanaian schools and provide their students the opportunity to study abroad at Ghanaian universities. New York University has a campus in Accra.WEB, NYU Accra,weblink NYU, 2 March 2014, The University of Ghana has seen a shift of its traditionally best students to the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology.WEB,weblink University of Ghana, Ug.edu.gh, 26 June 2010, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120729000402weblink">weblink 29 July 2012, Since Ghana's independence, the country has been one of the most educational in sub-Saharan Africa. Former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan has been chancellor of the University of Ghana since 2008.Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, the second university to be established in the country, is the premier university of science and technology in Ghana and West Africa.{{clear}}

Demographics

{{Further|Ghanaian people}}{|class="wikitable" style="float: right; margin-left: 10px"! colspan="4" style="text-align:center; background:#cfb;"|Population in Ghana{{UN_Population|ref}}! style="background:#cfb;"|Year! style="background:#cfb;"|Million1950 style="text-align:right;"|5.02000 style="text-align:right;"|18.9{{UN_Population{{#expr:{{formatnum:{{UN_PopulationR}}/1e6 round 1}}The vast majority of Ghana's population—98% percent— identify as Black Africans despite the majority of the population having some type of mixed heritage.WEB, Ghana Embassy – Population,weblink Ghana Embassy, 13 April 2014, WEB, Ghana Demographics Profile 2013,weblink Indexmundi, 13 April 2014, WEB, General Information – Key Figures,weblink GhanaWeb, 13 April 2014, Ghana is a multiethnic country. The largest ethnic group is the Ashanti people. Ghana's territorial area within West Africa was unoccupied and uninhabited by humans until the 10th century BC.BOOK, Dickson, Kwamina B., A Historical Geography of Ghana,weblink 1969, CUP Archive, 978-0-521-07102-4, 23–, By the 10th century AD. The Guans were the first settlers in Ghana long before the other tribes came. (Akans) had established Bonoman (Brong Ahafo region) and were joined by the current settlers and inhabitants by the 16th century.In 2010, the population of Ghana was 72.2% Christian (24.3% Pentecostal, 18.4% Protestant, 13.1% Catholic and 11.4% other). About 3.4% of the population follow Hinduism. Of these, 98% are indigenous converts. Hinduism in Ghana was popularized by Swami Ghana Nanda ji, who opened several temples in the nation. The temple of lord Shiva in Accra is one of the largest where there are celebrations to Ganesh Chaturthi, Rath Yatra, and other Hindu observations. Approximately 18.6% of the population of Ghana are Muslim, (51% Sunni, 16% Ahmadiyya, and 8% Shia).WEB,weblink The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity, 2 June 2014, 9 August 2012, Pew Forum on Religious & Public life, As of 2014, there are 375,000 registered legal skilled workers (permanent residents) or foreign workers/students (i.e. Ghana Card holders) inhabitants with an annually 1.5 million transited airport layovers. In its first post-colonial census in 1960, Ghana had a population of 6.7 million."Ghana – population". Library of Congress Country Studies. The median age of Ghanaian citizens is 30 years old and the average household size is 3.6 persons. The Government of Ghana states that the official language of Ghana is English, and is spoken by 67.1% of the inhabiting population of Ghana.

Population

{{multiple image
| align = right
| width1 = 310
| width2 = 150
| width3 = 250
| image1 = Ghana Card biometric.jpg
| image2 = Ghana Biometric Passport.jpg
| image3 = Ghana Duel Citizenship Identity Card.jpg
| caption1 = Ghana Card (Ghanaian electronic ID Card) – obverse (with chip (File:EPassport logo.svg|20px)).
| caption2 = Contemporary Ghanaian biometric passport (with chip (File:EPassport logo.svg|20px))
| caption3 = Multiple citizenship with Ghanaian biometric passport identity document.
}}As of 2016, Ghana had a population of 28,206,728.name=World Bank>WEB,weblink Around 29 percent of the population is under the age of 15, while persons aged 15–64 make up 57.8 percent of the population.WEB,weblink The Ashanti Region had the most, (Akan) (Ashanti) (4.7 million in Ashanti, 2.3 million in Brong-Ahafo, 2.2 million in Central, 2.6 million in Eastern, 2.3 million in Western, and 4 million in the seat of government in Greater Accra geographically and legally part of Eastern then administered separately on 23 July 1982).WEB,weblink Islam in Ghana – Report, 12 August 2013, , WEB,weblink 2010 Population and Housing Census, PDF, 12 August 2013, {{As of|2010}}, 4.1 million persons reside in the Dagbani territories or Kingdom of Dagbon (2.4 million in Northern, 1 million in Upper East, and 0.7 million in Upper West).{{As of|2010}}, 2.1 million persons reside in Ewe territory Volta.

Legal immigration

Due to the recent legal immigration of skilled workers who possess Ghana Cards, there is a small population of Chinese, Malaysian, Indian, Middle Eastern and European nationals.

Illegal immigration

In 2010, the Ghana Immigration Service reported a large number of economic migrants and Illegal immigrants inhabiting Ghana: 14.6% (or 3.1 million) of Ghana's 2010 population (predominantly Nigerians, Burkinabe citizens, Togolese citizens, and Malian citizens). In 1969, under the "Ghana Aliens Compliance Order" (GACO) enacted by the Prime Minister of Ghana Kofi Abrefa Busia;WEB,weblink Ghana Owes no Apology to Anybody for Aliens Compliance Order, vibeghana.com, 14 April 2013, 31 July 2013, Government of Ghana with BGU (Border Guard Unit) deported over 3,000,000 aliens and illegal immigrants in three months as they made up 20% of the population at the time.WEB,weblink The History of Ghana's 1969 Aliens Compliance Order, davidson.edu, 29 March 2012, 31 July 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130917165858weblink">weblink 17 September 2013, In 2013, there was a mass deportation of illegal miners, more than 4,000 of them Chinese nationals.WEB,weblinkwork=Mail & Guardian, 16 July 2013, 9 May 2014, WEB,weblink Ghana deports thousands in crackdown on illegal Chinese goldminers, The Guardian, 15 July 2013, 9 May 2014,

Languages

File:Akan Greetings (Akwaba – Welcome; Ete sen – Hello).JPG|thumb|Ashanti greeting phrasephraseThere are eleven languages that have the status of government-sponsored languages: English is the language of the state and widely used as a lingua franca.Since Ghana is surrounded by French-speaking countries, French is widely taught in schools and universities, as well as a language used for commercial and international economic exchanges. Since 2006, Ghana is an associate member of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonieweblink the global organisation that unites French-speaking countries (84 nations on 6 continents). In 2005, over 350 000 Ghanaian children studied French in schools. Since then, its status has progressively been updated to a mandatory language in every high schoolweblink

Religion

File:Anglican Holy Trinity Cathedral Accra.jpg|right|thumb|300px|Anglican Holy Trinity Cathedral, AccraAccra{| class="wikitable" border="1" style="width: 60%; float:left;" Religious affiliation in Ghana! Affiliation !! 2000 CensusWEB,weblink 2010 Population & Housing Census: National Analytical Report, Ghana Statistical Service, 63, 2013, !! 2010 CensusWEB,weblink Ghana, The World Factbook, !! 2014 DHS SurveyWEB,weblink Ghana: Demographic and Health Survey, 2014, Ghana Statistical Service & Ghana Health Service, PDF, 32, 21 April 2018, The DHS survey surveyed only those between the ages of 15 and 59Christianity>Christian 68.8% 71.2% 76.9% Pentecostal/Charismatic Christianity >| 36.3% Protestant 18.6% 18.4% 13.5%The DHS survey used Anglican/Methodist/Presbyterian in place of "Protestant" Catholic 15.1% 13.1% 10.4% Other Christian 11.0% 11.4% 16.7%Islam>Muslim 15.9% 17.6% 16.4%| 2.6% The DHS survey combined "Traditional" with "Spiritualist"Irreligion>None 6.1% 5.3% 4.3%| 0.0% Notes
{{clear}}Ghana is a largely Christian country, although a sizable Muslim minority exists. Traditional (indigenous) beliefs are also practiced.

Fertility and reproductive health

The fertility rate of Ghana declined from 3.99 (2000) to 3.28 (2010) with 2.78 in urban region and 3.94 in rural region.WEB,weblink 2010 Population & Housing Census, statsghana.gov.gh, 2010, {{As of|2010}}, the maternal mortality rate was 350 deaths/100,000 live births, and the infant mortality rate was 38.52 deaths/1,000 live births.According to a 2013 UNICEF report,UNICEF 2013, p. 27. 4% of women in Ghana have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM). The practice has been made illegal in the country.WEB,weblink Legislation To Address The Issue of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), Ghana is also the birth country of anti-FGM campaigner Efua Dorkenoo.

Universal health care and health care provision

{{Further|Eye care in Ghana|Optometry in Ghana}}Ghana has a universal health care system strictly designated for Ghanaian nationals, National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS).WEB,weblink National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), nhis.gov.gh, 10 May 2014, Health care is very variable throughout Ghana and in 2012, over 12 million Ghanaian nationals were covered by the National Health Insurance Scheme (Ghana) (NHIS).WEB,weblink Ghana: National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), jointlearningnetwork.org, 10 May 2014, Urban centres are well served, and contain most of the hospitals, clinics, and pharmacies in Ghana. There are over 200 hospitals in Ghana and Ghana is a destination for medical tourism.WEB,weblink Medical tourism is emerging market for Ghana, eturbonews.com, 5 August 2009, 10 May 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140512224254weblink">weblink 12 May 2014, In 2010, there were 0.1 physicians per 1,000 people and as of 2011, 0.9 hospital beds per 1,000 people.In 2013, life expectancy at birth had increased to an average of 66 years with males at 66 years and females at 67 years,Field Listing :: Life expectancy at birth. Retrieved 24 June 2013. and in 2013 infant mortality decreased to 39 per 1,000 live births.Field Listing :: Infant mortality rate.cia.gov. Retrieved 24 June 2013. There was an estimation of 15 physicians and 93 nurses per 100,000 persons in 2010.WEB,weblink Afro.who.int, Afro.who.int, 4 May 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100111084659weblink">weblink 11 January 2010, 5.2% of Ghana's GDP was spent on health in 2010,Field Listing :: Health expenditures. Retrieved 24 June 2013. and all Ghanaian citizens have the right to access primary health care.WEB,weblink These are the countries where I'm the least known" – Bill Gates visits Ghana, thejournal.ie, 10 May 2014, {{As of|2012}}, the HIV/AIDS prevalence was estimated at 1.40% among adults aged 15–49.WEB,weblink Library publications, {{clear right}}

Culture

File:FB 20151104 19 47 22 Saved Picture(1).jpg|thumb|Hogbetsotso festival in the Volta regionVolta regionGhanaian culture is a diverse mixture of the practices and beliefs of many different Ghanaian ethnic groups. The 2010 census reported that the largest ethnic groups are the Akan (47.3 percent), the Mole-Dagbani (16.6 percent), the Ewe (13.9 percent), the Ga-Dangme (7.4 percent), the Gurma (5.7) and the Guan (3.7 percent).WEB,weblink The Akan make up a majority of the population in the Central (81.7 percent), Western (78.2 percent), Ashanti (74.2 percent), Brong Ahafo (58.9 percent) and Eastern (51.1 percent) regions.WEB,weblink

Food and drink

Ghanaian cuisine and gastronomy is diverse, and includes an assortment of soups and stews with varied seafoods and most Ghanaian soups are prepared with vegetables, meat, poultry or fish. Fish is important in the Ghanaian diet with tilapia, roasted and fried whitebait, smoked fish and crayfish all being common components of Ghanaian dishes.Banku (Akple) is a common Ghanaian starchy food made from ground corn (maize), and cornmeal based staples, dokonu (kenkey) and banku (akple) are usually accompanied by some form of fried fish (chinam) or grilled tilapia and a very spicy condiment made from raw red and green chillies, onions and tomatoes (pepper sauce). Banku and tilapia is a combo served in most Ghanaian restaurants.WEB,weblink Ghanaian cuisine, dokonu, banku, okra and soup, kadirecipes.com, Oumoupoo Bah, 22 October 2011, 1 August 2013, Fufu is the most common exported Ghanaian dish in that it is a delicacy across the African diaspora.

Literature

The Ghanaian national literature radio programme and accompanying publication Voices of Ghana was one of the earliest on the African continent. The most prominent Ghanaian authors are novelists; J. E. Casely Hayford, Ayi Kwei Armah and Nii Ayikwei Parkes, who gained international acclaim with the books, Ethiopia Unbound (1911), The Beautyful Ones Are Not Yet Born (1968) and Tail of the Blue Bird (2009), respectively.WEB, Amadeus,weblink Ghana, Spanish, 1 August 2013, In addition to novels, other literature arts such as Ghanaian theatre and poetry have also had a very good development and support at the national level with prominent Ghanaian playwrights and poets Joe de Graft and Efua Sutherland.

Adinkra

File:Adinkra motifs Rattray 1927.jpg|thumb|Adinkra symbols by Robert Sutherland RattrayRobert Sutherland RattrayDuring the 13th century, Ghanaians developed their unique art of adinkra printing. Hand-printed and hand-embroidered adinkra clothes were made and used exclusively by the then Ghanaian royalty for devotional ceremonies. Each of the motifs that make up the corpus of adinkra symbolism has a name and meaning derived from a proverb, a historical event, human attitude, ethology, plant life-form, or shapes of inanimate and man-made objects. These are graphically rendered in stylised geometric shapes. The meanings of the motifs may be categorised into aesthetics, ethics, human relations, and concepts.The Adinkra symbols have a decorative function as tattoos but also represent objects that encapsulate evocative messages that convey traditional wisdom, aspects of life or the environment. There are many different symbols with distinct meanings, often linked with proverbs. In the words of Anthony Appiah, they were one of the means in a pre-literate society for "supporting the transmission of a complex and nuanced body of practice and belief".BOOK, Appiah, Kwame Anthony, In my father's house : Africa in the philosophy of culture, 1993, Oxford University Press, New York, 978-0-19-506852-8, 1.paperbackedition 1993., Anthony Appiah,

Traditional clothing

Along with the Adinkra cloth Ghanaians use many different cloth fabrics for their traditional attire. The different ethnic groups have their own individual cloth. The most well known is the Kente cloth. Kente is a very important Ghanaian national costume and clothing and these cloths are used to make traditional and modern Ghanaian Kente attire.WEB,weblink Ghanaian Kente Cloth, kentecloth.net, 6 June 2014, Different symbols and different colours mean different things. Kente is the most famous of all the Ghanaian cloths. Kente is a ceremonial cloth hand-woven on a horizontal treadle loom and strips measuring about 4 inches wide are sewn together into larger pieces of cloths. Cloths come in various colours, sizes and designs and are worn during very important social and religious occasions.In a cultural context, kente is more important than just a cloth and it is a visual representation of history and also a form of written language through weaving. The term kente has its roots in the Akan word kÉ›ntÉ›n which means a basket and the first kente weavers used raffia fibres to weave cloths that looked like kenten (a basket); and thus were referred to as kenten ntoma; meaning basket cloth. The original Akan name of the cloth was nsaduaso or nwontoma, meaning "a cloth hand-woven on a loom"; however, "kente" is the most frequently used term today.{{clear left}}

Modern clothing

{{multiple image
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}}Contemporary Ghanaian fashion includes traditional and modern styles and fabrics and has made its way into the African and global fashion scene. The cloth known as African print fabric was created out of Dutch wax textiles, it is believed that in the late 1800s, Dutch ships on their way to Asia stocked with machine-made textiles that mimicked Indonesian Batik stopped at many West African ports on the way. The fabrics did not do well in Asia. However, in West Africa — mainly Ghana where there was an already established market for cloths and textiles — the client base grew and it was changed to include local and traditional designs, colours and patterns to cater to the taste of the new consumers.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100925182125weblink">weblink yes, 25 September 2010, The Story Behind African Wax Print Cloth, Thewrendesign.com, 10 July 2008, 24 January 2015, Today outside of Africa it is called "Ankara" and it has a client base well beyond Ghana and Africa as a whole. It is very popular among Caribbean peoples and African Americans; celebrities such as Solange Knowles and her sister Beyoncé have been seen wearing African print attire.WEB,weblink, Erin Wilson, Beyonce vs. Solange: Which Sister Wears Bold Prints Best, Fashionmagazine.com, 5 April 2013, 24 January 2015, Many designers from countries in North America and Europe are now using African prints and it has gained a global interest.WEB, http:munaluchibridal.com/african-inspired-spring-2012-collections-takes-over-lfw-nyfw/, African-Inspired Spring 2012 Collections Takes Over LFW & NYFW, ChiomaChinweoke, munaluchibridal.com, 21 September 2011, 24 January 2015, British luxury fashion house Burberry created a collection around Ghanaian styles.WEB,weblink African Style Goes Global, Despite Little Tangible Support From African Leaders, Frankie Edozien, The New York Times, 26 May 2012, 24 January 2015, American musician Gwen Stefani has repeatedly incorporated African prints into her clothing line and can often be seen wearing it.WEB,weblink Design: Gwen Stefani's L.A.M.B Spring 2011 Collection, Okayafrica.com, 3 August 2011, 24 January 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141216220100weblink">weblink 16 December 2014, Internationally acclaimed Ghanaian-British designer Ozwald Boateng introduced African print suits in his 2012 collection.WEB,weblink African Icons Show at NYFW: Ozwald Boateng, Africanprintinfashion.com, 10 September 2012, 24 January 2015,

Music and dance

File:Traditional Adowa dance form and music performance.ogv|thumb|Traditional Adowa danceAdowa danceThe music of Ghana is diverse and varies between different ethnic groups and regions. Ghanaian music incorporates several distinct types of musical instruments such as the talking drum ensembles, Akan Drum, goje fiddle and koloko lute, court music, including the Akan Seperewa, the Akan atumpan, the Ga kpanlogo styles, and log xylophones used in asonko music. The most well known genres to have come from Ghana are African jazz, which was created by Ghanaian artist Kofi Ghanaba,NEWS,weblink Ghana: Kofi Ghanaba – Influential Drummer Who Emphasised the African Origins of Jazz, 12 February 2009, Ghanaian Chronicle, 30 May 2009, and its earliest form of secular music, called highlife.WEB,weblink Ghana: From Highlife to Hiplife, worldmusic.net, 6 June 2014, Highlife originated in the late 19th century and early 20th century and spread throughout West Africa. In the 1990s a new genre of music was created by the youth incorporating the influences of highlife, Afro-reggae, dancehall and hiphop. This hybrid was called hiplife. Ghanaian artists such as "Afro Roots" singer, activist and songwriter Rocky Dawuni, R&B and soul singer Rhian Benson and Sarkodie have had international success.WEB,weblink Rhian Benson's global soul sound, CNN, 1 March 2011, 6 June 2014, WEB,weblink Sarkodie, ghanacelebrities.com, 6 June 2014, In December 2015, Rocky Dawuni became the first Ghanaian musician to be nominated for a Grammy award in the Grammy Award for Best Reggae Album category for his 6th studio album titled Branches of The Same TreeWEB, Branches of the Same Tree album,weblink iTunes, 16 March 2016, released 31 March 2015.Ghanaian dance is as diverse as its music, and there are traditional dances and different dances for different occasions.WEB, Temple, PDF,weblink Dance, Ghana, 6 June 2014, The most known Ghanaian dances are those for celebrations. These dances include the Adowa, Kpanlogo, Azonto, Klama, and Bamaya.

Film

{{multiple image| align = right| direction = horizontal| width =List of Ghanaian actors>actor of Ghanaian ancestry, Van Vicker, and international actors Boris Kodjoe and Idris Elba| image1 = Van Vicker (Cropped).jpg| width1 = 99| alt1 =| caption1 =| image2 = Boris Kodjoe 2010.jpg| width2 = 108| alt2 =| caption2 =| image3 = Idris Elba 2014.jpg| width3 = 100| alt3 =| caption3 =}}Ghana has a budding and thriving film industry. Ghana's film industry dates as far back as 1948 when the Gold Coast Film Unit was set up in the Information Services Department.WEB, Gold Coast Film Unit,weblink Colonialfilm.org.uk, 2 April 2014, Some internationally recognised films have come from Ghana. In 1970, I Told You So was one of the first Ghanaian films to receive international acknowledgement and received great reviews from The New York Times.{{IMDb title|65873|I Told You So}} It was followed by the 1973 Ghanaian and Italian production The African Deal also known as "Contratto carnale" featuring Bahamian American actor Calvin Lockhart.WEB, The African Deal (1973),weblink Internet Movie Database, 2 April 2014, 1983's Kukurantumi: the Road to Accra, a Ghanaian and German production directed by King Ampaw, was written about by famous American film critic Vincent Canby.NEWS, Kukurantumi The Road To Accra (1983),weblink The New York Times, 1 April 1984, 2 April 2014, In 1987, Cobra Verde, another Ghanaian and German production directed by Werner Herzog, received international acclamation and in 1988, Heritage Africa won more than 12 film awards.In recent times there have been collaborations between Ghanaian and Nigerian crew and cast and a number of productions turned out. Many Ghanaian films are co-produced with Nollywood, the Nigerian film industry, and some are distributed by Nigerian marketers. Also, Nigerian filmmakers often feature Ghanaian actors and actresses in their movies and Ghanaian filmmakers feature Nigerian actors and actresses in theirs. Nadia Buari, Yvonne Nelson, Lydia Forson and Jackie Appiah all popular Ghanaian actresses and Van Vicker and Majid Michel both popular Ghanaian actors, have starred in many Nigerian movies. As a result of these collaborations, Western viewers often confuse Ghanaian movies with Nollywood and count their sales as one; however, they are two independent industries that sometimes share Nollywood. In 2009, Unesco described Nollywood as the second-biggest film industry in the world after Bollywood.NEWS,weblink Nollywood success puts Nigeria's film industry in regional spotlight, The Times, Jonathan, Clayton, 3 April 2010, 3 April 2010,

Media

File:Ghana Trustworthiness of Media.jpg|thumb|Ghana mass media, newsnewsThe media of Ghana are amongst the most free in Africa. Chapter 12 of the 1992 Constitution of Ghana guarantees freedom of the press and independence of the media, while Chapter 2 prohibits censorship.WEB,weblink Constitution of Ghana, 18 May 2013, bot: unknown,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080324233340weblink">weblink 24 March 2008, , Government of Ghana. Post-independence, the government and media often had a tense relationship, with private outlets closed during the military governments and strict media laws that prevented criticism of government.Anokwa, K. (1997). In Press Freedom and Communication in Africa. Erbio, F. & Jong-Ebot, W. (Eds.) Africa World Press. {{ISBN|978-0-86543-551-3}}.Press freedoms were restored in 1992, and after the election in 2000 of John Agyekum Kufuor the tensions between the private media and government decreased. Kufuor supported press freedom and repealed a libel law, but maintained that the media had to act responsibly.Basic Data. pressreference.com The Ghanaian media has been described as "one of the most unfettered" in Africa, operating with little restriction. The private press often carries criticism of government policy.BBC Country Profile: Ghana, BBC News.

Sports

{{See also|Ghana at the 2010 Winter Olympics|l1=Ghana at the Winter Olympics|Ghana at the Olympics}}File:20150331 Mali vs Ghana 042.jpg|thumb|left|Black Stars, the Ghana national football teamGhana national football teamAssociation football (or soccer) is the most spectated sport in Ghana and the national men's football team is known as the Black Stars, with the under-20 team known as the Black Satellites. Ghana has won the African Cup of Nations four times, the FIFA U-20 World Cup once, and has participated in three consecutive FIFA World Cups dating back to 2006.NEWS,weblink Ghana thrilled by historic title, BBC, 17 October 2009, 6 June 2014, In the 2010 FIFA World Cup, Ghana became the third African country to reach the quarter-final stage of the World Cup after Cameroon in 1990 and Senegal in 2002.NEWS,weblink USA 1–2 Ghana (aet), BBC, 26 June 2009, 26 June 2010, Ghana national U-20 football team, known as the Black Satellites, is considered to be the feeder team for the Ghana national football team. Ghana is the first and only country on the Africa continent to be crowned FIFA U-20 World Cup Champions, and two-time runners up in 1993 and 2001. The Ghana national U-17 football team known as the Black Starlets are two-time FIFA U-17 World Cup champions in 1991 and 1995, two-time runners up in 1993 and 1997.NEWS,weblink World Championship for U-16/U-17 Teams, Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation, 6 June 2014, {{multiple image| align = right| direction =| width =| image1 =| width1 = 260| alt1 =| caption1 = The Ghanaian national football team squad that was crowned Champions of the 1965 African Cup of Nations in the year 1965 with the Trophy of the Africa Cup of Nations.| image2 =Black Stars Goal Celebration (Ghana national football team).jpg| width2 = 292| alt2 =| caption2 = Black Stars goal celebration; football is the most popular sport in Ghana}}Ghanaian football teams Asante Kotoko SC and Accra Hearts of Oak SC are the 5th and 9th best football teams on the Africa continent and have won a total of five Africa continental association football and Confederation of African Football trophies; Ghanaian football club Asante Kotoko SC has been crowned two-time CAF Champions League winners in 1970, 1983 and five-time CAF Champions League runners up, and Ghanaian football club Accra Hearts of Oak SC has been crowned 2000 CAF Champions League winner and two-time CAF Champions League runners up, 2001 CAF Super Cup champions and 2004 CAF Confederation Cup champions. The International Federation of Football History and Statistics crowned Asante Kotoko SC as the African club of the 20th century.WEB,weblink Africa's club of the Century, IFFHS official website, 21 July 2013, There are several club football teams in Ghana that play in the Ghana Premier League and Division One League, both administered by the Ghana Football Association.NEWS,weblink Premier League, ghanafa.org, 6 June 2014, {{multiple image
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| width1 = 405
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| caption2 = Ghanaian winter sports Olympic team at the opening ceremony of the 2010 Winter Olympics
}}Ghana competed in the Winter Olympics in 2010 for the first time. Ghana qualified for the 2010 Winter Olympics, scoring 137.5 International Ski Federation points, within the qualifying range of 120–140 points.WEB,weblink Base Camp Sponsored Ghanaian skier Kwame Nkrumah-Acheampong has qualified for 2010 Olympics, 0–21 Snowboarding, 13 March 2009, 26 June 2013, Ghanaian skier, Kwame Nkrumah-Acheampong, nicknamed "The Snow Leopard", became the first Ghanaian to take part in the Winter Olympics, at the 2010 Winter Olympics held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada,NEWS, Dutta, Kunal,weblink Forget Eric the Eel... meet the Snow Leopard, The Independent, 22 October 2009, 26 June 2013, taking part in the slalom skiing.WEB,weblink Kwame Nkrumah-Acheampong, Alpine Skiing, Vancouver, 2010, 26 June 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100219204633weblink">weblink 19 February 2010, Ghana finished 47th out of 102 participating nations, of whom 54 finished in the Alpine skiing slalom.Men's Slalom – Run 2 {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100408202557weblink |date=8 April 2010 }}, Vancouver 2010 Olympic Games official website. Retrieved 26 June 2013.WEB,weblink Men's Slalom, Vancouver, 2010, 26 June 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100408234256weblink">weblink 8 April 2010, Kwame Nkrumah-Acheampong broke on the international skiing circuit, being the second black African skier to do so.WEB,weblink Ghana's first winter Olympian gears up for Vancouver Games, Chris Wilson, Daily Mirror, 3 February 2010, 26 June 2013, Ghanaian athletes have won a total of four Olympics medals in thirteen appearances at the Summer Olympics, three in boxing, and a bronze medal in association football, and thus became the first country on the Africa continent to win a medal at association football.NEWS,weblink Ghana clinging to Olympic dream, BBC News, 8 April 2011, 26 June 2013, The country has also produced a number of world class boxers, including Azumah Nelson a three-time world champion and considered as Africa's greatest boxer,NEWS,weblink Is Azumah Nelson Africa's greatest boxer?, Errol Barnett, CNN, 10 August 2012, 6 June 2014, Nana Yaw Konadu also a three-time world champion, Ike Quartey, and Joshua Clottey.NEWS,weblink Top 5 Ghanaian Boxers, proboxing-fans.com, 6 June 2014, Ghana's women's football team won bronze at the Africa Women Cup of Nations 2016 edition in Yaoundé, Cameroon. The team beat South Africa 1–0.NEWS,weblink Banyana go down to Ghana in women's Afcon bronze-medal match, {{clear}}

Cultural heritage and architecture

{{See also|Ghana's material cultural heritage|List of museums in Ghana|l2=Ghanaian museums}}File:Ghanés Arquitectura Postmoderna y Arquitectura Futurista (Ghanaian Postmodern Architecture and Futurist Architecture).JPG|thumb|Ghanaian postmodern architecturepostmodern architectureThere are two types of Ghanaian traditional construction: the series of adjacent buildings in an enclosure around a common are common and the traditional round huts with grass roof.WEB, Countriesquest,weblink Culture, Art and Architecture: Ghana, 10 May 2014, The round huts with grass roof architecture are situated in the northern regions of Ghana (Northern, Upper East and Upper West regions), while the series of adjacent buildings are in the southern regions of Ghana (Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra and Western regions).Ghanaian postmodern architecture and high-tech architecture buildings are predominant in the Ghanaian southern regions, while the Ghanaian heritage sites are most evident by the more than thirty forts and castles built in Ghana. Some of these forts are Fort William and Fort Amsterdam. Ghana has museums that are situated inside castles, and two are situated inside a fort. The Military Museum and the National Museum organise temporary exhibitions.WEB,weblink Ghana Museums and Monuments Board, 10 May 2014, Ghana has museums that show a in-depth look at specific Ghanaian regions, there are a number of museums that provide insight into the traditions and history of their own geographical area in Ghana. The Cape Coast Castle Museum and St. Georges Castle (Elmina Castle) Museum offer guided tours. The Museum of Science and Technology provides its visitors with a look into the domain of Ghanaian scientific development, through exhibits of objects of scientific and technological interest.

National symbols

File:Tawny Eagle (Aquila rapax) 1.jpg|thumb|The tawny eagle appears on the coat of arms of Ghanacoat of arms of GhanaFile:Blackstar.jpg|thumb|left|Flag of GhanaFlag of GhanaThe coat of arms depicts two animals: the tawny eagle (Aquila rapax, a very large bird that lives in the savannas and deserts;WEB,weblink Tawny eagle videos, photos and facts – Aquila rapax, Arkive, en-GB, 1 February 2018, 35% of Ghana's landmass is desert, 35% is forest, 30% is savanna) and the lion (Panthera leo, a big cat); a ceremonial sword, a heraldic castle on a heraldic sea, a cocoa tree and a mine shaft representing the industrial mineral wealth of Ghana, and a five-pointed black star rimmed with gold representing the mineral gold wealth of Ghana and the lodestar of the Ghanaian people. It also has the legend Freedom and Justice.WEB,weblink Ghana National Emblems, ghanaembassy.be, 24 June 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130627030326weblink">weblink 27 June 2013, The flag of Ghana consists of three horizontal bands (strips) of red (top), gold (middle) and green (bottom); the three bands are the same height and width; the middle band bears a five-pointed black star in the centre of the gold band, the colour red band stands for the blood spilled to achieve the nation's independence: gold stands for Ghana's industrial mineral wealth, and the color green symbolises the rich tropical rainforests and natural resources of Ghana.WEB,weblink Ghana flag and description, worldatlas.com, 24 June 2013, {{clear}}

Tourism

File:Surfers Surfing at Busua Beach in Western region, Ghana.jpg|thumb|Surfers surfing and big wave surfing at Busua Beach in Western region ]]In 2011, 1,087,000 tourists visited Ghana.WEB, Ministry of Tourism Ghana, ghana.gov.gh,weblink We Are Serious About Overcoming The Challenges Confronting Tourism Development, 14 June 2013, Tourist arrivals to Ghana include South Americans, Asians, Europeans, and North Americans. The attractions and major tourist destinations of Ghana include a warm, tropical climate year-round; diverse wildlife; exotic waterfalls such as Kintampo Waterfalls and the largest waterfall in west Africa, Wli Waterfalls; Ghana's coastal palm-lined sandy beaches; caves; mountains, rivers; meteorite impact crater and reservoirs and lakes such as Lake Bosumtwi or Bosumtwi meteorite crater and the largest man-made lake in the world by surface area, Lake Volta; dozens of castles and forts; UNESCO World Heritage Sites; nature reserves and national parks.WEB,weblink Trade Expo International Ghana, uniquetrustex.com, 14 June 2013, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130501221713weblink">weblink 1 May 2013, The World Economic Forum statistics in 2010 showed that out of the world's favourite tourist destinations, Ghana was ranked 108th out of 139 countries.WEB, Forbes: Ghana is eleventh friendliest nation,weblink vibeghana.com, 31 May 2011, The country had moved two places up from the 2009 rankings. In 2011, Forbes magazine, published that Ghana was ranked the eleventh most friendly country in the world. The assertion was based on a survey in 2010 of a cross-section of travellers. Of all the African countries that were included in the survey, Ghana ranked highest. Tourism is the fourth highest earner of foreign exchange for the country. In 2017, Ghana ranks as the 43rd–most peaceful country in the world.WEB,weblink About the Global Peace Index, Vision of Humanity, 2015, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151006145259weblink">weblink 6 October 2015, To enter Ghana, it is necessary to have a visa authorised by the Government of Ghana. Travelers must apply for this visa at a Ghanaian embassy; this process can take approximately two weeks. By law, visitors entering Ghana must be able to produce a yellow fever vaccination certificate.WEB, Travel Advice,weblink Africa.com, 16 December 2014, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150109144415weblink">weblink 9 January 2015, {{wide image|Panorama view of Kakum Nationalpark.jpg|900px|align-cap=center| Panorama view of Kakum National Park, located in the coastal environs of the Central region on the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, covers an area of {{convert|375|km2}}. Established in 1931 as a Game reserve and Nature reserve, it was gazetted as a national park only in 1992 after an initial survey of avifauna was conducted. The national park is covered with tropical rainforest.WEB,weblink PDF, Parks and reserves of Ghana: Management Effectiveness Assessment of Protected Areas, 14 July 2014, IUCN Organization, WEB,weblink Kakum National Park (Assin Attandanso Reserve) (#), 14 July 2014, UNESCO Organization, WEB,weblink Kakum National Park, 14 July 2014, Microsfere Organization, Kakum National Park is the only national park in Africa with a canopy walkway, which is {{convert|350|m}} long and connects seven canopy tree tops which provides access to the rainforests.WEB,weblink Kakum National Park – Assin Attandaso Resource Reserve, 14 July 2014, Bird Life organization, }}{{clear}}{| class="wikitable" !colspan="3"| Tourism Landmarks, National Border, Region and Terrestrial plain of the 4th Republic of Ghana {| class="wikitable"Geography of Ghana#Low Plains>Coastal Plain| Accra, Apam, Cape Coast, Elmina, Kakum National Park, Kokrobite, Nzulezo, Sekondi-Takoradi, Ada Foah| The Gulf of Guinea coastal plain with the seat of government and capital city, several castles and forts and the best preserved rainforest in GhanaGeography of Ghana#Ashanti Uplands>Ashanti-Kwahu| Koforidua, Kumasi, Obuasi, Sunyani| Forested hills and the ancient Kingdom of Ashanti|Volta BasinTamale, Ghana>Tamale| massive and world's largest Lake Volta, the river system that feeds it and Ghana eastern border crossingGeography of Ghana#High plains>Northern PlainsWa, Ghana>Wa, Bolgatanga, Mole National Park| Savanna plains and north Ghana trade route and border crossingFile:Ghana Regions map.pngthumbMap of Ghana with national border, geographical regions and terrestrial plains colour-coded]] style="background:#eee;"SettlementsAccra Seat of Government and Capital City.Bolgatanga Paga Crocodile Pond location. Cape CoastCape Coast castle is a UNESCO World Heritage site. Elmina Coastal town with a quite harrowing fort Elmina Castle.Koforidua Aburi Botanical Gardens location.KumasiTraditional centre of the Kingdom of Ashanti.ObuasiThe Earth's 9th largest gold mine location; and Mining town.Sekondi-Takoradi Renowned surfing beaches such as Busua Beach,HTTP://EDITION.CNN.COM/2014/07/13/TRAVEL/UNUSUAL-SURF-SPOTS/>TITLE= 11 OF THE WORLD'S MOST UNUSUAL SURF SPOTS PUBLISHER=CNNDATE=28 AUGUST 2014, 28 March 2016, and UNESCO World Heritage sites. TamaleLargest settlement in the Kingdom of Dagbon and gateway to Mole National Park.

See also

References

{{Reflist}}

Further reading

  • Arhin, Kwame, The Life and Work of Kwame Nkrumah (Africa Research & Publications, 1995)
  • Babatope, Ebenezer, The Ghana Revolution: From Nkrumah to Jerry Rawlings (Fourth Dimension Publishing, 1982)
  • Birmingham, David, Kwame Nkrumah: Father Of African Nationalism (Ohio University Press, 1998)
  • Boafo-Arthur, Kwame, Ghana: One Decade of the Liberal State (Zed Books Ltd, 2007)
  • Briggs, Philip, Ghana (Bradt Travel Guide) (Bradt Travel Guides, 2010)
  • Clark, Gracia, African Market Women: Seven Life Stories from Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2010)
  • Davidson, Basil, Black Star: A View of the Life and Times of Kwame Nkrumah (James Currey, 2007)
  • Falola, Toyin and Salm, Stephen J, Culture and Customs of Ghana (Greenwood, 2002)
  • Grant, Richard, Globalizing City: The Urban and Economic Transformation of Accra, Ghana (Syracuse University Press, 2008)
  • Hadjor, Kofi Buenor, Nkrumah and Ghana (Africa Research & Publications, 2003)
  • Hasty, Jennifer, The Press and Political Culture in Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2005)
  • James, C.L.R., Kwame Nkrumah and the Ghana Revolution (Allison & Busby, 1977)
  • Kuada, John and Chachah Yao, Ghana. Understanding the People and their Culture (Woeli Publishing Services, 1999)
  • Miescher, Stephan F, Making Men in Ghana (Indiana University Press, 2005)
  • Milne, June, Kwame Nkrumah, A Biography (Panaf Books, 2006)
  • Nkrumah, Kwame, Ghana : The Autobiography of Kwame Nkrumah (International Publishers, 1971)
  • Utley, Ian, Ghana – Culture Smart!: the essential guide to customs & culture (Kuperard, 2009)
  • Various, Ghana: An African Portrait Revisited (Peter E. Randall Publisher, 2007)
  • Younge, Paschal Yao, Music and Dance Traditions of Ghana: History, Performance and Teaching (Mcfarland & Co Inc., 2011)
  • BOOK, Laura Burke, Armando García Schmidt, Ghana: Staying on Track in a Challenging Environment, Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung, Gütersloh, 2013, 978-3-86793-491-6, 127–147,

External links

{{Sister project links|b=y|commons=Ghana|n=y|q=y|s=y|v=y |voy= y}}Government General information Trade {{Years in Ghana|state=uncollapsed}}{{Ghana governments|state=uncollapsed}}{{Navboxes|title = Articles relating to Ghana|list ={{Ghana topics|state=uncollapsed}}{{Navboxes|title = International membership|list ={{ECOWAS}}{{Non-Aligned Movement}}{{African Union}}{{Commonwealth of Nations}}}}{{Navboxes25px){{nbsp}}Geographic locale|list =Lat. and Long. {{Coord|5|33|N|0|12|W|display=inline}} (Accra)Lat. and Long. {{Coord|6|40|N|1|37|W|display=inline}} (Kumasi){{Geographic location| Centre = GhanaBurkina Faso}}Togo}}| Southeast = Lake Volta & Gulf of Guinea| South = Gulf of Guinea| Southwest = Atlantic OceanIvory Coast}}}}{{Countries of Africa}}}}}}{{Authority control}}

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