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Thracian language
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{{Indo-European topics}}The Thracian language ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|θ|r|eɪ|ʃ|ən}}) is an extinct and poorly attested language, generally considered to be Indo-European, spoken in ancient times in South-East Europe by the Thracians. The linguistic affinities of the Thracian language are poorly understood, but it is generally agreed that it exhibited satem features.A contemporary, neighboring language, Dacian is usually regarded as closely related to Thracian. However, there is insufficient evidence with respect to either language to enable the nature of this relationship to be decided.The point at which Thracian became extinct is a matter of dispute. However, it is generally accepted that Thracian was still in use in the 6th century AD: Antoninus of Piacenza wrote in 570 that there was a monastery in the Sinai, at which the monks spoke Greek, Latin, Syriac, Egyptian and Bessian – a Thracian dialect.Bessian is the language of the Bessi, one of the most prominent Thracian tribes. The origin of the monasteries is explained in a mediaeval hagiography written by Symeon the Metaphrast in Vita Sancti Theodosii Coenobiarchae in which he wrote that Saint Theodosius founded on the shore of the Dead Sea a monastery with four churches, in each being spoken a different language, among which Bessian was found. The place at which the monasteries were founded was called "Cutila", which may be a Thracian name. Other theories about Thracian remain controversial. These are among many competing hypotheses regarding the classification and fate of Thracian.1994 Gottfried Schramm: A New Approach to Albanian History

Geographic distribution

The Thracian language was spoken in what is now Bulgaria,Encyclopedia of European peoples, Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason, Infobase Publishing, 2006, {{ISBN|0-8160-4964-5}}, p. 205.Archaeology and language: the puzzle of Indo-European origins, Colin Renfrew, CUP Archive, 1990, {{ISBN|0-521-38675-6}}, p. 71. Romania, North Macedonia, Northern Greece, European Turkey and in parts of Bithynia (North-Western Asiatic Turkey).Eastern Serbia is usually considered by paleolinguists to have been a Daco-Moesian language area. Moesian (after Vladimir Georgiev et al.) is grouped with Dacian.

Remnants of the Thracian language

Little is known for certain about the Thracian language, since no phrase beyond a few words in length has been satisfactorily deciphered, and the sounder decipherments given for the shorter phrases may not be completely accurate. Some of the longer inscriptions may indeed be Thracian in origin but they may not reflect actual Thracian language sentences, but rather jumbles of names or magical formulas.Olteanu et al.Enough Thracian lexical items have survived to show that Thracian was a member of the Indo-European language family and that it was a satemized language by the time it is attested.Besides the aforementioned inscriptions, Thracian is attested through personal names, toponyms, hydronyms, (wikt:phytonym|phytonyms), divine names, etc. and by a small number of words cited in Ancient Greek texts as being specifically Thracian.WEB,weblink The Language of the Thracians, 2007-01-14, Duridanov, Ivan, Other ancient Greek lexical items were not specifically identified as Thracian by the ancient Greeks but are hypothesized by paleolinguists as being or probably being of Thracian origin. Other lexical items are hypothesized on the basis of local anthroponyms, toponyms, hydronyms, oronyms, etc. mentioned in primary sources (see also List of ancient cities in Thrace and Dacia, List of Dacian plant names) .Below is a table showing both words cited as being Thracian in classical sources, and lexical elements that have been extracted by paleolinguists from Thracian anthroponyms, toponyms, etc. In this table the closest cognates are shown, with an emphasis on cognates in Bulgarian, Albanian, Baltic, Slavic, Greek, and substratum and/or old-layer words in the Eastern Romance languages: Romanian, Aromanian, et cetera. See also the List of reconstructed Dacian words.Significant cognates from any Indo-European language are listed. However, not all lexical items in Thracian are assumed to be from the Proto-Indo-European language, some non-IE lexical items in Thracian are to be expected.There are 23 words mentioned by ancient sources considered explicitly of Thracian origin and known meaningBOOK, harv, Duridanov, I., 1976,weblink The Language of the Thracians (An abridged translation of Ezikyt na trakite, Ivan Duridanov, Nauka i izkustvo, Sofia, 1976. (c) Ivan Duridanov), {| class = wikitable|+! Word !! Meaning!! Attested by !! Cognates|asa|colt’s foot (Bessi)|Dioskurides|Lit. dial. asỹs ‘horse-tail, Equisetum’, Latv. aši, ašas ‘horse-tail, sedge, rush’|βόλινθος (bólinthos)|aurochs, European bison|Aristotle(wikt:Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/volъ>*volъ) ("ox"). Pre-Greek, according to Beekes 2010: 225.|βρία (bría)|unfortified village|Hesychius, compare the Toponyms Πολτυμβρία, Σηλυ(μ)μβρία, and Βρέα in Thrace.ri, B riye ("town") as if < *urih₁-. Alternatively, compare Proto-Celtic (wikt:Reconstruction:Proto-Celtic/brixs>*brix-) ("hill").|βρίζα (bríza)|rye|Galen|Perhaps of Eastern origin, compare Greek ὄρυζα, Sanskrit vrīhí- ("rice").|βρυνχός (brynkhós)|guitar||Compared with Slavic *bręčati "to ring".|βρῦτος (brŷtos)|beer of barley|many(wikt:Reconstruction:Proto-Germanic/bruþą>*bruþa-) ("broth"), Old Irish bruth ("glow"), Latin dēfrŭtum ("must boiled down").|dinupula, si/nupyla|wild melon|Pseudoapuleusšùnobuolas, lit. ("dog’s apple"), or with Slavic (wikt:Reconstruction:Proto-Slavic/dynja>*dynja) ("melon"). |γέντον (génton)|meat|Herodian., Suid., Hesych|Taken from IE *gʷʰn-tó-, cf. Sanskrit hatá- ‘hit, killed’|καλαμίνδαρ (kalamíndar)|plane-tree (Edoni)|Hesych.||κη̃μος (kêmos)|a kind of fruit with follicle|Phot. Lex.||κτίσται (ktístai)|Ctistae|Strabo||midne|village|inscription from Rome|Latvian mītne ("a place of stay")|Πολτυμ(βρία) (poltym-bría)|board fence, a board tower||Old Norse spjald ("board"), Old English speld ("wood, log")|ῥομφαία (rhomphaía)|broadsword|many|Compared with Latin rumpō ("to rupture")|σκάλμη (skálmē)|knife, sword|Soph. y Pollux, Marcus Anton., Hesych., Phot. L(wikt:shkallmë>shkallmë) ("sword"), Old Norse skolm ("short sword, knife")|σκάρκη (skárkē)|a silver coin|Hesych., Phot. Lex.||σπίνος (spínos)|a kind of stone (?)|Arist.||τορέλλη (toréllē)|a refrain of lament mourn song|Hesych.||ζαλμός (zalmós)|animal hide|Porphyr.||ζειρά (zeira)|long robe worn by Arabs and Thracians|Hdt., Xen., Hesych.||ζελᾶ (zelâ), also ζῆλα (zêla), ζηλᾱς (zelās) |wine|many|Compared with Greek χάλις (khális; "unblended wine") and Macedonian κάλιθος (kálithos; "wine")|ζετραία (zetraía)|pot|Pollux||zibythides|the noble, most holy one|Hesych.|Lith. žibùtė ("shining")An additional 180 Thracian words have been reconstructed.The proposed Thracian words in the Ancient Greek lexicon are not numerous. They include the parth- element in Parthenon;{{citation needed|date=April 2014|reason=Proposed by whom? Not by e.g. H.Frisk, P.Chantraine or R.Beekes, none of whom by the way mentions Thracian, not even fleetingly, in their etymological dictionaries on Greek, s.v. 'parthenos'; unless that is, 'Parthenon' has nothing to do with 'parthenos' (?!?) in which case this should be explained and sourced. Etymology of 'parthenos' and hence of 'Parthenon' is considered isoliert, énigmatique, uncertain-unknown. In any case please add sources.}} balios ("dappled"; < PIE *bhel-, "to shine", Bul. bel/bial (бял) "white" or bljaskav 'bright, shiny'; Pokorny also cites Illyrian as a possible source, the non-Greek origin is argued on phonological grounds), bounos, "hill, mound".Olteanu hypothesizes that the Thracian toponym Basibounon may contain bouno(n), a Greek word for "hill" that may also be a Thracian wordThe Thracian horseman hero was an important figure in Thracian religion, mythology, and culture. Depictions of the Thracian Horseman are found in numerous archaeological remains and artifacts from Thracian regions. From the Duvanli ring and from cognates in numerous Indo-European languages, mezēna is seen to be a Thracian word for "horse", deriving from PIE *mend-. Another Thracian word for "horse" is hypothesized, but it looks certain, there is no disagreement among Thracologists: aspios, esvas, asb- (and some other variants; < PIE *ekwo weblink" title="https:/-/archive.is/20130102133544weblink">weblink, the Thracian showing a satem form similar to Sanskrit áśva-, "horse", Avestan aspa, "horse", Ossetic jäfs, Prussian aswinan ‘mare milk’, Lithuanian ašvíenis ‘stallion’, ašvà, dial. ešvà ‘mare’In Old Church Slavonic is found ehu, which may be a loan from Germanic {{Citation needed|date=August 2011}}; otherwise the Slavic word for horse from ekwo- was lost, due perhaps to the lack of equestrianism among the early Slavs {{Citation needed|date=August 2011}}), from Outaspios, Utaspios, an inscription associated with the Thracian horseman. Ut- based on the PIE root word ud- (meaning "up") and based on several Thracic items, would have meant "upon", "up", and Utaspios is theorized to have meant "On horse(back)", parallel to ancient Greek ephippos (epi-hippos).Georgiev, Olteanu et al.The early Indo-European languages had more than one word for horse; for example Latin had equus from PIE *ekwo- and mannus ("a pony") from another IE root, later receiving cabalus as a loanword.In many cases in current Thracology, there is more than one etymology for a Thracian lexical item. For example, Thracian Diana Germetitha (Diana is from Latin while the epithet Germetitha is from Thracian) has two different proposed etymologies, "Diana of the warm bosom" (Olteanu; et al.?) or "Diana of the warm radiance" (Georgiev; et al.?). In other cases, etymologies for the Thracian lexical items may be sound, but some of the proposed cognates are not actually cognates, thus confusing the affinity of Thracian.

Inscriptions

(File:ThracianLanguageMap.jpg|thumb|right|350px|Limits of the (southern) Thracian linguistic territory according to Ivan Duridanov,1985)

Ezerovo inscription

Only four Thracian inscriptions of any length have been found. The first is a gold ring found in 1912 in the village of Ezerovo, Bulgaria; the ring was dated to the 5th century BC. On the ring an inscription is found written in a Greek script and consisting of 8 lines, the eighth of which is located on the edge, the rim, of the rotating disk; it reads:
ΡΟΛΙΣΤΕΝΕΑΣΝ / ΕΡΕΝΕΑΤΙΛ / ΤΕΑΝΗΣΚΟΑ / ΡΑΖΕΑΔΟΜ / ΕΑΝΤΙΛΕΖΥ / ΠΤΑΜΙΗΕ / ΡΑΖ // ΗΛΤΑ
Dimitar Dechev (Germanised as D. Detschew) separates the words thusBOOK, Ivan, Duridanov, Die Sprache der Thraker, Bulgarische Sammlung, 5, Hieronymus Verlag, 1985, 3-88893-031-6, german,weblink Ich bin Rolisteneas, Sprößling des Nereneas; Tilezypta, Arazerin nach ihrer Heimat, hat mich der Erde übergeben (d.h. begraben)., BOOK, Die Sprache der Thrako-Daker, Ion I., Russu, Ed. Ştiinţificā, 1969, German,weblink
ΡΟΛΙΣΤΕΝΕΑΣ ΝΕΡΕΝΕΑ ΤΙΛΤΕΑΝ ΗΣΚΟ ΑΡΑΖΕΑ ΔΟΜΕΑΝ ΤΙΛΕΖΥΠΤΑ ΜΙΗ ΕΡΑ ΖΗΛΤΑ
i.e.
Rolisteneas Nerenea tiltean ēsko Arazea domean Tilezypta miē era zēlta
proposing the following translation
I am Rolisteneas, a descendant of Nereneas; Tilezypta, an Arazian woman, delivered me to the ground.

Kyolmen inscription

A second inscription, hitherto undeciphered, was found in 1965 near the village of Kyolmen, Varbitsa Municipality, dating to the sixth century BC. Written in a Greek alphabet variant, it is possibly a tomb stele inscription similar to the Phrygian ones; Peter A. Dimitrov's transcription thereof is:BOOK, Thracian Language and Greek and Thracian Epigraphy, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009, 978-1-4438-1325-9,weblink Peter A., Dimitrov, The Kyolmen Stone Inscription, 5,
ΙΛΑΣΝΛΕΤΕΔΝΛΕΔΝΕΝΙΔΑΚΑΤΡΟΣΟWritten from right to left. ΕΒΑ·ΡΟΖΕΣΑΣΝΗΝΕΤΕΣΑΙΓΕΚΟΑWritten from left to right. ΝΒΛΑΒΑΗΓΝ
i.e.
ilasnletednlednenidakatroso eba·rozesasnēnetesaigekoa nblabaēgn

Duvanli inscription

A third inscription is again on a ring, found in Duvanli, Kaloyanovo Municipality, next to the left hand of a skeleton. It dates to the 5th century BC. The ring has the image of a horseman with the inscription surrounding the image. It is only partly legible (16 out of the initial 21)
ΗΥΖΙΗ.....ΔΕΛΕ / ΜΕΖΗΝΑΙ
i.e.
ēuziē.....dele / mezēnai
The meaning of the inscription is 'Horseman Eusie protect!'These are the longest inscriptions preserved. The remaining ones are mostly single words or names on vessels and other artifacts.

A Thracian or Thraco-Dacian branch of Indo-European

The Thracian language in linguistic textbooks is usually treated either as its own branch of Indo-European, or is grouped with Dacian, together forming a Daco-Thracian branch of IE. Older textbooks often grouped it also with Illyrian or Phrygian. The belief that Thracian was close to Phrygian is no longer popular and has mostly been discarded.See C. Brixhe – Ancient languages of Asia Minor, Cambridge University Press, 2008 We will dismiss, at least temporarily, the idea of a Thraco-Phrygian unity. Thraco-Dacian (or Thracian and Daco-Mysian) seems to belong to the eastern (satem) group of Indo-European languages and its (their) phonetic system is far less conservative than that of Phrygian (see Brixhe and Panayotou 1994, §§ 3ff.) The Thraco-Illyrian grouping has also been called into question.{{Citation needed|date=August 2011}} Daco-Thracian or Thraco-Dacian is the main hypothesis.{{Citation needed|date=August 2011}}No definite evidence has yet been found that demonstrates that Thracian or Daco-Thracian belonged on the same branch as Albanian or Baltic or Balto-Slavic or Greco-Macedonian or Phrygian or any other IE branch. For this reason textbooks still treat Thracian as its own branch of Indo-European, or as a Daco-Thracian/Thraco-Dacian branch.The generally accepted clades branched from the Proto-Indo-European language are, in alphabetical order, the Proto-Albanian language, Proto-Anatolian language, Proto-Armenian language, Proto-Balto-Slavic language, Proto-Celtic language, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Greek language, Proto-Indo-Iranian language, Proto-Italic language, and the Proto-Tocharian language. Thracian, Dacian, Phrygian, Illyrian, Venetic, and Paeonian are fragmentarily attested and cannot be reliably categorized.{|class="wikitable"|+Language/difference according to Duridanov (1985)! Change| o > a| r > ir, ur (or)l > il, ul (ol)| m > im, um (om)n > in, un (on)| kÊ·, gÊ·, gÊ·Ê° > k, g (k), g| ḱ, ǵ, ǵʰ > s (p), z (d)| p, t, k > pÊ°, tÊ°, kÊ°| b, d, g > p, t, k| bÊ°, dÊ°, gÊ° > b, d, g| sr > str| tt, dt > st|Thracian| +| +| +| +| +| +| +| +| +| +Dacian language>Dacian| +| +| +| +| +| -| -| +| +| -|Balto-Slavic| +| +| +| +| +| -| -| +| -/+| +|Pelasgian| +| +| +| +| +| +| +| +| ?| ?Albanian languages>Albanian| +| +| -| +/-| +/-| -| -| +| -| -Germanic languages>Germanic| +| +| +| -| -| -| +| +| +| -Indo-Iranian languages>Indo-Iranian| +| -| -| +/-| +| -| -| +/-| -| +/-Greek language>Greek| -| -| -| -| -| -| -| -| -| +Phrygian language>Phrygian| -| -| -| -| +| +| +| +| -| ?Armenian language>Armenian| -| -| -| -| +| +| +| -| -| ?Italic language>Italic| -| +| -| -| -| -| -| -| -| -Celtic language>Celtic| -| -| -| -| -| -| -| +| -| -Hittite language>Hittite| +| -| -| -| -| -| +| +| ?| ?Tocharian language>Tocharian| +/-| -| -| -| -| -| +| +| -| ?{| class = wikitableGeorgiev|1977|p=63, 128, 282}}! Proto-Indo-European !! Dacian !! Thracian !! Phrygian|*o|a|a|o|*eie}}|e|e|*ew|e|eu|eu|*aw|a|au||*rÌ¥, *lÌ¥|ri|ur (or), ur (ol)|al|*nÌ¥, *mÌ¥|a|un|an|*M|M|T|T|*T|T|TA (aspirated)|TA|*s|s|s|∅|*sw|s|s|w|*sr|str|str|brNote: Asterisk indicates reconstructed IE sound. M is a cover symbol for the row of voiced stops (mediae), T for unvoiced stops (tenues) and TA for aspirated stops (tenues aspiratae). ∅ indicates zero, a sound that has been lost.{| class = wikitableDuridanov|1985|ch. VIII}}! Indo-European !! Dacian !! Thracian|*b, *d, *g|b, d, g|p, t, k|*p, *t, *k|p, t, k|ph, th, kh|*Ä“|ä (a)|Ä“|*e (after consonant)ie}}|e|*ai|a|ai|*ei|e|ei|*dt (*tt)|s|stThraco-Dacian has been hypothesized as forming a branch of Indo-European along with Baltic.Holst (2009):66.For a big number of the 300 Thracian geographic names there are cognates within the Baltic toponymy, most similarities between Thracian and Balto-Slavic personal and geographic names were found, especially Baltic. According to Duridinov the "most important impression make the geographic cognates of Baltic and Thracian" "the similarity of these parallels stretching frequently on the main element and the suffix simultaneously, which makes a strong impression". According to him there are occasional similarities between Slavic and Thracian because Slavic is related to Baltic, while almost no lexical similarities within Thracian and Phrygian were found.weblink(Duridanov 1978: с. 128) This significant relatedness show close affinity and kinship of Thracian with Baltic. The following table shows the cognates:Cognates of Thracian and Baltic place names{| class="wikitable"bgcolor=pink!Thracian place!Lithuanian place!Latvian place!Old Prussian place!cognatesAlajà >| Lith. aléti ‘to be flooded’Altis >|Sarija >|Armona River>Armona, Armenà Lith. armuõ, -eñs ‘a swamp, bog’, arma ‘the same’ArmuliÅ¡kis>| lit. arma ‘mud’Varpe, Varputỹs, Várpapievis>Warpen, Warpunen>|Latv. vārpats ‘whirlpool’, the Lith. varpýti (-pa, -pia) ‘to dig’Arsen >Arsio, Arse>||Latv. apse, the Old-Pruss. abse, the Lith. apušẽAdula >|Osam>Asamus aÅ›man- ‘stone’, Lit. aÅ¡muo, aÅ¡menys,Vaira >| Lit. vairus ‘diverse’Batkunu kaimas>|BẽrÄ—, BÄ—rẽ, BÄ—r-upis, BÄ—rupÄ— >BÄ“r-upe, BerÄ“ka >| Lit. bÄ—ras, Latv. bÄ™rs ‘brown, swarthy’| Lith. béržas, the Latv. bẽrzs, Old-Pruss. berseVeleka>VelÄ—kas >|Lit. velÄ—klÄ—s ‘place in the water’Dupnitsa>Bolba bria Balvi, Bàlvis, Bolva Lith. Bálvis 'a lake', the Old-Pruss. BalwenikenMessapian language>Messapian brendon, Latv. briedis ‘deer’Kalsi, Kalsiņš, Kals-Strauts ‘dry stream’ >| Latv. kalst, kaltÄ“t ‘dry’|Lith. sravà ‘a stream’, the Latv. strava ‘stream, torrent’Tehekan>Daphabae Lith. dãpas ‘a flood’ , Old-Pruss. ape ‘river’Dingas, Dindze, Dingupite >Dinge >| Latv. dinga ‘a plant’ and ‘fertile place’Feredzhik>DimaeDÅ«mÄ— DÅ«mis Dumen Lit. dÅ«mas ‘dark (for beef)’, Latv. dÅ«ms ‘dark-brown’VegerÄ— >Vedzere >|Veretà>|Gesavà>Dzêsiens>Gesaw>|Latv. dzÄ“se ‘heron’Ginuļi >Ginulle >| Latv. g'inis, g'inst ‘to spoil’Armona River>Armona Lit. armuo, -ens ‘quagmire’JÅ«ra JÅ«rÄ—, JÅ«rupis >|Lit. and Latv. jÅ«ra ‘sea’Kabyle (ancient city)>Kabyle Kabile Parish >Cabula>|Galinden, Galynde >|Galindai, Lit. galas ‘end’Kaplava >Kapas-gals >Kappegalin >|Latv. kãpa, kãpe ‘long mountainous strip, dune, slope’, the Lith. kopà ‘sandy hill’Kurpų kámas, Kurpulaukis >KazÅ«kurpe, Kurpesgrāvis, Kurpkalns >|Lit. kurpti ‘to dig'KerÅ¡uliÅ¡kių kaimas >| Lit. kerÅ¡ulis ‘pigeon’Knishava >Knisà >KnÄ«si, KnÄ«Å¡i, KnÄ«sukalns>|Lith. knìsti ‘to dig, to rummage’Ipsala>Kypsela KupÅ¡eliai KupÅ¡eļi Kurpų kaimas >Kazu-kurpe >|LingÄ—, Lingenai >Lingi, Lingasdikis >Lingwar >|Lit. lengÄ— 'valley’Mochuritsa>Markellai Markẽlis, MarkelỹneMarken>|Lit. marka ‘pit’, merkti ‘dunk’MeldÄ—, Meldínis>Meldine, Meldini >Mildio, Mildie >|Zhemait. MelÑŒdÉ™ikvirshe, MelÑŒdÉ™inÉ™i, Lith. meldà, méldas ‘marsh reed’ , the Latv. meldi ‘reed’Mygdonia >MÅ«kÄ— >Mukas >|Zhemait. river Muka, MukjaUõstas, Ũstas >Uostupe, Ũostup>|Lit. puÅ¡ynas ‘spurs forest’PaiÅ¡eliai >Paissyn>|Lit. paiÅ¡ai ‘soot’Palà >|Lit. palios ‘swamp'Palminỹs, Palmajos káimas >Paļmuota>|Lit. palios ‘swamp'|Old-Pruss. pannean ‘swamp, quagmire’Kamchiya>Pannas PanyenOld Pruss. pannean ‘quagmire’, Gothic faniKyustendil>Pautalia PaÅ©tupis Pauteļi, PautupÄ«te, PautustrautsPauta, PautenLith. putà, pl. pùtos ‘foam, froth’, putóti ‘to foam’, the Latv. putas ‘foam’Yastreb>Pizos Pisa Ä™zÄ™rs Pissa River, Pissen, Pisse, Pysekaym, Piselauk >|Latv. pÄ«sa ‘swamp’Praizes Limne >PraustuvÄ— >|Lith. praÅ©sti (prausiù, -siaÅ©) ‘to wash’, prausỹnÄ—s ‘washing’, the Latv. prauslât ‘to spray, to sprinkle’Chrysoupoli>Purdae Purdyakasnis Porden, Purde Pusyne, PuÅ¡inÄ—, PuÅ¡yno káimasPuÅ¡inÄ— >|Lit. puÅ¡ynas ‘spurs forest’, Zhemait. Pushina 'a stream', Pushine 'meadows'Pupių káimas, PupinÄ— >Pupa >Pupkaym, Paupayn >|Latinized vicus for ‘village', Lit. and Latv. pupa 'beans', kaimas 'village'(cf. Bobov Dol)Porden, Purde>|Zhemait. PurdjaknisÉ™ PopelÑŒkiRaimoche >|Lith. ráimas ‘motley, particoloured’Rãkija, Rakavos káimas >Roklawken, Rocke >|Lith. ràkti, rankù, rakiaÅ© ‘to dig out, unearth’, Latv. rakt, rùoku ‘to dig’, rakņât ‘to dig’Rãmis, Ramùne>Rāmava>Ramio, Rammenflys >|Lit. ramus ‘quiet’Rhodope Mountains >Rudupe >| Zhemait. Rudupja, RudupÉ™, Rudupi, Lith. rùdas ‘reddish, ruddy, dark yellow’, Lith. ùpÄ— ‘river’Russe, Russien, Rusemoter>| Lith. rÅ«sỹs (and rúsas) ‘a pit for potatoes; cellar, basement’, the Latv. rÅ«sa ‘a pit’Rum̃ba, Rum̃ba, Rum̃b, Rum̃bas, Rumbai>| Latv. rum̃ba ‘waterfall, river rapids’, Lith. rum̃bas, rùmbas, rumbà ‘periphery’Sar̃tÄ—, Sartà >Sār̃te, Sārtupe >|Zhemait. Sarta, Sarti, Lit. sartas ‘red (horse)’, Latv. sarts ‘ruddy’SkretiÅ¡kÄ— >|Lit. skretÄ— ‘circle’Sietuvà, Siẽtuvas >|Zhemait. Setuva, Lit. sietuva ‘whirlpool’ŠėkinÄ—>|Lith. Å¡Ä—kas ‘recently mowed down grass, hay’, Latv. sêks ‘the same’Stryama>Serme Sermas Siltikoy>Silta Å iltupis Siltie, Siltums, Siltine Lit. Å¡iltas ‘warm, nice’ , Latv. sìlts ‘warm’Blagoevgrad>Skaptopara, Skalpenos, Skaplizo Skalbupis, Skalbýnupis, Skalbstas, Skaptotai, Skaptùtis Lith. skãplis ‘a type of axe’, Lith. skaptúoti ‘to cut, to carve'Skarsin, Skarsaw >| Lith. sker̃sas ‘transverse, oblique, slanting’, Sker̃sÄ—, Sker̃s-upỹs, Sker̃sraviVitosha>Scombros Lith. kumbrỹs, kum̃bris ‘hill, top of a mountain; small mountain’, Latv. kum̃bris ‘hump, hunch’Spindžių káimas, Spindžiùs>Spindags>| Lit. spindžius, spindis, 'clearing', Latv. spindis ‘spark’StrÅ©obas, Struõbas>|Lit. stramblys ‘cob’, Old-Pruss. strambo ‘stubble-field’StrÅ«nelÄ—, StrÅ«nà >|Lit. sr(i)Å«ti ‘flow’Struma (river)>Strymon Lit. sraumuo ‘stream’|Latv. strava, Lit. srava ‘course’Svite>|Lit. Å¡vitulys ‘light’SÅ«ris, SÅ«rupÄ—, SÅ«upis >|Lit. sÅ«ras ‘salty’Šukis >Sukas, Sucis>|Kofçaz>Tarpodizos Tárpija Târpi, Tārpu pļava Lith. tárpas ‘an interstice’ and ‘a gap, a crack’, Zhemait. Tarpu kalÑŒne, TarpdovdÉ™i|Lith. tárpas ‘an interstice’TerpìnÄ—, Tárpija >|Tirza Parish>Tirza Tirskaymen Lith. tir̃štis ‘density, thickness’ and ‘thicket, brush-wood’Tranỹs >Trani, Tranava >|Lit. tranas ‘hornet’TraÅ©Å¡upis >|Lith. traÅ©Å¡ti ‘to break, to crumble’, trauÅ¡us ‘brittle’, Latv. trauÅ¡s, trausls ‘brittle, fragile’Tunti, Tunte>Thuntlawken >|Lit. tumtas, tuntas ‘flock'Ùrdupis, Urdenà >Urdava >|Zhemait. Urdishki, Lit. urdulys ‘mount stream’, virti ‘spring’Veleka >VelÄ—kas>|Lith. velÄ—kles ‘a place, used for washing’Vérža, Véržas >|Lith. váržas ‘a basket for fish’, Latv. varza ‘dam’Vàive>Woywe, Wewa, Waywe >|Latin vicusŽiburių káimas >|Lit. žiburỹs ‘a fire, a light, something burning; a torch’Žilmà, Žilmas>| Latv. zelme ‘green grass or wheat’ŽvakùtÄ— >Zvakūž>| Lith. žvãkÄ— ‘a light, a candle’

Fate of the Thracians and their language

According to Skordelis, when Thracians were subjected by Alexander the Great they finally assimilated to Greek culture and became as Greek as Spartans and Athenians, although he considered the Thracian language as a form of Greek.BOOK, Daskalov, Roumen, Vezenkov, Alexander, Entangled Histories of the Balkans – Volume Three: Shared Pasts, Disputed Legacies, BRILL, 9789004290365, 51, According to Crampton (1997) most Thracians were eventually Hellenized or Romanized, with the last remnants surviving in remote areas until the 5th century.BOOK, R.J. Crampton, A Concise History of Bulgaria, Cambridge University Press, 1997, 4, 0-521-56719-X, According to Marinov the Thracians were likely completely Romanized and Hellenized after the last contemporary references to them of the 6th century.BOOK, Daskalov, Roumen, Vezenkov, Alexander, Entangled Histories of the Balkans – Volume Three: Shared Pasts, Disputed Legacies, BRILL, 9789004290365, 10, This theory holds as the main factor of immediate assimilation the Christianization of the Roman Empire.A quick extinction would intensely contrast the avoidance of Hellenization at least by Albanian till the present, possibly with the help of isolated mountainous areas.Another author considers that the interior of Thrace have never been Romanized or Hellenized (Trever, 1939).Trever, Albert Augustus. History of Ancient Civilization. Harcourt, Brace. p. 571 This was followed also by Slavonization. According to Weithmann (1978) when the Slavs migrated, they encountered only a very superficially Romanized Thracian and Dacian population, which had not strongly identified itself with Imperial Rome, while Greek and Roman populations (mostly soldiers, officials, merchants) abandoned the land or were killed.Michael W. Weithmann, Die slawische Bevolkerung auf der griechischen Halbinsel (Munich 1978) Because Pulpudeva survived as Plovdiv in Slavic languages, not under Philippopolis, some authors suggest that Thracian was not completely obliterated in the 7th century.BOOK, Mallory, J. P., Adams, Douglas Q., Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Taylor & Francis, 978-1-884964-98-5, 576,weblink en, The latest known use is described by Symeon the Metaphrast in a biography of Saint Theodosius the Cenobiarch (423–529), where he claimed that Thracian was spoken in a monastery, built on Mount Sinai just then, when Theodosius was there:WEB, St Theodosius,weblink www.ewtn.com, "There were four churches belonging to it, one for each of the three several nations of which his community was chiefly composed, each speaking a different language; the fourth was for the use of such as were in a state of penance, which those that recovered from their lunatic or possessed condition before-mentioned, were put into, and detained till they had expiated their fault. The nations into which his community was divided were the Greeks, which was by far the most numerous, and consisted of all those that came from any provinces of the empire; the Armenians, with whom were joined the Arabians and Persians; and, thirdly, the Bessi, who comprehended all the northern nations below Thrace, or all who used the Runic or Sclavonian tongue. Each nation sung the first part of the mass to the end of the gospel in their own church, but after the gospel all met in the church of the Greeks, where they celebrated the essential part of the sacrifice in Greek, and communicated all together..."

See also

References

{{reflist}}

Further reading

  • V.I. Georgiev, Introduction to the History of the Indo-European Languages, Sofia (1981).
  • V.I. Georgiev, The Genesis of the Balkan Peoples, in: The Slavonic and East European Review, Vol. 44, No. 103 (Jul., 1966)
  • I.I. Russu, Limba Traco-Dacilor / Die Sprache der Thrako-Daker, Bucharest (1967, 1969).
  • Paul Kretschmer, "Glotta", in: Zeitschrift für griechische und lateinische Sprache 7 (1915).
  • J.H. Holst, "Armenische Studien", Wiesbaden (2009).

External links

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