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{{about|the country}} {{pp-semi-indef}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{short description|federal parliamentary constitutional republic in South Asia}}{{EngvarB|date=December 2016}}{{Use dmy dates|date=January 2019}}

>italics=off}}urIslāmī Jumhūriyah Pākistān}}JAMES MINAHAN >TITLE=THE COMPLETE GUIDE TO NATIONAL SYMBOLS AND EMBLEMS [2 VOLUMES] PUBLISHER=ABC-CLIO PAGE=141, }}| image_flag = Flag of Pakistan.svg| image_coat = Coat of arms of Pakistan.svg| symbol_type = State emblemurĪmān, Ittihād, Nazam}}{{native name>urایمان، اتحاد، نظم}}nolink=on}}{{small0.2emARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20070701023430/HTTP://WWW.INFOPAK.GOV.PK/EEMBLEM.ASPX PUBLISHER=MINISTRY OF INFORMATION AND BROADCASTING, GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN., 18 December 2013, }}ur''Qaumi Taranah''}}}}{{smallWEBSITE=GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN, 27 May 2014, (File:National anthem of Pakistan.OGG)| image_map = Pakistan (orthographic projection).svg| map_width = 220px| map_caption = Land controlled by Pakistan shown in dark green; land claimed but not controlled shown in light green| capital = Islamabad33307300type:city_region:PK}}Karachi{{small>{{coord51N00E|display=inline}}}}English language>UrduSC ORDERS IMMEDIATE IMPLEMENTATION OF URDU AS OFFICIAL LANGUAGE >URL=HTTP://TRIBUNE.COM.PK/STORY/952913/SC-ORDERS-IMPLEMENTATION-OF-URDU-AS-OFFICIAL-LANGUAGE/ THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE >DATE=7 SEPTEMBER 2015NEWSPAPER=THE EXPRESS TRIBUNE ACCESS-DATE=8 SEPTEMBER 2015, HTTP://DUNYANEWS.TV/INDEX.PHP/EN/PAKISTAN/288574-PM-APPROVES-IMPLEMENTATION-OF-URDU-LANGUAGE-IN-GOV >TITLE=PM APPROVES IMPLEMENTATION OF URDU LANGUAGE IN GOVT DEPARTMENTS – PAKISTAN – DUNYA NEWS AUTHOR=IRFAN HAIDER DATE=10 JULY 2015, HTTP://WWW.THENEWSTELLER.COM/PAKISTAN/GOVT-SUBMITS-PLAN-TO-SUPREME-COURT-TO-PROMOTE-URDU-AS-OFFICIAL-LANGUAGE/19569/ >TITLE=GOVT. SUBMITS PLAN TO SUPREME COURT TO PROMOTE URDU AS OFFICIAL LANGUAGE, The News Teller, }}| regional_languages = {hide}collapsible list
|titlestyle = background:transparent;text-align:left;font-weight:normal;font-size:100%;
|title = Provincial level
|Punjabi{{dot{edih} Pashto{{dot}}Sindhi{{dot}} Balochi{{dot}}Saraiki{{dot}}Kashmiri{{dot}}Brahui{{dot}}Hindko{{dot}}Shina{{dot}}Balti{{dot}}Khowar{{dot}}Burushaski{{dot}}Kohistani{{dot}}Wakhi{{dot}}Yidgha{{dot}}Dameli{{dot}}Kalasha{{dot}}Gawar-Bati{{dot}}DomaakiWEB, Population by Mother Tongue,weblink Population Census Organization, Government of Pakistan, 28 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 September 2011,
}}| languages_type = National languages| languages = Urdu| languages2_type = Auxiliary languages| languages2 = Arabicitem_style=white-space:nowrap;
| 44.7% Punjabis
| 15.4% Pashtuns
| 14.1% Sindhis
| 8.4% Saraikis
| 7.6% Muhajirs
| 3.6% Balochs
| 6.3% others"Pakistan" The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency.
}}| ethnic_groups_year =
| 96.0% Islam {{small|(Official)}}
| 1.85% Hinduism
| 1.5% ChristianityWEB,weblink Country Profile: Pakistan, February 2005, Library of Congress Country Studies on Pakistan, Religion: Approximately 1.6 percent of the population is Hindu, 1.6 percent is Christian, and 0.3 percent belongs to other religions, such as Bahaism and Sikhism.,
| 0.6% others
}}| demonym = Pakistani
Federal parliamentary republic>Federal parliamentary constitutional republicPresident of Pakistan>President| leader_name1 = Arif AlviPrime Minister of Pakistan>Prime Minister| leader_name2 = Imran KhanChairman of the Senate of Pakistan>Chairman of the Senate| leader_name3 = Sadiq SanjraniSpeaker of the National Assembly of Pakistan>Speaker of the National Assembly| leader_name4 = Asad QaiserChief Justice of Pakistan>Chief Justice| leader_name5 = Asif Saeed Khan KhosaParliament of Pakistan>ParliamentSenate of Pakistan>SenateNational Assembly of Pakistan>National AssemblyPakistan Movement>Independence| sovereignty_note = from the United KingdomDominion of Pakistan>Dominion| established_date1 = 14 August 1947| established_event2 = Islamic Republic| established_date2 = 23 March 1956Constitution of Pakistan>Current constitution| established_date3 = 14 August 1973| established_event4 =| established_date4 =| established_event5 =| established_date5 =| established_event6 =| established_date6 =| area_km2 = 881,913"Includes data for Pakistani territories of Kashmir; Azad Kashmir ({{convertkm2disp=orGilgit–Baltistan ({{convert>72520sqmiabbr=on}}).HTTP://WWW.GEOHIVE.COM/CNTRY/PAKISTAN.ASPX >TITLE=PAKISTAN STATISTICS ACCESS-DATE=20 APRIL 2013 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20130406012611/HTTP://WWW.GEOHIVE.COM/CNTRY/PAKISTAN.ASPX 796,095sqmiWEBSITE=WORLDATLAS.COM, | area_rank = 33rd| area_sq_mi = 307,374| percent_water = 2.86| population_density_km2 = 244.4| population_density_sq_mi = 633| population_density_rank = 56thWEBSITE=WWW.PBSCENSUS.GOV.PK ARCHIVE-URL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20171015113737/HTTP://WWW.PBSCENSUS.GOV.PK/ URL-STATUS=DEAD, (5th)| population_census_year = 2017$1.195 trillionHTTPS://WWW.IMF.ORG/EXTERNAL/PUBS/FT/WEO/2019/01/WEODATA/WEOREPT.ASPX?PR.X=37&PR.Y=12&SY=2016&EY=2021&SCSM=1&SSD=1&SORT=COUNTRY&DS=.&BR=1&C=564&S=NGDPD%2CPPPGDP%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPPC&GRP=0&A= >TITLE=WORLD ECONOMIC OUTLOOK DATABASE, APRIL 2019 PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND, 25 April 2019, }}| GDP_PPP_year = 2019| GDP_PPP_rank = 24th| GDP_PPP_per_capita = {{increase}} $5,839| GDP_PPP_per_capita_rank = 133rd$278.019 billion}}| GDP_nominal_year = 2019| GDP_nominal_rank = 40th| GDP_nominal_per_capita = {{decrease}} $1,357| GDP_nominal_per_capita_rank = 148th| Gini = 33.5 | Gini_year = 2015| Gini_change = PUBLISHER=WORLD BANK ACCESS-DATE=5 MAY 2019, | Gini_rank =| HDI = 0.562 | HDI_year = 2017| HDI_change = increaseDATE=14 SEPTEMBER 2018 PUBLISHER=UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, | HDI_rank = 150th| currency = Pakistani rupee (₨)| currency_code = PKRPakistan Standard Time>PST| utc_offset = +5Right- and left-hand traffic>leftHTTP://WWW.DAILYTIMES.COM.PK/DEFAULT.ASP?PAGE=STORY_28-7-2005_PG3_5 >ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20120110085150/HTTP://WWW.DAILYTIMES.COM.PK/DEFAULT.ASP?PAGE=STORY_28-7-2005_PG3_5 TITLE=DRIVING—THE GOOD, THE BAD AND THE UGLY DATE=28 JULY 2005 ACCESS-DATE=6 FEBRUARY 2014, Pakistan, Telephone numbers in Pakistan>+92| cctld = .pkweblink}}Pakistani English.:{{note>Alpha|α}}reference_name_b}} The Arabic language is officially recognised by the constitution of Pakistan.}}Pakistan,{{efn|}}Pronounced variably as {{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Pakistan.ogg|ˈ|p|æ|k|ɪ|s|t|æ|n}}, {{IPAc-en|audio=En-us-Pakistan-2.ogg|ˈ|p|ɑː|k|ɪ|s|t|ɑː|n}}, {{IPAc-en|ËŒ|p|æ|k|ɪ|ˈ|s|t|æ|n}}, and {{IPAc-en|ËŒ|p|ɑː|k|ɪ|ˈ|s|t|ɑː|n}}.}} officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan,{{efn|}}}} is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212.7 million people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning {{convert|881,913|km2|sqmi|abbr=off}}. Pakistan has a {{convert|1,046|km|mi|adj=mid|abbr=off}} coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent. The ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Muslims, Turco-Mongols, Afghans and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire,BOOK, A Brief History of Pakistan, Wynbrandt, James, Infobase Publishing, 2009, 978-0-8160-6184-6, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire (partially) and, most recently, the British Indian Empire.BOOK,weblink Pakistan, Hussain, Rizwan, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, Pakistan is unique among Muslim countries in its relationship with Islam: it is the only country to have been established in the name of Islam, WEB,weblink Jinnah and the Making of Pakistan, Talbot, Ian, 2 February 1984, History Today, As British rule there drew to an end, many Muslims demanded, in the name of Islam, the creation of a separate Pakistan state., Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with similarly diverse geography and wildlife. Initially a dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh.WEB,weblink Special report: The Breakup of Pakistan 1969–1971, 23 September 2017, In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah.BOOK,weblink The Right to Development in International Law: The Case of Pakistan, Iqbal, Khurshid, Routledge, 2009, 978-1-134-01999-1, 189, The constitution proclaims ... that all existing laws shall be brought in accordance with the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah, and no law shall be enacted which is repugnant to such injunctions., A middle power,BOOK,weblink Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security, Buzan, Barry, Wæver, Ole, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 978-0-521-89111-0, 55, In the framework of their regional security complex theory (RSCT), Barry Buzan and Ole Waever differentiate between superpowers and great powers which act and influence the global level (or system level) and regional powers whose influence may be large in their regions but have less effect at the global level. This category of regional powers includes Brazil, Egypt, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Turkey., {{citation |last=Rajagopalan |first=Rajesh |chapter=Pakistan: regional power, global problem? |editor1=Nadine Godehardt |editor2=Dirk Nabers |title=Regional Orders and Regional Powers |chapter-url= |year=2011 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=978-1-136-71891-5 |pages=193–208}}BOOK, Paul, T. V., International Relations Theory and Regional Transformation, 2012, Cambridge University Press, 978-1-107-02021-4, 11,weblink 3 February 2017, The regional powers such as Israel or Pakistan are not simple bystanders of great power politics in their regions; they attempt to asymmetrically influence the major power system often in their own distinct ways., BOOK, Barry Buzan, The United States and the great powers: world politics in the twenty-first century,weblink 27 December 2011, 2004, Polity, 978-0-7456-3374-9, 71, 99, WEB, Hussein Solomon, South African Foreign Policy and Middle Power Leadership,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 24 June 2002, 27 December 2011, WEB, Vandamme, Dorothee, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia : Towards Greater Independence in their Afghan Foreign Policy?,weblink Université catholique de Louvain, 21 December 2016, Countries like Saudi Arabia and Pakistan have enough influence to not be considered small, but not enough to be major powers. Within the limits of their regions, they play a significant political role. Thus instinctively, they would qualify as middle powers. While it is not the objective here to question the characteristics of Jordan's definition of middle powers, we argue that Pakistan is in fact a middle power despite its being nuclear-armed. When looking at the numbers, for instance, it appears that Saudi Arabia and Pakistan can be classified as middle powers (see in this regard Ping, 2007).,weblink 10 October 2017, dead, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector.NEWS,weblink Services sector: domestic and outward growth, Bhatti, Muhammad Umer Saleem, Dawn, 22 June 2015, 24 February 2017, NEWS,weblink Services sector: Realising Pakistan’s export potential, Memon, Abdul Qadir, The Express Tribune, 10 May 2015, 24 February 2017, It is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world,WEB,weblink Pakistan an emerging market economy: IMF, Iqbal, Anwar, 8 November 2015,, 27 February 2016, WEB,weblink Is Pakistan an emerging market?, Kaplan, Seth, 27 February 2016, and is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.WEB,weblink Pakistan has 18th largest 'middle class' in the world: report, 16 October 2015, The Express Tribune, WEB,weblink GDP ranking {{!, Data||access-date=17 January 2017}} Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, terrorism, poverty, illiteracy, and corruption.BOOK, Mathew Joseph C., Understanding Pakistan: Emerging Voices from India,weblink 2016, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-351-99725-6, 337, WEB,weblink Poverty in Pakistan: Numerous efforts, many numbers, not enough results – AidData,, WEB,weblink 70% decline in terrorist attacks in Pakistan – The Express Tribune, 9 September 2015,, NEWS,weblink Pakistan sees 748% rise in terror deaths over 10 years, 5 May 2015, Scroll, Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC, the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition and the Major non-NATO ally.


The name (:wikt:Pakistan|Pakistan) literally means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word {{wikt-lang|fa|پاک}} (pāk), meaning "pure" in Persian and Pashto.BOOK, A Dictionary of Pashto, Raverty, Henry George,weblink The suffix {{wikt-lang|fa|ـستان}} (-stān) is a Persian suffix meaning the place of, and also recalls the synonymous (and cognate) Sanskrit word {{wikt-lang|sa|स्थान}} (sthāna).WEB,weblink Monier-Williams Sanskrit Dictionary, 1872, 28 April 2015, The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never,WEB, Choudhary Rahmat Ali, Now or never: Are we to live or perish for ever?,weblink 4 December 2007, 28 January 1933, Columbia University, using it as an acronym ("thirty million Muslim brethren who live in PAKSTAN") referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Afghania, Kashmir, Sindh, and Baluchistan.JOURNAL, Choudhary Rahmat Ali, Now or Never. Are we to live or perish forever?, 28 January 1933,weblink BOOK,weblink Indian Muslims and partition of India, Atlantic Publishers & Dist, 23 December 2011, S. M. Ikram, 1995, 978-81-7156-374-6, 177, These sentiments were presented on behalf of our thirty million Muslim brethren who live in Pakistan, by which we mean the five northern units of India, viz. Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Kashmir, Sind and Baluchistan (Pakistan—land of the pure—was later adopted as the name of the new Muslim state, and spelled as Pakistan)., WEB,weblink Rahmat Ali ::Now or Never, The Pakistan National Movement, 14 April 2011, Rahmat Ali, 2, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 April 2011, The letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation.JOURNAL, Roderic H. Davidson, Where is the Middle East?, Foreign Affairs, 38, 665–675, 1960, 10.2307/20029452, 4, 20029452,


{{See also|Outline of South Asian history}}{{Contains Urdu text|compact=yes}}

Early and medieval age

File:Mohenjo-daro Priesterkönig.jpeg|thumb|upright=1.15|left|Indus Priest King Statue from Mohenjo-DaroMohenjo-DaroSome of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.Petraglia, Michael D.; Allchin, Bridget (2007), "Human evolution and culture change in the Indian subcontinent", in Michael Petraglia, Bridget Allchin, The Evolution and History of Human Populations in South Asia: Inter-disciplinary Studies in Archaeology, Biological Anthropology, Linguistics and Genetics, Springer, {{ISBN|978-1-4020-5562-1}} The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab.WEB, Parth R. Chauhan, An Overview of the Siwalik Acheulian & Reconsidering Its Chronological Relationship with the Soanian – A Theoretical Perspective,weblink Sheffield Graduate Journal of Archaeology, University of Sheffield, 22 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 January 2012, The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation{{Sfn|Wright|2010|ps=:Quote: "The Indus civilization is one of three in the 'Ancient East' that, along with Mesopotamia and Pharonic Egypt, was a cradle of early civilization in the Old World (Childe 1950). Mesopotamia and Egypt were longer lived, but coexisted with Indus civilization during its florescence between 2600 and 1900 B.C. Of the three, the Indus was the most expansive, extending from today's northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and India."}}BOOK, Feuerstein, Georg, Subhash Kak, David Frawley, In search of the cradle of civilization: new light on ancient India, Quest Books, Wheaton, IL, 1995, 147,weblink 978-0-8356-0720-9, Yasmeen Niaz Mohiuddin, Pakistan: a Global Studies Handbook. ABC-CLIO publishers, 2006, {{ISBN|1-85109-801-1}}WEB,weblink Archaeologists confirm Indian civilization is 2000 years older than previously believed, 16 November 2012,, BOOK,weblink Killing Civilization: A Reassessment of Early Urbanism and Its Consequences, Justin, Jennings, 2016, UNM Press, Google Books, 978-0-8263-5661-1, (2,800–1,800 BCE) at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.BOOK, India Unveiled,weblink Robert Arnett, Atman Press, 23 December 2011, 2006, 978-0-9652900-4-3, 180–, WEB, Mohenjo-Daro,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 1 June 2010, Meghan A. Porter, Minnesota State University, 15 January 2010, File:Gandhara Buddha (tnm).jpeg|thumb|upright=1.15|right|Standing Buddha from Gandhara, Greco-Buddhist artGreco-Buddhist artThe Vedic period (1500–500 BCE) was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture; during this period the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed, and this culture later became well established in the region.BOOK,weblink Pakistan: a primary source cultural guide, The Rosen Publishing Group Inc, 58–59, 100–102, Marian Rengel, New York, 978-0-8239-4001-1, 2004, ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Britannica Online – Rigveda, Encyclopædia Britannica, 16 December 2011, Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre. The Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Taká¹£aÅ›ilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, which was founded around 1000 BCE.{{sfn|Allchin|Allchin|1988|p=314}}BOOK, Vipul Singh, The Pearson Indian History Manual for the UPSC Civil Services Preliminary Examination,weblink Dorling Kindesley, licensees of Pearson Education India, 978-81-317-1753-0, 3–4, 15, 88–90, 152, 162, 2008, Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire (around 519 BCE), Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCEBOOK, Government Leaders, Military Rulers, and Political Activists,weblink The Oryx Press, David W. del Testa, 2001, Westport, CN, 978-1-57356-153-2, 7, and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE. The Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria (180–165 BCE) included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander (165–150 BCE), prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.WEB, Guide to Historic Taxila,weblink Ahmad Hasan Dani, The National Fund for Cultural Heritage, 15 January 2010, Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, which was established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE."History of Education", Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.BOOK, Scharfe, Hartmut, Bronkhorst, Johannes, Spuler, Bertold, Altenmüller, Hartwig, Handbuch Der Orientalistik: India. Education in ancient India, 2002, 978-90-04-12556-8, 141, The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis. The ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great and was also recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE.BOOK, Joseph Needham, A selection from the writings of Joseph Needham, 1994, McFarland & Co, 978-0-89950-903-7, When the men of Alexander the Great came to Taxila in India in the fourth century BCE they found a university there the like of which had not been seen in Greece, a university which taught the three Vedas and the eighteen accomplishments and was still existing when the Chinese pilgrim Fa-Hsien went there about CE 400., 24, BOOK, Hermann Kulke, Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, 2004, Routledge, 978-0-415-32919-4, In the early centuries the centre of Buddhist scholarship was the University of Taxila., 157, JOURNAL, Balakrishnan Muniapan, Junaid M. Shaikh, Lessons in corporate governance from Kautilya's Arthashastra in ancient India, World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development 2007, 2007, 3, 1, 50–61, 10.1504/WREMSD.2007.012130, BOOK, Radha Kumud Mookerji, Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist, 2nd, 1951, reprint 1989, Motilal Banarsidass, 978-81-208-0423-4, 478–479, At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty (489–632 CE) of Sindh ruled this region and the surrounding territories.BOOK, Andre Wink, Al Hind the Making of the Indo Islamic World, 1996, Brill, 978-90-04-09249-5, 152, The Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, which, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan.

Islamic conquest

The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE.WEB,weblink Why some in Pakistan want to replace Jinnah as the founder of the country with an 8th-century Arab, WEB,weblink Figuring Qasim: How Pakistan was won, Dawn, 19 February 2015, 19 July 2012, WEB,weblink The first Pakistani?, Dawn, 19 February 2015, 12 April 2015, WEB,weblink Muhammad Bin Qasim: Predator or preacher?, Dawn, 19 February 2015, 8 April 2014, The Pakistan government's official chronology claims this as the time when the foundation of Pakistan was laidWEB,weblink History in Chronological Order, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of Pakistan, 15 January 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 23 July 2010, dead, WEB,weblink What is the most blatant lie taught through Pakistan textbooks?, Rubina Saigol, 2014, Herald, 14 August 2014, WEB,weblink A case for Gandhara, Shazia Rafi, 2015, Dawn, 19 February 2015, but the concept of Pakistan came in 19th century. The Early Medieval period (642–1219 CE) witnessed the spread of Islam in the region. During this period, Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting a majority of the regional Buddhist and Hindu population to Islam.BOOK, Ira Marvin Lapidus, A history of Islamic societies, 2002, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-77933-3, 382–384, These developments set the stage for the rule of several successive Muslim empires in the region, including the Ghaznavid Empire (975–1187 CE), the Ghorid Kingdom, and the Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526 CE). The Lodi dynasty, the last of the Delhi Sultanate, was replaced by the Mughal Empire (1526–1857 CE).File:Badshahi Masjid - Side View.jpg|thumb|left|Badshahi Mosque, LahoreLahoreThe Mughals introduced Persian literature and high culture, establishing the roots of Indo-Persian culture in the region.BOOK, Robert L. Canfield,weblink Turko-Persia in historical perspective, 2002, Cambridge University Press, 28 December 2011, 4–21, 978-0-521-52291-5, From the region of modern-day Pakistan, key cities during the Mughal rule were Lahore and Thatta,BOOK,weblink Medieval India: From Sultanat to the Mughals Part – II, Chandra, Satish, Har-Anand Publications, 2005, 978-81-241-1066-9, 365, both of which were chosen as the site of impressive Mughal buildings.BOOK,weblink The History of Pakistan, Malik, Iftikhar Haider, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008, 978-0-313-34137-3, 79, In the early 16th century, the region remained under the Mughal Empire ruled by Muslim emperors. By the early 18th century, increasing European influence contributed to the slow disintegration of the Mughal Empire as the lines between commercial and political dominance became increasingly blurred.During this time, the English East India Company had established coastal outposts.Metcalf, B.; Metcalf, T. R. (9 October 2006), A Concise History of Modern India (2nd ed.), Cambridge University Press, {{ISBN|978-0-521-68225-1}} Control over the seas, greater resources, technology, and British military protection led the Company to increasingly flex its military muscle, allowing the Company to gain control over the subcontinent by 1765 and sideline European competitors.Asher, C.B.; Talbot, C (2008), India Before Europe (1st ed.), Cambridge University Press, {{ISBN|978-0-521-51750-8}} Expanding access beyond Bengal and the subsequent increased strength and size of its army enabled it to annex or subdue most of region by the 1820s. Many historians see this as the start of the region's colonial period. By this time, with its economic power severely curtailed by the British parliament and itself effectively made an arm of British administration, the Company began more deliberately to enter non-economic arenas such as education, social reform, and culture. Such reforms included the enforcement of the English Education Act in 1835 and the introduction of the Indian Civil Service (ICS).Jalal, Ayesha (1994). The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan. Cambridge UK: Cambridge South Asian Studies. Traditional madrasahs—primary institutions of higher learning for Muslims in the subcontinent—were no longer supported by the English Crown, and nearly all of the madrasahs lost their financial endowment.Stephen Evans, "Macaulay's minute revisited: Colonial language policy in nineteenth-century India," Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development (2002) 23#4 pp. 260–281

Colonial period

{{multiple image
|image1=Sir Syed1.jpg
|caption1=Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817–1898), whose vision formed the basis of Pakistan
|alt1=Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (1817–1898), whose vision (Two-nation theory) formed the basis of Pakistan
|caption2=Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948) served as Pakistan's first Governor-General and the leader of the Pakistan Movement
|alt2=Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948) served as Pakistan's first Governor-General and the leader of the Pakistan Movement
}}The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early 18th century enabled the Sikh Empire to control larger areas until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia.WEB,weblink Country Profile: Pakistan, Library of Congress, 1995, 2–3, 6, 8, 2 September 2019, A rebellion in 1857 called the Sepoy mutiny of Bengal was the region's major armed struggle against the British Empire and Queen Victoria.WEB,weblink Sepoy Rebellion: 1857,, 12 September 2003, 19 December 2013, Divergence in the relationship between Hinduism and Islam created a major rift in British India that led to motivated religious violence in British India.WEB,weblink India from 1900 to 1947, 2 November 2007, Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence, Markovits, Claude, 2 February 2015, The language controversy further escalated the tensions between Hindus and Muslims.BOOK, Ak̲h̲tar, Altāf Ḥusain Ḥālī; Talk̲h̲īṣ, Salim, Ḥayāt-i jāved, 1993, Sang-i Mīl Publications, Lāhore, 978-969-35-0186-5, The Hindu renaissance witnessed an awakening of intellectualism in traditional Hinduism and saw the emergence of more assertive influence in the social and political spheres in British India.BOOK, Coward, ed. by Harold G., Modern Indian responses to religious pluralism, 1987, State University of New York Press, Albany, NY, 978-0-88706-572-9, BOOK, Sarkar, R.N., Islam related Naipual [sic], 2006, Sarup & Sons, New Delhi, 978-81-7625-693-3, 1st, A Muslim intellectual movement, founded by Sir Syed Ahmed Khan to counter the Hindu renaissance, envisioned, as well as advocated for the two-nation theory, and led to the creation of the All-India Muslim League in 1906. In contrast to the Indian National Congress's anti-British efforts, the Muslim League was a pro-British movement whose political program inherited the British values that would shape Pakistan's future civil society.BOOK, Qureshi, M. Naeem, Pan-Islam in British Indian politics : a study of the Khilafat movement, 1918–1924, 1999, Brill, Leiden [u.a.], 57, 245, 978-90-04-11371-8, In events during World War I, British Intelligence foiled an anti-English conspiracy involving the nexus of Congress and the German Empire.{{Citation needed|reason=Your explanation here|date=August 2017}} The largely non-violent independence struggle led by the Indian Congress engaged millions of protesters in mass campaigns of civil disobedience in the 1920s and 1930s against the British Empire.BOOK, John Farndon, Concise encyclopaedia, 1999, Dorling Kindersley Limited, 978-0-7513-5911-4, 455, BOOK, India express: the future of a new superpower, 4 March 2008, Viking Canada, 978-0-670-06484-7, Daniel Lak,weblink 14 March 2012, 113, BOOK, Cohen, Stephen Philip, The idea of Pakistan, 2004, Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC, 978-0-8157-9761-6, 1st pbk., The Muslim League slowly rose to mass popularity in the 1930s amid fears of under-representation and neglect of British Muslims in politics. In his presidential address of 29 December 1930, Allama Iqbal called for "the amalgamation of North-West Muslim-majority Indian states" consisting of Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Sind, and Baluchistan.WEB,weblink Sir Muhammad Iqbal's 1930 Presidential Address, Speeches, Writings, and Statements of Iqbal, 19 December 2006, The perceived neglect of Muslim interests by Congress led British provincial governments during the period of 1937–39 convinced Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan to espouse the two-nation theory and led the Muslim League to adopt the Lahore Resolution of 1940 presented by Sher-e-Bangla A.K. Fazlul Haque, popularly known as the Pakistan Resolution. In World War II, Jinnah and British-educated founding fathers in the Muslim League supported the United Kingdom's war efforts, countering opposition against it whilst working towards Sir Syed's vision.WEB,weblink Understanding Jinnah's Position on World War I and II Lessons to be learned, 5 January 2009, Politact, United Kingdom, Editorial work, no author., 3 February 2015,weblink 3 February 2015,

Pakistan Movement

{{Further|History of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan|Indian independence movement|Partition of British India}}The 1946 elections resulted in the Muslim League winning 90 percent of the seats reserved for Muslims. Thus, the 1946 election was effectively a plebiscite in which the Indian Muslims were to vote on the creation of Pakistan, a plebiscite won by the Muslim League.BOOK,weblink Pakistan: A Global Studies Handbook, Mohiuddin, Yasmin Niaz, ABC-CLIO, 2007, 978-1-85109-801-9, 70, In the elections of 1946, the Muslim League won 90 percent of the legislative seats reserved for Muslims. It was the power of the big zamindars in Punjab and Sindh behind the Muslim League candidates that led to this massive landslide victory (Alavi 2002, 14). Even Congress, which had always denied the League's claim to be the only true representative of Indian Muslims had to concede the truth of that claim. The 1946 election was, in effect, a plebiscite among Muslims on Pakistan., This victory was assisted by the support given to the Muslim League by the support of the landowners of Sindh and Punjab. The Congress, which initially denied the Muslim League's claim of being the sole representative of Indian Muslims, was now forced to recognise the fact. The British had no alternative except to take Jinnah's views into account as he had emerged as the sole spokesperson of theEntire British India's Muslims. However, the British did not want British India to be partitioned, and in one last effort to prevent it, they devised the Cabinet Mission plan.BOOK,weblink Pakistan: A Global Studies Handbook, Mohiuddin, Yasmin Niaz, ABC-CLIO, 2007, 978-1-85109-801-9, 71, Despite the League's victory in the elections, the British did not want the partition of British India. As a last attempt to avoid it, Britain put forward the Cabinet Mission Plan, according to which India would become a federation of three large, self-governing provinces and the central government would be limited to power over foreign policy and defense, implying a weak center., As the cabinet mission failed, the British government announced its intention to end the British Rule in 1946–47.JOURNAL,weblink Jinnah and cabinet Mission Plan, Academia Edu, Akram, Wasim, 3 February 2015, Nationalists in British India—including Jawaharlal Nehru and Abul Kalam Azad of Congress, Jinnah of the All-India Muslim League, and Master Tara Singh representing the Sikhs—agreed to the proposed terms of transfer of power and independence in June 1947 with the Viceroy of India, Lord Mountbatten of Burma.BOOK, Stanley Wolpert, Jinnah of Pakistan, Oxford University Press, 2002, 978-0-19-577462-7, 306–332, As the United Kingdom agreed to the partitioning of India in 1947, the modern state of Pakistan was established on 14 August 1947 {{small|(27th of Ramadan in 1366 of the Islamic Calendar)}}, amalgamating the Muslim-majority eastern and northwestern regions of British India. It comprised the provinces of Balochistan, East Bengal, the North-West Frontier Province, West Punjab, and Sindh.In the riots that accompanied the partition in Punjab Province, it is believed that between 200,000 and 2,000,000NEWS,weblink Murder, rape and shattered families: 1947 Partition Archive effort underway, 13 March 2015, Dawn, There are no exact numbers of people killed and displaced, but estimates range from a few hundred thousand to two million killed and more than 10 million displaced., 14 January 2017, BOOK,weblink South Asia's Cold War: Nuclear Weapons and Conflict in Comparative Perspective, Basrur, Rajesh M., Routledge, 2008, 978-1-134-16531-5, An estimated 12–15 million people were displaced, and some 2 million died. The legacy of Partition (never without a capital P) remains strong today ..., BOOK,weblink Idols of the Tribe: Group Identity and Political Change, Isaacs, Harold Robert, Harvard University Press, 1975, 978-0-674-44315-0, 2,000,000 killed in the Hindu-Muslim holocaust during the partition of British-India and the creation of India and Pakistan, BOOK,weblink Nationbuilding, Gender and War Crimes in South Asia, D'Costa, Bina, Routledge, 2011, 978-0-415-56566-0, 53, Estimates of the dead vary from 200,000 (the contemporary British figure) to 2 million (a subsequent Indian speculation). Today, however, it is widely accepted that nearly a million people died during Partition (Butalia, 1997)., BOOK,weblink The Other Side of Silence: Voices From the Partition of British India, Butalia, Urvashi, Duke University Press, 2000, BOOK, Muslims in India Since 1947: Islamic Perspectives on Inter-Faith Relations, Sikand, Yoginder, Routledge, 2004, 978-1-134-37825-8, 5, people were killed in what some have described as a retributive genocide between the religionsWEB,weblink The partition of India and retributive genocide in the Punjab, 1946–47: means, methods, and purposes, Paul R., Paul Brass, 2003, Carfax Publishing: Taylor and Francis Group, 81–82 (5(1), 71–101), In the event, largely but not exclusively as a consequence of their efforts, the entire Muslim population of the eastern Punjab districts migrated to West Punjab and the entire Sikh and Hindu populations moved to East Punjab in the midst of widespread intimidation, terror, violence, abduction, rape, and murder., Brass, Journal of Genocide Research, 16 August 2014, WEB,weblink 20th-century international relations (politics) :: South Asia, Encyclopædia Britannica, 16 August 2014, while 50,000 Muslim women were abducted and raped by Hindu and Sikh men and 33,000 Hindu and Sikh women also experienced the same fate at the hands of Muslims.BOOK,weblink Violent Belongings: Partition, Gender, and National Culture in Postcolonial India, Daiya, Kavita, Temple University Press, 2011, 978-1-59213-744-2, 75, The official estimate of the number of abducted women during Partition was placed at 33,000 non-Muslim (Hindu or Sikh predominantly) women in Pakistan, and 50,000 Muslim women in India., BOOK,weblink Revisiting India's Partition: New Essays on Memory, Culture, and Politics, Singh, Amritjit, Iyer, Nalini, Gairola, Rahul K., Lexington Books, 2016, 978-1-4985-3105-4, 14, The horrific statistics that surround women refugees-between 75,000–100,000 Hindu, Muslim and Sikh women who were abducted by men of the other communities, subjected to multiple rapes, mutilations, and, for some, forced marriages and conversions-is matched by the treatment of the abducted women in the hands of the nation-state. In the Constituent Assembly in 1949 it was recorded that of the 50,000 Muslim women abducted in India, 8,000 of then were recovered, and of the 33,000 Hindu and Sikh women abducted, 12,000 were recovered., BOOK,weblink Women and the Politics of Violence, Abraham, Taisha, Har-Anand Publications, 2002, 978-81-241-0847-5, 131, In addition thousands of women on both sides of the newly formed borders (estimated range from 29,000 to 50,000 Muslim women and 15,000 to 35,000 Hindu and Sikh women) were abducted, raped, forced to convert, forced into marriage, forced back into what the two States defined as 'their proper homes,' torn apart from their families once during partition by those who abducted them, and again, after partition, by the State which tried to 'recover' and 'rehabilitate' them., Perspectives on Modern South Asia: A Reader in Culture, History, and ... – Kamala Visweswara. nGoogle (16 May 2011). Around 6.5 million Muslims moved from India to West Pakistan and 4.7 million Hindus and Sikhs moved from West Pakistan to India.BOOK,weblink Migration and Small Towns in Pakistan, Raza, Mansoor, IIED, 2009, 978-1-84369-734-3, 12, When the British Indian Empire was partitioned in 1947, 4.7 million Sikhs and Hindus left what is today Pakistan for India, and 6.5 million Muslims migrated from India to Pakistan., Arif, Hasan, It was the largest mass migration in human history.WEB,weblink The Hidden Story of Partition and its Legacies, Crispin, 3 March 2011, Unfortunately, it was accompanied by the largest mass migration in human history of some 10 million., Bates, BBC, 16 August 2014, WEB,weblink Rupture in South Asia, UNHCR, 16 August 2014, WEB,weblink The Fading Memory of South Asia's Partition, 15 August 2014, The Atlantic, Tanya Basu, 16 August 2014, Dispute over Jammu and Kashmir led to the First Kashmir War in 1948.BOOK,weblink Insurgent Crossfire: North-East India, Lancer Publishers, 15 April 2012, Subir Bhaumik, 1996, 978-1-897829-12-7, 6, WEB,weblink Resolution adopted by the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan, Mount Holyoke College, 19 January 2010,

Independence and modern Pakistan

File:Pakistan.ogv|thumb|left|The American CIA film on Pakistan made in 1950 examines the history and geography of Pakistan.]]|align = right|width = 25em|border = 1px|bgcolor = #c6dbf7|halign = left}}After independence in 1947, Jinnah, the President of the Muslim League, became the nation's first Governor-General as well as the first President-Speaker of the Parliament, but he died of tuberculosis on 11 September 1948.WEB,weblink BBC – History – Historic Figures: Mohammad Ali Jinnah (1876–1948), BBC, 20 December 2016, Jinnah became the first governor general of Pakistan, but died of tuberculosis on 11 September 1948., Meanwhile, Pakistan's founding fathers agreed to appoint Liaquat Ali Khan, the secretary-general of the party, the nation's first Prime Minister. With dominion status in the Commonwealth of Nations, independent Pakistan had two British monarchs before it became a republic.WEB, Pakistan,weblink, 27 December 2011, The creation of Pakistan was never fully accepted by many British leaders, among them Lord Mountbatten.BOOK,weblink The Destruction of Pakistan's Democracy, McGrath, Allen, Oxford University Press, 1996, 978-0-19-577583-9, 38, Undivided India, their magnificent imperial trophy, was besmirched by the creation of Pakistan, and the division of India was never emotionally accepted by many British leaders, Mountbatten among them., Mountbatten clearly expressed his lack of support and faith in the Muslim League's idea of Pakistan.BOOK,weblink Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin, Ahmed, Akbar S., Psychology Press, 1997, 978-0-415-14966-2, 136, Mountbatten's partiality was apparent in his own statements. He tilted openly and heavily towards Congress. While doing so he clearly expressed his lack of support and faith in the Muslim League and its Pakistan idea., Jinnah refused Mountbatten's offer to serve as Governor-General of Pakistan.BOOK,weblink Shameful Flight: The Last Years of the British Empire in India, Wolpert, Stanley, Oxford University Press, 2009, 978-0-19-974504-3, 163, Mountbatten tried to convince Jinnah of the value of accepting him, Mountbatten, as Pakistan's first governor-general, but Jinnah refused to be moved from his determination to take that job himself., When Mountbatten was asked by Collins and Lapierre if he would have sabotaged Pakistan had he known that Jinnah was dying of tuberculosis, he replied 'most probably'.BOOK,weblink Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin, Ahmed, Akbar, Routledge, 2005, 978-1-134-75022-1, When Mountbatten was asked by Collins and Lapierre if he would have sabotaged Pakistan if he had known that Jinnah was dying of tuberculosis, his answer was instructive. There was no doubt in his mind about the legality or morality of his position on Pakistan. 'Most probably,' he said (1982:39)., Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, a respected Deobandi alim (scholar) who occupied the position of Shaykh al-Islam in Pakistan in 1949, and Maulana Mawdudi of Jamaat-i-Islami played a pivotal role in the demand for an Islamic constitution. Mawdudi demanded that the Constituent Assembly make an explicit declaration affirming the "supreme sovereignty of God" and the supremacy of the shariah in Pakistan.BOOK,weblink Pakistan, Hussain, Rizwan, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, Mawlānā ShabbÄ«r Ahmad UsmānÄ«, a respected DeobandÄ« ʿālim (scholar) who was appointed to the prestigious position of Shaykh al-Islām of Pakistan in 1949, was the first to demand that Pakistan become an Islamic state. But MawdÅ«dÄ« and his Jamāʿat-i IslāmÄ« played the central part in the demand for an Islamic constitution. MawdÅ«dÄ« demanded that the Constituent Assembly make an unequivocal declaration affirming the "supreme sovereignty of God" and the supremacy of the sharÄ«Ê¿ah as the basic law of Pakistan., A significant result of the efforts of the Jamaat-i-Islami and the ulama was the passage of the Objectives Resolution in March 1949. The Objectives Resolution, which Liaquat Ali Khan called the second most important step in Pakistan's history, declared that "sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to God Almighty alone and the authority which He has delegated to the State of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust". The Objectives Resolution has been incorporated as a preamble to the constitutions of 1956, 1962, and 1973.BOOK,weblink Pakistan, Hussain, Rizwan, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, The first important result of the combined efforts of the Jamāʿat-i IslāmÄ« and the Ê¿ulamāʿ was the passage of the Objectives Resolution in March 1949, whose formulation reflected compromise between traditionalists and modernists. The resolution embodied "the main principles on which the constitution of Pakistan is to be based." It declared that "sovereignty over the entire universe belongs to God Almighty alone and the authority which He has delegated to the State of Pakistan through its people for being exercised within the limits prescribed by Him is a sacred trust," that "the principles of democracy, freedom, equality, tolerance and social justice, as enunciated by Islam shall be fully observed," and that "the Muslims shall be enabled to order their lives in the individual and collective spheres in accord with the teaching and requirements of Islam as set out in the Holy QurÊ¿an and Sunna." The Objectives Resolution has been reproduced as a preamble to the constitutions of 1956, 1962, and 1973., Democracy was stalled by the martial law that had been enforced by President Iskander Mirza, who was replaced by army chief, General Ayub Khan. After adopting a presidential system in 1962, the country experienced exceptional growth until a second war with India in 1965 that led to an economic downturn and wide-scale public disapproval in 1967.BOOK, A brief history of Pakistan,weblink 27 December 2011, 2009, Infobase Publishing, 978-0-8160-6184-6, 190–197, James Wynbrandt, BOOK, Handbook on the South Asian economies,weblink 27 December 2011, Edward Elgar Publishing, Anis Chowdhury, Wahiduddin Mahmud, 2008, 978-1-84376-988-0, 72–75, Consolidating control from Ayub Khan in 1969, President Yahya Khan had to deal with a devastating cyclone that caused 500,000 deaths in East Pakistan.BOOK, Mission with a Difference,weblink 13 March 2012, Lancer Publishers, 17, GGKEY:KGWAHUGNPY9, File:Ayubkhanandbhutto.jpg|thumb|upright|Signing of the Tashkent Declaration to end hostilities with India in 1965 in Tashkent, USSR, by President Ayub alongside Bhutto (centre) and Aziz AhmedAziz AhmedIn 1970 Pakistan held its first democratic elections since independence, meant to mark a transition from military rule to democracy, but after the East Pakistani Awami League won against the Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP), Yahya Khan and the military establishment refused to hand over power.BOOK, Adam Jones, Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction, 2004, Routledge, 978-0-415-35384-7, 420, BOOK, R. Jahan, Teaching about genocide: issues, approaches, and resources, 2004, Information Age Publishing, 978-1-59311-074-1, 147–148, Samuel Totten, Operation Searchlight, a military crackdown on the Bengali nationalist movement, led to a declaration of independence and the waging of a war of liberation by the Bengali Mukti Bahini forces in East Pakistan.NEWS,weblink 1971 war summary, 2002, BBC, 16 March 2009, However, the conflict was described as a civil war as opposed to a war of liberation in West Pakistan.JOURNAL, Anatomy of Violence: Analysis of Civil War in East Pakistan in 1971, Bose, Sarmila, Economic and Political Weekly, 2349-8846, 40, 41, 2005, 4463–4471, 4417267, Independent researchers estimate that between 300,000 and 500,000 civilians died during this period while the Bangladesh government puts the number of dead at three million,NEWS,weblink Bangladesh war: The article that changed history â€“ BBC News, BBC News, 3 March 2016, 16 December 2011, Dummett, Mark, a figure that is now nearly universally regarded as excessively inflated.BOOK,weblink The Longest August: The Unflinching Rivalry Between India and Pakistan, Hiro, Dilip, Nation Books, 2015, 978-1-56858-503-1, 216, Some academics such as Rudolph Rummel and Rounaq Jahan say both sidesWEB,weblink Statistics of Pakistan's Democide, 10 February 2015, committed genocide; others such as Richard Sisson and Leo E. Rose believe there was no genocide.BOOK, The Genocide Debate: Politicians, Academics, and Victims, Beachler, Donald, Springer, 2011, 978-0-230-33763-3, 16, In response to India's support for the insurgency in East Pakistan, preemptive strikes on India by Pakistan's air force, navy, and marines sparked a conventional war in 1971 that resulted in an Indian victory and East Pakistan gaining independence as Bangladesh.With Pakistan surrendering in the war, Yahya Khan was replaced by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as president; the country worked towards promulgating its constitution and putting the country on the road to democracy. Democratic rule resumed from 1972 to 1977—an era of self-consciousness, intellectual leftism, nationalism, and nationwide reconstruction.WEB, M. Zafar,weblink How Pakistan Army moved into the Political Arena, Defence Journal, 15 March 2009, In 1972 Pakistan embarked on an ambitious plan to develop its nuclear deterrence capability with the goal of preventing any foreign invasion; the country's first nuclear power plant was inaugurated in that same year.WEB, Bhutto was father of Pakistan's Atom Bomb Programme,weblink International Institute for Strategic Studies, 19 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 March 2012, WEB, Pervez Amerali Hoodbhoy, Pervaiz Hoodbhoy, Pakistan's nuclear bayonet, The Herald (Pakistan), The Herald, 23 January 2011,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 18 February 2011, 9 September 2011, Accelerated in response to India's first nuclear test in 1974, this crash program was completed in 1979.Democracy ended with a military coup in 1977 against the leftist PPP, which saw General Zia-ul-Haq become the president in 1978. From 1977 to 1988, President Zia's corporatisation and economic Islamisation initiatives led to Pakistan becoming one of the fastest-growing economies in South Asia.WEB, Sushil Khanna, The Crisis in the Pakistan Economy,weblink Revolutionary Democracy, 16 November 2011, While building up the country's nuclear program, increasing Islamisation,BOOK, State and Secularism: Perspectives from Asia, 202, World Scientific, 978-981-4282-37-6, Michael Heng Siam-Heng, Ten Chin Liew, 2010, Singapore,weblink 28 December 2011, and the rise of a homegrown conservative philosophy, Pakistan helped subsidise and distribute US resources to factions of the mujahideen against the USSR's intervention in communist Afghanistan.BOOK, Steve Coll, Steve Coll, Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet Invasion to September 10, 2001, 23 February 2004, 720, Penguin Press HC, 978-1-59420-007-6, 2004, BOOK, Odd Arne Westad,weblink The global Cold War: third world interventions and the making of our times, 22 January 2012, 2005, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-85364-4, 348–358, Pakistan's North-West Frontier Province became a base for the anti-Soviet Afghan fighters, with the province's influential Deobandi ulama playing a significant role in encouraging and organising the 'jihad'.JOURNAL, Haroon, Sana, 2008, The Rise of Deobandi Islam in the North-West Frontier Province and Its Implications in Colonial India and Pakistan 1914–1996, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, 18, 1, 66–67, 27755911, 10.1017/S1356186307007778, President Zia died in a plane crash in 1988, and Benazir Bhutto, daughter of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, was elected as the country's first female Prime Minister. The PPP was followed by conservative Pakistan Muslim League (N), and over the next decade the leaders of the two parties fought for power, alternating in office while the country's situation worsened; economic indicators fell sharply, in contrast to the 1980s. This period is marked by prolonged stagflation, instability, corruption, nationalism, geopolitical rivalry with India, and the clash of left wing-right wing ideologies.WEB, Marie Chene,weblink Overview of corruption in Pakistan, Anti Corruption Resource Centre, 23 December 2011, JOURNAL, Ishrat Husain, Pakistan & Afghanistan: Domestic Pressures and Regional Threats: The Role of Politics in Pakistan's Economy,weblink Journal of International Affairs, 2009, 63, 1, 1–18, As PML(N) secured a supermajority in elections in 1997, Sharif authorised nuclear testings (See:Chagai-I and Chagai-II), as a retaliation to the second nuclear tests ordered by India, led by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee in May 1998.BOOK, Khan, Feroz Hassan, Eating grass : the making of the Pakistani bomb, 2012, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, 978-0-8047-7600-4, File:Musharaff and Bush in Islamabad.jpeg|left|thumb|President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in IslamabadIslamabadMilitary tension between the two countries in the Kargil district led to the Kargil War of 1999, and turmoil in civic-military relations allowed General Pervez Musharraf to take over through a bloodless coup d'état.NEWS, India launches Kashmir air attack, 26 May 1999, BBC News,weblink 5 August 2008, NEWS,weblink Pakistan after the coup: Special report, 12 October 2000, 17 March 2009, BBC, Musharraf governed Pakistan as chief executive from 1999 to 2001 and as President from 2001 to 2008—a period of enlightenment, social liberalism, extensive economic reforms,WEB,weblink Pakistan Among Top 10 Reformers, World Bank, 12 September 2005, 19 November 2016, and direct involvement in the US-led war on terrorism. When the National Assembly historically completed its first full five-year term on 15 November 2007, the new elections were called by the Election Commission.WEB, Performance of 12th NationalAssembly of Pakistan-,weblink Pakistan Institute of Legislative Development and Transperency, 5, 23 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 January 2012, After the assassination of Benazir Bhutto in 2007, the PPP secured the most votes in the elections of 2008, appointing party member Yousaf Raza Gillani as Prime Minister.NEWS,weblink New Pakistan PM Gillani sworn in, 25 March 2008, 17 March 2009, BBC, Threatened with impeachment, President Musharraf resigned on 18 August 2008, and was succeeded by Asif Ali Zardari.NEWS,weblink Zardari wins Pakistan presidential election: officials, 5 September 2008, AFP, 17 March 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 7 July 2009, NEWS,weblink 19 August 2008, 19 January 2010, Musharraf Exits, but Uncertainty Remains, The Washington Post, Candace Rondeaux, NEWS, Associated Press,weblink Pakistani President Musharraf Resigns Amid Impeachment Threats, Fox News, 18 August 2008, 18 August 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 20 August 2008, dead, Clashes with the judicature prompted Gillani's disqualification from the Parliament and as the Prime Minister in June 2012.NEWS,weblink Gilani disqualified as PM: SC, Daily The News, 19 June 2012, By its own financial calculations, Pakistan's involvement in the war on terrorism has cost up to $118 billion,NEWS, 'War on terror' has cost Pakistan $118bn: SBP,weblink 3 April 2017, Dawn (newspaper), Dawn, Agence France Presse, 19 November 2016, sixty thousand casualties and more than 1.8 million displaced civilians.NEWS, Pakistan IDP Figures Analysis,weblink 3 April 2017, Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre,weblink" title="">weblink 4 April 2017, dead, The general election held in 2013 saw the PML(N) almost achieve a supermajority, following which Nawaz Sharif was elected as the Prime Minister, returning to the post for the third time in fourteen years, in a democratic transition.NEWS,weblink Nawaz Sharif sworn in as Pakistani PM, ABC, 5 June 2013, 6 June 2013, In 2018, Imran Khan (the chairman of PTI) won the 2018 Pakistan general election with 116 general seats and became the 22nd Prime Minister of Pakistan in election of National Assembly of Pakistan for Prime Minister by getting 176 votes against Shehbaz Sharif (the chairman of PMLN) who got 96 votes.NEWS, Imran Khan won Pakistan general election, 2018 and became the 22nd Prime Minister of Pakistan,weblink 22 August 2018, Daily Pakistan, {{clear}}

Role of Islam in Pakistan

{{See also|Secularism in Pakistan}}The idea of Pakistan, which had received overwhelming popular support among Indian Muslims, especially those in the provinces of British India where Muslims were in a minority such as the United Provinces,BOOK,weblink Creating a New Medina: State Power, Islam, and the Quest for Pakistan in Late Colonial North India, Dhulipala, Venkat, Cambridge University Press, 2015, 978-1-316-25838-5, 496, The idea of Pakistan may have had its share of ambiguities, but its dismissal as a vague emotive symbol hardly illuminates the reasons as to why it received such overwhelmingly popular support among Indian Muslims, especially those in the 'minority provinces' of British India such as U.P., was articulated in terms of an Islamic state by the Muslim League leadership, the ulama (Islamic clergy) and Jinnah.BOOK,weblink Creating a New Medina: State Power, Islam, and the Quest for Pakistan in Late Colonial North India, Dhulipala, Venkat, Cambridge University Press, 2015, 978-1-316-25838-5, 497, As the book has demonstrated, local ML functionaries, (U.P.) ML leadership, Muslim modernists at Aligarh, the ulama and even Jinnah at times articulated their vision of Pakistan in terms of an Islamic state., Jinnah had developed a close association with the ulama and upon his death was described by one such alim, Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, as the greatest Muslim after Aurangzeb and as someone who desired to unite the Muslims of the world under the banner of Islam.BOOK,weblink Creating a New Medina: State Power, Islam, and the Quest for Pakistan in Late Colonial North India, Dhulipala, Venkat, Cambridge University Press, 2015, 978-1-316-25838-5, 489, But what is undeniable is the close association he developed with the ulama, for when he died a little over a year after Pakistan was born, Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani, in his funeral oration, described Jinnah as the greatest Muslim after the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb., BOOK,weblink Creating a New Medina: State Power, Islam, and the Quest for Pakistan in Late Colonial North India, Dhulipala, Venkat, Cambridge University Press, 2015, 978-1-316-25838-5, 489, Similarly, Usmani asked Pakistanis to remember the Qaid's ceaseless message of Unity, Faith and Discipline and work to fulfil his dream to create a solid bloc of all Muslim states from Karachi to Ankara, from Pakistan to Morocco. He [Jinnah] wanted to see the Muslims of the world united under the banner of Islam as an effective check against the aggressive designs of their enemies, The Objectives Resolution in March 1949, which declared God as the sole sovereign over the entire universe, represented the first formal step to transform Pakistan into an Islamic state.BOOK,weblink Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military, Haqqani, Hussain, Carnegie Endowment, 2010, 978-0-87003-285-1, 16, The first formal step toward transforming Pakistan into an Islamic ideological state was taken in March 1949 when the country's first prime minister, Liaquat Ali Khan, presented the Objectives Resolution in the constituent assembly., Muslim League leader Chaudhry Khaliquzzaman asserted that Pakistan could only truly become an Islamic state after bringing all believers of Islam into a single political unit.BOOK,weblink Creating a New Medina: State Power, Islam, and the Quest for Pakistan in Late Colonial North India, Dhulipala, Venkat, Cambridge University Press, 2015, 978-1-316-25838-5, 491, Khaliq drew a sharp distinction between this Islamic state and a Muslim state. He claimed that as of now Pakistan was only a Muslim state in view of the majority of its population being Muslim, and indeed could never be an Islamic state by itself. It could certainly fulfill its promise and destiny by bringing together all the believers of Islam into one political unit and it is only then that an Islamic state would be achieved., Keith Callard, one of the earliest scholars on Pakistani politics, observed that Pakistanis believed in the essential unity of purpose and outlook in the Muslim world and assumed that Muslim from other countries would share their views on the relationship between religion and nationality.BOOK,weblink Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military, Haqqani, Hussain, Carnegie Endowment, 2010, 978-0-87003-285-1, 18, One of the earliest Western scholars of Pakistani politics, Keith Callard, observed that Pakistanis seemed to believe in the essential unity of purpose and outlook in the Muslim world: Pakistan was founded to advance the cause of Muslims. Other Muslims might have been expected to be sympathetic, even enthusiastic. But this assumed that other Muslim states would take the same view of the relation between religion and nationality., File:Friday prayes at b.jpg|thumb|200px|The Friday Prayers at the Badshahi MosqueBadshahi MosqueHowever, Pakistan's pan-Islamist sentiments for a united Islamic bloc called Islamistan were not shared by other Muslim governments,BOOK,weblink Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military, Haqqani, Hussain, Carnegie Endowment, 2010, 978-0-87003-285-1, 18, Pakistan's pan-Islamic aspirations, however, were neither shared nor supported by the Muslim governments of the time. Nationalism in other parts of the Muslim world was based on ethnicity, language, or territory., although Islamists such as the Grand Mufti of Palestine, Al-Haj Amin al-Husseini, and leaders of the Muslim Brotherhood, became drawn to the country. Pakistan's desire for an international organization of Muslim countries was fulfilled in the 1970s when the Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) was formed.BOOK,weblink Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military, Haqqqani, Hussain, Carnegie Endowment, 2010, 978-0-87003-285-1, 19, Although Muslim governments were initially unsympathetic to Pakistan's pan-Islamic aspirations, Islamists from the world over were drawn to Pakistan. Controversial figures such as the pro-Nazi former grand mufti of Palestine, Al-Haj Amin al-Husseini, and leaders of Islamist political movements like the Arab Muslim Brotherhood became frequent visitors to the country., The strongest opposition to the Islamist ideological paradigm being imposed on the state came from the Bengali Muslims of East PakistanBOOK,weblink Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military, 2010, Carnegie Endowment, 978-0-87003-285-1, 19–, Husain Haqqani, whose educated class, according to a survey by social scientist Nasim Ahmad Jawed, preferred secularism and focused on ethnic identity unlike educated West Pakistanis who tended to prefer an Islamic identity.BOOK,weblink The Causes of the Bangladesh War, Cochrane, Iain, 2009, 978-1-4452-4043-5, The social scientist, Nasim Ahmad Jawed has conducted a survey of nationalism in pre-divided Pakistan and identifies the links between religion, politics and nationalism in both wings of Pakistan. His findings are fascinating and go some way to explain the differing attitudes of West and East Pakistan to the relationship between Islam and Pakistani nationalism and how this affected the views of people in both wings, especially the views of the peoples of both wings towards each other. In 1969, Jawed conducted a survey on the type of national identity that was used by educated professional people. He found that just over 60% in the East wing professed to have a secular national identity. However, in the West wing, the same figure professed an Islamic and not a secular identity. Furthermore, the same figure in the East wing described their identity in terms of their ethnicity and not in terms of Islam. He found that the opposite was the case in the West wing where Islam was stated to be more important than ethnicity., The Islamist party Jamaat-e-Islami considered Pakistan to be an Islamic state and believed Bengali nationalism to be unacceptable. In the 1971 conflict over East Pakistan, the Jamaat-e-Islami fought the Bengali nationalists on the Pakistan Army's side.WEB,weblink Religious Extremism and Nationalism in Bangladesh, LINTNER, BERTIL, 2004, 418, After Pakistan's first ever general elections the 1973 Constitution was created by an elected Parliament.BOOK,weblink Islam, Law and Identity, Diamantides, Marinos, Gearey, Adam, Routledge, 2011, 978-1-136-67565-2, 196, The Constitution of 1973 was created by a parliament that was elected in the 1970 elections. In this first ever general elections ..., The Constitution declared Pakistan an Islamic Republic and Islam as the state religion. It also stated that all laws would have to be brought into accordance with the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah and that no law repugnant to such injunctions could be enacted.BOOK,weblink The Right to Development in International Law: The Case of Pakistan, Iqbal, Khurshid, Routledge, 2009, 978-1-134-01999-1, 189, The 1973 Constitution also created certain institutions such as the Shariat Court and the Council of Islamic Ideology to channel the interpretation and application of Islam.BOOK,weblink Islam, Law and Identity, Diamantides, Marinos, Gearey, Adam, Routledge, 2011, 978-1-136-67565-2, 198, The 1973 constitution also created certain institutions to channel the application and interpretation of Islam: the Council of Islamic Ideology and the Shariat Court., Pakistan's leftist Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto faced vigorous opposition which coalesced into a movement united under the revivalist banner of Nizam-e-Mustafa ("Rule of the prophet")BOOK, Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism, 1996, Oxford University Press, 978-0-19-509695-8, New York, Oxford, 45–46, Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr, which aimed to establish an Islamic state based on Sharia laws. Bhutto agreed to some Islamist demands before being overthrown in a coup.BOOK,weblink Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam, Kepel, Gilles, 2002, I.B.Tauris, 978-1-84511-257-8, 2006, 100–101, 5 December 2014, In 1977, after taking power from Bhutto in a coup d'état, General Zia-ul-Haq, who came from a religious background,BOOK,weblink Pakistan: Between Mosque and Military, Haqqani, Hussain, Carnegie Endowment, 2010, 978-0-87003-285-1, 132, Most accounts of Zia ul-Haq's life confirm that he came from a religious family and that religion played an important part in molding his personality., committed himself to establishing an Islamic state and enforcing sharia law. Zia established separate Shariat judicial courtsBOOK,weblink Islam, Law and Identity, Diamantides, Marinos, Gearey, Adam, Routledge, 2011, 978-1-136-67565-2, 198, The Shariat judicial courts were not present in the original Constitution of 1973 and were later inserted in 1979 by General Zia-ul Haq ..., and court benchesBOOK,weblink Double Jeopardy: Police Abuse of Women in Pakistan, 1992, Human Rights Watch, 19, 3 December 2014, 978-1-56432-063-6, BOOK,weblink Pakistan: between mosque and military, Haqqani, Hussain, United Book Press, 2005, 978-0-87003-285-1, Washington D.C., 400, to judge legal cases using Islamic doctrine.BOOK,weblink A Brief History of Pakistan, 2009, Facts on File, 978-0-8160-6184-6, 216–7, Zia, however, tried to bolster the influence of Islamic parties and the ulama on government and society., Wynbrandt, James, Zia bolstered the influence of the ulama (Islamic clergy) and the Islamic parties. Zia-ul-Haq forged a strong alliance between the military and Deobandi institutionsBOOK,weblink Faith-Based Violence and Deobandi Militancy in Pakistan, Syed, Jawad, Pio, Edwina, Kamran, Tahir, Zaidi, Abbas, Springer, 2016, 978-1-349-94966-3, 379, ... the military dictator Zia ul Haq (1977–1988) forged a strong alliance between the military and Deobani institutions and movements (e.g. the TJ)., and even though most Barelvi ulamaBOOK,weblink The Awakening of Muslim Democracy: Religion, Modernity, and the State, Cesari, Jocelyne, Cambridge University Press, 2014, 978-1-107-51329-7, 135, For example, the Barelvi ulama supported the formation of the state of Pakistan and thought that any alliance with Hindus (such as that between the Indian National Congress and the Jamiat ulama-I-Hind [JUH]) was counterproductive., and only a few Deobandi scholars had supported Pakistan's creation, Islamic state politics came to be mostly in favour of Deobandi (and later Ahl-e-Hadith/Salafi) institutions instead of Barelvi.BOOK,weblink Faith-Based Violence and Deobandi Militancy in Pakistan, Syed, Jawad, Pio, Edwina, Kamran, Tahir, Zaidi, Abbas, Springer, 2016, 978-1-349-94966-3, 379, Ironically, Islamic state politics in Pakistan was mostly in favour of Deobandi, and more recently Ahl-e Hadith/Salafi, institutions. Only a few Deobandi clerics decided to support the Pakistan Movement, but they were highly influential., Sectarian tensions increased with Zia's anti-Shia policies.BOOK,weblink Faith-Based Violence and Deobandi Militancy in Pakistan, Springer, 2016, 978-1-349-94966-3, 346, The grave impact of that legacy was compunded by the Iranian Revolution, and Zia-ul Haq's anti-Shia policies, which added the violence and regimentation of the organization., According to a Pew Research Center (PEW) opinion poll, a majority of Pakistanis support making Sharia the official law of the land.WEB,weblink Chapter 1: Beliefs About Sharia, Street, 30 April 2013, Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project, 4 December 2016, In a survey of several Muslim countries, PEW also found that Pakistanis tend to identify with their religion more than their nationality in contrast to Muslims in other nations such as Egypt, Indonesia and Jordan.WEB,weblink What Do You Consider Yourself First?, 31 March 2010, Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project, 4 December 2016,

Geography, environment and climate

(File:Indus.A2002274.0610.1km.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|A satellite image showing the topography of Pakistan)File:Pakistan map of Köppen climate classification.svg|thumb|upright=1.15|Köppen climate classificationKöppen climate classificationThe geography and climate of Pakistan are extremely diverse, and the country is home to a wide variety of wildlife.WEB,weblink Land and People, Ministry of Information, Broadcasting, and National Heritage,weblink" title="">weblink 22 February 2015, 18 February 2015, Pakistan covers an area of {{convert|881913|km2|abbr=on}}, approximately equal to the combined land areas of France and the United Kingdom. It is the 33rd-largest nation by total area, although this ranking varies depending on how the disputed territory of Kashmir is counted. Pakistan has a {{convert|1046|km|abbr=on}} coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the southWEB, PNS Gwadar,weblink Global Security, 21 November 2011, 4 January 2012, and land borders of {{convert|6774|km|abbr=on}} in total: {{convert|2430|km|abbr=on}} with Afghanistan, {{convert|523|km|abbr=on}} with China, {{convert|2912|km|abbr=on}} with India and {{convert|909|km|abbr=on}} with Iran.WEB,weblink Pakistan, Central Intelligence Agency, CIA, World Factbook, 13 February 2008, It shares a marine border with Oman,WEB,weblink Muscat Agreement on the Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary between the Sultanate of Oman and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 12 June 2000(1), 1, 18 August 2011, United Nations, and is separated from Tajikistan by the cold, narrow Wakhan Corridor.NEWS, Edward Wong, In Icy Tip of Afghanistan, War Seems Remote,weblink 4 January 2012, New York Times, 27 October 2010, Pakistan occupies a geopolitically important location at the crossroads of South Asia, the Middle East, and Central Asia.Geologically, Pakistan is located in the Indus–Tsangpo Suture Zone and overlaps the Indian tectonic plate in its Sindh and Punjab provinces; Balochistan and most of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are within the Eurasian plate, mainly on the Iranian plateau. Gilgit–Baltistan and Azad Kashmir lie along the edge of the Indian plate and hence are prone to violent earthquakes. This region has the highest rates of seismicity and the largest earthquakes in the Himalaya region.NEWS, Pakistan in the most active quake zone, says US Geological Survey,weblink Dawn, 5 November 2015, 27 October 2015, Ranging from the coastal areas of the south to the glaciated mountains of the north, Pakistan's landscapes vary from plains to deserts, forests, hills, and plateaus.WEB, 2010, Pakistan,weblink Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, 29 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 22 December 2011, {{Multiple image
| align = left
| direction = vertical
| width = 220
| image1 = K2 2006b.jpg
| caption1 = K2, the second-highest mountain on Earth
| image2 = SHIGAR.jpg
| caption2 = Katpana Desert, the world's highest cold desert
| image3 = Nanga Parbat The Killer Mountain.jpg
| caption3 = Nanga Parbat, the ninth-highest mountain on Earth
| image4 = Deosai "The Land of Giants".jpg
| caption4 = The Deosai Plains are the world's second highest alpine plain.
}}Pakistan is divided into three major geographic areas: the northern highlands, the Indus River plain, and the Balochistan Plateau.WEB, About Pakistan: Geography,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 21 July 2011, American Institute For Pakistan Studies, 24 July 2010, The northern highlands contain the Karakoram, Hindu Kush, and Pamir mountain ranges (see mountains of Pakistan), which contain some of the world's highest peaks, including five of the fourteen eight-thousanders (mountain peaks over {{convert|8000|m|ft|-1||disp=or}}), which attract adventurers and mountaineers from all over the world, notably K2 ({{convert|8611|m|abbr=on|disp=or}}) and Nanga Parbat ({{convert|8126|m|abbr=on|disp=or}}).WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 10 November 2006, PTDC page on mountaineering, Pakistan Tourism Development Corporation, 10 November 2006, The Balochistan Plateau lies in the west and the Thar Desert in the east. The {{convert|1609|km|abbr=on}} Indus River and its tributaries flow through the country from the Kashmir region to the Arabian Sea. There is an expanse of alluvial plains along it in the Punjab and Sindh.WEB,weblink Pakistan, InfoPlease, Pearson Education, 16 March 2009, The climate varies from tropical to temperate, with arid conditions in the coastal south. There is a monsoon season with frequent flooding due to heavy rainfall, and a dry season with significantly less rainfall or none at all. There are four distinct seasons in Pakistan: a cool, dry winter from December through February; a hot, dry spring from March through May; the summer rainy season, or southwest monsoon period, from June through September; and the retreating monsoon period of October and November. Rainfall varies greatly from year to year, and patterns of alternate flooding and drought are common.WEB,weblink Pakistan Climate, Encyclopedia of the Nations, 28 March 2008, 16 March 2009,

Flora and fauna

The diversity of the landscape and climate in Pakistan allows a wide variety of trees and plants to flourish. The forests range from coniferous alpine and subalpine trees such as spruce, pine, and deodar cedar in the extreme northern mountains to deciduous trees in most of the country (for example, the mulberry-like shisham found in the Sulaiman Mountains), to palms such as coconut and date in the southern Punjab, southern Balochistan, and all of Sindh. The western hills are home to juniper, tamarisk, coarse grasses, and scrub plants. Mangrove forests form much of the coastal wetlands along the coast in the south.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 25 December 2004, Conservation of Mangrove Forests in the Coastal Areas of Sindh and Balochistan, WWF Pakistan, 17 March 2009, Coniferous forests are found at altitudes ranging from {{convert|1,000|to|4000|m|abbr=off}} in most of the northern and northwestern highlands. In the xeric regions of Balochistan, date palm and Ephedra are common. In most of the Punjab and Sindh, the Indus plains support tropical and subtropical dry and moist broadleaf forest as well as tropical and xeric shrublands. These forests are mostly of mulberry, acacia, and eucalyptus.WEB, Introduction,weblink AIT-UNEP RRC.AP, 27 December 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 12 January 2012, About 2.2% or {{convert|1687000|ha|km2}} of Pakistan was forested in 2010.WEB, Rhett Butler,weblink Pakistan Deforestation Rates and Related Forestry Figures,, 19 April 2012, {{multiple image|direction=vertical|width=175caption1=Bearcaption2=Tibetan wolfcaption3=Snow leopard}}The fauna of Pakistan also reflects the country's varied climate. Around 668 bird species are found there, including crows, sparrows, mynas, hawks, falcons, and eagles. Palas, Kohistan, has a significant population of western tragopan.JOURNAL, Naeem Ashraf Raja, P. Davidson, 1999, The birds of Palas, North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan,weblink Forktail, 15, 77–85, 12 November 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 10 June 2011, etal, Many birds sighted in Pakistan are migratory, coming from Europe, Central Asia, and India.BOOK, Birds of Pakistan,weblink A&C Black, 11 January 2012, Richard Grimmett, Tom J. Roberts, Tim Inskipp, 2009, 978-0-7136-8800-9, 6, 38–41, 132–136, The southern plains are home to mongooses, small Indian civet, hares, the Asiatic jackal, the Indian pangolin, the jungle cat, and the desert cat. There are mugger crocodiles in the Indus, and wild boar, deer, porcupines, and small rodents in the surrounding areas. The sandy scrublands of central Pakistan are home to Asiatic jackals, striped hyenas, wildcats, and leopards.WEB, Sheet1,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 15 September 2006, XLS, WWF, 11 January 2012, ENCYCLOPEDIA, Pakistan plant and animal life,weblink Encyclopædia Britannica, 27 December 2011, The lack of vegetative cover, the severe climate, and the impact of grazing on the deserts have left wild animals in a precarious position. The chinkara is the only animal that can still be found in significant numbers in Cholistan. A small number of nilgai are found along the Pakistan–India border and in some parts of Cholistan.BOOK, Wild sheep and goats and their relatives: status survey and conservation action plan for caprinae,weblink 11 January 2012, David M. Shackleton, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Species Survival Commission. Caprinae Specialist Group, 1997, IUCN, 978-2-8317-0353-4, 10–13, 352, A wide variety of animals live in the mountainous north, including the Marco Polo sheep, the urial (a subspecies of wild sheep), the markhor goat, the ibex goat, the Asian black bear, and the Himalayan brown bear.WEB, Species,weblink WWF Pakistan, 27 December 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 28 December 2011, dead, WEB, Pakistan,weblink Wildlife Conservation Society, 27 December 2011, Among the rare animals found in the area are the snow leopard and the blind Indus river dolphin, of which there are believed to be about 1,100 remaining, protected at the Indus River Dolphin Reserve in Sindh.BOOK,weblink Pakistan, ABDO, 11 January 2012, Pete Heiden, 978-1-61787-631-8, 33–44, 2011, In total, 174 mammals, 177 reptiles, 22 amphibians, 198 freshwater fish species and 5,000 species of invertebrates (including insects) have been recorded in Pakistan.The flora and fauna of Pakistan suffer from a number of problems. Pakistan has the second-highest rate of deforestation in the world, which, along with hunting and pollution, has had adverse effects on the ecosystem. The government has established a large number of protected areas, wildlife sanctuaries, and game reserves to address these issues.WEB, Biodiversity,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 15 January 2005, WWF, 10 January 2012, WEB, Biodiversity Sharing the Environment,weblink Government of Pakistan, 1, 4–7, 10 January 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 27 August 2006,

Government and politics

File:Parliament House, Islamabad by Usman Ghani.jpg|thumb|right|Parliament House ]]Pakistan's political experience is essentially related to the struggle of Indian Muslims to regain the power they lost to British colonisation.BOOK,weblink Pakistan, Hussain, Rizwan, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, Hence, Pakistan's political experience is integrally related to the struggle of Indian Muslims to find an autonomous political center after their loss of power to the British in the early nineteenth century., Pakistan is a democratic parliamentary federal republic, with Islam as the state religion.WEB,weblink Part I: "Introductory",, The first constitution was adopted in 1956 but suspended by Ayub Khan in 1958, who replaced it with the second constitution in 1962. A complete and comprehensive constitution was adopted in 1973—it was suspended by Zia-ul-Haq in 1977 but reinstated in 1985—is the country's most important document, laying the foundations of the current government. The Pakistani military establishment has played an influential role in mainstream politics throughout Pakistan's political history. The periods 1958–1971, 1977–1988, and 1999–2008 saw military coups that resulted in the imposition of martial law and military commanders who governed as de facto presidents.NEWS,weblink World: South Asia Pakistan's army and its history of politics, 10 December 1999, 16 March 2009, BBC, Today Pakistan has a multi-party parliamentary system with clear division of powers and checks and balances among the branches of government. The first successful democratic transition occurred in May 2013. Politics in Pakistan is centred on, and dominated by, a homegrown social philosophy comprising a blend of ideas from socialism, conservatism, and the third way. As of the general elections held in 2013, the three main political parties in the country are: the centre-right conservative Pakistan Muslim League-N; the centre-left socialist PPP; and the centrist and third-way Pakistan Movement for Justice (PTI). File:A night side view of Prime Minister's Secretariat Building.jpg|thumb|left|Prime Minister's Office ]] File:Supreme Court of Pakistan, Islamabad by Usman Ghani.jpg|thumb|right|Supreme Court of PakistanSupreme Court of Pakistan
  • Judicature: The judiciary of Pakistan is a hierarchical system with two classes of courts: the superior (or higher) judiciary and the subordinate (or lower) judiciary. The Chief Justice of Pakistan is the chief judge who oversees the judicature's court system at all levels of command. The superior judiciary is composed of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, the Federal Shariat Court and five High Courts, with the Supreme Court at the apex. The Constitution of Pakistan entrusts the superior judiciary with the obligation to preserve, protect and defend the constitution. Neither the Supreme Court nor a High Court may exercise jurisdiction in relation to Tribal Areas, except otherwise provided for. The disputed regions of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan have separate court systems.

Foreign relations

File:Motorcade in Arrival Ceremonies for Muhammad Ayub Khan, President of Pakistan use.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|alt=(L–R) English: Motorcade for President Mohammad Ayub Khan of Pakistan. In open car (Lincoln-Mercury Continental with bubble top): Secret Service agent William Greer (driving); Military Aide to the President General Chester V. Clifton (front seat, centre); Secret Service Agent Gerald "Jerry" Behn (front seat, right, partially hidden); President Mohammad Ayub Khan (standing); President John F. Kennedy (standing). Crowd watching. 14th Street, Washington, D.C.| Ayub Khan (President of Pakistan) with U.S. President leftAs the Muslim world's second most populous nation-state (after Indonesia) and its only nuclear power, Pakistan has an important role in the international community.BOOK, Colgrove, Rosemary, Eye on the Sparrow: The Remarkable Journey of Father Joseph Nisari, Pakistani Priest, 2010, Mill City Press, Minneapolis, 978-1-936400-87-4, BOOK, Conflict between India and Pakistan : an encyclopedia,weblink 3 February 2015, Lyon, Peter, 2008, ABC-CLIO, Santa Barbara, Calif., 978-1-57607-712-2, With a semi-agricultural and semi-industrialized economy, its foreign policy determines its standard of interactions for its organisations, corporations, and individual citizens.JOURNAL, Ahmad, Hafeez Ashfaq, Determinants of Foreign Policy of Pakistan, Scribd, 19 November 2012,weblink 19 November 2012, WEB, Ministry of Foreign Affairs,weblink Pakistan Government, Official policy statements, 19 November 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 31 October 2012, Its geostrategic intentions were explained by Jinnah in a broadcast message in 1947, which is featured in a prominent quotation on the homepage of Pakistan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs website: "The foundation of our foreign policy is friendship with all nations across the globe."WEB, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Homepage,,weblink Government of Pakistan, 2013, 4 August 2015, Since Independence, Pakistan has attempted to balance its relations with foreign nations.BOOK, Political system in Pakistan, Arora, Ranjana, 1995, Deep & Deep Publ., 978-81-7100-739-4, New Delhi, Grover, ed. by Verinder, BOOK, Prepare or perish : a study of national security, 1991, Lancer Publ., 978-81-7212-001-6, New Delhi, KrishnaRao, K.V., NEWS,weblink Pakistan wants promotion of friendly, brotherly relations with all countries: Mamnoon, 14 July 2016, Dispatch News Desk, 25 February 2017, Pakistan is a strong ally of China, with both countries placing considerable importance on the maintenance of an extremely close and supportive special relationship.NEWS,weblink Pakistani PM hails China as his country's 'best friend', BBC News, 17 May 2011, 17 May 2011, NEWS,weblink Pakistan President to Visit China, a Valued Ally, New York Times, 12 October 2008, Salman, Masood, 13 October 2008, NEWS,weblink China-Pakistan relations, 14 November 2006, China Daily, It is also a major non-NATO ally of the United States in the war against terrorism—a status achieved in 2004.BOOK, Pakistan's Foreign Policy, 1947–2012: A Concise History, 2013, Oxford University Press, Shahi, 978-0-19-906910-1, Third, Karachi, Shahi, Abdul Sattar; foreword by Agha, Pakistan's foreign policy and geostrategy mainly focus on the economy and security against threats to its national identity and territorial integrity, and on the cultivation of close relations with other Muslim countries.WEB,weblink Foreign Policy of Pakistan, Govt of Pakistan, 3 February 2015, Govt of Pakistan, The Kashmir conflict remains the major point of contention between Pakistan and India; three of their four wars were fought over this territory. Due partly to difficulties in relations with its geopolitical rival India, Pakistan maintains close political relations with Turkey and Iran,BOOK, Friends Near Home: Pakistan's Strategic Security Options, 2006, AuthorHouse, 978-1-4670-1541-7, Islamabad, Pakistan, Anwar, Muhammad, and both countries have been a focal point in Pakistan's foreign policy. Saudi Arabia also maintains a respected position in Pakistan's foreign policy.A non-signatory party of the Treaty on Nuclear Non-Proliferation, Pakistan is an influential member of the IAEA.BOOK, Pakistan's nuclear weapons, 2009, Routledge, 978-0-415-40871-4, London, Chakma, Bhumitra, In recent events, Pakistan has blocked an international treaty to limit fissile material, arguing that the "treaty would target Pakistan specifically".NEWS,weblink Pakistan a Responsible Nuclear Power, Official Asserts, Officials reports, 18 June 2010, 3 December 2012, NPT News Directorate, In the 20th century, Pakistan's nuclear deterrence program focused on countering India's nuclear ambitions in the region, and nuclear tests by India eventually led Pakistan to reciprocate to maintain a geopolitical balance as becoming a nuclear power.NEWS,weblink World: Monitoring Nawaz Sharif's speech, 28 May 1998, 11 March 2012, BBC, Currently, Pakistan maintains a policy of credible minimum deterrence, calling its program vital nuclear deterrence against foreign aggression.NEWS,weblink N-deterrence to be pursued, 15 July 2011, 11 March 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 18 July 2011, Dawn, Located in the strategic and geopolitical corridor of the world's major maritime oil supply lines and communication fibre optics, Pakistan has proximity to the natural resources of Central Asian countries.BOOK, The foreign policy of Pakistan : ethnic impacts on diplomacy, 1971–1994, 1997, Tauris, 978-1-86064-169-5, London [u.a.], Shah, Mehtab Ali, Briefing on the country's foreign policy in 2004, a Pakistani senator{{clarify|date=April 2017}} reportedly explained: "Pakistan highlights sovereign equality of states, bilateralism, mutuality of interests, and non-interference in each other's domestic affairs as the cardinal features of its foreign policy."WEB,weblink Pakistan's Foreign Policy:An Overview 1947–2004, Pakistan Institute of Legislative Development and Transparency, 10–12, 20, 20 December 2011, Hasan Askari Rizvi,weblink" title="">weblink 23 June 2012, dead, Pakistan is an active member of the United Nations and has a Permanent Representative to represent Pakistan's positions in international politics.WEB,weblink United Nations Member States, 3 July 2006, United Nations, 8 July 2010, Pakistan has lobbied for the concept of "enlightened moderation" in the Muslim world.WEB,weblink Senate OIC Report, September 2005, Senate of Pakistan: Senate Foreign Relations Committee, 16–18, 8 July 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 19 February 2009, NEWS,weblink A Plea for Enlightened Moderation, 1 June 2004, 24 December 2011, The Washington Post, Pakistan is also a member of Commonwealth of Nations,WEB,weblink Pakistan, Commonwealth Secretariat, 8 July 2010, the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO),WEB,weblink Member Countries, 24 December 2011, ECO, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 December 2011, WEB,weblink Exploring Pakistan's Regional Economic Cooperation Potential, 1–2, 24 December 2011, A.R.Kemal, PIDE, and the G20 developing nations.WEB,weblink G-20 Ministerial Meeting, 19 March 2005, Department of Commerce, Ministry of Commerce and Industry, India, 4 January 2012,, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 December 2005, Because of ideological differences, Pakistan opposed the Soviet Union in the 1950s, and during the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s, Pakistan was one of the closest allies of the United States.WEB,weblink Pakistan: The Most Allied Ally in Asia, Foreign Policy Association, 12 March 2009,weblink" title="">weblink 25 July 2011, Robert Nolan, dead, Relations between Pakistan and Russia have greatly improved since 1999, and co-operation in various sectors has increased.NEWS,weblink Accord to diversify ties with Russia, 9 January 2015, 3 February 2015, Dawn, 2015, staff writer, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, Pakistan has had an "on-and-off" relationship with the United States. A close ally of the United States during the Cold war, Pakistan's relationship with the United States soured in the 1990s when the US imposed sanctions because of Pakistan's secretive nuclear development.NEWS,weblink US military aid to Pakistan suspended six times since 1954, 26 October 2009, The News International, Sabir Shah, Since 9/11, Pakistan has been a close ally of the United States on the issue of counter-terrorism in the regions of the Middle East and South Asia, with the US supporting Pakistan with aid money and weapons.WEB,weblink 2015 Joint Statement By President Barack Obama And Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif,, 28 December 2015, 22 October 2015, JOURNAL, D'Souza, Shanthie, 2006, US-Pakistan Counter-Terrorism Cooperation: Dynamics and Challenges,weblink Strategic Analysis, 28 December 2015, Initially, the United States-led war on terrorism led to an improvement in the relationship, but it was strained by a divergence of interests and resulting mistrust during the war in Afghanistan and by issues related to terrorism.WEB,weblink The United States' new backyard, Le Monde diplomatique, 24 July 2010, Alain Gresh, November 2007, WEB,weblink Analysis: The US-Pakistan relationship, 4 December 2011, Long War Journal, 15 January 2017, C.J. Radin, WEB,weblink Pakistan & USA â€“ Allies in the war on Terrorism!, 15 February 2010, Nazir Khaja, Defence Talk, NEWS,weblink Pakistan backed attacks on American targets, U.S. says, Washington Post, 30 January 2010, Karen DeYoung, Pakistan does not have diplomatic relations with Israel;NEWS,weblink The Pakistani origins of the Israeli state, 3 December 2014, 2 March 2015, Washington Post, Tharoor, Ishaan, nonetheless, some Israeli citizens have visited the country on tourist visas.NEWS,weblink Israeli lecturer takes part in Pakistan conference, 28 February 2015, 2 March 2015, Haaretz, Khoury, Jack, However, an exchange took place between the two countries using Turkey as a communication conduit.NEWS,weblink Pakistan-Israel in landmark talks, 1 September 2005, 4 July 2012, BBC News, Despite Pakistan being the only country in the world that has not established diplomatic relations with Armenia, an Armenian community still resides in Pakistan.NEWS,weblink Pakistan the only country not recognizing Armenia – envoy, 5 February 2015, 2 March 2015, Armenian Times, Pakistan had warm relations with Bangladesh, despite some initial strains in their relationship.

Relations with China

File:Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy and Zhou Enlai signing the Treaty of Friendship Between China and Pakistan in Beijing.jpg|upright=0.9|thumb|Pakistan Prime Minister Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy with Chinese Premier Zhou EnlaiZhou EnlaiPakistan was one of the first countries to establish formal diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China, and the relationship continues to be warm since China's war with India in 1962, forming a special relationship.WEB,weblink China-Pakistan Relations, Bajoria, Jayshree, 6 July 2010, Council on Foreign Relations, China Pakistan, 3 February 2015, Afridi, Jamal,weblink" title="">weblink 22 March 2015, dead, In the 1960s to 1980s, Pakistan greatly helped China in reaching out to the world's major countries and helped facilitate US President Nixon's state visit to China. Despite the change of governments in Pakistan and fluctuations in the regional and global situation, China policy in Pakistan continues to be a dominant factor at all times. In return, China is Pakistan's largest trading partner, and economic co-operation has flourished, with substantial Chinese investment in Pakistan's infrastructural expansion such as the Pakistani deep-water port at Gwadar. Sino-Pakistani friendly relations touched new heights as both the countries signed 51 agreements and Memorandums of Understanding (MoUs) in 2015 for co-operation in different areas.WEB,weblink$20-bn, ISLAMABAD: Pakistan and China agreed to raise their trade volume up to $20 billion and pledged to continue their cooperation in civil nuclear technology,weblink" title="">weblink 21 April 2015, dead, WEB,weblink Pakistan-China Relations, June 2006, Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies, 1, 28 December 2011, Urvashi Aneja, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 27 January 2012, NEWS,weblink CHRONOLOGY-Main events in Chinese-Pakistani relations, 24 November 2006, Thomson Reuters, 24 November 2006, Reuters, WEB,weblink China-Pakistan Relations, 6 July 2010, Jamal Afridi, Council on Foreign Relations,weblink" title="">weblink 24 April 2011, dead, Both countries signed a Free Trade Agreement in the 2000s, and Pakistan continues to serve as China's communication bridge to the Muslim world.BOOK, Between Mecca and Beijing, 2000, Stanford University Press, 978-0-8047-6434-6, California, Gillette, Maris Boyd, In 2016 China announced that it will set up an anti-terrorism alliance with Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan.WEB,weblink China joins Afghanistan, Pakistan, Tajikistan in security alliance, Reuters, 4 August 2016,, 22 November 2016, In December 2018, Pakistan's government defended China's re-education camps for a million Uyghur Muslims.NEWS, Why Muslim nations remain silent as China sends ethnic minorities to re-education camps,weblink ABC News, 23 December 2018, NEWS, Detention camps: Why Pakistan is silent about plight of fellow muslims in China,weblink The Times of India, December 23, 2018,

Emphasis on relations with Muslim world

After Independence, Pakistan vigorously pursued bilateral relations with other Muslim countriesBOOK,weblink Islam in Pakistan's foreign policy, Pasha, Sayed Abdul Muneem, Global Media Publications, 2005, 978-81-88869-15-2, 225, Pakistan's expression of solidarity was followed, after Independence, by a vigorous pursuit of bilateral relations with Muslim countries like Iran and Turkey., and made an active bid for leadership of the Muslim world, or at least for leadership in efforts to achieve unity.BOOK,weblink Islam in Pakistan's foreign policy, Pasha, Sayed Abdul Muneem, Global Media Publications, 2005, 978-81-88869-15-2, 37, Pakistan was making a wholehearted bid for the leadership of the Muslim world, or at least for the leadership in achieving its unity., The Ali brothers had sought to project Pakistan as the natural leader of the Islamic world, in part due to its large manpower and military strength.BOOK,weblink Islam in Pakistan's foreign policy, Pasha, Sayed Abdul Muneem, Global Media Publications, 2005, 978-81-88869-15-2, 226, Following Khaliquzzaman, the Ali brothers had sought to project Pakistan, with its comparatively larger manpower and military strength, as the natural leader of the Islamic world., A top-ranking Muslim League leader, Khaliquzzaman, declared that Pakistan would bring together all Muslim countries into Islamistan—a pan-Islamic entity.BOOK,weblink Creating a New Medina, Dhulipala, Venkat, Cambridge University Press, 2015, 978-1-107-05212-3, 18, As a top ranking ML leader Khaliquzzaman declared, 'Pakistan would bring all Muslim countries together into Islamistan â€“ a pan-Islamic entity'., Such developments (along with Pakistan's creation) did not get American approval, and British Prime Minister Clement Attlee voiced international opinion at the time by stating that he wished that India and Pakistan would re-unite.BOOK,weblink Magnificent Delusions: Pakistan, the United States, and an Epic History of Misunderstanding, Haqqani, Husain, PublicAffairs, 2013, 978-1-61039-317-1, 20–21, Within a few years the president of the Muslim League, Chaudhry Khaliq-uz-Zaman, announced that Pakistan would bring all Muslim countries together into Islamistan â€“ a pan-Islamic entity. None of these developments within the new country elicited approval among Americans for the idea of India's partition ... British Prime Minister Clement Attlee voiced the international consensus at the time when he told the House of Commons of his hope that 'this severance may not endure.' He hoped that the proposed dominions of India and Pakistan would in course of time, come together to form one great Member State of the British Commonwealth of Nations., Since most of the Arab world was undergoing a nationalist awakening at the time, there was little attraction to Pakistan's Pan-Islamic aspirations.BOOK,weblink Magnificent Delusions: Pakistan, the United States, and an Epic History of Misunderstanding, Haqqani, Husain, PublicAffairs, 2013, 978-1-61039-317-1, 22, During this time most of the Arab world was going through a nationalist awakening. Pan-Islamic dreams involving the unification of Muslim countries, possibly under Pakistani leadership, had little attraction., Some of the Arab countries saw the 'Islamistan' project as a Pakistani attempt to dominate other Muslim states.BOOK,weblink The Origins of Conflict in Afghanistan, Roberts, Jeffery J., Greenwood Publishing Group, 2003, 978-0-275-97878-5, 134, The following year, Choudhry Khaliquzzaman toured the Middle East, pleading for the formation of an alliance or confederation of Muslim states. The Arab states, often citing Pakistan's inability to solve its problems with Muslim neighbor Afghanistan, showed little enthusiasm ... Some saw the effort to form 'Islamistan' as a Pakistani attempt to dominate other Muslim states., Pakistan vigorously championed the right of self-determination for Muslims around the world. Pakistan's efforts for the independence movements of Indonesia, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, and Eritrea were significant and initially led to close ties between these countries and Pakistan.BOOK,weblink Explaining Pakistan's Foreign Policy: Escaping India, Pande, Aparna, Routledge, 2011, 978-1-136-81893-6, 178, The belief that the creation of Pakistan made Pakistan the true leader of Muslim causes around the world led Pakistan's diplomats to vigorously champion the cause of self-determination for fellow Muslims at the United Nations. Pakistan's founders, including Jinnah, supported anti-colonial movements: "Our heart and soul go out in sympathy with those who are struggling for their freedom ... If subjugation and exploitation are carried on, there will be no peace and there will be no end to wars." Pakistani efforts on behalf of Indonesia (1948), Algeria (1948–1949), Tunisia (1948–1949), Morocco (1948–1956) and Eritrea (1960–1991) were significant and initially led to close ties between these countries and Pakistan., However, Pakistan also masterminded an attack on the Afghan city of Jalalabad during the Afghan Civil War to establish an Islamic government there. Pakistan had wished to foment an 'Islamic Revolution' that would transcend national borders, covering Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Central Asia.NEWS,weblink The legacy of Pakistan's loved and loathed Hamid Gul, Nasir, Abbas, 18 August 2015, Al-Jazeera, His commitment to jihad—to an Islamic revolution transcending national boundaries, was such that he dreamed one day the "green Islamic flag" would flutter not just over Pakistan and Afghanistan, but also over territories represented by the (former Soviet Union) Central Asian republics. After the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, as the director-general of the Pakistan's intelligence organisation, Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) directorate, an impatient Gul wanted to establish a government of the so-called Mujahideen on Afghan soil. He then ordered an assault using non-state actors on Jalalabad, the first major urban centre across the Khyber Pass from Pakistan, with the aim capturing it and declaring it as the seat of the new administration., 4 January 2017, On the other hand, Pakistan's relations with Iran have been strained at times due to sectarian tensions.BOOK,weblink Iran's Foreign Policy in the Post-Soviet Era: Resisting the New International Order, Hunter, Shireen, ABC-CLIO, 2010, 978-0-313-38194-2, 144, Since then, Pakistan's sectarian tensions have been a major irritant in Iranian-Pakistan relations., Iran and Saudi Arabia used Pakistan as a battleground for their proxy sectarian war, and by the 1990s Pakistan's support for the Sunni Taliban organisation in Afghanistan became a problem for Shia Iran, which opposed a Taliban-controlled Afghanistan.BOOK,weblink Explaining Pakistan's Foreign Policy: Escaping India, Pande, Aparna, Taylor & Francis, 2011, 978-1-136-81894-3, 159, Both Saudi Arabia and Iran used Pakistan as a battleground for their proxy war for the 'hearts and minds' of Pakistani Sunnis and Shias with the resultant rise in sectarian tensions in Pakistan. The rise of the Taliban in Afghanistan in the 1990s further strained Pakistan-Iran relations. Pakistan's support of the Sunni Pashtun organization created problems for Shia Iran for whom a Taliban-controlled Afghanistan was a nightmare., Tensions between Iran and Pakistan intensified in 1998 when Iran accused Pakistan of war crimes after Pakistani warplanes had bombarded Afghanistan's last Shia stronghold in support of the Taliban.NEWS,weblink Iran Raises Anti-pakistan Outcry, Schmetzer, Uli, 14 September 1998, Chicago Tribune, KARACHI, Pakistan â€“ Iran, which has amassed 200,000 troops on the border with Afghanistan, accused Pakistan on Sunday of sending warplanes to strafe and bombard Afghanistan's last Shiite stronghold, which fell hours earlier to the Taliban, the Sunni militia now controlling the central Asian country., 5 January 2017, NEWS,weblink Afghanistan: Arena For a New Rivalry, Constable, Pamela, 16 September 1998, The Washington Post, Taliban officials accused Iran of providing military support to the opposition forces; Tehran radio accused Pakistan of sending its air force to bomb the city in support of the Taliban's advance and said Iran was holding Pakistan responsible for what it termed war crimes at Bamiyan. Pakistan has denied that accusation and previous allegations of direct involvement in the Afghan conflict. Also fueling the volatile situation are ethnic and religious rivalries between the Taliban, who are Sunni Muslims of Afghanistan's dominant Pashtun ethnic group, and the opposition factions, many of which represent other ethnic groups or include Shiite Muslims. Iran, a Shiite Muslim state, has a strong interest in promoting that sect; Pakistan, one of the Taliban's few international allies, is about 80 percent Sunni., 5 January 2017, Pakistan is an influential and founding member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). Maintaining cultural, political, social, and economic relations with the Arab world and other countries in the Muslim world is a vital factor in Pakistan's foreign policy.BOOK, Explaining Pakistan's Foreign Policy: Escaping India, 2006, Taylor & Francis., 978-1-136-81894-3, Pande, Aparna,

Administrative divisions

{| class="sortable wikitable"! style="width:200px;"| Administrative division! style="width:100px;"| Capital! style="width:100px; text-align:right;"| Population{{FlagQuetta > 12,344,408{{flagcountryLahore > 110,126,285{{FlagKarachi > 47,886,051{{FlagPeshawar > 40,525,047{{FlagGilgit > 1,800,000{{FlagMuzaffarabad > 4,567,982Islamabad Capital Territory Islamabad style="text-align:right;" | 2,851,868A federal parliamentary republic state, Pakistan is a federation that comprises four provinces: Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh and Balochistan,Article 1(1)–2(d) of the Part I: Introductory in the Constitution of Pakistan and three territories: Islamabad Capital Territory, Gilgit–Baltistan and Azad Kashmir. The Government of Pakistan exercises the de facto jurisdiction over the Frontier Regions and the western parts of the Kashmir Regions, which are organised into the separate political entities Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan (formerly Northern Areas). In 2009, the constitutional assignment ({{small|the Gilgit–Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order}}) awarded the Gilgit–Baltistan a semi-provincial status, giving it self-government.JOURNAL,weblink Press Information Department, Pakistan, DOC, Highlights of Prime Minister's Press Talk on "Gilgit–Baltistan Empowerment and Self Governance Order −2009" at PM'S Secretariat on August 29, 2009, 2009, 29 December 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 16 November 2011, The local government system consists of a three-tier system of districts, tehsils, and union councils, with an elected body at each tier.WEB, Decentralization in Pakistan,weblink World Bank, 29 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 January 2010, There are about 130 districts altogether, of which Azad Kashmir has tenWEB, Azad Jammu and Kashmir Districts,weblink Government of AJK, 29 December 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 14 January 2012, dead, and Gilgit–Baltistan seven.JOURNAL,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 19 September 2010, Dunya, Gilgit–Baltistan Empowerment and Self Governance Order, 2009, 1, {{Pakistan Administrative Units Image Map}}Law enforcement is carried out by a joint network of the intelligence community with jurisdiction limited to the relevant province or territory. The National Intelligence Directorate coordinates the information intelligence at both federal and provincial levels; including the FIA, IB, Motorway Police, and paramilitary forces such as the Pakistan Rangers and the Frontier Corps.BOOK, Asad Jamal, Police Organisations in Pakistan, 2010, CHRI and HRCP, 978-81-88205-79-0, 9–15, Pakistan's "premier" intelligence agency, the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI), was formed just within a year after the Independence of Pakistan in 1947.BOOK, Manoj Shrivastava, Re-Energising Indian Intelligence, Vij Books India Pvt Ltd, 2013, 978-93-82573-55-5, 89, Pakistan's ISI was ranked as the top intelligence agency in the world in 2011 by the International Business Times UK.WEB,weblink Top Intelligence Agencies of the World, 2 December 2011, The Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) of Pakistan tops the list of intelligence agencies in the world in 2011, followed by the United States of America's CIA and United Kingdom's MI6. Russia's FSB, France's DGSE and Germany's BND are also on the list, followed by Israel's Mossad, India's RAW, Australia's ASIS and Canada's CSIS., Aditya Rangroo, International Business Times UK, 20 February 2016, ABC News Point in 2014 also reported that the ISI was ranked as the top intelligence agency in the worldNEWS,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 5 January 2015, Top 10 Best Intelligence Agencies in The World 2016, 15 December 2014, ABC News Point, 27 December 2016, while Zee News reported the ISI as ranking fifth among the world's most powerful intelligence agencies.NEWS,weblink Top 10 – World's powerful intelligence agencies, Zee News, 27 December 2016, The court system is organised as a hierarchy, with the Supreme Court at the apex, below which are High Courts, Federal Shariat Courts (one in each province and one in the federal capital), District Courts (one in each district), Judicial Magistrate Courts (in every town and city), Executive Magistrate Courts, and civil courts. The Penal code has limited jurisdiction in the Tribal Areas, where law is largely derived from tribal customs.WEB, Faqir Hussain, The Judicial System Of Pakistan,weblink Supreme Court of Pakistan, 2009, 10–21, 26 December 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 6 February 2017, dead,

Kashmir conflict

(File:Kashmir map.jpg|thumb|200px|The areas shown in green are the Pakistani-controlled areas.)The Kashmir—the most northwesterly region of South Asia—is a major territorial dispute that has hindered relations between India and Pakistan. The two nations have fought at least three large-scale conventional wars in successive years in 1947, 1965, and 1971. The conflict in 1971 witnessed Pakistan's unconditional surrender and a treaty that subsequently led to the independence of Bangladesh.BOOK, Raza, Maroof, Wars and no peace over Kashmir, 1996, Lancer Publishers, New Delhi, 978-1-897829-16-5, 170,weblink §Implications of 1971 war and India's nuclear explosion, In December 1971, Pakistan lost half its country, and with over ~90,000 troops of its military becoming Prisoner of War, POWs, all its earlier myth could not survive this no longer ..., Other serious military engagements and skirmishes have included the armed contacts in Siachen Glacier (1984) and Kargil (1999). Approximately 45.1% of the Kashmir region is controlled by India, which also claims the entire state of Jammu and Kashmir, including most of Jammu, the Kashmir Valley, Ladakh, and the Siachen. The claim is contested by Pakistan, which controls approximately 38.2% of the Kashmir region, an area known as the Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan.BOOK, Sean Anderson, Historical dictionary of terrorism, 2009, Scarecrow Press, 978-0-8108-4101-7, 347–348, File:Kashmir 3.jpg|left|thumb|Azad KashmirAzad KashmirIndia claims the Kashmir on the basis of the Instrument of Accession—a legal agreement with Kashmir's leaders executed by Maharaja Hari Singh, who agreed to cede the area to India.WEB, Paul Bowers, Kashmir (House of Commons Research Paper 04/28), 30 March 2004,weblink 46, House of Commons Library, 18 April 2012, Pakistan claims Kashmir on the basis of a Muslim majority and of geography, the same principles that were applied for the creation of the two independent states.BOOK, Amita Shastri, The Post-Colonial States of South Asia: Democracy, Development and Identity, 2001, Palgrave Macmillan, 978-0-312-23852-0, 289,weblink BOOK, Joseph J. Hobbs, World Regional Geography,weblink 2008, Brooks Cole, 978-0-495-38950-7, 314, India referred the dispute to the United Nations on 1 January 1948.NEWS, Auckland, A brief history of the Kashmir conflict,weblink The Daily Telegraph, 23 January 2012, 24 September 2001, London, In a resolution passed in 1948, the UN's General Assembly asked Pakistan to remove most of its troops as a plebiscite would then be held. However, Pakistan failed to vacate the region and a ceasefire was reached in 1949 establishing a Line of Control (LoC) that divided Kashmir between the two nations.WEB, International Court of Justice, Advisory Opinion on the Legal Status of Kashmir,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 11 October 2011, 2012, IMUNA, 23 January 2012, India, fearful that the Muslim majority populace of Kashmir would secede from India, did not allow a plebiscite to take place in the region. This was confirmed in a statement by India's Defense Minister, Krishna Menon, who said: "Kashmir would vote to join Pakistan and no Indian Government responsible for agreeing to plebiscite would survive."NEWS,weblink Kashmir Old Headache For U.N., Endrst, Jeff, 8 September 1965, The Pittsburgh Press, Former Indian Defense Minister Krishna Menon who for years influenced the decisions of late Prime Minister Nehru himself a Kashmiri-put it bluntly last March in an interview with an American newsman when he said India could never agree to a U.N. sponsored plebiscite because 'Kashmir would vote to join Pakistan, and no Indian government responsible for agreeing to the plebiscite could survive.', 15 January 2017, Pakistan claims that its position is for the right of the people of Jammu and Kashmir to determine their future through impartial elections as mandated by the United Nations,WEB, Talat Masood, Pakistan's Kashmir Policy,weblink 2006, Central Asia-Caucasus Institute & Silk Road Studies Program, 1, 19 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 January 2012, while India has stated that Kashmir is an integral part of India, referring to the Simla Agreement (1972) and to the fact that elections take place regularly.WEB,weblink Freedom in the World 2009 â€“ Kashmir (India), 16 July 2009, UNHCR, 1 May 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 10 August 2011, dead, In recent developments, certain Kashmiri independence groups believe that Kashmir should be independent of both India and Pakistan.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Kashmir, Encyclopædia Britannica, 19 December 2011,

Law enforcement

The law enforcement in Pakistan is carried out by joint network of several federal and provincial police agencies. The four provinces and the Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT) each have a civilian police force with jurisdiction extending only to the relevant province or territory. At the federal level, there are a number of civilian intelligence agencies with nationwide jurisdictions including the Federal Investigation Agency (FIA), Intelligence Bureau (IB), and the Motorway Patrol, as well as several paramilitary forces such as the National Guards (Northern Areas), the Rangers (Punjab and Sindh), and the Frontier Corps (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan).The most senior officers of all the civilian police forces also form part of the Police Service, which is a component of the civil service of Pakistan. Namely, there is four provincial police service including the Punjab Police, Sindh Police, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Police, and the Balochistan Police; all headed by the appointed senior Inspector-Generals. The ICT has its own police component, the Capital Police, to maintain law and order in the capital. The CID bureaus are the crime investigation unit and form a vital part in each provincial police service.The law enforcement in Pakistan also has a Motorway Patrol which is responsible for enforcement of traffic and safety laws, security and recovery on Pakistan's inter-provincial motorway network. In each of provincial Police Service, it also maintains a respective Elite Police units led by the NACTA—a counter-terrorism police unit as well as providing VIP escorts. In the Punjab and Sindh, the Pakistan Rangers are an internal security force with the prime objective to provide and maintain security in war zones and areas of conflict as well as maintaining law and order which includes providing assistance to the police.WEB,weblink Our Partners, National Police Bureau, Government of Pakistan, 1 July 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 18 January 2012, The Frontier Corps serves the similar purpose in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, and the Balochistan.


File:Pakistan Air Force JF-17 Thunder flies in front of the 26,660 ft high Nanga Parbat.jpg|thumb|Pakistan Air Force's JF-17 Thunder flying in front of the {{convert|26,660|ft|m|adj=mid|abbr=off|-high}} Nanga ParbatNanga ParbatThe armed forces of Pakistan are the eighth largest in the world in terms of numbers in full-time service, with about 617,000 personnel on active duty and 513,000 reservists, as of tentative estimates in 2010.BOOK, The Military Balance 2010, International Institute for Strategic Studies, Hackett, James (ed.), 2010, Routledge, London, 978-1-85743-557-3, 367–370, They came into existence after independence in 1947, and the military establishment has frequently influenced the national politics ever since. Chain of command of the military is kept under the control of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee; all of the branches joint works, co-ordination, military logistics, and joint missions are under the Joint Staff HQ.BOOK, Blood, Peter R., Pakistan: A Country Study, 1995, Diane Publishing Co., Washington, DC, 978-0-7881-3631-3,weblink 287, The Joint Staff HQ is composed of the Air HQ, Navy HQ, and Army GHQ in the vicinity of the Rawalpindi Military District.BOOK, Singh, R.S.N., The military factor in Pakistan, 2008, Lancer Publishers, New Delhi, 978-0-9815378-9-4,weblink 409, The Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee is the highest principle staff officer in the armed forces, and the chief military adviser to the civilian government though the chairman has no authority over the three branches of armed forces. The Chairman joint chiefs controls the military from the JS HQ and maintains strategic communications between the military and the civilian government. {{as of|2018}}, the CJCSC is General Zubair Hayat alongside chief of army staff General Qamar Javed Bajwa,NEWS, General Qamar Bajwa COAS, General Zubair Hayat CJCSC,weblink 9 January 2017, The News International, 27 November 2016, chief of naval staff Admiral Muhammad Zaka,WEB,weblink Chief of Naval Staff, ISPR (Navy Division), 3 February 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 3 February 2015, and chief of air staff Air Chief Marshal Mujahid Anwar Khan.WEB,weblink Chief of Air Staff, ISPR (Air Force), OAF, 26 April 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 24 August 2017, dead, The main branches are the Army–Air Force–Navy–Marines, which are supported by the number of paramilitary forces in the country.WEB, Pakistan Armed Forces,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 10 February 1998, Center For Defense Information, 24 July 2010, Control over the strategic arsenals, deployment, employment, development, military computers and command and control is a responsibility vested under the National Command Authority which oversaw the work on the nuclear policy as part of the credible minimum deterrence.The United States, Turkey, and China maintain close military relations and regularly export military equipment and technology transfer to Pakistan.WEB,weblink Importer/Exporter TIV Tables,, 16 April 2011, Joint logistics and major war games are occasionally carried out by the militaries of China and Turkey.NEWS, Pakistan and China participate in drill,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 27 November 2011, 11 March 2012, Dawn, 26 November 2011, NEWS, Kamran Yousaf, Joint military exercise: Pakistan, China begin war games near Jhelum,weblink 11 March 2012, Tribune, 15 November 2011, Philosophical basis for the military draft is introduced by the Constitution in times of emergency, but it has never been imposed.WEB,weblink Child Soldiers Global Report 2008 – Pakistan, UNHCR, 20 May 2008, 9 October 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 19 January 2012, dead,

Military history

Since 1947 Pakistan has been involved in four conventional wars, the first war occurred in Kashmir with Pakistan gaining control of Western Kashmir, (Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan), and India retaining Eastern Kashmir (Jammu and Kashmir). Territorial problems eventually led to another conventional war in 1965; over the issue of Bengali refugees that led to another war in 1971 which resulted in Pakistan's unconditional surrender in East Pakistan.WEB, War History,weblink Pakistan Army, 24 December 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 25 December 2011, dead, Tensions in Kargil brought the two countries at the brink of war. Since 1947 the unresolved territorial problems with Afghanistan saw border skirmishes which were kept mostly at the mountainous border. In 1961, the military and intelligence community repelled the Afghan incursion in the Bajaur Agency near the Durand Line border.WEB, Daoud as Prime Minister, 1953–63,weblink 1997, 6 November 2013, BOOK, Ian Talbot, The Armed Forces of Pakistan, 1999, Macmillan, 978-0-312-21606-1, 99,weblink Rising tensions with neighbouring USSR in their involvement in Afghanistan, Pakistani intelligence community, mostly the ISI, systematically coordinated the US resources to the Afghan mujahideen and foreign fighters against the Soviet Union's presence in the region. Military reports indicated that the PAF was in engagement with the Soviet Air Force, supported by the Afghan Air Force during the course of the conflict;WEB, HISTORY OF PAF,weblink Pakistan Air Force, 20 December 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 15 December 2011, dead, one of which belonged to Alexander Rutskoy. Apart from its own conflicts, Pakistan has been an active participant in United Nations peacekeeping missions. It played a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers from Mogadishu, Somalia, in 1993 in Operation Gothic Serpent.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 22 August 2013, Pakistan Army, Pakistan Defense, 11 March 2009, WEB, UN Peace Keeping Missions,weblink Pakistan Army, 29 December 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 24 December 2011, dead, According to UN reports, the Pakistani military is the third largest troop contributor to UN peacekeeping missions after Ethiopia and India.NEWS, Contributors to United Nations peacekeeping operations,weblink 10 February 2017, United Nations, NEWS,weblink Pakistan's peacekeeping role highlighted, 24 October 2015, Dawn, Pakistan has contributed more than 160,000 troops to-date in 41 missions spread over 23 countries in almost all continents, it said. The country has remained one of the largest troop contributing countries consistently for many years., 26 December 2016, Pakistan has deployed its military in some Arab countries, providing defence, training, and playing advisory roles.BOOK,weblink Western Strategic Interests in Saudi Arabia, 1986, Croom Helm, 978-0-7099-4823-0, 139–140, Anthony H. Cordesman, BOOK,weblink Pakistan Islamisation, 2005, APH Publishing Corporation, 978-81-7648-548-7, 42, Bidanda M. Chengappa, The PAF and Navy's fighter pilots have voluntarily served in Arab nations' militaries against Israel in the Six-Day War (1967) and in the Yom Kippur War (1973). Pakistan's fighter pilots shot down ten Israeli planes in the Six-Day War.WEB, Pakistan Armed Forces,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 17 December 2001, Scramble Magazine, 24 July 2010, In the 1973 war one of the PAF pilots, Flt. Lt. Sattar Alvi (flying a MiG-21), shot down an Israeli Air Force Mirage and was honoured by the Syrian government.BOOK,weblink Pakistan: Islamisation Army And Foreign Policy, 2004, APH Publishing, 978-81-7648-548-7, 42, Bidanda M. Chengappa, BOOK,weblink The Yom Kippur War 1973 (2): The Sinai, 2003, Osprey Publishing, 978-1-84176-221-0, 39, Simon Dunstan, BOOK, P.R. Kumaraswamy, Revisiting the Yom Kippur War, Routledge, 978-1-136-32895-4,weblink 2013, 75, Requested by the Saudi monarchy in 1979, Pakistan's special forces units, operatives, and commandos were rushed to assist Saudi forces in Mecca to lead the operation of the Grand Mosque. For almost two weeks Saudi Special Forces and Pakistani commandos fought the insurgents who had occupied the Grand Mosque's compound.BOOK,weblink The Audacious Ascetic: What the Bin Laden Tapes Reveal About Al-Qa'ida, Miller, Flagg, Oxford University Press, 2015, 978-0-19-061339-6, Not since the tenth century had such a maverick crew occupied Islam's holiest sanctuary, and for nearly two weeks Saudi Special Forces assisted by Pakistani and French commandos fought pitched battles to reclaim the compound., BOOK,weblink Force and Fanaticism: Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia and Beyond, Valentine, Simon Ross, Oxford University Press, 2015, 978-1-84904-616-9, 219, BOOK,weblink Fatal Faultlines : Pakistan, Islam and the West, Arc Manor Publishers, 2012, 978-1-60450-478-1, Rockville, Maryland, 129, Irfan Husain, In 1991 Pakistan got involved with the Gulf War and sent 5,000 troops as part of a US-led coalition, specifically for the defence of Saudi Arabia.NEWS,weblink San Francisco Chronicle, 24 September 2002, The 1991 Gulf war, 16 March 2009, Despite the UN arms embargo on Bosnia, General Javed Nasir of the ISI airlifted anti-tank weapons and missiles to Bosnian mujahideen which turned the tide in favour of Bosnian Muslims and forced the Serbs to lift the siege. Under Nasir's leadership the ISI was also involved in supporting Chinese Muslims in Xinjiang Province, rebel Muslim groups in the Philippines, and some religious groups in Central Asia.BOOK,weblink Intelligence and the War in Bosnia, 1992–1995: Volume 1 of Studies in intelligence history, Wiebes, Cees, LIT Verlag, 2003, 978-3-8258-6347-0, 195, Pakistan definitely defied the United Nations ban on supply of arms to the Bosnian Muslims and sophisticated anti-tank guided missiles were airlifted by the Pakistani intelligence agency, ISI, to help Bosnians fight the Serbs., BOOK,weblink Pakistan's Drift Into Extremism: Allah, the Army, and America's War on Terror, Abbas, Hassan, Routledge, 2015, 978-1-317-46328-3, 148, Javed Nasir confesses that despite the U.N. ban on supplying arms to the besieged Bosnians, he successfully airlifted sophisticated antitank guided missiles which turned the tide in favour of Bosnian Muslims and forced the Serbs to lift the siege. Under his leadership the ISI also got involved in supporting Chinese Muslims in Xinjiang Province, rebel Muslim groups in the Philippines, and some religious groups in Central Asia., Since 2004 the military has been engaged in a war in North-West Pakistan, mainly against the homegrown Taliban factions.NEWS,weblink Pakistan's undeclared war, BBC, Zaffar Abbas, 19 October 2008, 10 September 2004, NEWS,weblink The War in Pakistan, Washington Post, 25 January 2006, 19 October 2008, Major operations undertaken by the army include Operation Black Thunderstorm, Operation Rah-e-Nijat and Operation Zarb-e-Azb.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 20 June 2009, Troops make gains in Swat and South Waziristan, 21 June 2009, Dawn (newspaper), Dawn, 29 December 2011, NEWS, 26 killed as troops hit Taliban hideouts in Dir,weblink428story_28-4-2009_pg1_3, 29 December 2011, Daily Times, 28 April 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 May 2009, According to SIPRI, Pakistan was the 9th largest recipient and importer of arms between 2012–2016.WEB,weblink TOP LIST TIV TABLES, SIPRI,


{{See also|Pakistan and the International Monetary Fund}} style"text-align:center; background:salmon;"">

Overview {| cellpadding"1" style"float:right; margin:0 1em 1em 0; border:1px #bbb solid; border-collapse:collapse; font-size:90%;" style"text-align:center; background:salmon;"

!colspan=3|Pakistan's key economic statistics style="text-align:center; background:lightgreen;"PUBLISHER=MINISTRY OF FINANCE, 4 April 2017, style="text-align:center;"| 20.9% style="text-align:center;"| 20.3% style="text-align:center;"| 58.8% style="text-align:center; background:lightgreen;"ACCESS-DATE=4 APRIL 2017, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, style="text-align:center;"| 61.04 million style="text-align:center;"| 57.42 million style="text-align:center; background:lightgreen;"ACCESS-DATE=27 NOVEMBER 2014 URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=21 JUNE 2015 ACCESS-DATE=27 NOVEMBER 2014 DATE=28 AUGUST 2013, style="text-align:center;"| 12.3 million tonnes style="text-align:center;"| 20.9 million ounces style="text-align:center;"| 175 billion tonnes style="text-align:center;"| 105 trillion cubic feet style="text-align:center;"| 9 billion barrels style="text-align:center;"| 4.2 billion cubic feet/day style="text-align:center;"| 70,000 barrels/day style="text-align:center;"AUTHOR=AFP DATE=11 FEBRUARY 2015, Economists estimate that Pakistan was part of the wealthiest region of the world throughout the first millennium CE, with the largest economy by GDP. This advantage was lost in the 18th century as other regions such as China and Western Europe edged forward.BOOK, The World Economy. A Millennial Perspective (Vol. 1). Historical Statistics (Vol. 2), Maddison, Angus, OECD, 2006, 978-92-64-02261-4, 241, 261, Pakistan is considered a developing countryWEB, Faryal Leghari,weblink GCC investments in Pakistan and future trends, Gulf Research Center, 3 January 2007, 12 February 2008,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2012, dead, BOOK, Contextualizing Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies and Developing Countries, 2017, Edward Elgar Publishing, 978-1-78536-753-3, 133,weblink and is one of the Next Eleven, a group of eleven countries that, along with the BRICs, have a high potential to become the world's largest economies in the 21st century.NEWS, Tavia Grant, On 10th birthday, BRICs poised for more growth,weblink 4 January 2012, The Globe and Mail, 8 December 2011, Toronto, In recent years, after decades of social instability, {{As of|2013|lc=y}}, serious deficiencies in macromanagement and unbalanced macroeconomics in basic services such as rail transportation and electrical energy generation have developed.NEWS, Pakistan, Rusting in Its Tracks,weblink 19 May 2013, The New York Times, 18 May 2013, Declan Walsh, natural disasters and entrenched insurgencies, abject poverty and feudal kleptocrats, and an economy near meltdown, The economy is considered to be semi-industrialized, with centres of growth along the Indus River.JOURNAL, Henneberry, S., 10.1016/S0169-5150(99)00041-9, An analysis of industrial–agricultural interactions: A case study in Pakistan, Agricultural Economics, 22, 17–27, 2000, WEB,weblink World Bank Document, 2008, 14, 2 January 2010, The diversified economies of Karachi and Punjab's urban centres coexist with less-developed areas in other parts of the country, particularly in Balochistan. According to the Economic complexity index, Pakistan is the 67th-largest export economy in the world and the 106th most complex economy.WEB, Pakistan,weblink, 4 March 2017, During the fiscal year 2015–16, Pakistan's exports stood at US$20.81 billion and imports at US$44.76 billion, resulting in a negative trade balance of US$23.96 billion.NEWS, Hamza, Abrar, Pakistan's trade deficit widens to 35-year high in FY16,weblink 14 February 2017, Daily Times (Pakistan), 16 July 2016, File:Islamabad Stock Exchange Bull.JPG|left|thumb|The Pakistan Stock Exchange is one of the worst-performing markets in the world. According to Bloomberg, in the past two years Pakistan stocks have erased more than half of their combined market value.WEB,weblink Pakistan Wants to Help Brokers in World’s Worst Stock Market, Mangi, Fasih, 23 July 2019, ]]{{as of|2016}}, Pakistan's estimated nominal GDP is US$271 billion. The GDP by PPP is US$946,667 million.WEB,weblink GDP ranking, PPP based World Bank,, The estimated nominal per capita GDP is US$1,561,NEWS, Pakistan's per capita income rises slightly to $1,561,weblink 14 February 2017, Express Tribune, 24 May 2016, the GDP (PPP)/capita is US$5,010 (international dollars),WEB, GDP per capita, PPP (current international $),weblink World Bank, 14 February 2017, and the debt-to-GDP ratio is 66.50%.NEWS, Monnoo, Kamal, Pakistan's debt profile,weblink 14 February 2017, The Nation (Pakistan), 23 November 2016, What this latest debt number also means is that over the first quarter (July–September) of this fiscal year, the government added to the debt by some Rs858 billion, taking the debt to GDP ratio to nearly 69.50%, which in June 2016 stood at around 66.50%., According to the World Bank, Pakistan has important strategic endowments and development potential. The increasing proportion of Pakistan's youth provides the country with both a potential demographic dividend and a challenge to provide adequate services and employment.WEB,weblink Pakistan Overview,, 21.04% of the population live below the international poverty line of US$1.25 a day. The unemployment rate among the aged 15 and over population is 5.5%.WEB, Human Development Indices,weblink United Nations Development Programme, Human Development Reports, 15, 6 October 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 December 2008, Pakistan has an estimated 40 million middle class citizens, projected to increase to 100 million by 2050.WEB,weblink How U.S. Higher Education Partnerships Can Promote Development In Pakistan, Forbes, 4 March 2016, A 2015 report published by the World Bank ranked Pakistan's economy at 24th-largestWEB, Gross domestic product 2015, PPP,weblink World Bank, 14 February 2017, in the world by purchasing power and 41st-largestWEB, Gross domestic product 2015,weblink World Bank, 14 February 2017, in absolute terms. It is South Asia's second-largest economy, representing about 15.0% of regional GDP.WEB, Recent developments,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 20 January 2012, The World Bank, June 2011, 30 December 2011, dead, NEWS,weblink Pakistan May Keep Key Rate Unchanged After Two Cuts This Year, Bloomberg, 28 September 2009, 2 January 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 2 December 2010, {| class="wikitable sortable infobox"!Fiscal Year!!GDP growthWEB,weblinktables/Table-1.pdf, MACRO ECONOMIC INDICATORS, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, 19 May 2018, !!Inflation rateWEB,, Macro economic Indicators, Ministry of Finance, 19 May 2018, 10}}8.6%10}}4.5%10}}2.9%10}}4.2%|2017–18|{{increase}}5.79%10}}3.8%Pakistan's economic growth since its inception has been varied. It has been slow during periods of democratic transition, but robust during the three periods of martial law, although the foundation for sustainable and equitable growth was not formed. The early to middle 2000s was a period of rapid economic reforms; the government raised development spending, which reduced poverty levels by 10% and increased GDP by 3%.WEB,weblink Concluding Remarks at the Pakistan Development Forum 2006, John Wall, World Bank, 30 December 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 11 March 2012, dead, The economy cooled again from 2007. Inflation reached 25.0% in 2008,NEWS, Sajid Chaudhry, Inflation Outlook 2008–09:,weblink117story_17-1-2009_pg5_2, 30 December 2011, Daily Times, 17 January 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2012, and Pakistan had to depend on a fiscal policy backed by the International Monetary Fund to avoid possible bankruptcy.NEWS,weblink Pakistan facing bankruptcy—Telegraph, 6 October 2008, Isambard Wilkinson, The Daily Telegraph, London, 6 October 2008, NEWS,weblink If Pakistan goes bust, the Taliban will rule the roost there as well—Telegraph, 10 October 2008, Con Coughlin, The Daily Telegraph, London, 10 October 2008, A year later, the Asian Development Bank reported that Pakistan's economic crisis was easing.NEWS,weblink Pakistan's economic crisis eases in 2009: ADB, AAJ News, Associated Press of Pakistan, 22 September 2009, 27 February 2017, The inflation rate for the fiscal year {{nowrap|2010–11}} was 14.1%. Since 2013, as part of an International Monetary Fund program, Pakistan's economic growth has picked up. In 2014 Goldman Sachs predicted that Pakistan's economy would grow 15 times in the next 35 years to become the 18th-largest economy in the world by 2050.WEB,weblink Global ranking: Pakistan billed to become 18th largest economy by 2050 – The Express Tribune, The Express Tribune, 4 March 2016, 20 January 2014, In his 2016 book, The Rise and Fall of Nations, Ruchir Sharma termed Pakistan's economy as at a 'take-off' stage and the future outlook until 2020 has been termed 'Very Good'. Sharma termed it possible to transform Pakistan from a "low-income to a middle-income country during the next five years".WEB,weblink Pakistan's economy ready for takeoff {{!, TNS – The News on Sunday||access-date=7 November 2016|date=18 September 2016}}{|class="wikitable" style="float: right; margin-left: 10px"! style="text-align:center; background:#cfb;" colspan="2" |Share of world GDP (PPP)WEB,weblink Report for Selected Countries and Subjects,, en-US, 19 September 2018, ! style="background:#cfb;"|Year! style="background:#cfb;"|Share1980 style="text-align:right;" |0.54%1990 style="text-align:right;" |0.72%|20000.74%|20100.79%2017 style="text-align:right;" |0.83%Pakistan is one of the largest producers of natural commodities, and its labour market is the 10th-largest in the world. The 7-million–strong Pakistani diaspora contributed US$19.9 billion to the economy in 2015–16.WEB,weblink Pakistan | State Bank of Pakistan,, 15 July 2011, The major source countries of remittances to Pakistan are: the UAE; the United States; Saudi Arabia; the Gulf states (Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman); Australia; Canada; Japan; the United Kingdom; Norway; and Switzerland.WEB,weblink211story_11-2-2010_pg5_3, Leading News Resource of Pakistan, Daily Times, 11 February 2010, 29 July 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 June 2010, WEB, N.S. Nizami, Population, Labour Force and Employment,weblink Ministry of Finance, Pakistan, 2010, 1, 2, 9, 12, 20, 18 December 2013, According to the World Trade Organization, Pakistan's share of overall world exports is declining; it contributed only 0.13% in 2007.WEB, Yasir kamal, Understanding Pakistan's Exports Flows: Results from Gravity Model Estimation,weblink Pakistan Institute of Trade and Development, 30 December 2011,

Agriculture and primary sector

File:Pakistan Chrome Mines20120126 16100237 0003.jpg|thumb|right|upright=0.9|Surface mining in Sindh. Pakistan has been termed the 'Saudi Arabia of Coal' by Forbes.WEB,weblink US needs to look at Pakistan in a broader way, not just through security prism: Forbes report, Pakistan TodayPakistan TodayThe structure of the Pakistani economy has changed from a mainly agricultural to a strong service base. Agriculture {{As of|2015|lc=y}} accounts for only 20.9% of the GDP. Even so, according to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Pakistan produced 21,591,400 metric tons of wheat in 2005, more than all of Africa (20,304,585 metric tons) and nearly as much as all of South America (24,557,784 metric tons).WEB,weblink Sectoral Share in Gross Domestic Product, 2010, Federal Bureau of Statistics, 10, 30 December 2011, Majority of the population, directly or indirectly, is dependent on this sector. It accounts for 43.5% of employed labour force and is the largest source of foreign exchange earnings.WEB,weblink Agriculture Statistics {{!, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics||access-date=4 March 2016}}A large portion of the country's manufactured exports is dependent on raw materials such as cotton and hides that are part of the agriculture sector, while supply shortages and market disruptions in farm products do push up inflationary pressures. The country is also the fifth-largest producer of cotton, with cotton production of 14 million bales from a modest beginning of 1.7 million bales in the early 1950s; is self-sufficient in sugarcane; and is the fourth-largest producer in the world of milk. Land and water resources have not risen proportionately, but the increases have taken place mainly due to gains in labour and agriculture productivity. The major breakthrough in crop production took place in the late 1960s and 1970s due to the Green Revolution that made a significant contribution to land and yield increases of wheat and rice. Private tube wells led to a 50 percent increase in the cropping intensity which was augmented by tractor cultivation. While the tube wells raised crop yields by 50 percent, the High Yielding Varieties (HYVs) of wheat and rice led to a 50–60 percent higher yield.WEB,weblink AGRICULTURE SECTOR: ISSUES AND PROSPECTS, 4 March 2016, Meat industry accounts for 1.4 percent of overall GDP.WEB,weblink Manufacturing in Pakistan, Government of Pakistan, 4 March 2016,


{{See also|Textile industry in Pakistan}}File:Tv Assembly Line 1.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|Television assembly factory in Lahore. Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 20.3% of the GDP, and is dominated by weblink Industry {{!, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics">|access-date=23 October 2016}}Industry is the third-largest sector of the economy, accounting for 20.3% of gross domestic product (GDP), and 13 percent of total employment. Large-scale manufacturing (LSM), at 12.2% of GDP, dominates the overall sector, accounting for 66% of the sectoral share, followed by small-scale manufacturing, which accounts for 4.9% of total GDP. Pakistan's cement industry is also fast growing mainly because of demand from Afghanistan and from the domestic real estate sector. In 2013 Pakistan exported 7,708,557 metric tons of cement.WEB,weblink All Pakistan Cement Manufacturers Association Export Data,, 15 October 2013, Pakistan has an installed capacity of 44,768,250 metric tons of cement and 42,636,428 metric tons of clinker. In 2012 and 2013, the cement industry in Pakistan became the most profitable sector of the economy.WEB, Bhutta, Zafar,weblink Can't get enough: Soaring profits not enough for cement industry,, 21 May 2013, 15 October 2013, The textile industry has a pivotal position in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan. In Asia, Pakistan is the eighth-largest exporter of textile products, contributing 9.5% to the GDP and providing employment to around 15 million people (some 30% of the 49 million people in the workforce). Pakistan is the fourth-largest producer of cotton with the third-largest spinning capacity in Asia after China and India, contributing 5% to the global spinning capacity.NEWS, Statistics on textile industry in Pakistan,weblink 4 March 2017, Express Tribune, 18 March 2013, China is the second largest buyer of Pakistani textiles, importing US$1.527 billion of textiles last fiscal. Unlike the US, where mostly value-added textiles are imported, China buys only cotton yarn and cotton fabric from Pakistan. In 2012, Pakistani textile products accounted for 3.3% or US$1.07bn of all UK textile imports, 12.4% or $4.61bn of total Chinese textile imports, 3.0% or $2.98b of all US textile imports, 1.6% or $0.88bn of total German textile imports and 0.7% or $0.888bn of total Indian textile imports.NEWS, Baig, Khurram,weblink Why the Pakistan textile industry cannot die, Express Tribune, 18 March 2013, 15 October 2013,


File:View of Karachi, Pakistan.jpg|left|thumb|Clifton Beach in KarachiKarachiServices sector has 58.8% share in GDP and has emerged as the main driver of economic growth.NEWS,weblink The unparalleled growth of the services sector, Express Tribune, 4 March 2016, Pakistani society like other developing countries is a consumption oriented society, having a high marginal propensity to consume. The growth rate of services sector is higher than the growth rate of agriculture and industrial sector. Services sector accounts for 54 percent of GDP in 2014 and little over one-third of total employment. Services sector has strong linkages with other sectors of economy; it provides essential inputs to agriculture sector and manufacturing sector.WEB,weblink Contribution of Services Sector in the Economy of Pakistan, 4 March 2016, Pakistan's I.T sector is regarded as among the fastest growing sector's in Pakistan. The World Economic Forum, assessing the development of Information and Communication Technology in the country ranked Pakistan 110th among 139 countries on the 'Networked Readiness Index 2016'.NEWS, Pakistan most affordable country in world for telecom, ICT services: WEF,weblink 5 March 2017, Express Tribune, 4 November 2016, {{As of|2016}}, Pakistan has over 35 million Internet users and is ranked as one of the top countries that have registered a high growth rate in Internet penetration.NEWS, Pakistanis entering digital revolution with smartphones,weblink 5 March 2017, Samaa TV, 8 February 2017, Overall, it has the 20th-largest population of Internet users in the world. The current growth rate and employment trend indicate that Pakistan's Information Communication Technology (ICT) industry will exceed the $10-billion mark by 2020.NEWS,weblink Upward move: Pakistan's ICT sector to cross $10b mark, says P@SHA, The Express Tribune, 4 March 2016, The sector employees 12,000 and count's among top five freelancing nations.JOURNAL, 7 July 2014, Pakistan Startup Report,weblink WEB,weblink Pakistan: The Next Colombia Success Story?, Forbes, 4 March 2016, The country has also improved its export performance in telecom, computer and information services, as the share of their exports surged from 8.2pc in 2005–06 to 12.6pc in 2012–13. This growth is much better than that of China, whose share in services exports was 3pc and 7.7pc for the same period respectively.NEWS,weblink Services sector: domestic and outward growth, Bhatti, Muhammad Umer Saleem, 22 June 2015,, 4 March 2016, {| class="wikitable sortable" style="background:#efefef;"! style="text-align:center;"| Corporations|| style="text-align:center;"| Headquarters|| style="text-align:center;"| 2012 revenue(Mil. $)NEWS,weblink The growth of the "billion dollar club" in Pakistan, The Express Tribune, Farooq, Tirmizi, 24 December 2012, || style="text-align:center;"|Services Pakistan State Oil align=left Karachi >Oil and gas industry>Petroleum and Gas Pak-Arab Refinery align=left Qasba Gujrat >Oil and gas industry>Oil and refineriesSui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited>Sui Northern Gas Pipelines align=left Lahore >| Natural gas Shell Pakistan align=left Karachi>Oil and gas industry>Petroleum Oil and Gas Development Company > Islamabad 2,230 Petroleum and Gas National Refinery align=left Karachi >| Oil refinery Hub Power Company > Hub, Balochistan 1,970 Energy K-Electric align=left Karachi >Energy in Pakistan>Energy Attock Refinery align=left Rawalpindi >| Oil refinery Attock Petroleum align=left Rawalpindi >Oil and gas industry>Petroleum Lahore Electric Supply Company > Lahore 1,490 Energy Pakistan Refinery align=left Karachi >Oil and gas industry>Petroleum and Gas Sui Southern Gas Company > Karachi 1,380 Natural gas Pakistan International Airlines align=left Karachi >Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority>Aviation Engro Corporation align=left Karachi >Food industry>Food and Wholesale


{{See also|Water supply and sanitation in Pakistan}}

Nuclear power and energy

File:Tarbela Dam during the 2010 floods.jpg|thumb|upright=1.15|right|Tarbela DamTarbela DamBy the end of 2016, nuclear power was provided by four licensed commercial nuclear power plants.NEWS, Pakistan turns on fourth nuclear plant built with Chinese help,weblink 9 January 2017, Hindustan Times, 28 December 2016, The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) is solely responsible for operating these power plants, while the Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority regulates safe usage of the nuclear energy.WEB,weblink Nuclear Power Generation Programme, (PAEC), Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, PAEC, Government of Pakistan,weblink" title="">weblink 9 February 2005, 15 January 2017, The electricity generated by commercial nuclear power plants constitutes roughly 5.8% of Pakistan's electrical energy, compared to 64.2% from fossil fuels (crude oil and natural gas), 29.9% from hydroelectric power, and 0.1% from coal.NEWS, Kazmi, Zahir, Pakistan's energy security,weblink 23 February 2015, Special report on Energy security efforts in Pakistan, Express Tribune, 7 January 2014, WEB, Syed Yousaf, Raza, Current Picture of Electrical Energy In Pakistan,weblink Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, Directorate-General for Nuclear Power Generation, 28 November 2012, 31 July 2012, NEWS, Zulfikar, Saman, Pak-China energy cooperation,weblink 23 April 2012, Pakistan Observer, 23 April 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 27 September 2013, Pakistan is one of the four nuclear armed states (along with India, Israel, and North Korea) that is not a party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, but it is a member in good standing of the International Atomic Energy Agency.WEB, UN Press Release, IAEA Publications: Pakistan Overview,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 12 June 2007, IAEA, P.O. Box 100, Wagramer Strasse 5, A-1400 Vienna, Austria, IAEA Membership states, 17 April 2012, NEWS, Associate Press of Pakistan (APP), IAEA declares nuclear energy programme safe,weblink 17 April 2012, Dawn Newspapers, 25 April 2011, 25 April 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 25 June 2012, NEWS, Dahl, Fredrik, Nuclear-armed Pakistan chairs board of U.N. atom body,weblink 17 April 2012, Reuters, Vienna, 27 September 2010, "Pakistan is a long-standing and "very law-abiding" member of the IAEA, got no opposition from any side at all, The KANUPP-I, a Candu-type nuclear reactor, was supplied by Canada in 1971—the country's first commercial nuclear power plant. The Sino-Pakistani nuclear cooperation began in the early 1980s. After a Sino-Pakistani nuclear cooperation agreement in 1986,BOOK, Bartholomew, Carolyn, Report to Congress of the U. S. -China Economic and Security Review Commission,weblink Diane Publishing, 978-1-4379-2600-2, March 2010, China provided Pakistan with a nuclear reactor dubbed CHASNUPP-I for energy and industrial growth of the country. In 2005 both countries proposed working on a joint energy security plan, calling for a huge increase in generation capacity to more than 160,000 MWe by 2030. Under its Nuclear Energy Vision 2050, the Pakistani government plans to increase nuclear power generation capacity to 40,000 MWe,NEWS, PAEC plans 40,000MW by 2050 using environment-friendly nuclear power,weblink 30 April 2017, The News International, 17 September 2015, 8,900 MWe of it by 2030.NEWS, Syed, Baqir Sajjad, 8,900MW nuclear power generation planned,weblink 30 April 2017, Dawn (newspaper), Dawn, 2 January 2014, JOURNAL, Ijaz, Muhammad, Director of Scientific Information and Public Relation (SIPR), PAEC assigned 8,800 MWe nuclear power target by 2030:PAEC contributing to socio-economic uplift of the country, PakAtom Newsletter, 49, 1–2, 1–8, December 2010,weblink {{dead link|date=May 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}} File:Jhimpir Wind Farm 2012.jpg|thumb|Pakistan produced 1,135 megawatts of renewable energy for the month of October 2016. Pakistan expects to produce 3,000 megawatts of renewable energy by the beginning of 2019.NEWS,weblink Pakistan producing more than 1,000MW of clean energy, 3 November 2016, The Express Tribune, 3 November 2016, ]]In June 2008 the nuclear commercial complex was expanded with the ground work of installing and operationalising the Chashma-III and Chashma–IV reactors at Chashma, Punjab Province, each with 325–340 MWe and costing ₨ 129 billion; from which the ₨ 80 billion came from international sources, principally China. A further agreement for China's help with the project was signed in October 2008, and given prominence as a counter to the US–India agreement that shortly preceded it. The cost quoted then was US$1.7 billion, with a foreign loan component of US$1.07 billion. In 2013 Pakistan established a second commercial nuclear complex in Karachi with plans of additional reactors, similar to the one in Chashma.NEWS, Bhutta, Zafar, Govt to kick off work on 1,100MW nuclear power plant,weblink 19 January 2015, Express Tribune, 7 June 2013, The electrical energy is generated by various energy corporations and evenly distributed by the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority (NEPRA) among the four provinces. However, the Karachi-based K-Electric and the Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) generates much of the electrical energy used in Pakistan in addition to gathering revenue nationwide.WEB, Power Sector Situation in Pakistan,weblink 26 December 2011,weblink" title="">weblink 24 January 2011, Alternate Energy Development Board and GTZ, 2005, 1, {{as of|2014}}, Pakistan has an installed electricity generation capacity of ~22,797{{small|MWt}}.


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| image1 = Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro-108221.jpg
| caption1 = Mohenjo Daro of Indus Valley Civilisation. It is listed as a World Heritage Site.
| image2 = Badshahi Mosque 3.jpg
| caption2 = Badshahi Mosque was commissioned by the Mughals in 1671. It is listed as a World Heritage Site.
| image3 = Darawar Fort.jpg
| caption3 = Derawar fort was built in the 9th century in Cholistan desert by a Rajput ruler. It is listed as a Tentative World Heritage Site.
}}With its diverse cultures, people, and landscapes, Pakistan attracted around 1 million foreign tourists in 2014, contributing PKR 94.8 billion to the country's economy,WEB, Travel & Tourism – Economic Impact 2015 Pakistan,weblink World Travel & Tourism Council, 31 March 2017, which represented a significant decline since the 1970s when the country received unprecedented numbers of foreign tourists due to the popular Hippie trail. The trail attracted thousands of Europeans and Americans in the 1960s and 1970s who travelled via land through Turkey and Iran into India through Pakistan.WEB,weblink Richard Gregory,, 17 June 2016, The main destinations of choice for these tourists were the Khyber Pass, Peshawar, Karachi, Lahore, Swat and Rawalpindi.NEWS, Paracha, Nadeem F., Karachi: The past is another city,weblink 24 February 2017, Dawn (newspaper), Dawn, 25 August 2011, The numbers following the trail declined after the Iranian Revolution and the Soviet–Afghan War.WEB,weblink When Afghanistan Was Just a Stop on the 'Hippie Trail', mag, Christian Caryl Legatum Institute / Foreign Policy, 12 June 2013, The Huffington Post, 17 June 2016, The country continues to attract an estimated 500,000 foreign tourists annually.NEWS,weblink Number of foreign tourists in 2014 dips by 50%, 27 September 2014, Express Tribune, 17 June 2016, Pakistan's tourist attractions range from the mangroves in the south to the Himalayan hill stations in the north-east. The country's tourist destinations range from the Buddhist ruins of Takht-i-Bahi and Taxila, to the 5,000-year-old cities of the Indus Valley Civilization such as Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.WEB,weblink The road between China and Pakistan, Financial Times, 4 July 2009, 27 September 2010, Pakistan is home to several mountain peaks over {{convert|7,000|m|abbr=off}}.MAGAZINE, 5 Pakistani peaks that are among world's highest,weblink 9 January 2017, The Nation, 11 December 2015, Pakistan is home to 108 peaks above 7,000 metres and probably as many peaks above 6,000 m., The northern part of Pakistan has many old fortresses, examples of ancient architecture, and the Hunza and Chitral valleys, home to the small pre-Islamic Kalasha community claiming descent from Alexander the Great.WEB,weblink Pakistan's Forgotten Pagans Get Their Due, Bezhan, Frud, 19 April 2017, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, English, 11 July 2017, About half of the Kalash practice a form of ancient Hinduism infused with old pagan and animist beliefs., Pakistan's cultural capital, Lahore, contains many examples of Mughal architecture such as the Badshahi Masjid, the Shalimar Gardens, the Tomb of Jahangir, and the Lahore Fort.File:Aqua Ambulance.jpg|left|thumb|Attabad Lake in Hunza ValleyHunza ValleyIn October 2006, just one year after the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, The Guardian released what it described as "The top five tourist sites in Pakistan" in order to help the country's tourism industry.NEWS,weblink The Guardian, London, Out of the rubble, Antonia, Windsor, 17 October 2006, 25 May 2010, The five sites included Taxila, Lahore, the Karakoram Highway, Karimabad, and Lake Saiful Muluk. To promote Pakistan's unique cultural heritage, the government organizes various festivals throughout the year.WEB,weblink Tourism Events in Pakistan in 2010,, 27 September 2010,weblink" title="">weblink 9 February 2007, dead, In 2015 the World Economic Forum's Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report ranked Pakistan 125 out of 141 countries.WEB, The Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report 2015,weblink World Economic Forum, 24 February 2017,


The transport industry accounts for ~10.5% of the nation's GDP.WEB,weblink Transportation in Pakistan, 2011, World Bank, The World Bank, {{Dead link|date=August 2019 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} Pakistan's motorway infrastructure is better than those of India, Bangladesh, and Indonesia, but the train system lags behind those of India and China, and aviation infrastructure also needs improvement.THESIS, Research Paper, Macroeconomic Performance and Infrastructure Development in India, Transport Infrastructure in India: Developments, Challenges and Lessons from Japan,weblink Pravakar Sahoo, PDF, 4, March 2011, Institute of Development Economies, Japan External Trade Organization, Visiting Research Fellows, 13 June 2012, 465, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 30 November 2012, There is scarcely any inland water transportation system, and coastal shipping only meets minor local requirements.WEB, Farrukh Javed, Sustainable financing for the maintenance of Pakistan Highways,weblink 2005, UNESCAP, 2, 31 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 11 August 2007,
File:PIA rendezvous-edit.jpg|thumb|Boeing 737 owned and operated by Pakistan International AirlinesPakistan International AirlinesHighways form the backbone of Pakistan's transport system; a total road length of {{convert|263,942|km|mi|abbr=off}} accounts for 92% of passengers and 96% of inland freight traffic. Road transport services are largely in the hands of the private sector. The National Highway Authority is responsible for the maintenance of national highways and motorways. The highway and motorway system depends mainly on north–south links connecting the southern ports to the populous provinces of Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa. Although this network only accounts for 4.6% of total road length, it carries 85% of the country's traffic.WEB, Ahmed Jamal Pirzada, Draft: Role of Connectivity in Growth Strategy of Pakistan,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 21 April 2012, 2011, Planning Commission, Pakistan, 4, 7, 9, 31 December 2011, WEB, National Highway Development Sector Investment Program,weblink Asian Development Bank, 2005, 11, 12, 31 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 7 October 2007, The Pakistan Railways, under the Ministry of Railways (MoR), operates the railroad system. From 1947 until the 1970s the train system was the primary means of transport until the nationwide constructions of the national highways and the economic boom of the automotive industry. Beginning in the 1990s there was a marked shift in traffic from rail to highways; dependence grew on roads after the introduction of vehicles in the country. Now the railway's share of inland traffic is below 8% for passengers and 4% for freight traffic. As personal transportation began to be dominated by the automobile, total rail track decreased from {{convert|8,775|km|abbr=off}} in 1990–91 to {{convert|7,791|km|abbr=off}} in 2011.WEB, PAKISTAN,weblink Encyclopedia Nation, 31 December 2011, Pakistan expects to use the rail service to boost foreign trade with China, Iran, and Turkey.NEWS, Syed Fazl-e-Haider, China-Pakistan rail link on horizon,weblink 31 December 2011, Asia Times Online, 24 February 2007, NEWS, Pakistan-Turkey rail trial starts,weblink 13 March 2012, BBC, 14 August 2009, There are an estimated 139 airports and airfields in Pakistan—including both the military and the mostly publicly owned civilian airports. Although Jinnah International Airport is the principal international gateway to Pakistan, the international airports in Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar, Quetta, Faisalabad, Sialkot, and Multan also handle significant amounts of traffic. The civil aviation industry is mixed with public and private sectors, which was deregulated in 1993. While the state-owned Pakistan International Airlines (PIA) is the major and dominant air carrier that carries about 73% of domestic passengers and all domestic freight, the private airlines such as airBlue, Shaheen Air International, and Air Indus, also provide similar services at a low cost. Major seaports are in Karachi, Sindh (the Karachi port, and Port Qasim). Since the 1990s some seaport operations have been moved to Balochistan with the construction of Gwadar Port and Gadani Port. According to the WEF's Global Competitiveness Report, quality ratings of Pakistan's port infrastructure increased from 3.7 to 4.1 between 2007 and 2016.WEB, Quality of port infrastructure, WEF,weblink 12 April 2017,

Science and technology

{{multiple image|align=right|image1=Abdus Salam 1987.jpg|width1=100|caption1=Abdus Salam won the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics for his contribution to electroweak interaction. He was the first Muslim to win a Nobel prize in science.|width2=83Atta ur Rahman (scientist)>Atta-ur-Rahman won the UNESCO Science Prize for pioneering contributions in chemistry in 1999, the first Muslim to win it.|image2=Atta-Ur-Rahman (cropped).jpg|width3=97|caption3=Salimuzzaman Siddiqui was a Pakistani organic chemist who pioneered research on pharmacology use of various domestic plants. He was a member of the Royal Society.|image3=|width4=120|caption4=Mahbub ul Haq was a Pakistani game theorist whose work led to the Human Development Index. He had a profound effect on the field of international development.|image4=Mahbub-ul-Haq.jpg}}Developments in science and technology have played an important role in Pakistan's infrastructure and helped the country connect to the rest of the world.WEB, Ministry of Science and Technology, National Science, Technology and Innovation Policy 2012,weblink Ministry of Science and Technology, 3 February 2015, Every year, scientists from around the world are invited by the Pakistan Academy of Sciences and the Pakistan Government to participate in the International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics.WEB, Address by Prime Minister,weblink Press Information Department (Government of Pakistan), DOC, 24 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 January 2012, Pakistan hosted an international seminar on "Physics in Developing Countries" for the International Year of Physics 2005.JOURNAL, Hameed A. Khan, Physics in Developing Countries â€“ Past, Present & Future,weblink 9, COMSATS, 2006, 1 January 2012, Pakistani theoretical physicist Abdus Salam won a Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the electroweak interaction.JOURNAL, 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics, Science, 206, 4424, 1290–1292, 1979Sci...206.1290C, Coleman, Sidney, 1979, 10.1126/science.206.4424.1290, 17799637, Influential publications and critical scientific work in the advancement of mathematics, biology, economics, computer science, and genetics have been produced by Pakistani scientists at both the domestic and international levels.BOOK, Mian, ed. by Smitu Kothari & Zia, Out of the nuclear shadow, 2001, Zed, London, 978-1-84277-059-7, In chemistry, Salimuzzaman Siddiqui was the first Pakistani scientist to bring the therapeutic constituents of the neem tree to the attention of natural products chemists.WEB,weblink Technology Times – Vol 2 – Issue 11, 20 April 2013, JOURNAL,weblink Section Science & Technology, World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, 3, 50, 10.1504/WREMSD.2007.012130, 20 April 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 October 2013, 2007, Muniapan, Balakrishnan, Shaikh, Junaid M, WEB, Ahmed, Irshad,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 6 May 2013, Using RP Model to solve Current Challenges of Pakistan by PHd Scholar Irshad Ahmed Sumra,, 20 April 2013, Pakistani neurosurgeon Ayub Ommaya invented the Ommaya reservoir, a system for treatment of brain tumours and other brain conditions.WEB, Leonidas C. Goudas, Decreases in Cerebrospinal Fluid Glutathione Levels after Intracerebroventricular Morphine for Cancer Pain,weblink International Anesthesia Research Society, 1999, 1 January 2012, etal, Scientific research and development play a pivotal role in Pakistani universities, government- sponsored national laboratories, science parks, and the industry.JOURNAL, Osama, Athar, Najam, Adil, Kassim-Lakha, Shamsh, Zulfiqar Gilani, Syed, King, Christopher, Pakistan's reform experiment, Nature, 3 September 2009, 461, 7260, 38–39, 10.1038/461038a, 19727184, 2009Natur.461...38O, Abdul Qadeer Khan, regarded as the founder of the HEU-based gas-centrifuge uranium enrichment program for Pakistan's integrated atomic bomb project.WEB, (IISS), International Institute for Strategic Studies, International Institute for Strategic Studies, Bhutto was father of Pakistan's Atom Bomb Program, International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2006,weblink 24 July 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 14 March 2012, He founded and established the Kahuta Research Laboratories (KRL) in 1976, serving as both its senior scientist and the Director-General until his retirement in 2001, and he was an early and vital figure in other science projects. Apart from participating in Pakistan's atomic bomb project, he made major contributions in molecular morphology, physical martensite, and its integrated applications in condensed and material physics.NEWS, A.Q. Khan & Iran,weblink 24 July 2015, Global Security, NEWS, NY Times Staff, Chronology: A.Q. Khan,weblink 24 July 2015, NY Times, 16 April 2006, In 2010 Pakistan was ranked 43rd in the world in terms of published scientific papers.NEWS, Junaidi, Ikram, Pakistan ranks 43rd in scientific research publication,weblink 18 February 2015, Dawn news, 2010, Dawn news, 2010, 25 December 2011, The Pakistan Academy of Sciences, a strong scientific community, plays an influential and vital role in formulating recommendations regarding science policies for the government.WEB,weblink Introduction to the Academy, Inbtroduction of the Academy, 16 February 2015, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 February 2015, The 1960s saw the emergence of an active space program led by SUPARCO that produced advances in domestic rocketry, electronics, and aeronomy.WEB, History of SUPARCO,weblink SUPARCO, 24 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 April 2008, The space program recorded a few notable feats and achievements. The successful launch of its first rocket into space made Pakistan the first South Asian country to have achieved such a task. Successfully producing and launching the nation's first space satellite in 1990, Pakistan became the first Muslim country and second South Asian country to put a satellite into space.BOOK,weblink Asian Space Race: Rhetoric or Reality?, Lele, Ajey, Springer Science & Business Media, 2012, 978-81-322-0733-7, 46, Headquartered in SUPARCO headquarters, Karachi, it has been responsible directly and indirectly for the fabrication, processing and launch of the Muslim Ummah's first experimental satellite, Badr-1. It was a historical event not only for the people of Pakistan but also for the entire Muslim Ummah as it was the first satellite built by any Islamic country based on indigenous resources and manpower., WEB, The Launching of Badr-I,weblink Aero Space Guide, 24 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 February 2015, |align = left|width = 25em|border = 1px|bgcolor = #c6dbf7|halign = left}}As an aftermath of the 1971 war with India, the clandestine crash program developed atomic weapons partly motivated by fear and to prevent any foreign intervention, while ushering in the atomic age in the post cold war era.BOOK, Pakistan : between mosque and military, 2005, Haqqani, Husain, United Book Press., Washington, DC, 978-0-87003-214-1, 1. print., §Chapter 3, The trauma was extremely severe in Pakistan when the news of secession of East Pakistan as Bangladesh arrived—a psychological setback, complete and humiliating defeat that shattered the prestige of Pakistan Armed Forces.,weblink Competition with India and tensions eventually led to Pakistan's decision to conduct underground nuclear tests in 1998, thus becoming the seventh country in the world to successfully develop nuclear weapons.WEB,weblink Pakistan Nuclear Weapons, Federation of American Scientists, 22 February 2007, Pakistan is the first and only Muslim country that maintains an active research presence in Antarctica.JOURNAL, Sayar, M.A., April–June 1995, Should We Exploit The Last Wilderness?,weblink The Fountain Magazine, 9 February 2016, Pakistan became the first Muslim country to send an official expedition to Antarctica. Pakistan in 1992, established its Jinnah Antarctic Research Station.,weblink" title="">weblink 15 February 2016, dead, JOURNAL, 1991, Huge Oil Deposits Located Near Coast,weblink Economic Review, 22, To a question Dr. Farah said, Pakistan was the first country to carry out research and establish its station at the same time in Antarctica., BOOK,weblink Pakistan's Scientific Expeditions to Antarctica, Farah, Abul, Rizvi, S.H. Niaz, National Institute of Oceanography, 1995, 15, Pakistan's presence in Antarctica also appears imperative as none of the Muslim countries seem to be in a position to undertake research there., BOOK,weblink Pakistan's Scientific Expeditions to Antarctica, Farah, Abul, Rizvi, S.H. Niaz, National Institute of Oceanography, 1995, 17, We have already taken the lead amongst the Muslim countries by launching our first expedition in 1990–1991 with an investment of large funds and national talent towards Antarctic research., JOURNAL, 1992, News Bulletin,weblink National Institute of Oceanography (Pakistan), 7, 1, This makes Pakistan the first Muslim country to undertake Antarctic Expedition and to establish a research station in Antarctica., (Pakistan), National Institute of Oceanography, Since 1991 Pakistan has maintained two summer research stations and one weather observatory on the continent and plans to open another full-fledged permanent base in Antarctica.WEB,weblink Antarctic Research, Pakistan is maintaining two summer research stations and one weather observatory in the vicinity of SOR Rondane Mountain Range. Pakistan is also planning to build a full fledged permanent base at Antarctica., National Institute of Geography, 29 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 17 February 2012, Energy consumption by computers and usage has grown since the 1990s when PCs were introduced; Pakistan has about 30 million Internet users and is ranked as one of the top countries that have registered a high growth rate in Internet penetration {{As of|2013|lc=y}}.NEWS, 30m Internet users in Pakistan, half on mobile: Report,weblink 12 April 2017, Express Tribune, 24 June 2013, Key publications have been produced by Pakistan, and domestic software development has gained considerable international praise.NEWS, staff works, Pakistani Computer Scientist wins global Supercomputer Design Award,weblink 19 February 2015, Lahore Tech, Lahore Tech, 10 May 2010, Overall, it has the 20th-largest population of Internet users in the world. Since the 2000s Pakistan has made a significant amount of progress in supercomputing, and various institutions offer research opportunities in parallel computing. The Pakistan government reportedly spends ₨ 4.6 billion on information technology projects, with emphasis on e-government, human resources, and infrastructure development.NEWS,weblink Govt to spend Rs4.6b on IT projects, Express Tribune, 6 September 2012, 6 September 2012,


File:Government College University.jpg|thumb|upright=0.9|right|Government College University is one of the oldest universities in Pakistan as well as one of the oldest institutions of higher learning in the Muslim world.]]File:NUST MainOffice.png|thumb|upright=0.9|left|National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) is Pakistan's top ranked university for engineering, sciences and technology.]]The constitution of Pakistan requires the state to provide free primary and secondary education.WEB,weblink Chapter 1: "Fundamental Rights" of Part II: "Fundamental Rights and Principles of Policy",, WEB, Right to Education in Pakistan, World Council of Churches,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 13 March 2012, 21 April 2006, 25 July 2010, At the time of the establishment of Pakistan as a state, the country had only one university, Punjab University in Lahore.WEB, Sajida Mukhtar, Ijaz Ahmed Talat, Muhammad Saeed, An Analytical Study of Higher Education of Pakistan,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 11 January 2012, International Journal of Academic Research, March 2011, 1, 2 January 2012, Very soon the Pakistan government established public universities in each of the four provinces, including Sindh University (1949), Peshawar University (1950), Karachi University (1953), and Balochistan University (1970). Pakistan has a large network of both public and private universities, which includes collaboration between the universities aimed at providing research and higher education opportunities in the country, although there is concern about the low quality of teaching in many of the newer schools.WEB, Number of universities rises while education standard falls,weblink DailyTimes, 10 September 2015, 11 September 2015,weblink" title="">weblink 6 October 2015, It is estimated that there are 3,193 technical and vocational institutions in Pakistan, and there are also madrassahs that provide free Islamic education and offer free board and lodging to students, who come mainly from the poorer strata of society.WEB, Pakistani madrassahs, United States Institute of Peace,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 14 February 2005, 21 February 2009, Strong public pressure and popular criticism over extremists' usage of madrassahs for recruitment, the Pakistan government has made repeated efforts to regulate and monitor the quality of education in the madrassahs.WEB, Ron, Synovitz, Pakistan: Despite Reform Plan, Few Changes Seen At Most Radical Madrassahs,weblink Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty, 24 February 2004, 21 February 2009, WEB,weblink Policy Brief: Another Approach to Madrassa Reforms in Pakistan, Jinnah Institute of Peace, Ali, Syed Mohammad, 21 February 2015, (File:Literacy rate in Pakistan 1951-2018.png|thumb|300px|Literacy Rate in Pakistan 1951–2018)Education in Pakistan is divided into six main levels: nursery (preparatory classes); primary (grades one through five); middle (grades six through eight); matriculation (grades nine and ten, leading to the secondary certificate); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a higher secondary certificate); and university programmes leading to graduate and postgraduate degrees.WEB, Economic Survey 2009–10,weblink Ministry of Finance, Pakistan, 2009–2010, 16, 3, 2 January 2012, There is a network of private schools that constitutes a parallel secondary education system based on a curriculum set and administered by the Cambridge International Examinations of the United Kingdom. Some students choose to take the O-level and A level exams conducted by the British Council.WEB,weblink GCE O and A level exams in Pakistan, The British Council, 13 February 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 1 February 2008, According to the International Schools Consultancy, Pakistan has 439 international schools.WEB,weblink International School Consultancy Group > Information > ISC News,, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2016, As a result of initiatives taken in 2007, the English medium education has been made compulsory in all schools across the country.WEB,weblink English medium education improvement in Pakistan supported, British Council Pakistan Bureau, McNicoll, Kristen, 21 February 2015, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 5 January 2007, Ministry of Education-Government of Pakistan,, 1 January 2012, Additional reforms enacted in 2013 required all educational institutions in Sindh to begin offering Chinese language courses, reflecting China's growing role as a superpower and its increasing influence in Pakistan.NEWS,weblink Schools in Pakistan's Sindh province to teach Chinese, BBC, 5 September 2011, 23 October 2011, The literacy rate of the population is 62.3% as of 2018.NEWS,weblink Pakistan Economic Survey 2018–19 Chapter 10: Education, 2019-06-10, Dawn, 2019-07-07, The rate of male literacy is 72.5% while the rate of female literacy is 51.8%. Literacy rates vary by region and particularly by sex; as one example, tribal areas female literacy is 9.5%,WEB,weblink Archived copy, 2010-09-03, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-08-16, while Azad Jammu & Kashmir has a literacy rate of 74%.WEB,weblink Education spending in AJK, Dr Pervez Tahir, The Express Tribune, With the advent of computer literacy in 1995, the government launched a nationwide initiative in 1998 with the aim of eradicating illiteracy and providing a basic education to all children.WEB, Education in Pakistan, UNICEF,weblink 25 July 2010, Through various educational reforms, by 2015 the Ministry of Education expected to attain 100% enrollment levels among children of primary school age and a literacy rate of ~86% among people aged over 10.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 17 May 2006, ZIP, National Plan of Action 2001–2015, Ministry of Education, Government of Pakistan, 13 February 2008, Pakistan is currently spending 2.2 percent of its GDP on education;NEWS, Pakistan Economic Survey 2015–16 (Education),weblink 19 August 2016, which according to the Institute of Social and Policy Sciences is one of the lowest in South Asia.WEB,weblink Pakistan's education spending lowest in South Asia, 28 April 2016, Dawn,


(File:Pakistan population density.png|thumb|left|Map showing population density in Pakistan, per 2017 census.WEB,weblink Block Wise Provisional Summary Results of 6th Population & Housing Census-2017, 24 December 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 15 October 2017, dead, )File:Kalash women traditional clothing.jpg|thumb|right|The Kalash peopleKalash peopleAccording to Provisional results of 2017 Census in Pakistan, the total population in Pakistan was 207.8 million, representing a 57% increase in 19 years.NEWS,weblink 132 million in 1998, Pakistan’s population now reaches 207.7 million: census report, ARYNEWS, 25 August 2017, en-us,weblink{{dead link|date=December 2017 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}WEB,weblink U.S. and World Population Clock, United States Census Bureau, which is equivalent to 2.6% of the world population.WEB,weblink Pakistan Population, World Meters, World Meters staff works, 2 March 2015, Pakistan's census provisional results exclude data from Gilgit-Baltistan and Azad Kashmir, which is likely to be included in the final report.WEB,weblink Pakistan's population reaches 208 million: provisional census results, WEB,weblink Pakistan's 6 th Census – 207 Million People Still Stuck In Malthusian Growth, Noted as the sixth most populated country in the world, its growth rate in 2016 was reported to be 1.45%, which is the highest of the SAARC nations, though this growth rate has been decreasing in recent years.WEB,weblink Pakistan, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 27 February 2017, The population is projected to reach 210.13 million by 2020.At the time of the partition in 1947, Pakistan had a population of 32.5 million;NEWS, High population growth rate affecting economy',weblink712story_12-7-2011_pg7_9, 19 December 2011, Daily Times, 12 July 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 January 2012, the population increased by ~57.2% between the years 1990 and 2009.WEB, CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion,weblink International Energy Agency (IEA) Paris, 2011, 88, 2 January 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 6 January 2012, dead, By 2030 Pakistan is expected to surpass Indonesia as the largest Muslim-majority country in the world.WEB,weblink World Muslim Population Doubling, Report Projects, Assyrian International News Agency, 27 January 2011, 16 April 2011, WEB,weblink Pakistan set to become most populous Muslim nation, Samaa Tv, 27 January 2011, 16 April 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 26 February 2011, Pakistan is classified as a "young nation", with a median age of 23.4 in 2016; about 104 million people were under the age of 30 in 2010. In 2016 Pakistan's fertility rate was estimated to be 2.68, higher than its neighbour India (2.45).WEB,weblink India, The World Factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 27 February 2017, Around 35% of the people are under 15. The vast majority of those residing in southern Pakistan live along the Indus River, with Karachi being the most populous commercial city in the south.WEB, The Urban Frontier—Karachi,weblink National Public Radio, 2 June 2008, 2 July 2008, In eastern, western, and northern Pakistan, most of the population lives in an arc formed by the cities of Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Sargodha, Islamabad, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Jhelum, Sheikhupura, Nowshera, Mardan, and Peshawar. During 1990–2008, city dwellers made up 36% of Pakistan's population, making it the most urbanised nation in South Asia, which increased to 38% by 2013. Furthermore, 50% of Pakistanis live in towns of 5,000 people or more.NEWS,weblink The Guardian, London, Pakistan looks to life without the general, Jason Burke, 17 August 2008, 20 May 2010, Expenditure on healthcare was ~2.8% of GDP in 2013. Life expectancy at birth was 67 years for females and 65 years for males in 2013.WEB,weblink WHO | Pakistan, World Health Organization, 6 October 2015, 6 October 2015, The private sector accounts for about 80% of outpatient visits. Approximately 19% of the population and 30% of children under five are malnourished.WEB,weblink Pakistan Country Report, RAD-AID, 2010, 3, 7, 26 December 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 12 January 2012, Mortality of the under-fives was 86 per 1,000 live births in 2012.


{{bar box|float = rightNEWSPAPER=BBC NEWSDATE=12 SEPTEMBER 2015 FIRST1=M. ILYAS, |bars ={{bar percent|Punjabi|DarkSlateGray|48}}{{bar percent|Sindhi|DarkSlateGray|12}}{{bar percent|Saraiki|DarkSlateGray|10}}{{bar percent|Pashto|DarkSlateGray|8}}{{bar percent|Urdu|DarkSlateGray|8}}{{bar percent|Balochi|DarkSlateGray|3}}{{bar percent|others|DarkSlateGray|11}}}}More than sixty languages are spoken in Pakistan, including a number of provincial languages. Urdu—the lingua franca and a symbol of Muslim identity and national unity—is the national language understood by over 75% of Pakistanis. It is the main medium of communication in the country but the primary language of only 8% of Pakistan's population.BOOK, Language in South Asia, Cambridge University Press,weblink Braj B. Kachru, Yamuna Kachru, S.N. Sridhar, 138, 978-1-139-46550-2, 27 March 2008, WEB,weblink Urdu In Contempt, 31 December 2015, The Nation, 12 January 2016, Urdu and English are the official languages of Pakistan, with English primarily used in official business and government, and in legal contracts; the local variety is known as Pakistani English. The Punjabi language, the most common in Pakistan and the first language of 44.2% of Pakistan's population,{{citation |title=Population by mother tongues |author=Pakistan Bureau of Statistics |date=2013 |url=}} is mostly spoken in the Punjab. Saraiki, mainly spoken in South Punjab and Hindko, is predominant in the Hazara region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Pashto is the provincial language of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and is well understood in Sindh and Balochistan. The Sindhi language is commonly spoken in Sindh while the Balochi language is dominant in Balochistan. Brahui, a Dravidian language, is spoken by the Brahui people who live in Balochistan.WEB,weblink Background Note: Pakistan-Profile, State.Gov, 6 October 2010, 29 May 2012, BOOK,weblink Brahui, Encyclopædia Britannica, Brahui, tribal confederacy of Balochistān, in western Pakistan. Its members are mostly nomadic goat herdsmen, distributed from the Bolān Pass through the Brāhui Hills to Cape MuarÄ« on the Arabian Sea. The Brahui language is a far northwestern member of the Dravidian family of languages, all of whose other members are spoken in peninsular India; it has borrowed heavily from Sindhi but remains in unexplained isolation among the surrounding Indo-Iranian dialects, to which it bears no genetic relationship. The Brahui are estimated to number about 1,560,000. Physically the Brahui resemble their Baloch and Pashtun neighbours, for the confederacy has been highly absorptive. They are Muslim by creed and Sunnite by sect, though the Muslim rites overlie essentially Indian social customs. Women are not strictly secluded. The 29 tribes owe a loose allegiance to the Brahui khan of Kalāt, which has long been associated with the confederacy's destinies. A group of eight tribes forms what is believed to be the original Brahui nucleus and constitutes about one-eleventh of the Brahui population. To these nuclear tribes have been affiliated many indigenous and captive peoples. The Brahui rose to power in the 17th century, overthrowing a dynasty of Hindu rajas. Under Naṣīr Khān, the confederacy attained its zenith in the 18th century. Their subsequent history centred on the state of Kalāt, which joined Pakistan in 1948., WEB,weblink Teaching and Learning in Pakistan: The Role of Language in Education, British Council.Org, 13, 14, 15, 2010, 29 May 2012, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 March 2011, Gujarati community leaders in Pakistan claim that there are 3 million Gujarati speakers in Karachi.NEWS,weblink With a handful of subbers, two newspapers barely keeping Gujarati alive in Karachi, Rehman, Zia Ur, 18 August 2015, The News International, In Pakistan, the majority of Gujarati-speaking communities are in Karachi including Dawoodi Bohras, Ismaili Khojas, Memons, Kathiawaris, Katchhis, Parsis (Zoroastrians) and Hindus, said Gul Hasan Kalmati, a researcher who authored "Karachi, Sindh Jee Marvi", a book discussing the city and its indigenous communities. Although there are no official statistics available, community leaders claim that there are three million Gujarati-speakers in Karachi â€“ roughly around 15 percent of the city's entire population., 13 January 2017, Marwari, a Rajasthani language, is also spoken in parts of Sindh. Various languages such as Shina, Balti, and Burushaski are spoken in Gilgit-Baltistan, whilst languages such as Pahari, Gojri, and Kashmiri are spoken by many in Azad Kashmir.The Arabic language is officially recognised by the constitution of Pakistan. It declares in article 31 No. 2 that "The State shall endeavour, as respects the Muslims of Pakistan (a) to make the teaching of the Holy Quran and Islamiat compulsory, to encourage and facilitate the learning of Arabic language ..."Constitution of Pakistan: Constitution of Pakistan, 1973 – Article: 31 Islamic way of life, Article 31 No. 2, 1973, Retrieved 22 August 2018.


File:Tarbela Dam Area.JPG|thumb|Pakistan hosts the second largest refugee population globally after Turkey.NEWS,weblink Pakistan hosts second largest refugee population globally, Rafi, Yumna, 17 June 2015, DAWN.COM, 29 October 2016, An Afghan refugee girl near Tarbela DamTarbela DamEven after partition in 1947, Indian Muslims continued to migrate to Pakistan throughout the 1950s and 1960s, and these migrants settled mainly in Karachi and other towns of Sindh province.JOURNAL, Khalidi, Omar, 1 January 1998, From torrent to trickle: Indian Muslim migration to Pakistan, 1947–97, Islamic Studies, 37, 3, 339–352, 20837002, The wars in neighboring Afghanistan during the 1980s and 1990s also forced millions of Afghan refugees into Pakistan. The Pakistan Census excludes the 1.41 million registered refugees from Afghanistan,Factsheet Pakistan March 2017 {{Webarchive|url= |date=17 May 2017 }} (UNHCR March 2017) who are found mainly in the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa and tribal belt, with small numbers residing in Karachi and Quetta. Pakistan is home to one of the world's largest refugee populations.NEWS, Ten countries host half of world's refugees: report,weblink 30 April 2017, Al Jazeera English, 4 October 2016, In addition to Afghans, around 2 million Bangladeshis and half a million other undocumented people live in Pakistan. They are claimed to be from other areas such as Myanmar, Iran, Iraq, and Africa.NEWS,weblink Five million illegal immigrants residing in Pakistan, 16 January 2012, Express Tribune, 26 December 2016, Experts say that the migration of both Bengalis and Burmese (Rohingya) to Pakistan started in the 1980s and continued until 1998. Shaikh Muhammad Feroze, the chairman of the Pakistani Bengali Action Committee, claims that there are 200 settlements of Bengali-speaking people in Pakistan, of which 132 are in Karachi. They are also found in various other areas of Pakistan such as Thatta, Badin, Hyderabad, Tando Adam, and Lahore.NEWS,weblink Fringe Pakistan: Bengali-speaking Pakistanis demand right to vote, 10 March 2012, Express Tribune, 26 December 2016, Shaikh Muhammad Feroze, the chairman of the committee, said during a press conference on Friday that political parties and the government should acknowledge the sacrifices of their ancestors. 'We live in Sindh and feel proud to be called Sindhis rather than Bengalis. We appeal to Sindhi nationalists and Sindhis to help us in our struggle,' he added. He said that Bengali-speaking people were not given educational rights as they did not possess national identity cards. 'Our children can't get an education after matriculation because colleges ask for the identity cards but the National Database Registration Authority has never accepted us as Pakistani citizens.' Shaikh said that over three million Bengalis and Biharis were grateful to the government for accepting them as Pakistani citizens. 'We postponed a hunger strike planned for March 25 after the government made decisions,' he added. 'We can go on a hunger strike, if our rights are not given.' He claimed that there were 200 settlements of Bengali-speaking people across the country, including 132 in Karachi. They populate different parts of Pakistan, including Thatta, Badin, Hyderabad, Tando Adam and Lahore., Large-scale Rohingya migration to Karachi made that city one of the largest population centres of Rohingyas in the world after Myanmar.NEWS,weblink Identity issue haunts Karachi's Rohingya population, Rehman, Zia Ur, 23 February 2015, Dawn, Their large-scale migration had made Karachi one of the largest Rohingya population centres outside Myanmar but afterwards the situation started turning against them., 26 December 2016, The Burmese community of Karachi is spread out over 60 of the city's slums such as the Burmi Colony in Korangi, Arakanabad, Machchar colony, Bilal colony, Ziaul Haq Colony, and Godhra Camp.NEWS,weblink The Rohingyas of Karachi, Khan, Naimat, 12 June 2015, Thousands of Uyghur Muslims have also migrated to the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan, fleeing religious and cultural persecution in Xinjiang, China.NEWS,weblink How the Uighurs keep their culture alive in Pakistan, Jaffrey, Shumaila, 12 August 2015, BBC, Insa is one of a few thousand Uighur Muslims who live in Gilgit. The community is a mix of generations. Some left Xinjiang and the thriving trading town of Kashgar in 1949, while others are later arrivals. All say they were forced to leave as they were the victims of cultural and religious oppression in China., 26 December 2016, Since 1989 thousands of Kashmiri Muslim refugees have sought refuge in Pakistan, complaining that many of the refugee women had been raped by Indian soldiers and that they were forced out of their homes by the soldiers.NEWS,weblink Refugee Crisis Worsening In Western Kashmir, Istvan, Zoltan, 13 March 2003, National Geographic, The refugees claim that Indian soldiers forced them out of their homes ... For Kashmiri Muslims, Pakistan appeared safer than Indian-held Kashmir ... "She was also raped by the soldiers," Ahmad said. "Many of the other female refugees were also raped.", 15 January 2017,

Ethnic groups

{{bar box|title= Ethnic groups in Pakistan|titlebar=#ddd|float=right|bars={{bar percent|Punjabi|green|44.7}}{{bar percent|Pashtun (Pathan)|blue|15.4}}{{bar percent|Sindhi|red|14.1}}{{bar percent|Saraiki|pink|8.4}}{{bar percent|Muhajir|yellow|7.6}}{{bar percent|Balochi|cyan|3.6}}{{bar percent|others|orange|6.3}}}}The population is dominated by four main ethnic groups: Punjabis, Pashtuns (Pathans), Sindhis, and Balochs. Rough accounts from 2009 indicate that the Punjabis dominate with 78.7 million (~45%) while the Pashtuns are the second-largest group with ~29.3 million (15.4%). The number of Sindhis is estimated at 24.8 million (14.1%), with the number of Seraikis (a sub-group of Punjabis) estimated at 14.8 million (8.4%). The number of Urdu-speaking Muhajirs (the Indian emigrants) stands at ~13.3 million (7.6%) while the number of Balochs is estimated at 6.3 million (3.6%)—the smallest group in terms of population. The remaining 11.1 million (4.7%) consist of various ethnic minorities such as the Brahuis, the Hindkowans, the various peoples of Gilgit-Baltistan, the Kashmiris, the Sheedis (who are of African descent),NEWS,weblink Pakistan's Sidi keep heritage alive, Abbas, Zaffar, 13 March 2002, BBC, One of the Pakistan's smallest ethnic communities is made up of people of African origin, known as Sidi. The African-Pakistanis live in Karachi and other parts of the Sindh and Baluchistan provinces in abject poverty, but they rarely complain of discrimination. Although this small Muslim community is not on the verge of extinction, their growing concern is how to maintain their distinct African identity in the midst of the dominating South Asian cultures., 26 December 2016, and the Hazaras.WEB, Ian S. Livingston, Michael O'Hanlon, Pakistan Index,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 27 March 2010, Brookings population 2010, 29 November 2011, 13, 25 December 2011, There is also a large Pakistani diaspora worldwide, numbering over seven million,WEB, Nadia Mushtaq Abbasi, The Pakistani Diaspora in Europe and Its Impact on Democracy Building in Pakistan,weblink International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, 2010, 5, 18 December 2013,weblink" title="">weblink dead, 21 August 2010, which has been recorded as the sixth largest diaspora in the world.


Since achieving independence as a result of the partition of India, the urbanisation has increased exponentially, with several different causes. The majority of the population in the south resides along the Indus River, with Karachi the most populous commercial city. In the east, west, and north, most of the population lives in an arc formed by the cities of Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Sargodha, Gujranwala, Sialkot, Gujrat, Jhelum, Sheikhupura, Nowshera, Mardan, and Peshawar. During the period 1990–2008, city dwellers made up 36% of Pakistan's population, making it the most urbanised nation in South Asia. Furthermore, more than 50% of Pakistanis live in towns of 5,000 people or more. Immigration, from both within and outside the country, is regarded as one of the main factors contributing to urbanisation in Pakistan. One analysis of the 1998 national census highlighted the significance of the partition of India in the 1940s as it relates to urban change in Pakistan.BOOK, Clark, David, The Elgar Companion to Development Studies, 2006, Edward Elgar Publishing, 978-1-84376-475-5, 668, During and after the independence period, Urdu speaking Muslims from India migrated in large numbers to Pakistan, especially to the port city of Karachi, which is today the largest metropolis in Pakistan. Migration from other countries, mainly from those nearby, has further accelerated the process of urbanisation in Pakistani cities. Inevitably, the rapid urbanisation caused by these large population movements has also created new political and socio-economic challenges. In addition to immigration, economic trends such as the green revolution and political developments, among a host of other factors, are also important causes of urbanisation. {{Largest cities of Pakistan}}


{{bar boxReligion in Pakistan>Religions in PakistanHTTPS://WWW.CIA.GOV/LIBRARY/PUBLICATIONS/THE-WORLD-FACTBOOK/FIELDS/2122.HTML#PK >TITLE=RELIGIONS IN PAKISTAN CIA WORLD FACTBOOK>ACCESS-DATE=9 JULY 2013, Curtis, Lisa; Mullick, Haider (4 May 2009). "Reviving Pakistan's Pluralist Traditions to Fight Extremism". The Heritage Foundation. Retrieved 31 July 2011a b c "Religions: Islam 96.0%, other (includes Christian and Hindu, 2% Ahmadiyyah ) 3.6%". CIA. The World Factbook on Pakistan. 2010. Retrieved 28 August 2010.# ^ International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore: "Have Pakistanis Forgotten Their Sufi Traditions?" by Rohan Bedi April 2006|titlebar=#ddd|left1=Religions|right1=Percent|float=right|bars={{bar percent|Islam|green|96.0}}{{bar percent|Hinduism|orange|1.85}}WEB,weblink Hindu Population (PK) – Pakistan Hindu Council,, 14 March 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 15 March 2018, dead, {{bar percent|Christianity|blue|1.5}}WEB,weblink Christian Persecution in Pakistan, Open Doors USA, {{bar percent|others/non-religious|purple|0.6}}}}The state religion in Pakistan is Sunni Islam. Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the Constitution of Pakistan, which provides all its citizens the right to profess, practice and propagate their religion subject to law, public order, and morality.WEB,weblink The Constitution of Pakistan, Part II: Chapter 1: Fundamental Rights,, 22 August 2018, The population of Pakistan follow different religions. Most of Pakistanis are Muslims (96.0%) followed by Hindus (1.85%) and Christians (1.5%). There are also people in Pakistan who follow other religions, such as Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism and the minority of Parsi (who follow Zoroastrianism).In addition, some Pakistanis also do not profess any faith (such as atheists and agnostics) in Pakistan. According to the 1998 census, people who did not state their religion accounted for 0.5% of the population.


{{See also|Islam in Pakistan|Sufism in Pakistan}}File:Faisal Masjid.jpg|thumb|upright=0.8|left|Faisal Mosque, built in 1986 by Turkish architect Vedat Dalokay on behalf of King Faisal bin Abdul-AzizFaisal bin Abdul-AzizIslam is the dominant religion.Muhammad Qasim Zaman,Islam in Pakistan: A History (Princeton UP, 2018) online review
About 96% of Pakistanis are Muslim. Pakistan has the second-largest number of Muslims in the world after Indonesia.BOOK,weblink Islam in India and Pakistan – A Religious History, Singh, Dr. Y P, Vij Books India Pvt Ltd, 2016, 978-93-85505-63-8, Pakistan has the second largest Muslim population in the world after Indonesia., see: Islam by country The majority of them are Sunni (estimated between 75 and 95%)WEB,weblink Country Profile: Pakistan, February 2005, Library of Congress, Religion: The overwhelming majority of the population (96.4 percent) is Muslim, of whom approximately 95 percent are Sunni and 5 percent Shia., Library of Congress Country Studies on Pakistan, 1 September 2010, WEB,weblink Religions: Muslim 96.4% (Sunni 75%, Shia 20%), other, 2010, Central Intelligence Agency, CIA, Pakistan (includes Christian and Hindu) 5%, 28 August 2010, The World Factbook, WEB,weblink Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population, 7 October 2009, Pew Research Center,weblink" title="">weblink 27 March 2010, Tracy, Miller, 9 June 2010, BOOK,weblink Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population, October 2009, Pew Research Center, Miller, Tracy, 28 August 2010,weblink" title="">weblink dead, 13 January 2010, WEB,weblink Pakistan – International Religious Freedom Report 2008, United States Department of State, 28 August 2010, while Shias represent between 5–20%.WEB,weblink Field Listing : Religions, 2010, Central Intelligence Agency, 24 August 2010, The World Factbook, Pakistan, like India, is said to have at least 16 million Shias.BOOK, The Shia revival : how conflicts within Islam will shape the future, 2007, W.W. Norton, 978-0-393-32968-1, Paperback, New York, Nasr, Vali,
The Ahmadis, a small minority representing 0.22–2% of Pakistan's population,The 1998 Pakistani census states that there are 291,000 (0.22%) Ahmadis in Pakistan. However, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community has boycotted the census since 1974 which renders official Pakistani figures to be inaccurate. Independent groups have estimated the Pakistani Ahmadiyya population to be somewhere between 2 million and 5 million Ahmadis. However, the 4 million figure is the most quoted figure and is approximately 2.2% of the country. See:
  • over 2 million: WEB,weblink Pakistan: The situation of Ahmadis, including legal status and political, education and employment rights; societal attitudes toward Ahmadis (2006 – Nov. 2008), 4 December 2008, Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, 28 June 2012,
  • 3 million: International Federation for Human Rights: International Fact-Finding Mission. Freedoms of Expression, of Association and of Assembly in Pakistan. Ausgabe 408/2, January 2005, S. 61 (PDF)
  • 3–4 million: Commission on International Religious Freedom: Annual Report of the United States Commission on International Religious Freedom. 2005, S. 130
  • 4.910.000: James Minahan: Encyclopedia of the stateless nations. Ethnic and national groups around the world. Greenwood Press. Westport 2002, p. 52
  • WEB,weblink Pakistan: Situation of members of the Lahori Ahmadiyya Movement in Pakistan, 30 April 2014, are officially considered non-Muslims by virtue of the constitutional amendment.WEB,weblink International Religious Freedom Report 2008: Pakistan, United States Department of State, US State Department, 24 June 2010, The Ahmadis are particularly persecuted, especially since 1974 when they were banned from calling themselves Muslims. In 1984, Ahmadiyya places of worship were banned from being called "mosques".New Approaches to the Analysis of Jihadism: Online and Offline, p. 38, Rüdiger Lohlker – 2012 {{As of|2012}}, 12% of Pakistani Muslims self-identify as non-denominational Muslims.Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation retrieved 4 September 2013 There are also several Quraniyoon communities.WEB,weblink South Asian Media Net, South Asian Free Media Association,weblink" title="">weblink 18 May 2011, 31 October 2010, NEWS,weblink Can Sufi Islam counter the Taleban?, 24 February 2009, BBC, 20 May 2010,
Sufism, a mystical Islamic tradition, has a long history and a large following among the Sunni Muslims in Pakistan, at both the academic and popular levels. Popular Sufi culture is centered around gatherings and celebrations at the shrines of saints and annual festivals that feature Sufi music and dance. Two Sufis whose shrines receive much national attention are Ali Hajweri in Lahore (c. 12th century)BOOK,weblink Producing Islamic Knowledge: Transmission and Dissemination in Western Europe, Routledge, 2011, 978-0-415-35592-6, 47, An emerging European Islam: The case of the Minhaj ul Quran in the Netherlands, Amer Morgahi, 30 July 2013, Martin van Bruinessen, Stefano Allievi, and Shahbaz Qalander in Sehwan, Sindh (c. 12th century).WEB,weblink Sehwan: The undisputed throne of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar, Farooq Soomro,, 13 January 2016, 10 October 2014, There are two levels of Sufism in Pakistan. The first is the 'populist' Sufism of the rural population. This level of Sufism involves belief in intercession through saints, veneration of their shrines, and forming bonds with a pir (saint). Many rural Pakistani Muslims associate with pirs and seek their intercession.BOOK,weblink Pakistan, Hussain, Rizwan, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, SÅ«fÄ« Islam in Pakistan is represented at two levels. The first is the populist Sufism of the rural masses, associated with unorthodox religious rituals and practices, belief in the intercessory powers of saints, pilgrimage and veneration at their shrines, and a binding spiritual relationship between the shaykh or pir (master) and murÄ«d (disciple). Many Muslims in rural areas of Pakistan, where orthodox Islam has yet to penetrate effectively, identify themselves with some pir, living or dead, and seek his intercession for the solution of their worldly problems and for salvation in the hereafter., The second level of Sufism in Pakistan is 'intellectual Sufism', which is growing among the urban and educated population. They are influenced by the writings of Sufis such as the medieval theologian al-Ghazali, the Sufi reformer Shaykh Aḥmad Sirhindi, and Shah Wali Allah.BOOK,weblink Pakistan, Hussain, Rizwan, The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World, The other strain is that of scholastic or intellectual Sufism, a recent phenomenon based in urban areas and becoming increasingly popular in educated circles. Influenced by the writings of the medieval theologian al-GhazālÄ« (d. 1111), the SÅ«fÄ« reformer Shaykh Aḥmad SirhindÄ« (d. 1624), and Shāh WalÄ« Allāh (d. 1762), and by the spiritual experiences of the masters of the SuhrawardÄ« and NaqshbandÄ« orders, these modern SÅ«fÄ«s are rearticulating Islamic metaphysics as an answer to Western materialism., Contemporary Islamic fundamentalists criticise Sufism's popular character, which in their view does not accurately reflect the teachings and practice of Muhammad and his companions.NEWS,weblink Sufism Under Attack in Pakistan, The New York Times, video, 21 May 2012, Produced by Charlotte Buchen,


{{See also|Hinduism in Pakistan}}{{Multiple image
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| caption1 = A Hindu temple situated in the Katasraj temple complex
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| image3 = Gudwara Panja Sahib - Flickr - Al Jazeera English (1).jpg
| caption3 = Gurdwara Panja Sahib in Hasan Abdal
}}Hinduism is the second-largest religion in Pakistan after Islam, according to the 1998 census.WEB,weblink Population Distribution by Religion, 1998 Census, Pakistan Bureau of Statistics, 26 December 2016, {{As of|2010}}, Pakistan had the fifth-largest Hindu population in the world.WEB,weblink 10 Countries With the Largest Hindu Populations, 2010 and 2050, 2 April 2015, Pew Research Center, 13 January 2017, In the 1998 census, the Hindu (jati) population was found to be 2,111,271 while the Hindu (scheduled castes) numbered an additional 332,343. Hindus are found in all provinces of Pakistan but are mostly concentrated in Sindh. They speak a variety of languages such as Sindhi, Seraiki, Aer, Dhatki, Gera, Goaria, Gurgula, Jandavra, Kabutra, Koli, Loarki, Marwari, Sansi, Vaghri,WEB,weblink Pakistan, Ethnologue, and Gujarati.At the time of Pakistan's creation, the 'hostage theory' gained currency. According to this theory, the Hindu minority in Pakistan was to be given a fair deal in Pakistan in order to ensure the protection of the Muslim minority in India.BOOK,weblink The Long Partition and the Making of Modern South Asia: Refugees, Boundaries, Histories, Zamindar, Vazira Fazila-Yacoobali, Columbia University Press, 2010, 978-0-231-13847-5, 72, The logic of the hostage theory tied the treatment of Muslim minorities in India to the treatment meted out to Hindus in Pakistan., BOOK,weblink Creating a New Medina: State Power, Islam, and the Quest for Pakistan in Late Colonial North India, Dhulipala, Venkat, Cambridge University Press, 2015, 978-1-316-25838-5, 19, Within the subcontinent, ML propaganda claimed that besides liberating the 'majority provinces' Muslims it would guarantee protection for Muslims who would be left behind in Hindu India. In this regard, it repeatedly stressed the hostage population theory that held that 'hostage' Hindu and Sikh minorities inside Pakistan would guarantee Hindu India's good behaviour towards its own Muslim minority., However, Khawaja Nazimuddin, the second Prime Minister of Pakistan, stated:}} Some Hindus in Pakistan feel that they are treated as second-class citizens and many have continued to migrate to India.NEWS,weblink Hindus feel the heat in Pakistan, Sohail, Riaz, 2 March 2007, BBC, But many Hindu families who stayed in Pakistan after partition have already lost faith and migrated to India., 22 February 2011, Pakistani Hindus faced riots after the Babri Masjid demolition,NEWS,weblink Pakistanis Attack 30 Hindu Temples, 7 December 1992, The New York Times, Muslims attacked more than 30 Hindu temples across Pakistan today, and the Government of this overwhelmingly Muslim nation closed offices and schools for a day to protest the destruction of a mosque in India., 15 April 2011, endured a massacre (in 2005) by security forces in Balochistan,NEWS,weblink Journalists find Balochistan 'war zone', Abbas, Zaffar, 22 March 2005, BBC, The Hindu residential locality that is close to Mr Bugti's fortress-like house was particularly badly hit. Mr Bugti says 32 Hindus were killed by firing from the government side in exchanges that followed an attack on a government convoy last Thursday., 26 December 2016, and have experienced other attacks, forced conversions, and abductions.25 Hindu girls abducted every month, claims HRCP official The News, Tuesday, 30 March 2010WEB,weblink Forced conversions torment Pakistan's Hindus,, 30 June 2017, WEB,weblink Bring Back Our Girls: Pakistan's Minorities' Struggle Against Forced Conversions, Veengas,, 30 June 2017,

Christianity and other religions

Christians formed the next largest religious minority, after Hindus, with a population of 2,092,902, according to the 1998 census.WEB,weblink Population Distribution by Religion, 1998 Census, They were followed by the Bahá'í Faith, which had a following of 30,000, then Sikhism, Buddhism, and Zoroastrianism, each back then claiming 20,000 adherents,WEB, Pakistan—International Religious Freedom Report 2008,weblink 28 August 2010, The majority of Muslims in the country are Sunni, with a Shi'a minority ranging between 10 to 20 percent., 2008, United States Department of State, and a very small community of Jains. There is a Roman Catholic community in Karachi that was established by Goan and Tamil migrants when Karachi's infrastructure was being developed by the British during the colonial administration between World War I and World War II. The influence of atheism is very small, with 1.0% of the population identifying as atheist in 2005. However, the figure rose to 2.0% in 2012 according to Gallup.NEWS, Husain, Irfan, Faith in decline,weblink 16 December 2012, Dawn, Irfan, 27 August 2012, Interestingly, and somewhat intriguingly, 2 per cent of the Pakistanis surveyed see themselves as atheists, up from 1pc in 2005., dead,weblink" title="">weblink 4 December 2012,

Culture and society

File:W-P-AD20070217-16h21m13s-e.jpg|thumb|right|Truck art is a distinctive feature of Pakistani culture.]]Civil society in Pakistan is largely hierarchical, emphasising local cultural etiquette and traditional Islamic values that govern personal and political life. The basic family unit is the extended family,WEB,weblink Pakistan- Language, Religion, Culture, Customs and Etiquette, Kwint Essential, 17 March 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 23 March 2009, although for socio-economic reasons there has been a growing trend towards nuclear families.JOURNAL, Anwar Alam, Factors and Consequences of Nuclearization of Family at Hayatabad Phase-II, Peshawar, Sarhad J. Agric., 2008, 24,weblink 21 April 2012, 3, The traditional dress for both men and women is the Shalwar Kameez; trousers, jeans, and shirts are also popular among men. In recent decades, the middle class has increased to around 35 million and the upper and upper-middle classes to around 17 million, and power is shifting from rural landowners to the urbanised elites.WEB, The rise of Mehran man,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 25 November 2010, Dawn, Pakistan News, Irfan Husain, 17 April 2010, 25 July 2010, Pakistani festivals, including Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Azha, Ramazan, Christmas, Easter, Holi, and Diwali, are mostly religious in origin. Increasing globalisation has resulted in Pakistan ranking 56th on the A.T. Kearney/FP Globalization Index.WEB, A.T. Kearney/Foreign Policy Magazine Globalization Index 2006,weblink A.T. Kearney, Nov–Dec 2006, 4, 1 January 2012, {{dead link|date=May 2016|bot=medic}}{{cbignore|bot=medic}}

Clothing, arts, and fashion

The Shalwar Kameez is the national dress of Pakistan and is worn by both men and women in all four provinces: Punjab, Sindh, Balochistan, and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa as well as in FATA and Azad Kashmir. Each province has its own style of Shalwar Kameez. Pakistanis wear clothes in a range of exquisite colours and designs and in type of fabric (silk, chiffon, cotton, etc.).BOOK, Stephanie Koerner, Ian Russell, Unquiet Pasts: Risk Society, Lived Cultural Heritage, Re-designing Reflexivity,weblink 2010, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 978-0-7546-7548-8, 382, Besides the national dress, domestically tailored suits and neckties are often worn by men, and are customary in offices, schools, and social gatherings.The fashion industry has flourished in the changing environment of the fashion world. Since Pakistan came into being, its fashion has evolved in different phases and developed a unique identity. Today, Pakistani fashion is a combination of traditional and modern dress and has become a mark of Pakistani culture. Despite modern trends, regional and traditional forms of dress have developed their own significance as a symbol of native tradition. This regional fashion continues to evolve into both more modern and purer forms. The Pakistan Fashion Design Council based in Lahore organizes PFDC Fashion Week and the Fashion Pakistan Council based in Karachi organizes Fashion Pakistan Week. Pakistan's first fashion week was held in November 2009.NEWS, Michele Langevine Leiby,weblink In Pakistan, fashion weeks thrive beyond the style capitals of the world, Washington Post, 25 April 2012, 20 April 2013,

Media and entertainment

The private print media, state-owned Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV), and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) for radio were the dominant media outlets until the beginning of the 21st century. Pakistan now has a large network of domestic, privately owned 24-hour news media and television channels.NEWS,weblink Media in Pakistan, International Media Support, PDF, 14–16, 21, 17 December 2011, July 2009, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 29 December 2009, A 2016 report by the Reporters Without Borders ranked Pakistan 147th on the Press Freedom Index, while at the same time terming the Pakistani media "among the freest in Asia when it comes to covering the squabbling among politicians."WEB,weblink Pakistani media targeted on all sides, says report, The Express Tribune, 23 April 2016, 20 April 2016, BBC calls the Pakistani media "among the most outspoken in South Asia".NEWS,weblink Pakistan profile – Media – BBC News, BBC News, 23 April 2016, 2 March 2017, Pakistani media has also played a vital role in exposing corruption.WEB,weblink {{Not a typo, Between radicalisation and democratisation in an unfolding conflict: Media in Pakistan, |publisher=International Media Support|date=July 2009|access-date=19 December 2013|url-status=dead|archiveurl=|archivedate=29 December 2009}}The Lollywood, Kariwood, Punjabi, and Pashto film industry is based in Karachi, Lahore, and Peshawar. While Bollywood films were banned from public cinemas from 1965 until 2008, they have remained an important part of popular culture.WEB,weblink Bollywood films may be banned in Pakistan, Naseem Randhava, Yahoo! News, 11 October 2011, 31 October 2011, NEWS,weblink Pakistan to show Bollywood film, BBC News, 13 February 2008, 23 January 2006, In contrast to the ailing Pakistani film industry, Urdu televised dramas and theatrical performances continue to be popular, as many entertainment media outlets air them regularly.WEB,weblink The Evolving World of Pakistani Dramas Builds Stronger Relations With India, 21 January 2015, Brown Girl, Shaikh, Naila, 25 May 2015, Urdu dramas dominate the television entertainment industry, which has launched critically acclaimed miniseries and featured popular actors and actresses since the 1990s.NEWS, Daily Times Monitor, Editorial, Pakistani dramas contribute to the evolution of Indian television,weblink 25 May 2015, Daily Times, Pakistan, Daily Times 2014, 25 December 2014, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 19 July 2015, In the 1960s–1970s, pop music and disco (1970s) dominated the country's music industry. In the 1980s–1990s, British influenced rock music appeared and jolted the country's entertainment industry.NEWS, Nadeem F. Paracha, Times of the Vital Sign,weblink 3 April 2013, Dawn News, Nadeem F. Paracha, 28 March 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 2 April 2013, In the 2000s, heavy metal music gained popular and critical acclaim.NEWS, Reza Sayah, Underground musicians aim to change Pakistan's image,weblink 5 April 2013, CNN Pakistan, 12 April 2012, Pakistani music ranges from diverse forms of provincial folk music and traditional styles such as Qawwali and Ghazal Gayaki to modern musical forms that fuse traditional and western music.WEB, Adam Nayyar, Origin and History of the Qawwali, 1988,weblinkweblink dead, University of Toronto, 1, 1 January 1970, 20 January 2012, NEWS, The stilled voice,weblink Frontline (magazine), Frontline, 30 June 2011, Amit Baruah, R. Padmanabhan, 6 September 1997, Chennai, India, Pakistan has many famous folk singers. The arrival of Afghan refugees in the western provinces has stimulated interest in Pashto music, although there has been intolerance of it in some places.NEWS, Owais Tohid, Music soothes extremism along troubled Afghan border,weblink 20 January 2012, The Christian Science Monitor, 7 June 2005,


{{multiple image|align=right|image1=|width1=150|caption1=Nergis Mavalvala is a Professor of Physics at MIT who is known for her role in the first observation of gravitational waves.}}According to the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Pakistan has the sixth-largest diaspora in the world.WEB,weblink India has largest diaspora population in world: UN, 15 January 2016, The Tribune, 3 March 2016, Statistics gathered by the Pakistani government show that there are around 7 million Pakistanis residing abroad, with the vast majority living in the Middle East, Europe, and North America.WEB,weblink Pride and the Pakistani Diaspora,, 14 February 2009, 15 October 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 15 October 2013, Pakistan ranks 10th in the world for remittances sent home.WEB,weblink OP News Discussions Archives,, 15 October 2013, WEB,weblink Migration and Remittances: Top Countries,, 2010, 19 December 2013, The largest inflow of remittances, {{as of|2016|lc=y}}, is from Saudi Arabia, amounting to $5.9 billion.NEWS,weblink Saudi Arabia remains largest source of remittances for Pakistan, 16 July 2016, The Express Tribune, 24 December 2016, The term Overseas Pakistani is officially recognised by the Government of Pakistan. The Ministry of Overseas Pakistanis was established in 2008 to deal exclusively with all matters of overseas Pakistanis such as attending to their needs and problems, developing projects for their welfare, and working for resolution of their problems and issues. Overseas Pakistanis are the second-largest source of foreign exchange remittances to Pakistan after exports. Over the last several years, home remittances have maintained a steadily rising trend, with a more than 100% increase from US$8.9 billion in 2009–10 to US$19.9 billion in 2015–16.NEWS, Iqbal, Shahid, $20 billion remittances received in FY16,weblink 20 February 2017, Dawn (newspaper), Dawn, 16 July 2016, The Overseas Pakistani Division (OPD) was created in September 2004 within the Ministry of Labour (MoL). It has since recognised the importance of overseas Pakistanis and their contribution to the nation's economy. Together with Community Welfare Attaches (CWAs) and the Overseas Pakistanis Foundation (OPF), the OPD is making efforts to improve the welfare of Pakistanis who reside abroad. The division aims to provide better services through improved facilities at airports, and suitable schemes for housing, education, and health care. It also facilitates the reintegration into society of returning overseas Pakistanis. Notable members of the Pakistani diaspora include London Mayor Sadiq Khan, UK Cabinet Member Sajid Javid, former UK Conservative Party Chair Baroness Warsi, singers Zayn Malik and Nadia Ali, MIT Physics Professor Dr. Nergis Mavalvala, actors Riz Ahmed and Kumail Nanjiani, businessmen Shahid Khan and Sir Anwar Pervez, Boston University professors Adil Najam and Hamid Nawab, Texas A&M Professor Muhammad Suhail Zubairy, Yale Professor Sara Suleri, UC San Diego Professor Farooq Azam, and historian Ayesha Jalal.

Literature and philosophy

File:Iqbal.jpg|thumb|upright=0.65|left|alt=Muhammad Iqbal|Muhammad Iqbal, Pakistan's national poet who conceived the idea of Pakistan]]Pakistan has literature in Urdu, Sindhi, Punjabi, Pashto, Baluchi, Persian, English, and many other languages.BOOK, Alamgir Hashmi, Radhika Mohanram, Gita Rajan, English postcoloniality: literatures from around the world,weblink 1996, Greenwood Publishing Group, 978-0-313-28854-8, 107–112, The Pakistan Academy of Letters is a large literary community that promotes literature and poetry in Pakistan and abroad.Official website in English Pakistan Academy of Letters {{webarchive |url= |date=6 March 2013}} The National Library publishes and promotes literature in the country. Before the 19th century, Pakistani literature consisted mainly of lyric and religious poetry and mystical and folkloric works. During the colonial period, native literary figures were influenced by western literary realism and took up increasingly varied topics and narrative forms. Prose fiction is now very popular.WEB, Gilani Kamran, Pakistani Literature – Evolution & trends,weblink The South Asian Magazine, January 2002, 24 December 2011, WEB, Huma Imtiaz, Granta: The global reach of Pakistani literature,weblink The Express Tribune, 26 September 2010, 24 December 2011, File:Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam Multan.jpg|thumb|The Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-AlamTomb of Shah Rukn-e-AlamThe national poet of Pakistan, Muhammad Iqbal, wrote poetry in Urdu and Persian. He was a strong proponent of the political and spiritual revival of Islamic civilisation and encouraged Muslims all over the world to bring about a successful revolution.{{clarify|date=April 2017}}ENCYCLOPEDIA, Annemarie Schimmel, Iqbal, Muhammad,weblink Encyclopædia Iranica, 15 December 2004, 1 January 2012, WEB, Nadeem, Shafique, Global Apprecaition of Allama Iqbal,weblink Bahauddin Zakariya University, Journal of Research, Faculty of Languages and Islamic Studies, 47–49, 1 January 2012,weblink" title="">weblink 18 January 2012, WEB, Iqbal Academy, 26 May 2006,weblink Allama Iqbal – Biography, PHP, 7 January 2011, Well-known figures in contemporary Pakistani Urdu literature include Josh Malihabadi Faiz Ahmed Faiz and Saadat Hasan Manto. Sadequain and Gulgee are known for their calligraphy and paintings. The Sufi poets Shah Abdul Latif, Bulleh Shah, Mian Muhammad Bakhsh, and Khawaja Farid enjoy considerable popularity in Pakistan.NEWS, Muhammad Zahid Rifat, Paying tributes to popular Sufi poets,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink dead, 17 January 2013, The Nation (Karachi, Pakistan), The Nation, 3 October 2011, 25 December 2011, Mirza Kalich Beg has been termed the father of modern Sindhi prose.BOOK, L.H. Ajwani,weblink Sahitya Akademi, Chetan Karnani, 2003, 978-81-260-1664-8, 50, Historically, philosophical development in the country was dominated by Muhammad Iqbal, Sir Syed, Muhammad Asad, Maududi, and Mohammad Ali Johar.Javed, Kazi. Philosophical Domain of Pakistan (Pakistan Main Phalsapiana Rojhanat) (in Urdu). Karachi: Karachi University Press, 1999.Ideas from British and American philosophy greatly shaped philosophical development in Pakistan. Analysts such as M. M. Sharif and Zafar Hassan established the first major Pakistani philosophical movement in 1947.{{clarify|date=April 2017}}WEB, etal, Richard V. DeSemet, Philosophical Activities in Pakistan:1947–1961,weblink Work published by Pakistan Philosophical Congress, Work published by Pakistan Philosophical Congress, 25 November 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink 9 May 2013, After the 1971 war, philosophers such as Jalaludin Abdur Rahim, Gianchandani, and Malik Khalid incorporated Marxism into Pakistan's philosophical thinking. Influential work by Manzoor Ahmad, Jon Elia, Hasan Askari Rizvi, and Abdul Khaliq brought mainstream social, political, and analytical philosophy to the fore in academia.BOOK, Ahmad, ed. by Naeem, Philosophy in Pakistan, 1998, Council for Research in Values and Philosophy, Washington, DC, 978-1-56518-108-3, Works by Noam Chomsky have influenced philosophical ideas in various fields of social and political philosophy.NEWS, Mallick, Ayyaz, Exclusive interview with Noam Chomsky on Pakistan elections,weblink 21 February 2015, Dawn news election cells, Dawn news election cells, 7 May 2013, WEB,weblink Noam Chomsky interviewed by Pervez Hoodbhoy, PTV archives, Hoodbhoy, Pervez, 21 February 2015,


File:Jinnah Mausoleum.JPG|thumb|upright=0.9|right|Mazar-e-Quaid, KarachiKarachiFile:Minar-E-Pakistan in all its' splendour.JPG|thumb|upright=0.7|right|Minar-e-PakistanMinar-e-PakistanFour periods are recognised in Pakistani architecture: pre-Islamic, Islamic, colonial, and post-colonial. With the beginning of the Indus civilization around the middle of the 3rd millennium BCE,WEB, Vidja Dehejia, South Asian Art and Culture,weblink The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 10 February 2008, an advanced urban culture developed for the first time in the region, with large buildings, some of which survive to this day.WEB, The Indus Valley And The Genesis Of South Asian Civilization,weblink History World International, 6 February 2008,weblink 9 June 2012, dead, Mohenjo Daro, Harappa, and Kot Diji are among the pre-Islamic settlements that are now tourist attractions. The rise of Buddhism and the influence of Greek civilisation led to the development of a Greco-Buddhist style,Sachindra Kumar Maity. Cultural Heritage of Ancient India Abhinav Publications, 1983 {{ISBN|0-391-02809-X}} p. 46 starting from the 1st century CE. The high point of this era was the Gandhara style. An example of Buddhist architecture is the ruins of the Buddhist monastery Takht-i-Bahi in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.WEB, UNESCO Advisory Body Evaluation of Takht Bhai, International Council on Monuments and Sites, 1–2,weblink 29 December 1979, 25 July 2010, File:Lahore Fort.jpg|thumb|left|upright=0.7|Lahore Fort, a landmark built during the Mughal era, is a UNESCO World Heritage SiteUNESCO World Heritage SiteThe arrival of Islam in what is today Pakistan meant the sudden end of Buddhist architecture in the area and a smooth transition to the predominantly pictureless Islamic architecture. The most important Indo-Islamic-style building still standing is the tomb of the Shah Rukn-i-Alam in Multan. During the Mughal era, design elements of Persian-Islamic architecture were fused with and often produced playful forms of Hindustani art. Lahore, as the occasional residence of Mughal rulers, contains many important buildings from the empire. Most prominent among them are the Badshahi Mosque, the fortress of Lahore with the famous Alamgiri Gate, the colourful, Mughal-style Wazir Khan Mosque,Simon Ross Valentine. 'Islam and the Ahmadiyya Jama'at: History, Belief, Practice Hurst Publishers, 2008 {{ISBN|1-85065-916-8}} p. 63 the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore, and the Shahjahan Mosque in Thatta. In the British colonial period, predominantly functional buildings of the Indo-European representative style developed from a mixture of European and Indian-Islamic components. Post-colonial national identity is expressed in modern structures such as the Faisal Mosque, the Minar-e-Pakistan, and the Mazar-e-Quaid.BOOK, Kamil Khan Mumtaz, Architecture in Pakistan, 1985, Concept Media Pte Ltd, 978-9971-84-141-6, 32, 51, 160, Several examples of architectural infrastructure demonstrating the influence of British design can be found in Lahore, Peshawar, and Karachi.

Food and drink

File:Chicken Tikka.jpg|upright=0.9|thumb|left|A Pakistani dish prepared using the tandooritandooriPakistani cuisine is similar to that of other regions of South Asia, with some of it being originated from the royal kitchens of 16th-century Mughal emperors.BOOK, Goodwin, William, Pakistan, 2002, Lucent Books, English, 978-1-59018-218-5, 79, Pakistani food is similar to that of northern India, with a splash of Middle Eastern influence derived from other Muslim cultures over the centuries., Most of those dishes have their roots in British, Indian, Central Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine.BOOK, Lee, Jonathan H.X., Nadeau, Kathleen M., Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife, 2011, ABC-CLIO, English, 978-0-313-35066-5, 973, Pakistani cuisine—a fusion of Central Asian, Middle Eastern, Persian, and Indian traditions—is known for being spicy and for its aromatic and flavorful richness.,weblink Unlike Middle Eastern cuisine, Pakistani cooking uses large quantities of spices, herbs, and seasoning. Garlic, ginger, turmeric, red chili, and garam masala are used in most dishes, and home cooking regularly includes curry, roti, a thin flatbread made from wheat, is a staple food, usually served with curry, meat, vegetables, and lentils. Rice is also common; it is served plain, fried with spices, and in sweet dishes.BOOK, Yasmeen Niaz Mohiuddin, Pakistan: a global studies handbook, 2006, ABC-CLIO, 978-1-85109-801-9, 3, 317, 323–324, BOOK, Kathleen W. Deady, Countries of the world :Pakistan, 2001, Capstone Press, 978-0-7368-0815-6, 13–15, BOOK, American Geriatrics Society. Ethnogeriatrics Committee, Doorway thoughts: cross-cultural health care for older adults, 2006, Jones & Bartlett Learning, 978-0-7637-4355-0, 119–120, Lassi is a traditional drink in the Punjab region. Black tea with milk and sugar is popular throughout Pakistan and is consumed daily by most of the population.BOOK, Pakistan & the Karakoram Highway, 2008, Lonely Planet, 978-1-74104-542-0, 60, 128, 376,weblink Sarina Singh, Lindsay Brow, Paul Clammer, Rodney Cocks, John Mock, BOOK, Tarla Dalal, Punjabi Khana, 2007, Sanjay & Co, 978-81-89491-54-3, 8, Sohan halwa is a popular sweet dish from the southern region of Punjab province and is enjoyed all over Pakistan.NEWS,weblink Sohan Halwa a gift of saints' city, 16 December 2013,, 28 February 2014,


Most sports played in Pakistan originated and were substantially developed by athletes and sports fans from the United Kingdom who introduced them during the British Raj. Field hockey is the national sport of Pakistan; it has won three gold medals in the Olympic Games held in 1960, 1968, and 1984.BOOK, Bill Mallon, Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement, 2011, Scarecrow, 978-0-8108-7249-3, 4th revised, Jeroen Heijmans, 291, Pakistan has also won the Hockey World Cup a record four times, held in 1971, 1978, 1982, and 1994.BOOK,weblink Basic Facts of General Knowledge, V.V.K.Subburaj, 30 August 2004, Sura College of Competition, 978-81-7254-234-4, 771, Cricket, however, is the most popular game across the country.NEWS,weblink The Death of Sports in Pakistan, Saad Khan, 15 March 2010, The Huffington Post, 8 July 2010, The country has had an array of success in the sport over the years, and has the distinct achievement of having won each of the major ICC international cricket tournaments: ICC Cricket World Cup, ICC World Twenty20, and ICC Champions Trophy; as well as the ICC Test Championship.WEB,weblink David Richardson presents ICC Test Championship mace to Misbah-ul-Haq, 8 September 2018, WEB,weblink CT17 final stats: Pakistan become fourth team to win all three ICC crowns, 8 September 2018, The cricket team (known as Shaheen) won the Cricket World Cup held in 1992; it was runner-up once, in 1999. Pakistan was runner-up in the inaugural World Twenty20 (2007) in South Africa and won the World Twenty20 in England in 2009. In March 2009, militants attacked the touring Sri Lankan cricket team,NEWS, Pakistan cricket future in doubt,weblink BBC, 4 March 2009, 1 January 2012, after which no international cricket was played in Pakistan until May 2015, when the Zimbabwean team agreed to a tour. Pakistan also won the 2017 ICC Champions Trophy by defeating arch-rivals India in the final.Association Football is the second most played sports in Pakistan and it is organised and regulated by the Pakistan Football Federation.WEB,weblink A history of football in Pakistan — Part I, Ali, Ahsan, 23 December 2010, Football in Pakistan is as old as the country itself. Shortly after the creation of Pakistan in 1947, the Pakistan Football Federation (PFF) was created, and Muhammad Ali Jinnah became its first Patron-in-Chiefweblink The highest football division in Pakistan is the Pakistan Premier League.WEB,weblink Archived copy, 14 July 2018,weblink" title="">weblink 30 September 2012, dead, Pakistan is known as one of the best manufacturer of the official FIFA World Cup ball.NEWS,weblink Footballs made in Pakistan to be used in FIFA World Cup 2018, 28 January 2018, The Express Tribune, WEB,weblink A history of football in Pakistan — Part III, Ali, Ahsan, 23 December 2010, The best football players to play for Pakistan are Kaleemullah, Zesh Rehman, Muhammad Essa, Haroon Yousaf, and Muhammad Adil.Pakistan has hosted or co-hosted several international sporting events: the 1989 and 2004 South Asian Games; the 1984, 1993, 1996 and 2003 World Squash Championships; the 1987 and 1996 Cricket World Cup; and the 1990 Hockey World Cup.

See also






{{See also|Bibliography of Pakistan}}
  • JOURNAL, Allchin, F. Raymond, Raymond Allchin, The Urban Position of Taxila and Its Place in Northwest India-Pakistan, Studies in the History of Art, 1993, 31, 69–81, harv, 42620473,
  • {{citation|title=Jinnah, Pakistan and Islamic Identity: The Search for Saladin|date=1997|ref={{SfnRef|Akbar Ahmed|1997}}|author=Akbar Ahmed|publisher=Routledge|isbn=978-0-415-14966-2|url=}}
  • {{citation |title=The Idea of Pakistan |date=2006 |ref={{SfnRef|Stephen Philip Cohen|2006}}|author=Stephen Philip Cohen|publisher=Brookings Institution Press|isbn=978-0-8157-1503-0}}
  • {{citation |title=Pakistan: A Hard Country |date=2012 |ref={{SfnRef|Anatol Lieven|2012}}|author=Anatol Lieven|publisher=PublicAffairs|isbn=978-1-61039-145-0}}
  • {{citation |title=The Encyclopedia of Pakistan |date=2006 |ref={{SfnRef|Hafeez Malik|2006}}|author=Hafeez Malik|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-597735-6}}
  • {{citation |title=Culture and Customs of Pakistan (Culture and Customs of Asia) |date=2005 |ref={{SfnRef|Iftikhar Malik|2005}}|author=Iftikhar Malik|publisher=Greenwood|isbn=978-0-313-33126-8}}
  • {{citation |title=Pakistan: The Political Economy of Growth, Stagnation and the State, 1951–2009 |date=2011 |ref={{SfnRef|Matthew McCartney|2011}}|author=Matthew McCartney|publisher=Routledge]|isbn=978-0-415-57747-2}}
  • {{citation |title=Constructing Pakistan: Foundational Texts and the Rise of Muslim National Identity |date=2010 |ref={{SfnRef|Masood Ashraf Raja|2010}}|author=Masood Ashraf aja|authorlink=Masood Ashraf Raja|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-547811-2}}
  • {{citation |title=India, Pakistan and the West |date=2007 |ref={{SfnRef|Percival Spear|2007}}|author=Percival Spear|authorlink=Percival Spear|publisher=Read Books Publishers|isbn=978-1-4067-1215-5}}
  • {{citation |title=Studies in Applied Geography and Spatial Analysis: Addressing Real World Issues |date=1 January 2012 |url= |ref={{SfnRef|Robert Stimson|Kingsley E. Haynes|2012}}|author1=Robert Stimson|author2=Kingsley E. Haynes|publisher=Edward Elgar Publishing|isbn=978-1-78100-796-9}}
  • {{citation |title=Creating a New Medina: State Power, Islam, and the Quest for Pakistan in Late Colonial North India |date=2015 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |url=|author=Venkat Dhulipala |isbn=978-1-316-25838-5}}
  • Muhammad Qasim Zaman,Islam in Pakistan: A History (Princeton UP, 2018) online review

External links

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  • {{Official websiteweblink}}
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