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{{About|Jesus of Nazareth}}{{Redirect|Christ|other uses|Christ (disambiguation)}}{{Redirect|Jesus of Nazareth}}{{pp-move-indef}}{{pp-semi-indef}}{{short description|Central figure of Christianity}}{{Featured article}}{{Use mdy dates|date=July 2017}}

1130}}4 BCJohn P. Meier writes that Jesus' birth year is Circa>c. 7 or 6 BC.MEIER >FIRST=JOHN P. YEAR=1991 ISBN=978-0-300-14018-7 Karl Rahner>Rahner states that the consensus among scholars is {{nowrapRahnerp=732}} E. P. Sanders also favors {{nowrap>c. 4 BC}} and refers to the general consensus.{{sfn1993Jack Finegan>Finegan uses the study of early Christian traditions to support c. 3 or 2 BC.JACK >LAST=FINEGAN YEAR=1998 ISBN=978-1-56563-143-4, 319, }}Herodian kingdom>Judea, Roman EmpireRAYMOND E. >LAST=BROWN YEAR=1977 PUBLISHER=DOUBLEDAY, 513, AD 30 / 33Most scholars estimate AD 30 or 33 as the year of Jesus' crucifixion.HTTP://WWW.TYNDALEHOUSE.COM/TYNBUL/LIBRARY/TYNBULL_1992_43_2_06_HUMPHREYS_DATECHRISTSCRUCIFIXION.PDF#PAGE=9 >TITLE=THE JEWISH CALENDAR, A LUNAR ECLIPSE AND THE DATE OF CHRIST'S CRUCIFIXION YEAR=1992 ISSUE=2 FIRST1=COLIN J. FIRST2=W. G., Waddington, }} (aged 33–36)Jerusalem, Judea (Roman province)>Judea, Roman EmpireCrucifixion of Jesus>Crucifixion{{efnJames Dunn (theologian)>James Dunn writes that the baptism and crucifixion of Jesus "command almost universal assent" and "rank so high on the 'almost impossible to doubt or deny' scale of historical facts" that they are often the starting points for the study of the historical Jesus.{{sfn2003Bart Ehrman states that the crucifixion of Jesus on the orders of Pontius Pilate is the most certain element about him.{{sfn>Ehrmanp=101}} John Dominic Crossan and Richard G. Watts state that the crucifixion of Jesus is as certain as any historical fact can be.{{sfnWattsp=96}} Paul R. Eddy and Greg Boyd (theologian) say that non-Christian confirmation of the crucifixion of Jesus is now "firmly established".{{sfn>Eddy2007|p=173}} }}Nazareth, Galilee{{sfn>Theissen1998}}Mary, mother of Jesus >Saint Joseph{{efn>Traditionally, Christians believe that Mary conceived her son miraculously by the agency of the Holy Spirit. Muslims believe that she conceived her son miraculously by the command of God. Joseph was from these perspectives the acting adoptive father.}}}}}}{{Jesus |right |width=22.0em}}Jesus{{Efn|; ; }} ({{circa|4 BC|AD 30 / 33|lk=yes}}), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ,{{efn|The New Testament records a variety of names and titles accorded to Jesus.}} was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah (Christ) {{not a typo|prophesied}} in the Old Testament.{{sfn|McGrath|2006|pp=4–6}}BOOK, Ehrman, Bart D., How Jesus became God: The Exaltation of a Jewish Preacher from Galilee, HarperOne, 978-0-06-177818-6, 2014, Virtually all modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed historically,{{efn |name=exist|In a 2011 review of the state of modern scholarship, Bart Ehrman wrote, "He certainly existed, as virtually every competent scholar of antiquity, Christian or non-Christian, agrees".BOOK, Bart, Ehrman, 2011, Forged: writing in the name of God – Why the Bible's Authors Are Not Who We Think They Are, 978-0-06-207863-6,weblink HarperCollins, 285, Richard A. Burridge states: "There are those who argue that Jesus is a figment of the Church's imagination, that there never was a Jesus at all. I have to say that I do not know any respectable critical scholar who says that any more".BOOK, Jesus Now and Then, Richard A., Burridge, Graham, Gould, 2004, 978-0-8028-0977-3, 34, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, Robert M. Price does not believe that Jesus existed, but agrees that this perspective runs against the views of the majority of scholars.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Robert M., Price, Jesus at the Vanishing Point, The Historical Jesus: Five Views, Beilby, Eddy, 2009, InterVarsity, 978-0-8308-7853-6, James K., 55, 61,weblink Paul R., James D. G. Dunn calls the theories of Jesus' non-existence "a thoroughly dead thesis".ENCYCLOPEDIA, Paul's understanding of the death of Jesus, Sacrifice and Redemption, Stephen W., Sykes, 2007, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-04460-8, 35–36, Michael Grant (a classicist) wrote in 1977, "In recent years, 'no serious scholar has ventured to postulate the non historicity of Jesus' or at any rate very few, and they have not succeeded in disposing of the much stronger, indeed very abundant, evidence to the contrary".BOOK, Michael, Grant, Jesus: An Historian's Review of the Gospels, Scribner's, 1977, 978-0-684-14889-2, 200, Robert E. Van Voorst states that biblical scholars and classical historians regard theories of non-existence of Jesus as effectively refuted.{{sfn|Van Voorst|2000|p=16}}}} although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how closely the Jesus portrayed in the Bible reflects the historical Jesus.{{sfn|Powell|1998|pp=168–73}}{{efn|Ehrman writes: "The notion that the Gospel accounts are not completely accurate but still important for the religious truths they try to convey is widely shared in the scholarly world, even though it's not so widely known or believed outside of it."Bart D. Ehrman, MDiv, PhD. Historical Jesus. 'Prophet of the New Millennium.' Course handbook, p. 10 (Lecture Three. V. B.) The Teaching Company, 2000, Lecture 24}}{{efn|Sanders writes: "The earliest Christians did not write a narrative of Jesus' life, but rather made use of, and thus preserved, individual units—short passages about his words and deeds. These units were later moved and arranged by authors and editors. ... Some material has been revised and some created by early Christians."{{sfn|Sanders|1993|p=57}}}} Jesus was a Galilean Jew who was baptized by John the Baptist and began his own ministry. He preached orallyBOOK, James D.G., Dunn, The Oral Gospel Tradition, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2013, 290–91, and was often referred to as "rabbi".WEB, International Standard Bible Encyclopedia Online, James Orr, 1939, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.,weblink Jesus debated with fellow Jews on how to best follow God, engaged in healings, taught in parables and gathered followers.{{sfn|Levine|2006|p=4}}BOOK, Charlesworth, James H., The Historical Jesus: An Essential Guide, 2008, 113,weblink 978-1-4267-2475-6, He was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities,{{sfn|Sanders|1993|p=11}} turned over to the Roman government, and crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect.{{sfn|Levine|2006|p=4}} After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, and the community they formed eventually became the early Church.{{sfn|Sanders|1993|pp=11, 14}}Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Christian Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement for sin, rose from the dead, and ascended into Heaven, from where he will return.{{sfn|Grudem|1994|pp=568–603}} Most Christians believe Jesus enables people to be reconciled to God. The Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the deadENCYCLOPEDIA, Wilhelm, Joseph, The Nicene Creed, The Catholic Encyclopedia, 11, Robert Appleton Company, 1911,weblink either before or after their bodily resurrection,WEB, James, Tabor, UNCC,weblink What the Bible Says About Death, Afterlife, and the Future, 2013-03-22, BOOK, Hoekema, Anthony A., 1994, The Bible and the Future, Eerdmans Publishing, 88–89,weblink 978-0-85364-624-2, an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology.BOOK, Systematic Theology, Volume 2, Second Edition: Biblical, Historical, and Evangelical, James L., Garrett, Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2014,weblink 766, 978-1-62564-852-5, The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of the Trinity. A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or partly, as non-scriptural. The birth of Jesus is celebrated annually on December 25 (or various dates in January by some eastern churches) as Christmas. His crucifixion is honored on Good Friday and his resurrection on Easter. The widely used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini ("in the year of the Lord"), and the equivalent alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus.ENCYCLOPEDIA,weblink anno Domini, Merriam Webster Online Dictionary, 2003, Merriam-Webster, Etymology: Medieval Latin, in the year of our Lord, November 3, 2016, {{efn|The BBC describes this as follows: "Year 1: CE – What is nowadays called the 'Current Era' traditionally begins with the birth of a Jewish teacher called Jesus. His followers came to believe he was the promised Messiah and later split away from Judaism to found Christianity."WEB,weblink History of Judaism 63 BCE–1086 CE, February 8, 2005, BBC Team, BBC Religion & Ethics, British Broadcasting Corporation, April 20, 2016, }}Jesus also figures in non-Christian religions. In Islam, Jesus (commonly transliterated as {{transl|ar|ISO|Isa}}) is considered one of God's important prophets and the Messiah.WEB,weblink Quran 3:46–158,weblink" title="">weblink May 1, 2015, yes, BOOK, Siddiqui, Mona, Christians, Muslims, and Jesus, Yale University Press, 2013, Mona Siddiqui,weblink 978-0-300-16970-6, Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was not the son of God. The Quran states that Jesus never claimed divinity. Most Muslims do not believe that he was crucified, but that he was physically raised into Heaven by God. In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies, and was neither divine nor resurrected.WEB,weblink Jesus of Nazareth, Jewish Encyclopedia, Jacobs, Joseph, Kohler, Kaufmann, Gottheil, Richard, Krauss, Samuel, {{TOC limit|3}}


{{further|Jesus (name)|Holy Name of Jesus|Names and titles of Jesus in the New Testament|Names of God in Christianity}}(File:JesusYeshua2.svg|thumb|Counter-clockwise from top-right: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, Latin, and English transcriptions of the name Jesus)A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes Patronymic|followed by the phrase "son of is considered to be a messenger of God (Allah) and the Messiah (al-Masih) who was sent to guide the Children of Israel (Bani Isra'il) with a new scripture, the Gospel (referred to in Islam as Injil).BOOK, The Oxford Dictionary of Islam, 2003, John L., Esposito, 158, Oxford University Press,weblink 978-0-19-975726-8, Muslims regard the gospels of the New Testament as inauthentic, and believe that Jesus' original message was lost or altered and that Muhammad came later to restore it.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Bockmuehl, Markus N.A., Quests for the historical Jesus, James C., Paget, 2001, Cambridge companion to Jesus, Cambridge University Press,weblink 978-0-521-79678-1, 183, Belief in Jesus (and all other messengers of God) is a requirement for being a Muslim.AV MEDIA, The Muslim Jesus, ITV Productions, August 19, 2007, Ashraf, Irshad (Director), Television production, The Quran mentions Jesus by name 25 times—more often than MuhammadWEB,weblink Jesus, Son of Mary, Oxford Islamic Studies Online, July 3, 2013, BOOK, Aboul-Enein, Youssef H., Militant Islamist Ideology: Understanding the Global Threat, 2010, Naval Institute Press, 978-1-61251-015-6, 20,weblink —and emphasizes that Jesus was a mortal human who, like all other prophets, had been divinely chosen to spread God's message. While the Qur'an affirms the Virgin birth of Jesus, he is considered to be neither the incarnation nor the son of God. Islamic texts emphasize a strict notion of monotheism (tawhid) and forbid the association of partners with God, which would be idolatry.BOOK, George, Timothy, Is the Father of Jesus the God of Muhammad?: Understanding the Differences Between Christianity and Islam, 2002, Zondervan, 978-0-310-24748-7, 150–51,weblink Like all prophets in Islam, Jesus is considered a Muslim.BOOK, Shedinger, Robert F., Was Jesus a Muslim?: Questioning Categories in the Study of Religion, 2009, Fortress Press, 978-1-4514-1727-2, ix,weblink The Quran describes the annunciation to Mary (Maryam) by an angel that she is to give birth to Jesus while remaining a virgin. It calls the virgin birth a miracle that occurred by the will of God. The Quran (21:91 and 66:12) states that God breathed his spirit into Mary while she was chaste.BOOK, Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians, F. E., Peters, 2003, Princeton University Press, 978-0-691-11553-5, 23,weblink Jesus is called the "Spirit of God" because he was born through the action of the Spirit,BOOK, Christianity, Islam, and the West, Robert A., Burns, 2011, 978-0-7618-5560-6, 32,weblink University Press of America, but that belief does not imply his pre-existence.BOOK, Cooper, Anne, Elsie A., Maxwell, Ishmael My Brother: A Christian Introduction To Islam, 2003, Monarch Books, 978-0-8254-6223-8, 59,weblink To aid in his ministry to the Jewish people, Jesus was given the ability to perform miracles, by permission of God rather than by his own power.BOOK, Morgan, Diane, Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice, 2010, ABC-CLIO, 978-0-313-36025-1, 45–46,weblink Through his ministry, Jesus is seen as a precursor to Muhammad.BOOK, Comparative Religious Ethics: A Narrative Approach, Darrell J., Fasching, Dell, deChant, 2001, 241, 274–75, 978-0-631-20125-0, John Wiley & Sons, According to the Quran, Jesus was not crucified but was merely made to appear that way to unbelievers by Allah,WEB,weblink The Quranic Arabic Corpus – Translation,, May 20, 2016, who physically raised Jesus into the heavens.QURAN, 4, 157, ref, To Muslims, it is the ascension rather than the crucifixion that constitutes a major event in the life of Jesus.BOOK, Harvard University Press, 978-0-674-00477-1, Khalidi, Tarif, The Muslim Jesus: Sayings and Stories in Islamic Literature, 2001, 12, Most Muslims believe that Jesus will return to earth at the end of time and defeat the Antichrist (ad-Dajjal) by killing him in Lud.BOOK,weblink Concise Encyclopedia of Islam, Rowman & Littlefield, Glassé, Cyril, 2008, 270–71, 978-0-7425-6296-7, The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community has several distinct teachings about Jesus. Ahmadis believe that he was a mortal man who survived his crucifixion and died a natural death at the age of 120 in Kashmir, India and is buried at Roza Bal.BOOK, Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, 978-1-59884-203-6, ABC-CLIO, 55,weblink 2010-09-21,


Bahá'í teachings consider Jesus to be a manifestation of God, a Bahá'í concept for prophetsJOURNAL, Jesus Christ in the Bahá'í Writings, Robert, Stockman, Bahá'í Studies Review, 2, 1, 1992,weblink —intermediaries between God and humanity, serving as messengers and reflecting God's qualities and attributes.JOURNAL, Juan, Cole, The Concept of Manifestation in the Bahá'í Writings, 1982, Bahá'í Studies, 9, 1–38,weblink The Bahá'í concept emphasizes the simultaneous qualities of humanity and divinity; thus, it is similar to the Christian concept of incarnation. Bahá'í thought accepts Jesus as the Son of God. In Bahá'í thought, Jesus was a perfect incarnation of God's attributes, but Bahá'í teachings reject the idea that "ineffable essence" of the Divinity was contained within a single human body because of their beliefs regarding "omnipresence and transcendence of the essence of God".Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, wrote that since each manifestation of God has the same divine attributes, they can be seen as the spiritual "return" of all previous manifestations of God, and the appearance of each new manifestation of God inaugurates a religion that supersedes the former ones, a concept known as progressive revelation. Bahá'ís believe that God's plan unfolds gradually through this process as mankind matures, and that some of the manifestations arrive in specific fulfillment of the missions of previous ones. Thus, Bahá'ís believe that Bahá'u'lláh is the promised return of Christ.BOOK, Smith, Peter, 2008, An Introduction to the Baha'i Faith, Cambridge University Press,weblink 978-0-521-86251-6, 128, Bahá'í teachings confirm many, but not all, aspects of Jesus as portrayed in the gospels. Bahá'ís believe in the virgin birth and in the Crucifixion,BOOK, In the Glory of the Father: The Bahai Faith and Christianity, Brian D., Lepard, 2008, Bahai Publishing, 978-1-931847-34-6, 118,weblink JOURNAL, Cole, Juan R. I., Behold the Man: Baha'u'llah on the Life of Jesus, Journal of the American Academy of Religion, 1997, 65, 1, 51, 56, 60, but see the Resurrection and the miracles of Jesus as symbolic.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Smith, Peter, A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith, peace, 2000, Oneworld Publications, 978-1-85168-184-6, 214,


{{See also|Criticism of Jesus}}File:Jesus Image on a Manichaean Temple Banner.jpg|thumb|200px|Enthroned Jesus image on a Manichaean temple banner from ca. 10th-century QochoQochoIn Christian Gnosticism (now a largely extinct religious movement),BOOK,weblink The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, Oxford University Press, 2001, 27, 978-0-19-285439-1, John, McManners, Jesus was sent from the divine realm and provided the secret knowledge (gnosis) necessary for salvation. Most Gnostics believed that Jesus was a human who became possessed by the spirit of "the Christ" at his baptism. This spirit left Jesus' body during the crucifixion, but was rejoined to him when he was raised from the dead. Some Gnostics, however, were docetics, believed that Jesus did not have a physical body, but only appeared to possess one.BOOK,weblink Ehrman, Bart D., Lost Christianities: The Battles For Scripture And The Faiths We Never Knew, Oxford University Press, 2003, 124–25, 978-0-19-518249-1, Manichaeism, a Gnostic sect, accepted Jesus as a prophet, in addition to revering Gautama Buddha and Zoroaster.BOOK, Bevan, A.A., 1930, Manichaeism, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 8, Hastings, James, 978-0-7661-3666-3, Kessinger Publishing, BOOK, Augustine of Hippo: A Biography, Peter R.L., Brown, 2000, 978-0-520-22757-6, 43, University of California Press, Some Hindus consider Jesus to be an avatar or a sadhu.WEB,weblink Jesus in Hinduism, BBC, March 24, 2009, Shaunaka, Rishi Das, Paramahansa Yogananda, an Indian guru, taught that Jesus was the reincarnation of Elisha and a student of John the Baptist, the reincarnation of Elijah.BOOK, Paramahansa, Yogananda, Autobiography of a Yogi, Diamond Pocket Books, 2008, 978-81-902562-0-9,weblink Some Buddhists, including Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, regard Jesus as a bodhisattva who dedicated his life to the welfare of people.WEB, Beverley, James A.,weblink Hollywood's Idol, Christianity Today, June 11, 2011, The New Age movement entertains a wide variety of views on Jesus. Theosophists, from whom many New Age teachings originated,BOOK,weblink New Age and neopagan religions in America, Columbia University Press, 2004, 56, 978-0-231-12402-7, Sarah M., Pike, refer to Jesus as the Master Jesus, a spiritual reformer, and they believe that Christ, after various incarnations, occupied the body of Jesus.BOOK, A Treatise on Cosmic Fire, Alice, Bailey, Djwhal, Khul, 978-0-85330-117-2, Lucis Publishing Company, 678, 1150, 1193, 2005,weblink Scientologists recognize Jesus (along with other religious figures such as Zoroaster, Muhammad, and Buddha) as part of their "religious heritage".BOOK, Hutson, Steven, What They Never Taught You in Sunday School: A Fresh Look at Following Jesus, City Boy Enterprises, 2006, 57, 978-1-59886-300-0,weblink WEB,weblink What Is Scientology's View of Moses, Jesus, Muhammad, The Buddha and Other Religious Figures of the Past?, Church of Scientology International, June 13, 2013, Atheists reject Jesus' divinity, but have differing views on Jesus' moral teachings. For example, Richard Dawkins has called him "a great moral teacher".BOOK, Dawkins, Richard, Richard Dawkins,weblink The God Delusion, 284, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, December 13, 2014, 978-0-547-34866-7, 2008-01-16,

Artistic depictions

File:Dura-europos-paralytic.jpg|thumb|upright|Jesus healing a paralytic in one of the first known images of Jesus from (Dura-Europos synagogue|Dura Europos]] in the 2nd centuryWEB, Dura-Europos: Excavating Antiquity {{!, Yale University Art Gallery|url=|}}|alt=An ancient wall painting depicting Jesus)Some of the earliest depictions of Jesus at the Dura-Europos church are firmly dated to before 256.ENCYCLOPEDIA, Attridge, Gohei, Hata, Eusebius, Christianity, and Judaism, Wayne State University Press, 1992, 283–84,weblink Joseph, Gutmann, Early Christian and Jewish Art, 978-0-8143-2361-8, Harold W., Thereafter, despite the lack of biblical references or historical records, a wide range of depictions of Jesus appeared during the last two millennia, often influenced by cultural settings, political circumstances and theological contexts.{{sfn|Houlden|2006|pp=63–99}}BOOK, Teaching Christianity: a world religions approach, Clive, Erricker, 1987, 978-0-7188-2634-5, 44, James Clarke & Co, As in other Early Christian art, the earliest depictions date to the late 2nd or early 3rd century, and surviving images are found especially in the Catacombs of Rome.BOOK, The New Westminster Dictionary of Church History, Robert, Benedetto, 2006, 978-0-664-22416-5, 51–53, Westminster John Knox Press, The depiction of Christ in pictorial form was highly controversial in the early church.BOOK, Schaff, Phillip, History of the Christian Church,8 volumes, 3rd edition, Hendrickson Publishers, Massachusetts, July 1, 2006,weblink 978-1-56563-196-0, {{efn|Philip Schaff commenting on Irenaeus, wrote, 'This censure of images as a Gnostic peculiarity, and as a heathenish corruption, should be noted'. Footnote 300 on Contr. Her. .I.XXV.6. ANF}}Synod of Elvira, 'Pictures are not to be placed in churches, so that they do not become objects of worship and adoration', AD 306, Canon 36 From the 5th century onward, flat painted icons became popular in the Eastern Church.{{sfn|Cross|Livingstone|2005|loc=Icons}} The Byzantine Iconoclasm acted as a barrier to developments in the East, but by the ninth century, art was permitted again.{{sfn|Houlden|2006|pp=63–99}} The Protestant Reformation brought renewed resistance to imagery, but total prohibition was atypical, and Protestant objections to images have tended to reduce since the 16th century. Although large images are generally avoided, few Protestants now object to book illustrations depicting Jesus.BOOK, Reformation and the Visual Arts, Sergiusz, Michalski, 1993, 978-1-134-92102-7, Routledge, 195, BOOK, Light from the Christian East: An Introduction to the Orthodox Tradition, James R., Payton, 2007, 978-0-8308-2594-3, InterVarsity Press, 178–79, The use of depictions of Jesus is advocated by the leaders of denominations such as Anglicans and CatholicsBOOK, The Dwelling of the Light: Praying with Icons of Christ, Williams, Rowan, 2003, 978-0-8028-2778-4, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 83, WEB, Karol J., WojtyÅ‚a,weblink Vatican Publishing House, General audience 29 October 1997, April 20, 2013, WEB,weblink Vatican Publishing House, General audience 6 May 2009, April 20, 2013, Joseph A., Ratzinger, and is a key element of the Eastern Orthodox tradition.{{sfn|Doninger|1999|p=231}}BOOK, The Orthodox Christian World, Augustine, Casiday, 2012, 978-0-415-45516-9, 447, Routledge, The Transfiguration was a major theme in Eastern Christian art, and every Eastern Orthodox monk who had trained in icon painting had to prove his craft by painting an icon depicting it.BOOK, The image of God the Father in Orthodox theology and iconography, Steven, Bigham, 1995, 978-1-879038-15-8, St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 226–27, Icons receive the external marks of veneration, such as kisses and prostration, and they are thought to be powerful channels of divine grace.{{sfn|Cross|Livingstone|2005|loc=Icons}} The Renaissance brought forth a number of artists who focused on depictions of Jesus; Fra Angelico and others followed Giotto in the systematic development of uncluttered images.{{sfn|Houlden|2006|pp=63–99}}Before the Protestant Reformation, the crucifix was common in Western Christianity. It is a model of the cross with Jesus crucified on it. The crucifix became the central ornament of the altar in the 13th century, a use that has been nearly universal in Roman Catholic churches since then.{{sfn|Cross|Livingstone|2005 |loc=Crucifix}}Jesus appears as an infant in a manger (feed trough) in Christmas creches, which depict the Nativity scene. He is typically joined by Mary, Joseph, animals, shepherds, angels, and the Magi. Francis of Assisi (1181/82–1226) is credited with popularizing the creche, although he probably did not initiate it. The creche reached its height of popularity in the 17th and 18th centuries in southern Europe."Creche." Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved March 16, 2015.

Associated relics

File:Shroud of Turin 001.jpg|thumb|The Shroud of TurinShroud of TurinThe total destruction that ensued with the siege of Jerusalem by the Romans in AD 70 made the survival of items from 1st-century Judea very rare and almost no direct records survive about the history of Judaism from the last part of the 1st century through the 2nd century.{{sfn|Levine|2006|pp=24–25}}Helmut Koester Introduction to the New Testament, Vol. 1: History, Culture, and Religion of the Hellenistic Age. Berlin: de Gruyter Press, 1995 p. 382{{efn|Flavius Josephus writing (about 5 years later, c. AD 75) in The Jewish War (Book VII 1.1) stated that Jerusalem had been flattened to the point that "there was left nothing to make those that came thither believe it had ever been inhabited."Flavius Josephus, The Jewish War Book VII, section 1.1" And once what was left of the ruins of Jerusalem had been turned into the Roman settlement of Aelia Capitolina, no Jews were allowed to set foot in it.}} Margaret M. Mitchell writes that although Eusebius reports (Ecclesiastical History III 5.3) that the early Christians left Jerusalem for Pella just before Jerusalem was subjected to the final lock down, we must accept that no first hand Christian items from the early Jerusalem Church have reached us.Margaret M. Mitchell "The Cambridge History of Christianity, Volume 1: Origins to Constantine" Cambridge University Press 2006 p. 298 Joe Nickell writes, "as investigation after investigation has shown, not a single, reliably authenticated relic of Jesus exists."BOOK, Nickell, Joe, Relics of the Christ, 2007, University Press of Kentucky, 978-0-8131-3731-5, 191,weblink {{efn|Polarized conclusions regarding the Shroud of Turin remain.Habermas, Gary R. "Shroud of Turin." The Encyclopedia of Christian Civilization (2011). {{DOI|10.1002/9780470670606.wbecc1257}} According to former Nature editor Philip Ball, "it's fair to say that, despite the seemingly definitive tests in 1988, the status of the Shroud of Turin is murkier than ever. Not least, the nature of the image and how it was fixed on the cloth remain deeply puzzling".JOURNAL, Ball, P., Material witness: Shrouded in mystery, 10.1038/nmat2170, Nature Materials, 7, 5, 349, 2008, 18432204, 2008NatMa...7..349B, }}However, throughout the history of Christianity a number of relics attributed to Jesus have been claimed, although doubt has been cast on them. The 16th-century Catholic theologian Erasmus wrote sarcastically about the proliferation of relics and the number of buildings that could have been constructed from the wood claimed to be from the cross used in the Crucifixion.{{sfn|Dillenberger|1999|p=5}} Similarly, while experts debate whether Jesus was crucified with three nails or with four, at least thirty holy nails continue to be venerated as relics across Europe.{{CathEncy|wstitle =Holy Nails|title=Holy Nails|first= Herbert|last=Thurston}}Some relics, such as purported remnants of the Crown of Thorns, receive only a modest number of pilgrims, while the Shroud of Turin (which is associated with an approved Catholic devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus), has received millions,NEWS, Delaney, Sarah, Shroud exposition closes with more than 2 million visits,weblinkweblink yes, June 8, 2010, Catholic News Service, May 24, 2010, including popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI.WEB, Wojtyła, Karol J., Pope John Paul II's address in Turin Cathedral,weblink Vatican Publishing House, May 24, 1998, NEWS, Squires, Nick, Pope Benedict says Shroud of Turin authentic burial robe of Jesus,weblink Christian Science Monitor, May 3, 2010,

See also






  • BOOK, Craig L., Blomberg, Craig Blomberg, Jesus and the Gospels: An Introduction and Survey, 2009, 978-0-8054-4482-7,weblink harv, B&H Publishing Group,
  • BOOK, The people's New Testament commentary, M. Eugene, Boring, Fred B., Craddock, Fred Craddock, 2004, 978-0-664-22754-8, Westminster John Knox Press,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, The Gospel and Epistles of John: A Concise Commentary, Raymond E., Brown, Raymond E. Brown, 1988, 978-0-8146-1283-5, harv, Liturgical Press,weblink
  • BOOK, Mary in the New Testament, Raymond E., Brown, 1978, 978-0-8091-2168-7,weblink Paulist Press, harv,
  • BOOK, The Gospel and Epistles of John: A Concise Commentary, Raymond E., Brown, Raymond E. Brown, 1988, 978-0-8146-1283-5, harv, Liturgical Press,weblink
  • BOOK, Brown, Raymond E., An Introduction to the New Testament, Doubleday, 1997, 978-0-385-24767-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Carter, Warren, Warren Carter, Pontius Pilate: portraits of a Roman governor, 2003, 978-0-8146-5113-1, harv,weblink Liturgical Press,
  • BOOK, Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research, Bruce, Chilton, Bruce Chilton, Craig A., Evans, Craig A. Evans, 1998, 978-90-04-11142-4, Brill, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Steven L., Cox, Kendell H, Easley, 2007, Harmony of the Gospels, 978-0-8054-9444-0,weblink harv, B&H Publishing Group,
  • BOOK, Frank L., Cross, E.A., Livingstone, Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press, 2005, harv,weblink 978-0-19-280290-3,
  • BOOK, John D., Crossan, John Dominic Crossan, Richard G., Watts, Who Is Jesus?: Answers to Your Questions About the Historical Jesus, Westminster John Knox Press, 1999, 978-0-664-25842-9, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Dickson, John, John Dickson (author), Jesus: A Short Life, Kregel Publications, 2008, 978-0-8254-7802-4, harv,
  • BOOK, Dillenberger, John, John Dillenberger, Images and Relics : Theological Perceptions and Visual Images in Sixteenth-Century Europe: Theological Perceptions and Visual Images in Sixteenth-Century Europe, Oxford University Press, 1999, 978-0-19-976146-3, harv,
  • BOOK, John R., Donahue, Daniel J., Harrington, Daniel J. Harrington, The Gospel of Mark, Liturgical Press, 2002,weblink 978-0-8146-5804-8, harv,
  • BOOK, Doninger, Wendy, 1999, Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, Merriam-Webster,weblink 978-0-87779-044-0, harv,
  • BOOK, James D.G., Dunn, James Dunn (theologian), Jesus Remembered, 2003, 978-0-8028-3931-2, harv, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing,weblink
  • BOOK, Eddy, Paul R., Boyd, Gregory A., Greg Boyd (theologian), 2007, The Jesus legend: a case for the historical reliability of the synoptic Jesus tradition, Baker Academic, 978-0-8010-3114-4,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Jesus: Apocalyptic Prophet of the New Millennium, Bart, Ehrman, Bart D. Ehrman, 1999, 978-0-19-983943-8, Oxford University Press,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Evans, Craig A., Craig A. Evans, 2003, The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary: Matthew-Luke, 978-0-7814-3868-1, David C. Cook,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Evans, Craig A., 2005, The Bible Knowledge Background Commentary: John's Gospel, Hebrews-Revelation, 978-0-7814-4228-2, David C. Cook,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Craig A., Evans,weblink Jesus and His World: The Archaeological Evidence, 2012, Westminster John Knox Press, 978-0-664-23413-3, harv,
  • BOOK, The Gospel of Matthew, R.T., France, R. T. France, 2007, 978-0-8028-2501-8, harv,weblink Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing,
  • BOOK, David N., Freedman, David Noel Freedman, Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible, 2000, Amsterdam University Press, 978-0-8028-2400-4, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Robert W., Funk, Roy W., Hoover, The Five Gospels, Harper, 1993, harv,
  • BOOK, Joel B., Green, Scot, McKnight, I. Howard, Marshall, Joel B. Green, Scot McKnight, I. Howard Marshall, Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels,weblink InterVarsity Press, 1992, 442, 978-0-8308-1777-1, harv,
  • BOOK, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine, Grudem, Wayne, Wayne Grudem, 1994, Zondervan, Grand Rapids, MI, 978-0-310-28670-7,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Stephen L., Harris, Understanding the Bible, Mayfield, 1985, harv,
  • BOOK, Houlden, J. Leslie, Jesus: the complete guide, 2006, 978-0-8264-8011-8, harv, Continuum,weblink
  • BOOK, Andreas J., Köstenberger, L. Scott, Kellum, Charles L, Quarles, The Cradle, the Cross, and the Crown: An Introduction to the New Testament, 2009, 978-0-8054-4365-3,weblink harv, B&H Publishing Group,
  • BOOK, Transfiguration, Dorothy A., Lee, Dorothy Lee (theologian), 2004, 978-0-8264-7595-4, harv,weblink Continuum,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Introduction, Amy-Jill, Levine, Amy-Jill Levine, The Historical Jesus in Context, Levine, Allison, John D., Crossan, Princeton Univ Press, 978-0-691-00992-6, 2006, harv, Amy-Jill, Dale C., Dale Allison,weblink
  • BOOK,weblink The Resurrection of Jesus: A New Historiographical Approach, InterVarsity Press, 2010, 978-0-8308-2719-0, Michael R., Licona, harv,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Paul L., Maier, Paul L. Maier, The Date of the Nativity and Chronology of Jesus, Chronos, kairos, Christos: nativity and chronological studies, Finegan, Jerry, Vardaman, Edwin M., Yamauchi, 1989, 978-0-931464-50-8, harv,weblink Eisenbrauns, Jack, Jack Finegan, Edwin M. Yamauchi,
  • BOOK, The Synoptics: Matthew, Mark, Luke, Ján, Majerník, Joseph, Ponessa, Laurie W., Manhardt, 2005, 978-1-931018-31-9, harv,weblink Emmaus Road Publishing,
  • BOOK,weblink Christianity: An Introduction, John Wiley & Sons, McGrath, Alister E., Alister McGrath, 2006, 4–6, 978-1-4051-0899-7, harv,
  • ENCYCLOPEDIA, Meier, John P., John P. Meier, How do we decide what comes from Jesus, The Historical Jesus in Recent Research, Dunn, McKnight, 2006, 978-1-57506-100-9,weblink harv, James D.G., Eisenbrauns, Scot,
  • BOOK, Mills, Watson E., Bullard, Roger A., 1998, Mercer dictionary of the Bible, Mercer University Press, 978-0-86554-373-7, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Morris, Leon, Leon Morris, 1992, The Gospel according to Matthew, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 978-0-85111-338-8,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Niswonger, Richard L., New Testament History, 1992, 978-0-310-31201-7, harv, Zondervan,weblink
  • BOOK, Pannenberg, Wolfhart, Wolfhart Pannenberg,weblink Jesus – God and Man, 1968, 978-0-334-00783-8, S.C.M. Press, harv,
  • BOOK, Powell, Mark A., Mark Allan Powell, Jesus as a Figure in History: How Modern Historians View the Man from Galilee, 1998, 978-0-664-25703-3,weblink harv, Westminster John Knox Press,
  • BOOK, Rahner, Karl, Karl Rahner, Encyclopedia of theology: a concise Sacramentum mundi, 2004, 978-0-86012-006-3, Continuum, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Who is Jesus?: an introduction to Christology, Thomas P., Rausch, Thomas Rausch, 2003, Liturgical Press, 978-0-8146-5078-3,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Redford, Douglas, The Life and Ministry of Jesus: The Gospels, 2007, 978-0-7847-1900-8, harv,weblink Standard Publishing,
  • BOOK, Archaeology and the Galilean Jesus: a re-examination of the evidence, Jonathan L., Reed, 2002, 978-1-56338-394-6, harv,weblink Continuum,
  • BOOK, Sanders, Ed P., E. P. Sanders, The Historical Figure of Jesus, Allen Lane Penguin Press, 1993,weblink harv, 978-0-14-192822-7,
  • BOOK, Stanton, Graham, Graham Stanton, The Gospels and Jesus, 978-0-521-00802-0, Oxford University Press, 2002, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, Theissen, Gerd, Gerd Theissen, Merz, Annette, Annette Merz, 1998, The Historical Jesus : a Comprehensive Guide, 978-1-4514-0863-8, Fortress Press, harv,weblink
  • BOOK, The Quest for the Plausible Jesus: The Question of Criteria, Gerd, Theissen, Dagmar, Winter, 2002, 978-0-664-22537-7, harv, Westminster John Knox Press,weblink
  • BOOK, Graham H., Twelftree, Graham Twelftree, Jesus the miracle worker: a historical & theological study, 978-0-8308-1596-8,weblink 1999, InterVarsity Press, harv,
  • BOOK, Van Voorst, Robert E, 2000, Jesus Outside the New Testament: An Introduction to the Ancient Evidence, Eerdmans Publishing, 978-0-8028-4368-5,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words, Vine, William E., William Edwy Vine, 1940, Fleming H. Revell Company, harv, 978-0-916441-31-9,
  • BOOK, Jesus the Jew: A Historian's Reading of the Gospels, Vermes, Geza, Geza Vermes, 1981, First Fortress, Philadelphia, 978-0-8006-1443-0,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, The Authentic Gospel of Jesus, Vermes, Geza, Geza Vermes, 2003, Penguin, London, 978-0-14-100360-3,weblink
  • BOOK, The Bible Knowledge Commentary: New Testament, John F., Walvoord, John Walvoord, Roy B., Zuck, 1983, 978-0-88207-812-0, David C. Cook,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Wilson, Barrie A, Barrie Wilson, 2007, How Jesus Became Christian, St.Martin's Press, New York, 978-0-679-31493-6,
  • BOOK, The Jesus Quest: The Third Search for the Jew of Nazareth, Ben, Witherington, Ben Witherington III, 1997, 978-0-8308-1544-9, harv, InterVarsity Press,weblink

External links

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