Iranian peoples

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Iranian peoples
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{{About|the ethno-linguistic group|the inhabitants of Iran|Demographics of Iran}}{{redirect|Iranics|left-leaning italics|Italic type#Left-leaning italics}}{{Use dmy dates|date=July 2013}}

210–235 million|popplace= Western Asia, Anatolia, Ossetia, Central Asia, western Xinjiang, and western South Asia|langs= Iranian languages, a branch of the Indo-European languages
Islam (Sunni Islam>Sunni and Shia Islam), Christianity (Eastern Orthodox, Nestorian, Protestantism>Protestant, and Catholic Church), Irreligion, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Bahá'í Faith>Baha'ism, Uatsdin, and Yazidism{{small|(Historically also: Manichaeism and Buddhism)}}}}{{Indo-European topics}}The Iranian peoples,ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink IRAN v. PEOPLES OF IRAN (1) A General Survey, Encyclopædia Iranica, R. N., Frye, 321–326, XIII, 30 December 2012, or the Iranic peoples,ENCYCLOPEDIA, The Encyclopedia Americana, 15, 306, 1954, BOOK, Mehrdad R., Izady, The Kurds: A Concise Handbook,weblink 1992, Taylor & Francis, 978-0-8448-1727-9, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.{{harvnb|Waldman|Mason|2006|p=692}}ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink XIII, 344–377, IRAN vi. IRANIAN LANGUAGES AND SCRIPTS, 29 March 2012, Encyclopædia Iranica, The Proto-Iranians are believed to have emerged as a separate branch of the Indo-Iranians in Central Asia in the mid-2nd millennium BCE.{{harvnb|Beckwith|2009|pp=58–77}}{{harvnb|Mallory|1997|pp=308–311}} At their peak of expansion in the mid-1st millennium BCE, the territory of the Iranian peoples stretched across the entire Eurasian Steppe from the Great Hungarian Plain in the west to the Ordos Plateau in the east, to the Iranian Plateau in the south.{{harvnb|Harmatta|1992|p=348}}: "From the first millennium b.c., we have abundant historical, archaeological and linguistic sources for the location of the territory inhabited by the Iranian peoples. In this period the territory of the northern Iranians, they being equestrian nomads, extended over the whole zone of the steppes and the wooded steppes and even the semi-deserts from the Great Hungarian Plain to the Ordos in northern China." The Western Iranian empires of the south came to dominate much of the ancient world from the 6th century BCE, leaving an important cultural legacy; and the Eastern Iranians of the steppe played a decisive role in the development of Eurasian nomadism and the Silk Road.JOURNAL, Annamoradnejad, Rahimberdi, Lotfi, Sedigheh, Demographic changes of nomadic communities in Iran (1956–2008), Asian Population Studies, 6, 3, 335–345, 10.1080/17441730.2010.512764, 2010, The ancient Iranian peoples who emerged after the 1st millennium BCE include the Alans, Bactrians, Dahae, Khwarezmians, Massagetae, Medes, Parthians, Persians, Sagartians, Sakas, Sarmatians, Scythians, Sogdians and probably Cimmerians among other Iranian-speaking peoples of Western Asia, Central Asia, Eastern Europe and the Eastern Steppe.In the 1st millennium CE, their area of settlement was reduced as a result of Slavic, Germanic, Turkic, and Mongol expansions, and many were subjected to SlavicisationBOOK, "(...) Indeed, it is now accepted that the Sarmatians merged in with pre-Slavic populations.", The Sarmatians, 600 BC-AD 450, Richard, Brzezinski, Mariusz, Mielczarek, Osprey Publishing, 2002, 39, BOOK, "(...) In their Ukrainian and Polish homeland the Slavs were intermixed and at times overlain by Germanic speakers (the Goths) and by Iranian speakers (Scythians, Sarmatians, Alans) in a shifting array of tribal and national configurations.", Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Douglas Q., Adams, Taylor & Francis, 1997, 523, BOOK, "(...) Ancient accounts link the Amazons with the Scythians and the Sarmatians, who successively dominated the south of Russia for a millennium extending back to the seventh century B.C. The descendants of these peoples were absorbed by the Slavs who came to be known as Russians.", Women in Russia, Dorothy, Atkinson, Stanford University Press, 1977, 3, etal, BOOK, "(...) For example, the ancient Scythians, Sarmatians (amongst others), and many other attested but now extinct peoples were assimilated in the course of history by Proto-Slavs.", Slovene Studies, Society for Slovene Studies, 9-11, 1987, 36, and Turkification.BOOK,weblink The New Central Asia: Geopolitics and the Birth of Nations, Olivier, Roy, 2007, I.B. Tauris, 978-1-84511-552-4, 6, The mass of the Oghuz who crossed the Amu Darya towards the west left the Iranian plateaux, which remained Persian, and established themselves more to the west, in Anatolia. Here they divided into Ottomans, who were Sunni and settled, and Turkmens, who were nomads and in part Shiite (or, rather, Alevi). The latter were to keep the name 'Turkmen' for a long time: from the thirteenth century onwards they 'Turkised' the Iranian populations of Azerbaijan (who spoke west Iranian languages such as Tat, which is still found in residual forms), thus creating a new identity based on Shiism and the use of Turkish. These are the people today known as Azeris., WEB,weblink AZERBAIJAN vii. The Iranian Language of Azerbaijan, Yarshater, Ehsan, 15 December 1988, Encyclopædia Iranica, Modern Iranian-speaking peoples include the Baloch, Gilaks, Kurds, Lurs, Mazanderanis, Ossetians, Pamiris, Pashtuns, Persians, Tajiks, the Talysh, Wakhis, and Yaghnobis. Their current distribution spreads across the Iranian Plateau, stretching from the Caucasus in the north to the Persian Gulf in the south and from eastern Turkey in the west to western Xinjiang in the eastENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Iranian languages, Ronald Eric, Emmerick, Encyclopædia Britannica, 23 February 2016, 9 September 2018, —a region that is sometimes called the Iranian Cultural Continent, representing the extent of the Iranian-speakers and the significant influence of the Iranian peoples through the geopolitical reach of Greater Iran.BOOK, Richard Nelson, Frye, Greater Iran, 978-1-56859-177-3, xi, (...) Iran means all lands and people where Iranian languages were and are spoken, and where in the past, multi-faceted Iranian cultures existed., 2005,


The term Iran derives directly from Middle Persian Ērān () and Parthian Aryān.ENCYCLOPEDIA, MacKenzie, David Niel, Ērān, Ērānšahr, 1998, 8, Encyclopedia Iranica, Mazda, Costa Mesa,weblink The Middle Iranian terms ērān and aryān are oblique plural forms of gentilic ēr- (in Middle Persian) and ary- (in Parthian), both deriving from Old Persian ariya- (), Avestan airiia- () and Proto-Iranian *arya-.{{citation |last=Schmitt |first=Rüdiger |chapter=Aryans |pages=684–687 |volume=2 |year=1987 |title=Encyclopedia Iranica |location=New York |publisher=Routledge & Kegan Paul |chapter-url=}}There have been many attempts to qualify the verbal root of ar- in Old Iranian arya-. The following are according to 1957 and later linguists:
  • Emmanuel Laroche (1957): (wikt:Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/hâ‚‚er-|ara- "to fit") ("fitting", "proper").Old Iranian arya- being descended from Proto-Indo-European {{PIE|ar-yo-}}, meaning "(skillfully) assembler".Laroche. 1957. Proto-Iranian arya- descends from Proto-Indo-European (PIE) {{PIE|ar-yo-}}, a yo-adjective to a root {{PIE|ar}} "to assemble skillfully", present in Greek harma "chariot", Greek aristos, (as in "aristocracy"), Latin ars "art", etc.
  • Georges Dumézil (1958): ar- "to share" (as a union).
  • Harold Walter Bailey (1959): ar- "to beget" ("born", "nurturing").
  • Émil Benveniste (1969): (wikt:Appendix:Proto-Indo-European/hâ‚‚er-|ar- "to fit") ("companionable").
Unlike the Sanskrit (Aryan), the Old Iranian term has solely an ethnic meaning.G. Gnoli, "Iranian Identity as a Historical Problem: the Beginnings of a National Awareness under the Achaemenians," in The East and the Meaning of History. International Conference (23–27 November 1992), Roma, 1994, pp. 147–67.ENCYCLOPEDIA, G., Gnoli, Iranian Identity ii. Pre-Islamic Period,weblink Encyclopedia Iranica, 2019-02-03, Today, the Old Iranian arya- remains in ethno-linguistic names such as Iran, Alan, Ir, and Iron.H. W. Bailey, "Arya" in Encyclopedia Iranica. Excerpt: "ARYA an ethnic epithet in the Achaemenid inscriptions and in the Zoroastrian Avestan tradition. WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink yes, 2013-01-03, Arya an ethnic epithet in the Achaemenid inscriptions and in the Zoroastrian Avestan tradition, Also accessed online in May, 2010.

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