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Bjarne Stroustrup| latest release version = ISO/IEC 14882:2017Static type>Static, Nominal type system, Type inference>partially inferredClang, GNU Compiler Collection>GCC, Microsoft Visual C++, C++Builder, Intel C++ Compiler, IBM XL C++, Edison Design Group>EDG}}Ada (programming language)>Ada, ALGOL 68, C (programming language), CLU (programming language)>CLU, ML, SimulaAda (programming language)>Ada 95, C Sharp (programming language),NAUGLER DATE=MAY 2007 JOURNAL=JOURNAL OF COMPUTING SCIENCES IN COLLEGES ISSUE=5 C99, Chapel (programming language)>Chapel,CHAPEL SPEC (ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS)>URL=HTTP://CHAPEL.CRAY.COM/SPEC/SPEC-0.98.PDFACCESSDATE=14 JANUARY 2016Clojure,HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170111184835/HTTP://WWW.CODEQUARTERLY.COM/2011/RICH-HICKEY/ ACCESS-DATE=2017-01-11, D (programming language), Java (programming language)>Java,HTTPS://BOOKS.GOOGLE.COM/BOOKS?ID=0RUTBAAAQBAJ&LPG=PA133&PG=PA133#V=ONEPAGE&Q&F=TRUE>TITLE=CRACKING THE JAVA PROGRAMMING INTERVIEW :: 2000+ JAVA INTERVIEW QUE/ANS ACCESSDATE=29 MAY 2016 Lua (programming language)>Lua, Nim (programming language),{{citation needed>date=April 2017}} Perl, PHP, Python (programming language),HTTPS://DOCS.PYTHON.ORG/TUTORIAL/CLASSES.HTMLWEBSITE=DOCS.PYTHON.ORGRust (programming language)>Rust| programming_language = C++ or C| license = .c++}}, .h, .hh, .hpp, .hxx, {{nowrap|.h++}}weblink}}| wikibooks = C++ Programming| caption = }}C++ ({{IPAc-en|ˌ|s|iː|ˌ|p|l|ʌ|s|ˈ|p|l|ʌ|s}} "see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language. It has imperative, object-oriented and generic programming features, while also providing facilities for low-level memory manipulation.It was designed with a bias toward system programming and embedded, resource-constrained and large systems, with performance, efficiency and flexibility of use as its design highlights.WEB,weblink Stroustrup, B., Lecture:The essence of C++. University of Edinburgh., 6 May 2014, 12 June 2015, C++ has also been found useful in many other contexts, with key strengths being software infrastructure and resource-constrained applications, including desktop applications, servers (e.g. e-commerce, Web search or SQL servers), and performance-critical applications (e.g. telephone switches or space probes).WEB,weblink C++ Applications, 17 February 2014, 5 May 2014, Bjarne, Stroustrup, stroustrup.com, C++ is a compiled language, with implementations of it available on many platforms. Many vendors provide C++ compilers, including the Free Software Foundation, Microsoft, Intel, and IBM.C++ is standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), with the latest standard version ratified and published by ISO in December 2017 as ISO/IEC 14882:2017 (informally known as C++17). The C++ programming language was initially standardized in 1998 as ISO/IEC 14882:1998, which was then amended by the C++03, C++11 and C++14 standards. The current C++17 standard supersedes these with new features and an enlarged standard library. Before the initial standardization in 1998, C++ was developed by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs since 1979, as an extension of the C language as he wanted an efficient and flexible language similar to C, which also provided high-level features for program organization.WEB, Bjarne Stroustrup's Homepage,weblink www.stroustrup.com, C++20 is the next planned standard thereafter.Many other programming languages have been influenced by C++, including C#, D, Java, and newer versions of C.

History

File:BjarneStroustrup.jpg|thumb|Bjarne StroustrupBjarne StroustrupIn 1979, Bjarne Stroustrup, a Danish computer scientist, began work on "{{visible anchor|C with Classes}}", the predecessor to C++.WEB,weblink Bjarne Stroustrup's FAQ: When was C++ invented?, Bjarne, Stroustrup, stroustrup.com, 7 March 2010, 16 September 2010,
The motivation for creating a new language originated from Stroustrup's experience in programming for his Ph.D. thesis. Stroustrup found that Simula had features that were very helpful for large software development, but the language was too slow for practical use, while BCPL was fast but too low-level to be suitable for large software development. When Stroustrup started working in AT&T Bell Labs, he had the problem of analyzing the UNIX kernel with respect to distributed computing. Remembering his Ph.D. experience, Stroustrup set out to enhance the C language with Simula-like features.WEB,weblink Evolving a language in and for the real world: C++ 1991-2006, Bjarne, Stroustrup,
C was chosen because it was general-purpose, fast, portable and widely used. As well as C and Simula's influences, other languages also influenced C++, including ALGOL 68, Ada, CLU and ML.
Initially, Stroustrup's "C with Classes" added features to the C compiler, Cpre, including classes, derived classes, strong typing, inlining and default arguments.WEB, Stroustrup, Bjarne, A History of C ++ : 1979− 1991,weblink In 1983, "C with Classes" was renamed to "C++" (++ being the increment operator in C), adding new features that included virtual functions, function name and operator overloading, references, constants, type-safe free-store memory allocation (new/delete), improved type checking, and BCPL style single-line comments with two forward slashes (//). Furthermore, it included the development of a standalone compiler for C++, Cfront.In 1985, the first edition of The C++ Programming Language was released, which became the definitive reference for the language, as there was not yet an official standard.WEB,weblink The C++ Programming Language, First, Bjarne, Stroustrup, 16 September 2010,
The first commercial implementation of C++ was released in October of the same year.
In 1989, C++ 2.0 was released, followed by the updated second edition of The C++ Programming Language in 1991.WEB,weblink The C++ Programming Language, Second, Bjarne, Stroustrup, 16 September 2010, New features in 2.0 included multiple inheritance, abstract classes, static member functions, const member functions, and protected members. In 1990, The Annotated C++ Reference Manual was published. This work became the basis for the future standard. Later feature additions included templates, exceptions, namespaces, new casts, and a boolean type.After the 2.0 update, C++ evolved relatively slowly until, in 2011, the C++11 standard was released, adding numerous new features, enlarging the standard library further, and providing more facilities to C++ programmers. After a minor C++14 update released in December 2014, various new additions were introduced in C++17, and further changes planned for 2020weblink "the next standard after C++17 will be C++20"As of 2017, C++ remains the third most popular programming language, behind Java and C."Latest news." TIOBE Index | TIOBE - The Software Quality Company. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 June 2017.Krill, Paul. "Java, C, C face growing competition in popularity." InfoWorld. InfoWorld, 10 February 2017. Web. 5 June 2017.On January 3, 2018, Stroustrup was announced as the 2018 winner of the Charles Stark Draper Prize for Engineering, "for conceptualizing and developing the C++ programming language".weblink "Computer Science Pioneer Bjarne Stroustrup to Receive the 2018 Charles Stark Draper Prize for Engineering"

Etymology

According to Stroustrup: "the name signifies the evolutionary nature of the changes from C".WEB,weblink Bjarne Stroustrup's FAQ â€“ Where did the name "C++" come from?, 16 January 2008, This name is credited to Rick Mascitti (mid-1983) and was first used in December 1983. When Mascitti was questioned informally in 1992 about the naming, he indicated that it was given in a tongue-in-cheek spirit. The name comes from C's ++ operator (which increments the value of a variable) and a common naming convention of using "+" to indicate an enhanced computer program.During C++'s development period, the language had been referred to as "new C" and "C with Classes"WEB, C For C++ Programmers,weblink Northeastern University, 7 September 2015, before acquiring its final name.

Philosophy

Throughout C++'s life, its development and evolution has been guided by a set of principles:
  • It must be driven by actual problems and its features should be useful immediately in real world programs.
  • Every feature should be implementable (with a reasonably obvious way to do so).
  • Programmers should be free to pick their own programming style, and that style should be fully supported by C++.
  • Allowing a useful feature is more important than preventing every possible misuse of C++.
  • It should provide facilities for organising programs into well-defined separate parts, and provide facilities for combining separately developed parts.
  • No implicit violations of the type system (but allow explicit violations; that is, those explicitly requested by the programmer).
  • User-created types need to have the same support and performance as built-in types.
  • Unused features should not negatively impact created executables (e.g. in lower performance).
  • There should be no language beneath C++ (except assembly language).
  • C++ should work alongside other existing programming languages, rather than fostering its own separate and incompatible programming environment.
  • If the programmer's intent is unknown, allow the programmer to specify it by providing manual control.

Standardization {| class"wikitable floatright" style"margin-left: 1.5em;"

! Year !! C++ Standard !! Informal name! 1998 ISO/IEC 14882:1998ISO/IEC 14882:1998>PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION| C++98! 2003 ISO/IEC 14882:2003ISO/IEC 14882:2003>PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION| C++03! 2011 ISO/IEC 14882:2011ISO/IEC 14882:2011>PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION| C++11, C++0x! 2014 ISO/IEC 14882:2014ISO/IEC 14882:2014>PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION| C++14, C++1y! 2017 ISO/IEC 14882:2017ISO/IEC 14882:2017>PUBLISHER=INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION| C++17, C++1z! 2020 to be determined C++20C++ is standardized by an ISO working group known as JTC1/SC22/WG21. So far, it has published five revisions of the C++ standard and is currently working on the next revision, C++20.In 1998, the ISO working group standardized C++ for the first time as ISO/IEC 14882:1998, which is informally known as C++98. In 2003, it published a new version of the C++ standard called ISO/IEC 14882:2003, which fixed problems identified in C++98.The next major revision of the standard was informally referred to as "C++0x", but it was not released until 2011.WEB,weblink We have an international standard: C++0x is unanimously approved, Sutter's Mill, C++11 (14882:2011) included many additions to both the core language and the standard library.In 2014, C++14 (also known as C++1y) was released as a small extension to C++11, featuring mainly bug fixes and small improvements.WEB, The Future of C++,weblink The Draft International Standard ballot procedures completed in mid-August 2014.WEB, We have C++14! : Standard C++,weblink After C++14, a major revision C++17, informally known as C++1z, was completed by the ISO C++ Committee in mid July 2017 and was approved and published in December 2017.Trip report: Summer ISO C++ standards meeting (Toronto)As part of the standardization process, ISO also publishes technical reports and specifications:
  • ISO/IEC TR 18015:2006WEB, International Organization for Standardization, ISO/IEC TR 18015:2006,weblink on the use of C++ in embedded systems and on performance implications of C++ language and library features,
  • ISO/IEC TR 19768:2007WEB,weblink ISO/IEC TR 19768:2007, International Organization for Standardization, (also known as the C++ Technical Report 1) on library extensions mostly integrated into C++11,
  • ISO/IEC TR 29124:2010WEB,weblink ISO/IEC TR 29124:2010, International Organization for Standardization, on special mathematical functions,
  • ISO/IEC TR 24733:2011WEB,weblink ISO/IEC TR 24733:2011, International Organization for Standardization, on decimal floating point arithmetic,
  • ISO/IEC TS 18822:2015WEB,weblink ISO/IEC TS 18822:2015, International Organization for Standardization, on the standard filesystem library,
  • ISO/IEC TS 19570:2015WEB,weblink ISO/IEC TS 19570:2015, International Organization for Standardization, on parallel versions of the standard library algorithms,
  • ISO/IEC TS 19841:2015WEB,weblink ISO/IEC TS 19841:2015, International Organization for Standardization, on software transactional memory,
  • ISO/IEC TS 19568:2015WEB,weblink ISO/IEC TS 19568:2015, International Organization for Standardization, on a new set of library extensions, some of which are already integrated into C++17,
  • ISO/IEC TS 19217:2015WEB,weblink ISO/IEC TS 19217:2015, International Organization for Standardization, on the C++ Concepts
More technical specifications are in development and pending approval, including concurrency library extensions, a networking standard library, ranges, and modules.See a list atweblink Visited 16 January 2016.

Language

The C++ language has two main components: a direct mapping of hardware features provided primarily by the C subset, and zero-overhead abstractions based on those mappings. Stroustrup describes C++ as "a light-weight abstraction programming language [designed] for building and using efficient and elegant abstractions"; and "offering both hardware access and abstraction is the basis of C++. Doing it efficiently is what distinguishes it from other languages".WEB,weblink B. Stroustrup (interviewed by Sergio De Simone), 30 April 2015, 8 July 2015, Stroustrup: Thoughts on C++17 - An Interview, C++ inherits most of C's syntax. The following is Bjarne Stroustrup's version of the Hello world program that uses the C++ Standard Library stream facility to write a message to standard output:BOOK, Bjarne, Stroustrup, 2000, 46, The C++ Programming Language, Special, Addison-Wesley, 0-201-70073-5, WEB,weblink Open issues for The C++ Programming Language (3rd Edition), Bjarne, Stroustrup, . This code is copied directly from Bjarne Stroustrup's errata page (p. 633). He addresses the use of 'n' rather than std::endl. Also see Can I write "void main()"? for an explanation of the implicit return 0; in the main function. This implicit return is not available in other functions.,
  1. include
int main(){
std::cout

Object storage

As in C, C++ supports four types of memory management: static storage duration objects, thread storage duration objects, automatic storage duration objects, and dynamic storage duration objects.ISO/IEC. Programming Languages – C++11 Draft (n3797) §3.7 Storage duration [basic.stc]

Static storage duration objects

Static storage duration objects are created before main() is entered (see exceptions below) and destroyed in reverse order of creation after main() exits. The exact order of creation is not specified by the standard (though there are some rules defined below) to allow implementations some freedom in how to organize their implementation. More formally, objects of this type have a lifespan that "shall last for the duration of the program".ISO/IEC. Programming Languages – C++11 Draft (n3797) §3.7.1 Static Storage duration [basic.stc.static]Static storage duration objects are initialized in two phases. First, "static initialization" is performed, and only after all static initialization is performed, "dynamic initialization" is performed. In static initialization, all objects are first initialized with zeros; after that, all objects that have a constant initialization phase are initialized with the constant expression (i.e. variables initialized with a literal or constexpr). Though it is not specified in the standard, the static initialization phase can be completed at compile time and saved in the data partition of the executable. Dynamic initialization involves all object initialization done via a constructor or function call (unless the function is marked with constexpr, in C++11). The dynamic initialization order is defined as the order of declaration within the compilation unit (i.e. the same file). No guarantees are provided about the order of initialization between compilation units.

Thread storage duration objects

Variables of this type are very similar to static storage duration objects. The main difference is the creation time is just prior to thread creation and destruction is done after the thread has been joined.ISO/IEC. Programming Languages – C++11 Draft (n3797) §3.7.2 Thread Storage duration [basic.stc.thread]

Automatic storage duration objects

The most common variable types in C++ are local variables inside a function or block, and temporary variables.ISO/IEC. Programming Languages – C++11 Draft (n3797) §3.7.3 Automatic Storage duration [basic.stc.auto] The common feature about automatic variables is that they have a lifetime that is limited to the scope of the variable. They are created and potentially initialized at the point of declaration (see below for details) and destroyed in the reverse order of creation when the scope is left. This is implemented by allocation on the stack.Local variables are created as the point of execution passes the declaration point. If the variable has a constructor or initializer this is used to define the initial state of the object. Local variables are destroyed when the local block or function that they are declared in is closed. C++ destructors for local variables are called at the end of the object lifetime, allowing a discipline for automatic resource management termed RAII, which is widely used in C++.Member variables are created when the parent object is created. Array members are initialized from 0 to the last member of the array in order. Member variables are destroyed when the parent object is destroyed in the reverse order of creation. i.e. If the parent is an "automatic object" then it will be destroyed when it goes out of scope which triggers the destruction of all its members.Temporary variables are created as the result of expression evaluation and are destroyed when the statement containing the expression has been fully evaluated (usually at the ; at the end of a statement).

Dynamic storage duration objects

These objects have a dynamic lifespan and are created with a call to {{cpp|new}} and destroyed explicitly with a call to {{cpp|delete}}.ISO/IEC. Programming Languages – C++11 Draft (n3797) §3.7.4 Dynamic Storage duration [basic.stc.dynamic]

Templates

{{See also|Template metaprogramming|Generic programming}}C++ templates enable generic programming. C++ supports function, class, alias and variable templates. Templates may be parameterized by types, compile-time constants, and other templates. Templates are implemented by instantiation at compile-time. To instantiate a template, compilers substitute specific arguments for a template's parameters to generate a concrete function or class instance. Some substitutions are not possible; these are eliminated by an overload resolution policy described by the phrase "Substitution failure is not an error" (SFINAE). Templates are a powerful tool that can be used for generic programming, template metaprogramming, and code optimization, but this power implies a cost. Template use may increase code size, because each template instantiation produces a copy of the template code: one for each set of template arguments, however, this is the same or smaller amount of code that would be generated if the code was written by hand. This is in contrast to run-time generics seen in other languages (e.g., Java) where at compile-time the type is erased and a single template body is preserved.Templates are different from macros: while both of these compile-time language features enable conditional compilation, templates are not restricted to lexical substitution. Templates are aware of the semantics and type system of their companion language, as well as all compile-time type definitions, and can perform high-level operations including programmatic flow control based on evaluation of strictly type-checked parameters. Macros are capable of conditional control over compilation based on predetermined criteria, but cannot instantiate new types, recurse, or perform type evaluation and in effect are limited to pre-compilation text-substitution and text-inclusion/exclusion. In other words, macros can control compilation flow based on pre-defined symbols but cannot, unlike templates, independently instantiate new symbols. Templates are a tool for static polymorphism (see below) and generic programming.In addition, templates are a compile time mechanism in C++ that is Turing-complete, meaning that any computation expressible by a computer program can be computed, in some form, by a template metaprogram prior to runtime.In summary, a template is a compile-time parameterized function or class written without knowledge of the specific arguments used to instantiate it. After instantiation, the resulting code is equivalent to code written specifically for the passed arguments. In this manner, templates provide a way to decouple generic, broadly applicable aspects of functions and classes (encoded in templates) from specific aspects (encoded in template parameters) without sacrificing performance due to abstraction.

Objects

C++ introduces object-oriented programming (OOP) features to C. It offers classes, which provide the four features commonly present in OOP (and some non-OOP) languages: abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. One distinguishing feature of C++ classes compared to classes in other programming languages is support for deterministic destructors, which in turn provide support for the Resource Acquisition is Initialization (RAII) concept.

Encapsulation

Encapsulation is the hiding of information to ensure that data structures and operators are used as intended and to make the usage model more obvious to the developer. C++ provides the ability to define classes and functions as its primary encapsulation mechanisms. Within a class, members can be declared as either public, protected, or private to explicitly enforce encapsulation. A public member of the class is accessible to any function. A private member is accessible only to functions that are members of that class and to functions and classes explicitly granted access permission by the class ("friends"). A protected member is accessible to members of classes that inherit from the class in addition to the class itself and any friends.The object-oriented principle ensures the encapsulation of all and only the functions that access the internal representation of a type. C++ supports this principle via member functions and friend functions, but it does not enforce it. Programmers can declare parts or all of the representation of a type to be public, and they are allowed to make public entities not part of the representation of a type. Therefore, C++ supports not just object-oriented programming, but other decomposition paradigms such as modular programming.It is generally considered good practice to make all data private or protected, and to make public only those functions that are part of a minimal interface for users of the class. This can hide the details of data implementation, allowing the designer to later fundamentally change the implementation without changing the interface in any way.BOOK, Herb, Sutter, Andrei, Alexandrescu, Herb Sutter, Andrei Alexandrescu, 2004, C++ Coding Standards: 101 Rules, Guidelines, and Best Practices, Addison-Wesley, BOOK, Henricson, Mats, Nyquist, Erik, Industrial Strength C++, Prentice Hall, 1997, 0-13-120965-5,

Inheritance

Inheritance allows one data type to acquire properties of other data types. Inheritance from a base class may be declared as public, protected, or private. This access specifier determines whether unrelated and derived classes can access the inherited public and protected members of the base class. Only public inheritance corresponds to what is usually meant by "inheritance". The other two forms are much less frequently used. If the access specifier is omitted, a "class" inherits privately, while a "struct" inherits publicly. Base classes may be declared as virtual; this is called virtual inheritance. Virtual inheritance ensures that only one instance of a base class exists in the inheritance graph, avoiding some of the ambiguity problems of multiple inheritance.Multiple inheritance is a C++ feature not found in most other languages, allowing a class to be derived from more than one base class; this allows for more elaborate inheritance relationships. For example, a "Flying Cat" class can inherit from both "Cat" and "Flying Mammal". Some other languages, such as C# or Java, accomplish something similar (although more limited) by allowing inheritance of multiple interfaces while restricting the number of base classes to one (interfaces, unlike classes, provide only declarations of member functions, no implementation or member data). An interface as in C# and Java can be defined in C++ as a class containing only pure virtual functions, often known as an abstract base class or "ABC". The member functions of such an abstract base class are normally explicitly defined in the derived class, not inherited implicitly. C++ virtual inheritance exhibits an ambiguity resolution feature called dominance.

Operators and operator overloading {| class"wikitable" style"float: right; margin: 0.5em 0 1em 2em;"|+ Operators that cannot be overloaded

! style="text-align: center" | Operator! style="width: 9em" | Symbol! style="text-align: center" | Scope resolution operator ::}}! style="text-align: center" | Conditional operator ?:}}! style="text-align: center" | dot operator .}}! style="text-align: center" | Member selection operator .*}}! style="text-align: center" | "sizeof" operator sizeof}}! style="text-align: center" | "typeid" operator typeid}}C++ provides more than 35 operators, covering basic arithmetic, bit manipulation, indirection, comparisons, logical operations and others. Almost all operators can be overloaded for user-defined types, with a few notable exceptions such as member access (. and .*) as well as the conditional operator. The rich set of overloadable operators is central to making user-defined types in C++ seem like built-in types.Overloadable operators are also an essential part of many advanced C++ programming techniques, such as smart pointers. Overloading an operator does not change the precedence of calculations involving the operator, nor does it change the number of operands that the operator uses (any operand may however be ignored by the operator, though it will be evaluated prior to execution). Overloaded "&&" and "||" operators lose their short-circuit evaluation property.

Polymorphism

{{See also|Polymorphism (computer science)}}Polymorphism enables one common interface for many implementations, and for objects to act differently under different circumstances.C++ supports several kinds of static (resolved at compile-time) and dynamic (resolved at run-time) polymorphisms, supported by the language features described above. Compile-time polymorphism does not allow for certain run-time decisions, while runtime polymorphism typically incurs a performance penalty.

Static polymorphism

{{See also|Parametric polymorphism|ad hoc polymorphism}}Function overloading allows programs to declare multiple functions having the same name but with different arguments (i.e. ad hoc polymorphism). The functions are distinguished by the number or types of their formal parameters. Thus, the same function name can refer to different functions depending on the context in which it is used. The type returned by the function is not used to distinguish overloaded functions and would result in a compile-time error message.When declaring a function, a programmer can specify for one or more parameters a default value. Doing so allows the parameters with defaults to optionally be omitted when the function is called, in which case the default arguments will be used. When a function is called with fewer arguments than there are declared parameters, explicit arguments are matched to parameters in left-to-right order, with any unmatched parameters at the end of the parameter list being assigned their default arguments. In many cases, specifying default arguments in a single function declaration is preferable to providing overloaded function definitions with different numbers of parameters.Templates in C++ provide a sophisticated mechanism for writing generic, polymorphic code (i.e. parametric polymorphism). In particular, through the curiously recurring template pattern, it's possible to implement a form of static polymorphism that closely mimics the syntax for overriding virtual functions. Because C++ templates are type-aware and Turing-complete, they can also be used to let the compiler resolve recursive conditionals and generate substantial programs through template metaprogramming. Contrary to some opinion, template code will not generate a bulk code after compilation with the proper compiler settings.WEB, 8 March 2010, EmptyCrate Software. Travel. Stuff.,weblink Nobody Understands C++: Part 5: Template Code Bloat, 6 May 2008,weblink On occasion you will read or hear someone talking about C++ templates causing code bloat. I was thinking about it the other day and thought to myself, "self, if the code does exactly the same thing then the compiled code cannot really be any bigger, can it?" [...] And what about compiled code size? Each were compiled with the command g++ .cpp -O3. Non-template version: 8140 bytes, template version: 8028 bytes!,

Dynamic polymorphism

Inheritance

{{See also|Subtyping}}Variable pointers and references to a base class type in C++ can also refer to objects of any derived classes of that type. This allows arrays and other kinds of containers to hold pointers to objects of differing types (references cannot be directly held in containers). This enables dynamic (run-time) polymorphism, where the referred objects can behave differently depending on their (actual, derived) types.C++ also provides the dynamic_cast operator, which allows code to safely attempt conversion of an object, via a base reference/pointer, to a more derived type: downcasting. The attempt is necessary as often one does not know which derived type is referenced. (Upcasting, conversion to a more general type, can always be checked/performed at compile-time via static_cast, as ancestral classes are specified in the derived class's interface, visible to all callers.) dynamic_cast relies on run-time type information (RTTI), metadata in the program that enables differentiating types and their relationships. If a dynamic_cast to a pointer fails, the result is the nullptr constant, whereas if the destination is a reference (which cannot be null), the cast throws an exception. Objects known to be of a certain derived type can be cast to that with static_cast, bypassing RTTI and the safe runtime type-checking of dynamic_cast, so this should be used only if the programmer is very confident the cast is, and will always be, valid.

Virtual member functions

Ordinarily, when a function in a derived class overrides a function in a base class, the function to call is determined by the type of the object. A given function is overridden when there exists no difference in the number or type of parameters between two or more definitions of that function. Hence, at compile time, it may not be possible to determine the type of the object and therefore the correct function to call, given only a base class pointer; the decision is therefore put off until runtime. This is called dynamic dispatch. Virtual member functions or methodsBOOK, A virtual member function is sometimes called a method., Bjarne, Stroustrup, 2000, 310, The C++ Programming Language, Special, Addison-Wesley, 0-201-70073-5, allow the most specific implementation of the function to be called, according to the actual run-time type of the object. In C++ implementations, this is commonly done using virtual function tables. If the object type is known, this may be bypassed by prepending a fully qualified class name before the function call, but in general calls to virtual functions are resolved at run time.In addition to standard member functions, operator overloads and destructors can be virtual. As a rule of thumb, if any function in the class is virtual, the destructor should be as well. As the type of an object at its creation is known at compile time, constructors, and by extension copy constructors, cannot be virtual. Nonetheless a situation may arise where a copy of an object needs to be created when a pointer to a derived object is passed as a pointer to a base object. In such a case, a common solution is to create a clone() (or similar) virtual function that creates and returns a copy of the derived class when called.A member function can also be made "pure virtual" by appending it with = 0 after the closing parenthesis and before the semicolon. A class containing a pure virtual function is called an abstract class. Objects cannot be created from an abstract class; they can only be derived from. Any derived class inherits the virtual function as pure and must provide a non-pure definition of it (and all other pure virtual functions) before objects of the derived class can be created. A program that attempts to create an object of a class with a pure virtual member function or inherited pure virtual member function is ill-formed.

Lambda expressions

C++ provides support for anonymous functions, also known as lambda expressions, with the following form:[capture](parameters) -> return_type { function_body }The [capture] list supports the definition of closures. Such lambda expressions are defined in the standard as syntactic sugar for an unnamed function object. An example lambda function may be defined as follows:[](int x, int y) -> int { return x + y; }

Exception handling

Exception handling is used to communicate the existence of a runtime problem or error from where it was detected to where the issue can be handled.WEB,weblink C and C++ Exceptions, Templates, 2013, 30 August 2016, Cambridge Computer Laboratory - Course Materials 2013-14, Mycroft, Alan, It permits this to be done in a uniform manner and separately from the main code, while detecting all errors.BOOK, The C++ Programming Language, Stroustrup, Bjarne, Addison Wesley, 2013, 9780321563842, 345, Should an error occur, an exception is thrown (raised), which is then caught by the nearest suitable exception handler. The exception causes the current scope to be exited, and also each outer scope (propagation) until a suitable handler is found, calling in turn the destructors of any objects in these exited scopes.BOOK, The C++ Programming Language, Stroustrup, Bjarne, Addison Wesley, 2013, 9780321563842, 363–365, At the same time, an exception is presented as an object carrying the data about the detected problem.BOOK, The C++ Programming Language, Stroustrup, Bjarne, Addison Wesley, 2013, 9780321563842, 345, 363, Note that many C++ "styles", like Google'sweblink forbid usage of exceptions in C++ programs, restricting the language thusly.The exception-causing code is placed inside a try block. The exceptions are handled in separate catch blocks (the handlers); each try block can have multiple exception handlers, as it is visible in the example below.BOOK, The C++ Programming Language, Stroustrup, Bjarne, Addison Wesley, 2013, 9780321563842, 344, 370,
  1. include
  2. include
  3. include
int main() {
try {
std::vector vec{3, 4, 3, 1};
int i{vec.at(4)}; // Throws an exception, std::out_of_range (indexing for vec is from 0-3 not 1-4)
}
// An exception handler, catches std::out_of_range, which is thrown by vec.at(4)
catch (std::out_of_range &e) {
std::cerr


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