Polish language

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Polish language
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{{Short description|West Slavic language spoken in Poland}}

Poland, Poles in Germany>Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Central-Western Lithuania, Latvia, bordering regions of Western Ukraine and Western Belarus (Kresy)| ethnicity = PolesKashubsSilesians| speakers = 45 millionWorld Almanac and Book of Facts, World Almanac Books, Mahwah, 1999. {{ISBN>0-88687-832-2}}.Second language>L2 speakers: 5 million+Encyklopedia języka polskiego, pod red. S Urbańczyka i M. Kucały, Ossolineum, wyd. 3, Warszawa 1999, {{ISBN|83-04-02994-4}}, s. 156. | familycolor = Indo-EuropeanBalto-Slavic languages>Balto-SlavicSlavic languages>SlavicWest Slavic languages>West SlavicLechitic languages>Lechitic| ancestor = Old Polish| ancestor2 = Middle PolishLatin alphabet>Latin (Polish alphabet)Polish Braille| nation = {{POL}}{{EU}}Czech Republic}}European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages{{HUN}}HTTP://EUROPAPONT.BLOG.HU/2016/03/16/NYELVI_SOKSZINUSEG_AZ_EU-BAN_HIVATALOS_REGIONALIS_ES_KISEBBSEGI_NYELVEK_A_TAGALLAMOKBAN>TITLE=NYELVI SOKSZíNűSéG AZ EU-BAN – HIVATALOS REGIONáLIS éS KISEBBSéGI NYELVEK A TAGáLLAMOKBANACCESSDATE=28 NOVEMBER 2018LANGUAGE=HU, {{LIT}}HTTP://CONVENTIONS.COE.INT/TREATY/COMMUN/QUEVOULEZVOUS.ASP?NT=157&CM=2&DF=18/04/02&CL=ENG>TITLE=FRAMEWORK CONVENTION FOR THE PROTECTION OF NATIONAL MINORITIESTYPE=TREATYDATE=1 FEBRUARY 1995WEBSITE=WWW.MINELRES.LV PUBLISHER=ZAKON2.RADA.GOV.UA DATE=1 FEBRUARY 2014, 30 April 2014, | agency = Polish Language Council(of the Polish Academy of Sciences)| iso1 = pl| iso2 = pol| iso3 = pol| lc1 = szlSilesian Polish>SilesianWest Slavic languages>53-AAA-b..-d(varieties: 53-AAA-cca to 53-AAA-ccu)| map = Map of Polish language.svg#1E90FF|Majority of Polish speakers}}{{legend|#87CEEB|Minority of Polish speakers}}| notice = IPA| sign = System Językowo-Migowy (SJM)| glotto = poli1260| glottorefname = Polish}}Polish (, {{IPA-pl|'jɛ̃w̃zɨk ˈpɔlskʲi||Pl-język polski.ogg}}, or simply , {{IPA-pl|ˈpɔlskʲi||Pl-polski.ogg}}) is a West Slavic language of the Lechitic group.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink Lekhitic languages, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2015-01-08, 2015-03-31, It is spoken primarily in Poland and serves as the native language of the Poles. In addition to being an official language of Poland, it is also used by Polish minorities in other countries. There are over 50 million Polish-language speakers around the world and it is one of the official languages of the European Union.Polish is written with the standardized Polish alphabet, which has nine additions to the letters of the basic Latin script (ą, ć, ę, ł, ń, ó, ś, ź, ż). Among the major languages, it is most closely related to SlovakBOOK, Ernest, Andrews,weblink Language planning in the post-communist era: the struggles for language control in the new order in Eastern Europe, Eurasia and China, 2018, 9783319709260, Cham, Palgrave Macmillan, 1022080518, en, The Polish Language Act: Legislating a Complicated Linguistic-Political Landscape, Magda, Stroińska, Ernest, Andrews, 243, and Czech,BOOK, Swan, Oscar E., A grammar of contemporary Polish, 2002, 0893572969, Bloomington, Ind., Slavica, 50064627, en, 5, but differs from other Slavic varieties in terms of pronunciation and general grammar. In addition, Polish was profoundly influenced by Germanic languages, most notably German and Italic languages like Latin and French, which contributed to a large number of loanwords and similar grammatical structures.WEB,weblink Język polski, July 27, 2000, Towarzystwo Miłośników Języka Polskiego., Google Books, WEB,weblink Tendencje rozwojowe współczesnych zapożyczeń angielskich w języku polskim, Elżbieta, Mańczak-Wohlfeld, July 27, 1995, Universitas, Google Books, WEB,weblink Rok ... pod względem oświaty, przemysłu i wypadków czasowych, July 27, 1844, Nakł. N. Kamieńskiego i Spólki, Google Books, Polish currently has the largest number of speakers of the West Slavic group and is also the second most widely spoken Slavic language.WEB, Simon, Ager,weblink The importance of Polish as a language today, Cactus Language Training, 2007-07-10, 2011-09-16, dead,weblink" title="">weblink September 7, 2011, WEB,weblink Statistical Summaries, Ethnologue, 2011-09-16, Historically, Polish was a lingua franca,WEB,weblink Multilingual Europe, Multilingual Europeans, 1 January 2012, BRILL, 28 November 2018, 978-94-012-0803-1, 25, László, Marácz, Mireille, Rosello, Google Books, BOOK,weblink Chapter 8: The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as a Political Space: Its Unity and Complexity, Koyama, Satoshi, 137–153,weblink Regions in Central and Eastern Europe: Past and Present, Hayashi, Tadayuki, Fukuda, Hiroshi, 978-4-938637-43-9, 2007, Slavic Research Center, Hokkaido University, important both diplomatically and academically in Central and Eastern Europe. Today, Polish is spoken by over 38.5 million people as their first language in Poland. It is also spoken as a second language in Northern Czech Republic and Slovakia, western parts of Belarus and Ukraine as well as in Central-Western Lithuania and Latvia. Because of the emigration from Poland during different time periods, most notably after World War II, millions of Polish speakers can be found in countries such as Canada, Argentina, Brazil, Israel, Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States.


Polish began to emerge as a distinct language around the 10th century, the process largely triggered by the establishment and development of the Polish state. Mieszko I, ruler of the Polans tribe from the Greater Poland region, united a few culturally and linguistically related tribes from the basins of the Vistula and Oder before eventually accepting baptism in 966. With Christianity, Poland also adopted the Latin alphabet, which made it possible to write down Polish, which until then had existed only as a spoken language.WEB,weblink Polish Language History and Facts, Today Translations, 2014-06-20, 2015-03-31, File:Book of Henryków.PNG|thumb|left|220px|The Book of Henryków is the earliest document to include a sentence written entirely in what can be interpreted as Old Polish - Day, ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai highlighted in red]]The precursor to modern Polish is the Old Polish language. Ultimately, Polish is thought to descend from the unattested Proto-Slavic language. Polish was a lingua franca from 1500–1700 in Central and small portions of Eastern Europe, because of the political, cultural, scientific and military influence of the former Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.BOOK,weblink Language and Nationalism in Europe, Barbour, Stephen, Carmichael, Cathie, 2000-12-14, OUP Oxford, 9780191584077, en, Although not closely related to it, Polish shares many linguistic affinities with Ukrainian, an East Slavic language with which it has been in prolonged historical contact and in a state of mutual influence.BOOK, Brian D. Joseph, Historical Linguistics, 1999, Ohio State University, Department of Linguistics,weblink 165, The Polish influence on Ukrainian is particularly marked in western Ukraine, which was under Polish cultural domination.The Book of Henryków (Polish: , ), contains the earliest known sentence written in the Polish language: Day, ut ia pobrusa, a ti poziwai (in modern orthography: Daj, uć ja pobrusza, a ti pocziwaj, the corresponding sentence in modern Polish: Daj, niech ja pomielę, a ty odpoczywaj or Pozwól, że ja będę mełł, a ty odpocznij, English: Come, let me grind, and you take a rest), written around 1270.The medieval recorder of this phrase, the Cistercian monk Peter of the Henryków monastery, noted that "Hoc est in polonico" ("This is in Polish").WEB,weblink FIDES Digital Library - Liber fundationis claustri Sancte Marie Virginis in Henrichow = Księga henrykowska,, Barbara i Adam Podgórscy: Słownik gwar śląskich. Katowice: Wydawnictwo KOS, 2008, {{ISBN|978-83-60528-54-9}}Bogdan Walczak: Zarys dziejów języka polskiego. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Wrocławskiego, 1999, {{ISBN|83-229-1867-4}}Polish, along with Czech and Slovak, forms the West Slavic dialect continuum. The three languages constitute Ausbau languages, i.e. lects that are considered distinct not on purely linguistic grounds, but rather due to sociopolitical and cultural factors.BOOK, Peter Trudgill, 2004, Glocalisation and the Ausbau sociolinguistics of modern Europe, Anna Duszak, Urszula Okulska, Speaking from the margin: global English from a European perspective, Frankfurt, Peter Lang, 35–49, en, 9783631526637, Since the idioms have separately standardized norms and longstanding literary traditions, being the official languages of independent states, they are generally treated as autonomous languages, with the distinction between Polish and Czech-Slovak dialects being drawn along national lines.

Geographic distribution

{{See also|Geographical distribution of Polish speakers}}Poland is the most linguistically (wiktionary:Homogeneous|homogeneous) European country; nearly 97% of Poland's citizens declare Polish as their first language. Elsewhere, Poles constitute large minorities in Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine. Polish is the most widely used minority language in Lithuania's Vilnius County (26% of the population, according to the 2001 census results, with Vilnius having been part of Poland from 1922 until 1939) and is found elsewhere in southeastern Lithuania. In Ukraine, it is most common in western Lviv and Volyn Oblasts, while in West Belarus it is used by the significant Polish minority, especially in the Brest and Grodno regions and in areas along the Lithuanian border. There are significant numbers of Polish speakers among Polish emigrants and their descendants in many other countries.In the United States, Polish Americans number more than 11 million but most of them cannot speak Polish fluently. According to the 2000 United States Census, 667,414 Americans of age five years and over reported Polish as the language spoken at home, which is about 1.4% of people who speak languages other than English, 0.25% of the US population, and 6% of the Polish-American population. The largest concentrations of Polish speakers reported in the census (over 50%) were found in three states: Illinois (185,749), New York (111,740), and New Jersey (74,663).WEB,weblink PDF, Table 8. Detailed List of Languages Spoken at Home for the Population 5 Years and Over : By State,, 2015-03-31, Enough people in these areas speak Polish that PNC Financial Services (which has a large number of branches in all of these areas) offer services available in Polish at all of their cash machines in addition to English and Spanish.WEB,weblink PNC ATM Banking, PNC, en, 2017-11-02, According to the 2011 census there are now over 500,000 people in England and Wales who consider Polish to be their "main" language. In Canada, there is a significant Polish Canadian population: There are 242,885 speakers of Polish according to the 2006 census, with a particular concentration in Toronto (91,810 speakers) and Montreal.WEB,weblink Various Languages Spoken (147), Age Groups (17A) and Sex (3) for the Population of Canada, Provinces, Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census - 20% Sample Data, September 21, 2008, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 27, 2008, Statistics Canada, The geographical distribution of the Polish language was greatly affected by the territorial changes of Poland immediately after World War II and Polish population transfers (1944–46). Poles settled in the "Recovered Territories" in the west and north, which had previously been mostly German-speaking. Some Poles remained in the previously Polish-ruled territories in the east that were annexed by the USSR, resulting in the present-day Polish-speaking minorities in Lithuania, Belarus, and Ukraine, although many Poles were expelled or emigrated from those areas to areas within Poland's new borders. To the east of Poland, the most significant Polish minority lives in a long, narrow strip along either side of the Lithuania-Belarus border. Meanwhile, the flight and expulsion of Germans (1944–50), as well as the expulsion of Ukrainians and Operation Vistula, the 1947 forced resettlement of Ukrainian minorities to the Recovered Territories in the west of the country, contributed to the country's linguistic homogeneity.{{multiple image| header = Geographic language distribution maps of Poland from pre-WWII to present| header_align = center| header_background = #CCCCFF|align=center|direction=horizontal|width1=346|image1=Curzon line en.svg|caption1=The "Recovered Territories" (in pink) were parts of Germany, including the Free City of Danzig (Gdańsk), that became part of Poland after World War II. Gray color, territories lost to the Soviet Union followed by mass Polish population transfers (1944–46).|width2=275|image2=Languages of CE Europe-3.PNG|caption2=Geographical distribution of the Polish language (green) and other Central and Eastern European languages and dialects. A large Polish-speaking diaspora remains in the countries located east of Poland that were once the Eastern Borderlands of the Second Polish Republic (1918-1939).|width3=316|image3=Język polski w Europie.png|caption3=Knowledge of the Polish language within Europe. The Polish diaspora heavily contributed to the spread of the Polish language in Western European countries (United Kingdom) and Scandinavia. However, it was the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that made Polish lingua franca in Central and Eastern Europe as well as in the Baltic States. }}


File:Modlitwy drukowane po polsku w r. 1475.JPG|thumb|The oldest printed text in Polish – Statuta synodalia Episcoporum Wratislaviensis printed in 1475 in WrocÅ‚awWrocÅ‚aw(File:Polish-alphabet.png|thumb|The Polish alphabet contains 32 letters. Q, V and X are not used in the Polish language.)The Polish language became far more homogeneous in the second half of the 20th century, in part due to the mass migration of several million Polish citizens from the eastern to the western part of the country after the Soviet annexation of the Kresy (Eastern Borderlands) in 1939, and the annexation of former German territory after World War II. This tendency toward homogeneity also stems from the vertically integrated nature of the Polish People's Republic.WEB,weblink Naród niedokoÅ„czony, ZdzisÅ‚aw, KrasnodÄ™bski, 20 November 2005, 28 November 2018, In addition, Polish linguistics has been characterized by a strong strive towards promoting prescriptive ideas of language intervention and usage uniformity, along with normatively-oriented notions of language "correctness", unusually by Western standards.JOURNAL, Multilingua, Miklós Kontra, 19, 1–2 Language contact in East-Central Europe, Special issue book reviews, 2000, 193, Mouton Publishers,weblink 1613-3684, en, The inhabitants of different regions of Poland {{as of | 2008 | alt = still}} speak Polish somewhat differently, although the differences between modern-day vernacular varieties and standard Polish () appear relatively slight. Most of the middle aged and young speak vernaculars close to standard Polish, while the traditional dialects are preserved among older people in rural areas.BOOK, Witold Tulasiewicz, Anthony Adams, Teaching the Mother Tongue in a Multilingual Europe, A&C Black, 166, 2005, en, 9780826470270, First-language speakers of Polish have no trouble understanding each other, and non-native speakers may have difficulty recognizing the regional and social differences. The modern standard dialect, often termed as "correct Polish", is spoken or at least understood throughout the entire country.Polish has traditionally been described as consisting of four or five main regional dialects:
  • Greater Polish, spoken in the west
  • Lesser Polish, spoken in the south and southeast
  • Masovian, spoken throughout the central and eastern parts of the country
  • Silesian, spoken in the southwest (also considered a separate language, see comment below)
Kashubian, spoken in Pomerania west of Gdańsk on the Baltic Sea, is thought of either as a fifth Polish dialect or a distinct language, depending on the criteria used.BOOK, Polish Western Affairs, 1989, Instytut Zachodni, 26,weblink en, BOOK, Compendium of the World's Languages,weblink George L. Campbell, Gareth King, Routledge, 2012, en, 9781136258466, It contains a number of features not found elsewhere in Poland, e.g. nine distinct oral vowels (vs. the five of standard Polish) and (in the northern dialects) phonemic word stress, an archaic feature preserved from Common Slavic times and not found anywhere else among the West Slavic languages. However, it "lacks most of the linguistic and social determinants of language-hood".BOOK, The Slavic Languages, Cambridge University Press, Many linguistic sources about the Slavic languages describe Silesian as a dialect of Polish.Roland Sussex and Paul Cubberley (2006). The Slavic Languages. Cambridge University Press. P. 530.Robert A. Rothstein (1994). "Polish". The Slavonic Languages, edited by Bernard Comrie and Greville G. Corbett. Routledge. Pp. 754–756. However, many Silesians consider themselves a separate ethnicity and have been advocating for the recognition of a Silesian language. According to the last official census in Poland in 2011, over half a million people declared Silesian as their native language. Many sociolinguists (e.g. Tomasz Kamusella,"Silesia and Central European Nationalisms", 2007. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press {{ISBN|978-1-55753-371-5}} Agnieszka Pianka, Alfred F. Majewicz,["Języki świata i ich klasyfikowanie"] (en: "Languages of the world and their classification"), Polish Scientific Publishers, Warszawa 1989 Tomasz Wicherkiewicz)"Ekspertyza naukowa dr Tomasza Wicherkiewicza", Language Policy and the Laboratory for Research on Minority, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan, 2008 assume that extralinguistic criteria decide whether a lect is an independent language or a dialect: speakers of the speech variety or/and political decisions, and this is dynamic (i.e. it changes over time). Also, research organizations such as SIL InternationalWEB,weblink ISO documentation of Silesian language, SIL International, 2015-03-31, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 3, 2012, and resources for the academic field of linguistics such as Ethnologue,{{en icon}} WEB,weblink List of languages with ISO codes, Ethnologue, SIL International, 2015-03-31, Linguist ListWEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink June 2, 2013, Silesian, MultiTree: A Digital Library of Language Relationships, and others, for example the Ministry of Administration and DigitizationWEB,weblink Dz.U. 2012 poz. 309: Rozporządzenie Ministra Administracji i Cyfryzacji z dnia 14 lutego 2012 r. w sprawie państwowego rejestru nazw geograficznych, Internetowy System Aktów Prawnych, pl, 14 February 2012, 2015-03-31, recognized the Silesian language. In July 2007, the Silesian language was recognized by ISO, and was attributed an ISO code of szl.Some additional characteristic but less widespread regional dialects include:
  1. The distinctive dialect of the Gorals (Góralski) occurs in the mountainous area bordering the Czech Republic and Slovakia. The Gorals ("Highlanders") take great pride in their culture and the dialect. It exhibits some cultural influences from the Vlach shepherds who migrated from Wallachia (southern Romania) in the 14th–17th centuries.WEB,weblink The Rusyn Question, Magosic, Paul Robert, 2005, 2008-01-30,
  2. The (:pl:Gwara poznańska|Poznanski dialect), spoken in Poznań and to some extent in the whole region of the former Prussian Partition (excluding Upper Silesia), with noticeable German influences.
  3. In the northern and western (formerly German) regions where Poles from the territories annexed by the Soviet Union resettled after World War II, the older generation speaks a dialect of Polish characteristic of the Kresy that includes a longer pronunciation of vowels.
  4. Poles living in Lithuania (particularly in the Vilnius region), in Belarus (particularly the northwest), and in the northeast of Poland continue to speak the Eastern Borderlands dialect, which sounds "slushed" (in Polish described as zaciÄ…ganie z ruska, "speaking with a Ruthenian drawl") and is easily distinguishable.
  5. Some city dwellers, especially the less affluent population, had their own distinctive dialects - for example, the Warsaw dialect, still spoken by some of the population of Praga on the eastern bank of the Vistula. (Praga remained the only part of Warsaw where the population survived World War II relatively intact.) However, these city dialects are {{as of | 2008 | alt = now}} mostly extinct due to assimilation with standard Polish.
  6. Many Poles living in emigrant communities (for example, in the USA), whose families left Poland just after World War II, retain a number of minor features of Polish vocabulary as spoken in the first half of the 20th century that now sound archaic to contemporary visitors from Poland.


(File:Pl-Deflegmator-article.ogg|thumb|Spoken Polish in a neutral informative tone)

Vowels and consonants

Polish has six oral vowels (all monophthongs) and two nasal vowels. The oral vowels are {{IPAl-pl|i}} (spelled i), {{IPAl-pl|y}} (spelled y), {{IPAl-pl|e}} (spelled e), {{IPAl-pl|a}} (spelled a), {{IPAl-pl|o}} (spelled o) and {{IPAl-pl|u}} (spelled u or ó). The nasal vowels are {{IPAl-pl|ę}} (spelled ę) and {{IPAl-pl|ą}} (spelled ą).The Polish consonant system shows more complexity: its characteristic features include the series of affricate and palatal consonants that resulted from four Proto-Slavic palatalizations and two further palatalizations that took place in Polish and Belarusian. The full set of consonants, together with their most common spellings, can be presented as follows (although other phonological analyses exist):
  • stops {{IPAl-pl|p}} (p), {{IPAl-pl|b}} (b), {{IPAl-pl|t}} (t), {{IPAl-pl|d}} (d), {{IPAl-pl|k}} (k), {{IPAl-pl|É¡}} (g), and the palatalized forms {{IPAl-pl|ki}} (ki) and {{IPAl-pl|gi}} (gi)
  • fricatives {{IPAl-pl|f}} (f), {{IPAl-pl|w}} (w), {{IPAl-pl|s}} (s), {{IPAl-pl|z}} (z), {{IPAl-pl|sz}} (sz), {{IPAl-pl|ż}} (ż, rz), the alveolo-palatals {{IPAl-pl|Å›}} (Å›, si) and {{IPAl-pl|ź}} (ź, zi), and {{IPAl-pl|h}} (ch, h) and {{IPAl-pl|hi}} (chi, hi)
  • affricates {{IPAl-pl|c}} (c), {{IPAl-pl|dz}} (dz), {{IPAl-pl|cz}} (cz), {{IPAl-pl|dż}} (dż, drz), {{IPAl-pl|ć}} (ć, ci), {{IPAl-pl|dź}} (dź, dzi) (these are written here without ties for browser display compatibility, although Polish does distinguish between affricates as in czy, and stop–fricative clusters as in trzy)
  • nasals {{IPAl-pl|m}} (m), {{IPAl-pl|n}} (n), {{IPAl-pl|Å„}} (Å„, ni)
  • approximants {{IPAl-pl|l}} (l), {{IPAl-pl|j}} (j), {{IPAl-pl|Å‚}} (Å‚)
  • trill {{IPAl-pl|r}} (r)
File:Polish vowel chart (with allophones).svg|thumb|right|Polish oral vowels depicted on a vowel chart. Main ɐ}} is an unstressed allophone of {{IPA|/ɛ, ɔ, a/}} in certain contextsNeutralization occurs between voiced–voiceless consonant pairs in certain environments: at the end of words (where devoicing occurs), and in certain consonant clusters (where assimilation occurs). For details, see Voicing and devoicing in the article on Polish phonology.Most Polish words are paroxytones (that is, the stress falls on the second-to-last syllable of a polysyllabic word), although there are exceptions.

Consonant distribution

Polish permits complex consonant clusters, which historically often arose from the disappearance of yers. Polish can have word-initial and word-medial clusters of up to four consonants, whereas word-final clusters can have up to five consonants.WEB, Polish,weblink UCLA Phonetics Lab data, UCLA Phonetics Laboratory, University of California, Los Angeles, 26 April 2018, live,weblink" title="">weblink 20 September 2017, Examples of such clusters can be found in words such as bezwzględny {{IPA|[bɛzˈvzɡlɛndnɨ]}} ('absolute' or 'heartless', 'ruthless'), źdźbło {{IPA|[ˈʑd͡ʑbwɔ]}} ('blade of grass'), {{Audio|Pl-wstrząs.ogg|wstrząs|help=no}} {{IPA|[ˈfstʂɔw̃s]}} ('shock'), and krnąbrność {{IPA|[ˈkrnɔmbrnɔɕt͡ɕ]}} ('disobedience'). A popular Polish tongue-twister (from a verse by Jan Brzechwa) is {{Audio|Polish Tongue twister - Chrząszcz - 2.ogg|W Szczebrzeszynie chrząszcz brzmi w trzcinie|help=no}} {{IPA|[fʂt͡ʂɛbʐɛˈʂɨɲɛ ˈxʂɔw̃ʂt͡ʂ ˈbʐmi fˈtʂt͡ɕiɲɛ]}} ('In Szczebrzeszyn a beetle buzzes in the reed').Unlike languages such as Czech, Polish does not have syllabic consonants – the nucleus of a syllable is always a vowel.JOURNAL, Nonsyllabic Analysis of Voice Assimilation in Polish, Jerzy, Rubach, 28 November 1996, Linguistic Inquiry, 27, 1, 69–110, 4178926, The consonant {{IPA|/j/}} is restricted to positions adjacent to a vowel. It also cannot precede i or y.


The predominant stress pattern in Polish is penultimate stress – in a word of more than one syllable, the next-to-last syllable is stressed. Alternating preceding syllables carry secondary stress, e.g. in a four-syllable word, where the primary stress is on the third syllable, there will be secondary stress on the first.{{Harvcoltxt|Gussmann|2007|p=8}}, deferring to {{Harvcoltxt|Rubach|Booij|1985}} for further discussion.Each vowel represents one syllable, although the letter i normally does not represent a vowel when it precedes another vowel (it represents {{IPA|/j/}}, palatalization of the preceding consonant, or both depending on analysis). Also the letters u and i sometimes represent only semivowels when they follow another vowel, as in autor {{IPA|/ˈawtɔr/}} ('author'), mostly in loanwords (so not in native nauka {{IPA|/naˈu.ka/}} 'science, the act of learning', for example, nor in nativized Mateusz {{IPA|/maˈte.uʂ/}} 'Matthew').File:Styl urzedowy - Polish sign.jpg|thumb|right|A formal-tone informative sign in Polish, with a composition of vowels and consonants and a mixture of long, medium and short syllablessyllablesSome loanwords, particularly from the classical languages, have the stress on the antepenultimate (third-from-last) syllable. For example, fizyka ({{IPA|/ˈfizɨka/}}) ('physics') is stressed on the first syllable. This may lead to a rare phenomenon of minimal pairs differing only in stress placement, for example muzyka {{IPA|/ˈmuzɨka/}} 'music' vs. muzyka {{IPA|/muˈzɨka/}} - genitive singular of muzyk 'musician'. When additional syllables are added to such words through inflection or suffixation, the stress normally becomes regular. For example, uniwersytet ({{IPA|/uɲiˈvɛrsɨtɛt/}}, 'university') has irregular stress on the third (or antepenultimate) syllable, but the genitive uniwersytetu ({{IPA|/uɲivɛrsɨˈtɛtu/}}) and derived adjective uniwersytecki ({{IPA|/uɲivɛrsɨˈtɛt͡skʲi/}}) have regular stress on the penultimate syllables. Over time, loanwords become nativized to have penultimate stress.{{sfnp|Gussmann|2007|p=9}}Another class of exceptions is verbs with the conditional endings -by, -bym, -byśmy, etc. These endings are not counted in determining the position of the stress; for example, zrobiłbym ('I would do') is stressed on the first syllable, and zrobilibyśmy ('we would do') on the second. According to prescriptive authorities, the same applies to the first and second person plural past tense endings -śmy, -ście, although this rule is often ignored in colloquial speech (so zrobiliśmy 'we did' should be prescriptively stressed on the second syllable, although in practice it is commonly stressed on the third as zrobiliśmy).Phonetics and Phonology of lexical stress in Polish verbs, Dominika Oliver, Martine Grice, Institute of Phonetics, Saarland University, Germany These irregular stress patterns are explained by the fact that these endings are detachable clitics rather than true verbal inflections: for example, instead of kogo zobaczyliście? ('whom did you see?') it is possible to say kogoście zobaczyli? – here kogo retains its usual stress (first syllable) in spite of the attachment of the clitic. Reanalysis of the endings as inflections when attached to verbs causes the different colloquial stress patterns. These stress patterns are however nowadays sanctioned as part of the colloquial norm of standard Polish.WEB, Andrzej Markowski, Norma wzorcowa,weblink Konferencje i dyskusje naukowe, Rada Języka Polskiego, 2019-01-30, Some common word combinations are stressed as if they were a single word. This applies in particular to many combinations of preposition plus a personal pronoun, such as do niej ('to her'), na nas ('on us'), przeze mnie ('because of me'), all stressed on the bolded syllable.


The Polish alphabet derives from the Latin script, but includes certain additional letters formed using diacritics. The Polish alphabet was one of three major forms of Latin-based orthography developed for Slavic languages, the others being Czech orthography and Croatian orthography, the last of these being a 19th-century invention trying to make a compromise between the first two. Kashubian uses a Polish-based system, Slovak uses a Czech-based system, and Slovene follows the Croatian one; the Sorbian languages blend the Polish and the Czech ones.The diacritics used in the Polish alphabet are the kreska (graphically similar to the acute accent) in the letters ć, Å„, ó, Å›, ź and through the letter in Å‚; the kropka (superior dot) in the letter ż, and the ogonek ("little tail") in the letters Ä…, Ä™. The letters q, v, x are often not considered part of the Polish alphabet; they are used only in foreign words and names.Polish orthography is largely phonemic—there is a consistent correspondence between letters (or digraphs and trigraphs) and phonemes (for exceptions see below). The letters of the alphabet and their normal phonemic values are listed in the following table.File:Wyjscia wujek 1599.jpg|thumb|right|The Jakub Wujek BibleJakub Wujek Bible{| class="wikitable"! Uppercase! Lowercase! Phonemicvalue(s)! Uppercase! Lowercase! Phonemicvalue(s)| A| aa}}| M| mm}}| Ä„| Ä…Ä…}}, {{IPAc-plo//m}}| N| nn}}| B| bb}} ({{IPAl-pl|p}})| Ń| Å„Å„}}| C| cc}}| O| oo}}| Ć| ćć}}| Ó| óu}}| D| dd}} ({{IPAl-pl|t}})| P| pp}}| E| ee}}| R| rr}}| Ę| ęę}}, {{IPAc-ple//m}}, {{IPAl-pl|e}}| S| ss}}| F| ff}}| Åš| śś}}| G| gÉ¡}} ({{IPAl-pl|k}})| T| tt}}| H| hÉ£}} ({{IPAl-pl|h}})| U| uu}}| I| ii}}, {{IPAl-pl|j}}| W| ww}} ({{IPAl-pl|f}})| J| jj}}| Y| yClose-mid central unrounded vowel>ɘ/| K| kk}}| Z| zz}} ({{IPAl-pl|s}})| L| ll}}| Ź| źź}} ({{IPAl-pl|Å›}})| Ł| Å‚Å‚}}, /É«/| Å»| żż}} ({{IPAl-pl|sz}})The following digraphs and trigraphs are used:{| class="wikitable"! Digraph! Phonemic value(s)! Digraph/trigraph(before a vowel)! Phonemic value(s)| chh}}| cić}}| czcz}}| dzidź}}| dzdz}} ({{IPAl-pl|c}})| gigi}}| dźdź}} ({{IPAl-pl|ć}})| (c)hihi}}| dżdż}} ({{IPAl-pl|cz}})| kiki}}| rzż}} ({{IPAl-pl|sz}})| niÅ„}}| szsz}}| siÅ›}}|  |  | ziź}}Voiced consonant letters frequently come to represent voiceless sounds (as shown in the tables); this occurs at the end of words and in certain clusters, due to the neutralization mentioned in the Phonology section above. Occasionally also voiceless consonant letters can represent voiced sounds in clusters.The spelling rule for the palatal sounds {{IPAl-pl|Å›}}, {{IPAl-pl|ź}}, {{IPAl-pl|ć}}, {{IPAl-pl|dź}} and {{IPAl-pl|Å„}} is as follows: before the vowel i the plain letters s, z, c, dz, n are used; before other vowels the combinations si, zi, ci, dzi, ni are used; when not followed by a vowel the diacritic forms Å›, ź, ć, dź, Å„ are used. For example, the s in siwy ("grey-haired"), the si in siarka ("sulphur") and the Å› in Å›wiÄ™ty ("holy") all represent the sound {{IPAl-pl|Å›}}. The exceptions to the above rule are certain loanwords from Latin, Italian, French, Russian or English—where s before i is pronounced as s, e.g. sinus, sinologia, do re mi fa sol la si do, Saint-Simon i saint-simoniÅ›ci, Sierioża, Siergiej, Singapur, singiel. In other loanwords the vowel i is changed to y, e.g. Syria, Sybir, synchronizacja, Syrakuzy.The following table shows the correspondence between the sounds and spelling:Digraphs and trigraphs are used:{| class="wikitable"! Phonemic value! Single letter/Digraph(in pausa or before a consonant)! Digraph/Trigraph(before a vowel)! Single letter/Digraph(before the vowel i)ć}}| ć| ci| cdź}}| dź| dzi| dzÅ›}}| Å›| si| sź}}| ź| zi| zÅ„}}| Å„| ni| nSimilar principles apply to {{IPAl-pl|ki}}, {{IPAl-pl|gi}}, {{IPAl-pl|hi}} and {{IPA|/lʲ/}}, except that these can only occur before vowels, so the spellings are k, g, (c)h, l before i, and ki, gi, (c)hi, li otherwise. Most Polish speakers, however, do not consider palatalisation of k, g, (c)h or l as creating new sounds.Except in the cases mentioned above, the letter i if followed by another vowel in the same word usually represents {{IPAl-pl|j}}, yet a palatalisation of the previous consonant is always assumed.The letters Ä… and Ä™, when followed by plosives and affricates, represent an oral vowel followed by a nasal consonant, rather than a nasal vowel. For example, Ä… in dÄ…b ("oak") is pronounced {{IPAc-pl|o|m}}, and Ä™ in tÄ™cza ("rainbow") is pronounced {{IPAc-pl||e|n}} (the nasal assimilates to the following consonant). When followed by l or Å‚ (for example przyjÄ™li, przyjęły), Ä™ is pronounced as just e. When Ä™ is at the end of the word it is often pronounced as just {{IPAc-pl|//|e}}.Note that, depending on the word, the phoneme {{IPAl-pl|h}} can be spelt h or ch, the phoneme {{IPAl-pl|ż}} can be spelt ż or rz, and {{IPAl-pl|u}} can be spelt u or ó. In several cases it determines the meaning, for example: może ("maybe") and morze ("sea").In occasional words, letters that normally form a digraph are pronounced separately. For example, rz represents {{IPAc-pl|//|r|z}}, not {{IPAl-pl|ż}}, in words like zamarzać ("freeze") and in the name Tarzan.Notice that doubled letters represent separate occurrences of the sound in question; for example Anna is pronounced {{IPAc-pl|//|a|n|ː|a}} in Polish (the double n is often pronounced as a lengthened single n).There are certain clusters where a written consonant would not be pronounced. For example, the Å‚ in the words mógÅ‚ ("could") and jabÅ‚ko ("apple") might be omitted in ordinary speech, leading to the pronunciations muk and japko or jabko.


Polish is a highly inflected language, with relatively free word order, although the dominant arrangement is subject–verb–object (SVO). There are no articles, and subject pronouns are often dropped.Nouns belong to one of three genders: masculine, feminine and neuter. A distinction is also made between animate and inanimate masculine nouns in the singular, and between masculine personal and non-masculine-personal nouns in the plural. There are seven cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, locative and vocative.Adjectives agree with nouns in terms of gender, case and number. Attributive adjectives most commonly precede the noun, although in certain cases, especially in fixed phrases (like język polski, "Polish (language)"), the noun may come first; the rule of thumb is that generic descriptive adjective normally precedes (e.g. piękny kwiat, “beautiful flower”) while categorising adjective often follows the noun (e.g. węgiel kamienny, “black coal”). Most short adjectives and their derived adverbs form comparatives and superlatives by inflection (the superlative is formed by prefixing naj- to the comparative).Verbs are of imperfective or perfective aspect, often occurring in pairs. Imperfective verbs have a present tense, past tense, compound future tense (except for być "to be", which has a simple future będę etc., this in turn being used to form the compound future of other verbs), subjunctive/conditional (formed with the detachable particle by), imperatives, an infinitive, present participle, present gerund and past participle. Perfective verbs have a simple future tense (formed like the present tense of imperfective verbs), past tense, subjunctive/conditional, imperatives, infinitive, present gerund and past participle. Conjugated verb forms agree with their subject in terms of person, number, and (in the case of past tense and subjunctive/conditional forms) gender.Passive-type constructions can be made using the auxiliary być or zostać ("become") with the passive participle. There is also an impersonal construction where the active verb is used (in third person singular) with no subject, but with the reflexive pronoun się present to indicate a general, unspecified subject (as in pije się wódkę "vodka is being drunk"—note that wódka appears in the accusative). A similar sentence type in the past tense uses the passive participle with the ending -o, as in widziano ludzi ("people were seen"). As in other Slavic languages, there are also subjectless sentences formed using such words as można ("it is possible") together with an infinitive.Yes-no questions (both direct and indirect) are formed by placing the word czy at the start. Negation uses the word nie, before the verb or other item being negated; nie is still added before the verb even if the sentence also contains other negatives such as nigdy ("never") or nic ("nothing"), effectively creating a double negative.Cardinal numbers have a complex system of inflection and agreement. Zero and cardinal numbers higher than five (except for those ending with the digit 2, 3 or 4 but not ending with 12, 13 or 14) govern the genitive case rather than the nominative or accusative. Special forms of numbers (collective numerals) are used with certain classes of noun, which include dziecko ("child") and exclusively plural nouns such as drzwi ("door").

Borrowed words

{{multiple image|perrow = 2|total_width=300| image1 = Chou-fleur 02.jpg| image2 = Cordage en chanvre.jpg| image3 = Carcharhinus melanopterus Luc Viatour.jpg| image4 = Teacher-writing-on-blackboard564.jpgcauliflower (Polish kalafior from Italian language>Italian cavolfiore). 2. Top right: rope (sznur from German language Schnur). 3. Bottom left: shark (rekin from French language>French requin). 4. Bottom right: teacher (belfer (colloquial) from Yiddish (Jewish) בעלפֿער)}}Polish has, over the centuries, borrowed a number of words from other languages. When borrowing, pronunciation was adapted to Polish phonemes and spelling was altered to match Polish orthography. In addition, word endings are liberally applied to almost any word to produce verbs, nouns, adjectives, as well as adding the appropriate endings for cases of nouns, adjectives, diminutives, double-diminutives, augmentatives, etc.Depending on the historical period, borrowing has proceeded from various languages. Notable influences have been Latin (10th–18th centuries),BOOK, Language Reform: History and Future,weblink István Fodor, Claude Hagège, Buske, 1, 324, 1983, 9783871185724, Czech (10th and 14th–15th centuries), Italian (16th–17th centuries), French (17th–19th centuries), German (13–15th and 18th–20th centuries), Hungarian (15th–16th centuries) and Turkish (17th century). Currently, English words are the most common imports to Polish.WEB,weblink Zapożyczenia w języku polskim, Izabela, Knara,, pl, 6 October 2017, 28 November 2018, The Latin language, for a very long time the only official language of the Polish state, has had a great influence on Polish. Many Polish words were direct borrowings or calques (e.g. (wikt:rzeczpospolita|rzeczpospolita) from res publica) from Latin. Latin was known to a larger or smaller degree by most of the numerous szlachta in the 16th to 18th centuries (and it continued to be extensively taught at secondary schools until World War II). Apart from dozens of loanwords, its influence can also be seen in a number of verbatim Latin phrases in Polish literature (especially from the 19th century and earlier).During the 12th and 13th centuries, Mongolian words were brought to the Polish language during wars with the armies of Genghis Khan and his descendants, e.g. dzida (spear) and szereg (a line or row).Words from Czech, an important influence during the 10th and 14th–15th centuries include sejm, hańba and brama.In 1518, the Polish king Sigismund I the Old married Bona Sforza, the niece of the Holy Roman emperor Maximilian, who introduced Italian cuisine to Poland, especially vegetables.WEB,weblink Czy Bona Sforza naprawdę sprowadziła do Polski kapustę i kalafior?, Kamil, Janicki,, pl, 7 October 2014, 28 November 2018, Hence, words from Italian include pomidor from "pomodoro" (tomato), kalafior from "cavolfiore" (cauliflower), and pomarańcza, a portmanteau from Italian "pomo" (pome) plus "arancio" (orange). A later word of Italian origin is autostrada (from Italian "autostrada", highway).In the 18th century, with the rising prominence of France in Europe, French supplanted Latin as an important source of words. Some French borrowings also date from the Napoleonic era, when the Poles were enthusiastic supporters of Napoleon. Examples include ekran (from French "écran", screen), abażur ("abat-jour", lamp shade), rekin ("requin", shark), meble ("meuble", furniture), bagaż ("bagage", luggage), walizka ("valise", suitcase), fotel ("fauteuil", armchair), plaża ("plage", beach) and koszmar ("cauchemar", nightmare). Some place names have also been adapted from French, such as the Warsaw borough of Żoliborz ("joli bord" = beautiful riverside), as well as the town of Żyrardów (from the name Girard, with the Polish suffix -ów attached to refer to the founder of the town).WEB,weblink Historia Żyrardowa,, 28 November 2018, File:Pink Birkin bag.jpg|thumb|Common handbag in Polish is called a torba, a word directly derived from the Turkish language. Turkish loanwords are common as Poland bordered the Ottoman EmpireOttoman EmpireMany words were borrowed from the German language from the sizable German population in Polish cities during medieval times. German words found in the Polish language are often connected with trade, the building industry, civic rights and city life. Some words were assimilated verbatim, for example handel (trade) and dach (roof); others are pronounced the same, but differ in writing schnur—sznur (cord). As a result of being neighbours with Germany, Polish has many German expressions which have become literally translated (calques). The regional dialects of Upper Silesia and Masuria (Modern Polish East Prussia) have noticeably more German loanwords than other varieties.The contacts with Ottoman Turkey in the 17th century brought many new words, some of them still in use, such as: jar ("yar" deep valley), szaszłyk ("şişlik" shish kebab), filiżanka ("fincan" cup), arbuz ("karpuz" watermelon), dywan ("divan" carpet),ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink kielbasa, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, fourth, 2000, Houghton Mifflin Company, 2009-05-06, dead,weblink 2008-06-30, etc.From the founding of the Kingdom of Poland in 1025 through the early years of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth created in 1569, Poland was the most tolerant country of Jews in Europe. Known as the "paradise for the Jews",BOOK,weblink A History of East European Jews, Haumann, Heiko, 2002-01-01, Central European University Press, 9789639241268, en, NEWS,weblink A Virtual Visit to the Museum of the History of Polish Jews,, 2018-09-26, en, it became a shelter for persecuted and expelled European Jewish communities and the home to the world's largest Jewish community of the time. As a result, many Polish words come from Yiddish, spoken by the large Polish Jewish population that existed until the Holocaust. Borrowed Yiddish words include bachor (an unruly boy or child), bajzel (slang for mess), belfer (slang for teacher), ciuchy (slang for clothing), cymes (slang for very tasty food), geszeft (slang for business), kitel (slang for apron), machlojka (slang for scam), mamona (money), manele (slang for oddments), myszygene (slang for lunatic), pinda (slang for girl, pejoratively), plajta (slang for bankruptcy), rejwach (noise), szmal (slang for money), and trefny (dodgy).JOURNAL,weblink Wpływ języków żydowskich na język polski, Katarzyna, Martinovic, 28 November 2018, The mountain dialects of the Górale in southern Poland, have quite a number of words borrowed from Hungarian (e.g. baca, gazda, juhas, hejnał) and Romanian as a result of historical contacts with Hungarian-dominated Slovakia and Wallachian herders who travelled north along the Carpathians.WEB,weblink Historia zapożyczeń,, 28 November 2018, Thieves' slang includes such words as kimać (to sleep) or majcher (knife) of Greek origin, considered then unknown to the outside world.JOURNAL,weblink Kilka uwag o socjolekcie przestępczym polszczyzny przedwojennego Lwowa, "Socjolingwistyka" XXX, 2016, Maciej, Rak, 28 November 2018, In addition, Turkish and Tatar have exerted influence upon the vocabulary of war, names of oriental costumes etc. Russian borrowings began to make their way into Polish from the second half of the 19th century on.Polish has also received an intensive number of English loanwords, particularly after World War II. Recent loanwords come primarily from the English language, mainly those that have Latin or Greek roots, for example (computer), (from 'corruption', but sense restricted to 'bribery') etc. Concatenation of parts of words (e.g. auto-moto), which is not native to Polish but common in English, for example, is also sometimes used. When borrowing English words, Polish often changes their spelling. For example, Latin suffix '-tio' corresponds to -cja. To make the word plural, -cja becomes -cje. Examples of this include inauguracja (inauguration), dewastacja (devastation), recepcja (reception), konurbacja (conurbation) and konotacje (connotations). Also, the digraph qu becomes kw (kwadrant = quadrant; kworum = quorum).

Loanwords from Polish

File:Fishing - The Noun Project.svg|thumb|right|There are numerous words in both Polish and Yiddish (Jewish) languages which are near-identical due to the large Jewish minority that once inhabited Poland. An example includes a fishing rodfishing rodThe Polish language has influenced others. Particular influences appear in other Slavic languages and in German â€” due to their proximity and shared borders.JOURNAL,weblink Polish, Katarzyna, Dziubalska-KoÅ‚aczyk, Bogdan, Walczak, 28 November 2018, Revue belge de philologie et d'histoire, 88, 3, 817–840, 28 November 2018, 10.3406/rbph.2010.7805, Examples of loanwords include German Grenze (border),WEB,weblink Polish Language, RealPoland, Dutch and Afrikaans grens from Polish granica; German Peitzker from Polish piskorz (weatherfish); German Zobel, French zibeline, Swedish sobel, and English sable from Polish soból; and ogonek ("little tail") â€” the word describing a diacritic hook-sign added below some letters in various alphabets. "(:pl:Szmata|Szmata)," a Polish, Slovak and Ruthenian word for "mop" or "rag" became part of Yiddish. The Polish language exerted significant lexical influence upon Ukrainian, particularly in the fields of abstract and technical terminology, for example the Ukrainian word panstvo (country) is derived from Polish .BOOK, Timothy Shopen, Languages and Their Status, 1987, 9780812212495, University of Pennsylvania Press,weblink 132, The extent of Polish influence is particularly noticeable in Western Ukrainian dialects.There is a substantial number of Polish words which officially became part of Yiddish, once the main language of European Jews. These include basic items, objects or terms such as a bread bun (Polish buÅ‚ka, Yiddish בולקע bulke), a fishing rod (wÄ™dka, ווענטקע ventke), an oak (dÄ…b, דעמב demb), a meadow (Å‚Ä…ka, לאָנקע lonke), a moustache (wÄ…sy, וואָנצעס vontses) and a bladder (pÄ™cherz, פּענכער penkher).WEB,weblink How Much Polish Is There in Yiddish (and How Much Yiddish Is There in Polish)?, MikoÅ‚aj, GliÅ„ski, 7 December 2015,, 28 November 2018, Quite a few culinary loanwords exist in German and in other languages, some of which describe distinctive features of Polish cuisine. These include German and English Quark from twaróg (a kind of fresh cheese) and German Gurke, English gherkin from ogórek (cucumber). The word pierogi (Polish dumplings) has spread internationally, as well as pÄ…czki (Polish donuts)WEB,weblink What Are Paczki and Why Is Everyone Freaking Out About Them?, Eater, Lucas, Peterson, 27 February 2017, 28 November 2018, and kieÅ‚basa (sausage, e.g. kolbaso in Esperanto). As far as pierogi concerned, the original Polish word is already in plural (sing. pieróg, plural pierogi; stem pierog-, plural ending -i; NB. o becomes ó in a closed syllable, like here in singular), yet it is commonly used with the English plural ending -s in Canada and United States of America, pierogis, thus making it a "double plural". A similar situation happened with the Polish loanword from English czipsy ("potato chips")—from English chips being already plural in the original (chip + -s), yet it has obtained the Polish plural ending -y.The word spruce entered the English language from the Polish name of Prusy (a historical region, today part of Poland). It became spruce because in Polish, z Prus, sounded like "spruce" in English (transl. "from Prussia") and was a generic term for commodities brought to England by Hanseatic merchants and because the tree was believed to have come from Polish Ducal Prussia.WEB,weblink Online Etymology Dictionary,, 2015-03-31, However, it can be argued that the word is actually derived from the Old French term Pruce, meaning literally Prussia.WEB,weblink spruce - Origin and meaning of spruce by Online Etymology Dictionary,, 28 November 2018,

See also



Further reading

  • BOOK, Bisko, WacÅ‚aw, translated and adapted by StanisÅ‚aw KryÅ„ski, Mówimy po polsku. A beginner's course of Polish,weblink DTBook, 1966
Wiedza Powszechna ((:pl:Wiedza Powszechna>pl)), Warsaw,
  • BOOK, Sadowska, Iwona, Polish: A Comprehensive Grammar, 2012, Routledge, Oxford; New York City, New York, 978-0-415-47541-9,
  • BOOK, Swan, Oscar E., A Grammar of Contemporary Polish, Slavica, 2002, Bloomington, IN, 0-89357-296-9,
  • BOOK, harv, Gussmann, Edmund, 2007, The Phonology of Polish, 320907619, 9780199267477, Oxford, Oxford University Press.,

External links

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