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{{short description|Dialect of the Lisp programming language}}{{Distinguish|Clozure CL|Google Closure Tools|Closure (computer programming)}}{{multiple issues|{{primary sources|date=April 2017}}{{self-published|date=April 2017}}{{unreliable sources|date=April 2017}}{{More footnotes|date=July 2012}}}}

|| 1.0| 1.1|2009-12-31| 1.2|2010-08-19| 1.3|2011-09-23| 1.4|2012-04-15|Reader literals| 1.5|2013-03-01|Reducers| 1.6| 1.7| 1.8| 1.9
name Clojure| logo = Clojure logo.svg

multi-paradigm programming language>multi-paradigm:{{flatlist|
    WEBSITE=REPO1.MAVEN.ORG ACCESS-DATE=2018-12-17, {edih}| implementations =| dialects = }} }} }}| license = Eclipse Public Licenseweblink}}
    • .clj
    • .cljs
    • .cljc
    • .edn
    }}| wikibooks = Clojure Programming}}Clojure ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|k|l|oʊ|ʒ|ər}}, like closure)WEB,weblink meaning and pronunciation of Clojure, Hickey, Rich, Google Groups, 2012-04-20, is a modern, dynamic, and functional dialect of the Lisp programming language on the Java platform.WEB,weblink Clojure inventor Hickey now aims for Android, Krill, Paul,, 2018-11-08, WEB,weblink Clojure – home,, 2015-09-15, Like other Lisps, Clojure treats code as data and has a Lisp macro system.WEB,weblink Clojure – Lisp,, 2015-09-15, The current development process is community-driven,WEB,weblink Contributing FAQ – Clojure Community – Clojure Development,, 2015-09-15, overseen by Rich Hickey as its benevolent dictator for life (BDFL).WEB,weblink Clojure – funding,, 2015-09-15, Clojure advocates immutability and immutable data structures and encourages programmers to be explicit about managing identity and its states.WEB,weblink, Clojure – state, 2015-09-15, This focus on programming with immutable values and explicit progression-of-time constructs is intended to facilitate developing more robust programs, especially multithreaded ones. While its type system is entirely dynamic, recent efforts have also sought the implementation of gradual typing.WEB,weblink clojure/core.typed, GitHub, 2015-09-15,
    Commercial support for Clojure is provided by Cognitect.WEB,weblink Clojure Programming Language: Cognitect, Clojure Consulting, Clojure Support, Functional Programming, JVM,, 2015-09-15, Annual Clojure conferences are organised every year across the globe, the most famous of them being Clojure/conj (US east coast),Clojure/conj Clojure/West (US west coast),Clojure/West and EuroClojure (Europe).EuroClojure

    History and development process

    (File:Rich Hickey.jpg|thumb|Rich Hickey, creator of Clojure)Rich Hickey is the creator of the Clojure language. Before Clojure, he developed dotLisp, a similar project based on the .NET platform,WEB,weblink [ANN] dotLisp – a Lisp dialect for .Net, Google Groups, and three earlier attempts to provide interoperability between Lisp and Java: a Java foreign language interface for Common Lisp (jfli),WEB,weblink jfli, a Java foreign language interface for Common Lisp, A Foreign Object Interface for Lisp (FOIL),WEB,weblink Foil – a Foreign Object Interface for Lisp, and a Lisp-friendly interface to Java Servlets'' (Lisplets).WEB,weblink Lisplets – a Lisp-friendly interface to Java Servlets, Hickey spent about 2½ years working on Clojure before releasing it publicly, much of that time working exclusively on Clojure with no outside funding. At the end of this time, Hickey sent an email announcing the language to some friends in the Common Lisp community.The development process is community-driven and is managed at the Clojure Community website.Clojure Community website The website contains planning documents and an issue tracker where bugs may be filed. General development discussion occurs at the Clojure Dev Google Group.Clojure Dev Google Group Anyone can submit bug reports and ideas, but to contribute patches, one must sign the Clojure Contributor agreement.WEB,weblink Contributing FAQ – Clojure Community – Clojure Development,, 2015-09-16, JIRA tickets are processed by a team of screeners and finally Rich Hickey approves the changes.WEB,weblink JIRA workflow – Clojure Community – Clojure Development,, 2015-09-16,

    Design philosophy

    Rich Hickey developed Clojure because he wanted a modern Lisp for functional programming, symbiotic with the established Java platform, and designed for concurrency.WEB,weblink Rationale, Hickey, Rich,, 2008-10-17, WEB, Charles,weblink Expert to Expert: Rich Hickey and Brian Beckman – Inside Clojure; Going Deep; Channel 9,, 2009-10-06, 2012-06-28, WEB,weblink Economy Size Geek – Interview with Rich Hickey, Creator of Clojure, Linux Journal, 2015-09-15, Clojure's approach to state is characterized by the concept of identities,WEB,weblink On State and Identity, Hickey, Rich,, 2010-03-01, which are represented as a series of immutable states over time. Since states are immutable values, any number of workers can operate on them in parallel, and concurrency becomes a question of managing changes from one state to another. For this purpose, Clojure provides several mutable reference types, each having well-defined semantics for the transition between states.

    Features{| class"wikitable floatright" style"margin-top: 0.8em; margin-left: 1em;"

    ! Version! Release date! Major features/improvements
    WEBSITE=CLOJURE BLOG, 2015-09-16, |Initial public release
    WEBSITE=CLOJURE.ORG, 2015-09-16,
    WEBSITE=GITHUB, 2015-09-16,
    WEBSITE=GROUPS.GOOGLE.COM, 2015-09-16, |Java API, improved hashing algorithms
    WEBSITE=COGNITECT, 2017-12-08, |Transducers, reader conditionals
    WEBSITE=GROUPS.GOOGLE.COM, 2016-01-25, |Additional string functions, direct linking, socket server
    WEBSITE=GROUPS.GOOGLE.COM, 2017-12-08, |Integration with spec, command-line tools
    c |1.10}}WEBSITE=CLOJURE.ORG, 2018-12-17, |Improved error reporting, Java compatibility
    Clojure runs on the Java platform and as a result, integrates with Java and fully supports calling Java code from Clojure,WEB,weblink Clojure – jvm_hosted,, 2015-09-15, and Clojure code can be called from Java also.WEB,weblink Clojure – java_interop,, 2015-09-15, The community uses LeiningenWEB,weblink Leiningen,, 2015-09-15, Hagelberg, Phil, contributors, for project automation, providing support for Maven integration. Leiningen handles project package management and dependencies and is configured using Clojure syntax.Like most other Lisps, Clojure's syntax is built on S-expressions that are first parsed into data structures by a reader before being compiled.WEB,weblink Clojure – reader,, 2015-09-15, Clojure's reader supports literal syntax for maps, sets and vectors in addition to lists, and these are compiled to the mentioned structures directly. Clojure is a Lisp-1 and is not intended to be code-compatible with other dialects of Lisp, since it uses its own set of data structures incompatible with other Lisps.WEB,weblink Clojure – Lisps,, 2015-09-15, As a Lisp dialect, Clojure supports functions as first-class objects, a read–eval–print loop (REPL), and a macro system.WEB,weblink Clojure – macros,, 2015-09-15, Clojure's Lisp macro system is very similar to that in Common Lisp with the exception that Clojure's version of the backquote (termed "syntax quote") qualifies symbols with their namespace. This helps prevent unintended name capture, as binding to namespace-qualified names is forbidden. It is possible to force a capturing macro expansion, but it must be done explicitly. Clojure does not allow user-defined reader macros, but the reader supports a more constrained form of syntactic extension.WEB,weblink edn, Hickey, Rich, GitHub, 2014-05-24, Clojure supports multimethodsWEB,weblink Clojure – multimethods,, 2015-09-15, and for interface-like abstractions has a protocolWEB,weblink Clojure – protocols,, 2015-09-15, based polymorphism and data type system using records,WEB,weblink Clojure – datatypes,, 2015-09-15, providing high-performance and dynamic polymorphism designed to avoid the expression problem.Clojure has support for lazy sequences and encourages the principle of immutability and persistent data structures. As a functional language, emphasis is placed on recursion and higher-order functions instead of side-effect-based looping. Automatic tail call optimization is not supported as the JVM does not support it natively;WEB,weblink Brian Goetz – Stewardship: the Sobering Parts, Goetz, Brian, YouTube: ClojureTV, 2015-09-15, WEB,weblink tail calls in the VM, Rose, John,, 2018-11-03, WEB,weblink Some languages need to be able to perform tail calls, Rose, John, JDK Bug System, 2018-11-03, it is possible to do so explicitly by using the recur keyword.WEB,weblink Clojure – special_forms,, 2015-09-15, For parallel and concurrent programming Clojure provides software transactional memory,WEB,weblink Clojure – Refs,, 2015-09-15, a reactive agent system,WEB,weblink Clojure – Agents,, 2016-07-04, and channel-based concurrent programming.WEB,weblink Clojure: Clojure core.async Channels,, 2015-09-15, Clojure 1.7 introduced reader conditionals by allowing the embedding of Clojure and ClojureScript code in the same namespace.WEB,weblink Clojure – reader,, 2015-09-15, Transducers were added as a method for composing transformations. Transducers enable higher-order functions such as map and fold to generalize over any source of input data. While traditionally these functions operate on sequences, transducers allow them to work on channels and let the user define their own models for transduction."Transducers" by Rich Hickey.weblink Retrieved on 2015-09-15.WEB,weblink Transducers are Coming, 2015-09-15, WEB,weblink Rich Hickey – Inside Transducers, 2014-11-20, YouTube: Cognitect Inc., 2015-09-15,


    The primary platform of Clojure is Java, but other target implementations exist. The most notable of these are ClojureScript,WEB,weblink Clojure/Clojurescript, GitHub, 2015-09-15, which compiles to ECMAScript 3,WEB,weblink ClojureScript – FAQ (for JavaScript developers),, 2018-02-04, and ClojureCLR,WEB,weblink clojure/clojure-clr, GitHub, 2012-06-28, a full port on the .NET platform, interoperable with its ecosystem. A survey of the Clojure community with 1,060 respondents conducted in 2013WEB,weblink Results of the 2013 State of Clojure & ClojureScript survey, Emerick, Chas, Cemerick, 2015-09-17, found that 47% of respondents used both Clojure and ClojureScript when working with Clojure. In 2014 this number had increased to 55%,WEB,weblink State of Clojure 2014 Survey Results, Cognitect Blog, 2015-09-17, in 2015, based on 2,445 respondents, to 66%.WEB,weblink State of Clojure 2015 Survey Results, Cognitect Blog, 2016-09-08, Popular ClojureScript projects include implementations of the React library such as ReagentWEB,weblink Reagent, GitHub, and Om.WEB,weblink Om, GitHub, WEB,weblink Om: Enhancing Facebook's React with Immutability, InfoQ, 2015-09-17,


    With the continued interest in functional programming, Clojure's adoption by the software developers on the Java platform has kept increasing. The language has also been either preferred or recommended by renowned software development veterans such as James Gosling,WEB,weblink James Gostling meetup with London Java Community, 2016-10-11, 2019-02-10, Paul Graham,WEB,weblink Paul Graham on Twitter, Graham, Paul, 2016-05-06, 2019-02-10, and Robert C. Martin (also known as “Uncle Bob”.)WEB,weblink Unble Bob Martin on Twitter, Martin, Robert, 2018-11-29, 2019-02-10, In the "JVM Ecsosystem Report 2018" (which was claimed to be "the largest survey ever of Java developers"), prepared in collaboration by Snyk and Java Magazine, Clojure was ranked the 2nd most used programming language (behind Java) for "main applications".WEB,weblink JVM Ecosystem Report 2018 - Synk, Maple, Simon, Binstock, Andrew, 2018-10-17, 2019-02-10, Clojure is used in industry by firmsWEB,weblink Clojure - Success Stories,, 2018-10-27, such as Apple,WEB,weblink Roman Liutikov at Twitter, Twitter, 2018-10-27, WEB,weblink Jobs at Apple, Apple Inc, 2018-10-27, Atlassian,WEB,weblink Realtime Collaboration with Clojure, Borges, Leonardo, 2015-07-07, 2019-02-10, Funding Circle,WEB,weblink JUXT Blog: Clojure in London: Funding Circle,, 2017-02-01, Netflix,WEB,weblink The New Stack Makers: Adrian Cockcroft on Sun, Netflix, Clojure, Go, Docker and More, Williams, Alex, 2014-08-03, 2019-02-10, Puppet,WEB,weblink A New Era of Application Services at Puppet Labs, Puppet Labs, 2015-09-15, and WalmartWEB,weblink Walmart Runs Clojure at Scale,, 2015-09-15, as well as government agencies such as NASAWEB,weblink nasa/Common-Metadata-Repository, GitHub, . It has also been used for creative computing, including visual art, music, games, and poetry.WEB,weblink Creative computing with Clojure, Meier, Carin, O'Reilly Radar, 2015-09-17, ThoughtWorks, while assessing functional programming languages for their Technology Radar,WEB,weblink Frequently Asked Questions - Technology Radar - ThoughtWorks, 2019-02-10, expressed their favor toward Clojure as "a simple, elegant implementation of Lisp on the JVM" in 2010 and promoted its status to "ADOPT" in 2012.WEB,weblink Clojure - Technology Radar - ThoughtWorks, 2019-02-10, A growing number of unofficial and experimental implementations for other platforms testify to the popularity of the language:
    • las3r,WEB,weblink Home: aemoncannon/las3r Wiki, aemoncannon, GitHub, 2010-12-30, 2012-06-28, a subset of Clojure that runs on the ActionScript Virtual Machine (the Adobe Flash Player platform)
    • clojure-py,WEB,weblink drewr/clojure-py, GitHub, 2017-01-10, Clojure in pure Python
    • rouge,WEB,weblink rouge-lang/rouge, GitHub, 2015-12-19, Clojure atop YARV in Ruby
    • CljPerl,WEB,weblink A Lisp on Perl, MetaCPAN, 2014-05-25, Clojure atop Perl
    • Pixie, Clojure-inspired Lisp dialect written in RPython
    • Ferret,WEB,weblink Ferret, GitHub, compiles to self-contained C++11 that can run on microcontrollers
    • Joker,WEB,weblink Joker, GitHub, an interpreter and linter written in Go
    • clojerl,WEB,weblink clojerl, GitHub, Clojure on the Erlang VM


    Hello, World! program

    (println "Hello, World!")

    Programming at REPL

    Like other Lisps, one of the iconic features of Clojure is interactive programming at the REPL.WEB,weblink Programming at the REPL: Introduction,, 2018-12-04, Note that, in the following examples, ";;" starts a line comment and ";; =>" indicates output:
    define a var
    (def a 42)
    => #'user/a
    call a function named `+`
    (+ a 8)
    => 50
    call a function named `even?`
    (even? a)
    => true
    define a function that returns the remainder of `n` when divided by 10
    (defn foo [n] (rem n 10))
    => #'user/foo
    call the function
    (foo a)
    => 2
    print the docstring of `rem`
    (doc rem)
    clojure.core/rem([num div])
    remainder of dividing numerator by denominator.

    print the source of `rem`
    (source rem)
    (defn rem
    "remainder of dividing numerator by denominator."
    {:added "1.0"
    :static true
    :inline (fn [x y] `(. clojure.lang.Numbers (remainder ~x ~y)))}
    [num div]
    (. clojure.lang.Numbers (remainder num div)))

    Names at runtime

    Unlike other runtime environments where names get compiled away, Clojure's runtime environment is easily introspectable using normal Clojure data structures:
    define a var
    (def a 42)
    => #'user/a
    get a map of all public vars interned in the `user` namespace
    (ns-publics 'user)
    => {a #'user/a}
    reference the var via `#'` (reader macro) and
    its associated, namespace-qualified symbol `user/a`
    1. 'user/a

    => #'user/a
    de-reference (get the value of) the var
    (deref #'user/a)
    => 42
    define a function (with a docstring) that
    returns the remainder of `n` when divided by 10
    (defn foo "returns `(rem n 10)`" [n] (rem n 10))
    => #'user/foo
    get the metadata of the var `#'user/foo`
    (meta #'user/foo)
    {:arglists ([n]),
    :doc "returns `(rem n 10)`",
    :line 1,
    :column 1,
    :file "user.clj",
    :name foo,
    :ns #namespace[user]}

    Code as data (homoiconicity)

    Similar to other Lisps, Clojure is homoiconic (also known as code as data). In the example below, we can see how easy it is to write code that modifies code itself:
    call a function (code)
    (+ 1 1)
    => 2
    quote the function call
    (turning code into data, which is a list of symbols)
    (quote (+ 1 1))
    => (+ 1 1)
    get the first element on the list
    (operating on code as data)
    (first (quote (+ 1 1)))
    => +
    get the last element on the list
    (operating on code as data)
    (last (quote (+ 1 1)))
    => 1
    get a new list by replacing the symbols on the original list
    (manipulating code as data)
    (map (fn [form]
    (case form
    1 'one
    + 'plus))
    (quote (+ 1 1)))

    => (plus one one)

    Expressive operators for data transformation

    The threading macros (->, ->>, and friends) can syntactically express the abstraction of piping a collection of data through a series of transformations:(->> (range 10)
    (map inc)
    (filter even?))

    => (2 4 6 8 10)
    This can also be achieved more efficiently using transducers:(sequence (comp (map inc)
    (filter even?))
    (range 10))

    => (2 4 6 8 10)

    Thread-safe management of identity and state

    A thread-safe generator of unique serial numbers (though, like many other Lisp dialects, Clojure has a built-in gensym function that it uses internally):(def i (atom 0))(defn generate-unique-id
    "Returns a distinct numeric ID for each call."
    (swap! i inc))


    An anonymous subclass of that doesn't write to anything, and a macro using it to silence all prints within it:(def bit-bucket-writer
    (proxy [] []
    (write [buf] nil)
    (close [] nil)
    (flush [] nil)))
    (defmacro noprint
    "Evaluates the given `forms` with all printing to `*out*` silenced."
    [& forms]
    `(binding [*out* bit-bucket-writer]
    (println "Hello, nobody!"))

    => nil

    Language interoperability with Java

    Clojure was created from ground up to embrace its host platforms as one of its design goals thus provides excellent language interoperability with Java:
    call an instance method
    (.toUpperCase "apple")
    => "APPLE"
    call a static method
    (System/getProperty "java.vm.version")
    => "12+33"
    create an instance of `java.util.HashMap` and
    add some entries
    (doto (java.util.HashMap.)
    (.put "apple" 1)
    (.put "banana" 2))

    => {"banana" 2, "apple" 1}
    create an instance of `java.util.ArrayList` and
    increment its elements with `clojure.core/map`
    (def al (doto (java.util.ArrayList.)
    (.add 1)
    (.add 2)
    (.add 3)))
    (map inc al)
    => (2 3 4)
    show a message dialog using Java Swing
    "Hello, World!")

    => nil

    Software transactional memory

    10 threads manipulating one shared data structure, which consists of 100 vectors each one containing 10 (initially sequential) unique numbers. Each thread then repeatedly selects two random positions in two random vectors and swaps them. All changes to the vectors occur in transactions by making use of Clojure's software transactional memory system:(defn run
    [nvecs nitems nthreads niters]
    (let [vec-refs
    (->> (* nvecs nitems)
    (into [] (comp (partition-all nitems)
    (map vec)
    (map ref))))

    #(let [v1 (rand-int nvecs)
    v2 (rand-int nvecs)
    i1 (rand-int nitems)
    i2 (rand-int nitems)]
    (let [tmp (nth @(vec-refs v1) i1)]
    (alter (vec-refs v1) assoc i1 (nth @(vec-refs v2) i2))
    (alter (vec-refs v2) assoc i2 tmp))))

    #(->> vec-refs
    (into [] (comp (map deref)
    (map (fn [v] (prn v) v))
    (println "Distinct:"))]


    (->> #(dotimes [_ niters] (swap))
    (repeat nthreads)
    (apply pcalls)

    (run 100 10 10 100000)
    [0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9][10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19]
    [990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999]Distinct: 1000[382 318 466 963 619 22 21 273 45 596][808 639 804 471 394 904 952 75 289 778]
    [484 216 622 139 651 592 379 228 242 355]Distinct: 1000nil


    Tooling for Clojure development has seen significant improvement over the years. The following is a list of the most popular IDEs/editors with their plug-ins that combined provide excellent support for Clojure development:WEB,weblink "State of Clojure 2018" Results, Miller, Alex,, 2018-12-09,
    • Emacs, with CIDERWEB,weblink CIDER: The Clojure Interactive Development Environment that Rocks,
    • IntelliJ IDEA, with CursiveWEB,weblink Cursive: IntelliJ IDEA plug-in for Clojure(Script), (a free, non-commercial license is available)
    • Vim, with fireplace.vimWEB,weblink fireplace.vim: Clojure REPL Support,
    • Visual Studio Code, with CalvaWEB,weblink Calva: Clojure(Script) Interactive Programming,
    • LightTableWEB,weblink LightTable: The Next Generation Code Editor,
    In addition to the tools provided by the community, the official CLI tools have also become available on GNU/Linux, macOS, and Windows since Clojure 1.9Clojure - Deps and CLI Guide

    See also



    Further reading

    • {{citation| first1 = Russ| last1 = Olsen| year = 2018| title = Getting Clojure| publisher = Pragmatic Bookshelf| edition = 1st| isbn = 978-1-68050-300-5| url =weblink
    • {{citation| first1 = Alex| last1 = Miller| first2 = Stuart| last2 = Halloway| first3 = Aaron| last3 = Bedra| year = 2018| title = Clojure Programming| publisher = Pragmatic Bookshelf| edition = 3rd| isbn = 978-1-68050-246-6| url =weblink
    • {{citation| first1 = Dmitri| last1 = Sotnikov| year = 2016| title = Web Development with Clojure| publisher = Pragmatic Bookshelf| edition = 2nd| isbn = 978-1-68050-082-0| url =weblink
    • {hide}citation| first1 = Amit| last1 = Rathore| first2 = Francis| last2 = Avila| year = 2015| title = Clojure in ActionManning_Publications>Manning| edition = 2nd| isbn = 978-1-61729-152-4
    • {{citation| first1 = Daniel| last1 = Higginbotham| year = 2015| title = Clojure for the Brave and True| publisher = No Starch Press| edition = 1st| isbn = 978-1-59327-591-4| url =weblink
    • {{citation| first1 = Julian| last1 = Gamble| year = 2015| title = Clojure Recipes| publisher = Pearson Publishing| edition = 1st| isbn = 978-0-32192-773-6| url =weblink
    • {{citation| first1 = Ben| last1 = Vandgrift| first2 = Alex| last2 = Miller| year = 2015| title = Clojure Applied| publisher = Pragmatic Bookshelf| edition = 1st| isbn = 978-1-68050-074-5| url =weblink
    • {{citation| first1 = Eric| last1 = Rochester| year = 2015| title = Clojure Data Analysis Cookbook| publisher = Packt Publishing| edition = 2nd| isbn = 978-1-78439-029-7| url =weblink
    • {{citation| first1 = Michael| last1 = Fogus| first2 = Chris| last2 = Houser| year = 2014| title = The Joy of Clojure
    Manning_Publications>Manning| edition = 2nd| isbn = 1-617291-41-2| url =weblink}}
    • {{citation| first1 = Eric| last1 = Rochester| year = 2014| title = Mastering Clojure Data Analysis| publisher = Packt Publishing| edition = 1st| isbn = 978-1-78328-413-9| url =weblink
    • {{citation| first1 = Chas| last1 = Emerick| first2 = Brian| last2 = Carper| first3 = Christophe| last3 = Grand| date = April 19, 2012| title = Clojure Programming| publisher = O'Reilly Media| edition = 1st| isbn = 1-4493-9470-1| url =weblink
    • {{citation| first1 = Luke| last1 = VanderHart| first2 = Stuart| last2 = Sierra| date = June 7, 2010| title = Practical Clojure| publisher = Apress| edition = 1st| isbn = 978-1-4302-7231-1| url =weblink

    External links

    {{Official website}}{{Lisp programming language}}{{Lisp}}{{Java (Sun)}}{{Authority control}}

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