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{{short description|Hosting service for software projects using Git}}{{Use mdy dates|date=October 2018}}









factoids
name GitHub, Inc.



54px) (File:GitHub logo 2013 padded.svg|128px)|screenshot = |caption = |company_type = Subsidiary
    |CEO = Nat Friedman
    WEBSITE=VENTUREBEAT.COM LANGUAGE=EN, |industry = Software|international = YesWEBSITE=GITHUB, |url = {{official url}}Ruby (programming language)>Ruby201912WEBSITE=WWW.ALEXA.COM LANGUAGE=EN, |website type = Collaborative version control|registration = Optional (required for creating and joining projects)|users = 40 million (Aug 2019)|language = EnglishMicrosoft (2018–present)|logo_caption=}}GitHub is an American company that provides hosting for software development version control using Git. It is a subsidiary of Microsoft, which acquired the company in 2018 for $7.5 billion. It offers all of the distributed version control and source code management (SCM) functionality of Git as well as adding its own features. It provides access control and several collaboration features such as bug tracking, feature requests, task management, and wikis for every project.NEWS,weblink GitHub Pours Energies into Enterprise – Raises $100 Million From Power VC Andreessen Horowitz, July 9, 2012, Alex, Williams, TechCrunch, Andreessen Horowitz is investing an eye-popping $100 million into GitHub, GitHub offers plans for free, professional, and enterprise accounts.WEB, Why GitHub's pricing model stinks (for us),weblink LosTechies, June 29, 2015,weblink June 29, 2015, no, November 7, 2012, Free GitHub accounts are commonly used to host open source projects.WEB, The Problem With Putting All the World's Code in GitHub,weblink Wired (website), Wired, June 29, 2015,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150629152927weblink">weblink June 29, 2015, no, June 29, 2015, As of January 2019, GitHub offers unlimited private repositories to all plans, including free accounts.WEB,weblink New year, new GitHub: Announcing unlimited free private repos and unified Enterprise offering, nat, 2019-01-07, The GitHub Blog, en-gb, 2019-01-08, As of May 2019, GitHub reports having over 37 million usersWEB,weblink User search, GitHub, en, May 23, 2019, Showing 37,446,292 available users, and more than 100 million repositoriesWEB,weblink GitHub passes 100 million repositories, 2018-11-08, VentureBeat, en-US, 2019-06-13, (including at least 28 million public repositories),WEB,weblink Repository search for public repositories, GitHub, en, June 5, 2018, Showing 28,177,992 available repository results, making it the largest host of source code in the world.JOURNAL, Georgios, Gousios, Bogdan, Vasilescu, Alexander, Serebrenik, Andy, Zaidman, Lean GHTorrent: GitHub Data on Demand, 1,weblink July 9, 2014, Delft University of Technology & †Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands, During recent years, GITHUB (2008) has become the largest code host in the world.,

    History

    {{proseline|section|date=August 2019}}(File:GithubAWSTorontoSummit.jpg|thumb|GitHub at AWS Summit)GitHub was developed by Chris Wanstrath, P. J. Hyett, Tom Preston-Werner and Scott Chacon using Ruby on Rails, and started in February 2008. The company, GitHub, Inc., has existed since 2007 and is located in San Francisco.WEB,weblink GitHub populärer als SourceForge und Google Code, Alexander, Neumann, heise Developer, File:Mapping collaborative software on GitHub.png|thumb|The shading of the map illustrates the number of users as a proportion of each country's Internet populationInternet populationOn February 24, 2009, GitHub team members announced, in a talk at Yahoo! headquarters, that within the first year of being online, GitHub had accumulated over 46,000 public repositories, 17,000 of which were formed in the previous month alone. At that time, about 6,200 repositories had been forked at least once and 4,600 had been merged.On July 5, 2009, GitHub announced that the site was being harnessed by over 100,000 users. On July 27, 2009, in another talk delivered at Yahoo!, Preston-Werner announced that GitHub had grown to host 90,000 unique public repositories, 12,000 having been forked at least once, for a total of 135,000 repositories.WEB,weblink The PITA Threshold: GitHub vs. CPAN, Dascalescu, Dan, November 3, 2009, Dan Dascalescu's Wiki, On July 25, 2010, GitHub announced that it was hosting 1 million repositories.WEB,weblink One Million Repositories, Git Official Blog, July 25, 2010, On April 20, 2011, GitHub announced that it was hosting 2 million repositories.WEB,weblink Those are some big numbers, Git Official Blog, April 20, 2011, On June 2, 2011, ReadWriteWeb reported that GitHub had surpassed SourceForge and Google Code in total number of commits for the period of January to May 2011.WEB,weblink Github Has Surpassed Sourceforge and Google Code in Popularity, During the period Black Duck examined, Github had 1,153,059 commits, Sourceforge had 624,989, Google Code and 287,901 and CodePlex had 49,839., On July 9, 2012, Peter Levine, general partner at GitHub investor Andreessen Horowitz, stated that GitHub had been growing revenue at 300% annually since 2008 "profitably nearly the entire way".WEB,weblink Software Eats Software Development, Levine, Peter, Peter Levine (venture capitalist), July 9, 2012, On January 16, 2013, GitHub announced it had passed the 3 million users mark and was then hosting more than 5 million repositories.WEB,weblink Code-sharing site Github turns five and hits 3.5 million users, 6 million repositories, April 11, 2013, TheNextWeb.com, April 11, 2013, On December 23, 2013, GitHub announced it had reached 10 million repositories.WEB,weblink 10 Million Repositories, December 23, 2013, GitHub.com, December 28, 2013, In June 2015, GitHub opened an office in Japan that is its first office outside of the U.S.WEB,weblink GitHub Expands To Japan, Its First Office Outside The U.S., June 4, 2015, TechCrunch, On July 29, 2015, GitHub announced it had raised $250 million in funding in a round led by Sequoia Capital. The round valued the company at approximately $2 billion.WEB,weblink GitHub raises $250 million in new funding, now valued at $2 billion, July 29, 2015, Fortune, In 2016, GitHub was ranked No. 14 on the Forbes Cloud 100 list.MAGAZINE,weblink Forbes Cloud 100, Forbes, October 31, 2016, On February 28, 2018, GitHub fell victim to the second largest distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attack in history, with incoming traffic reaching a peak of about 1.35 terabits per second.NEWS, GitHub Survived the Biggest DDoS Attack Ever Recorded,weblink March 2, 2018, Wired.com, On June 4, 2018, Microsoft announced it had reached an agreement to acquire GitHub for $7.5 billion.NEWS,weblink Microsoft confirms it will acquire GitHub for $7.5 billion, June 4, 2018, VentureBeat, June 4, 2018, en-US, The purchase closed on October 26, 2018.NEWS,weblink Pull request successfully merged. Starting build…, Friedman, Nat, October 26, 2018, The GitHub Blog, October 26, 2018, en-US, On June 19, 2018, GitHub expanded its GitHub Education by offering free education bundles to all schools.NEWS,weblink GitHub's free education bundle is now available to all schools, Hughes, Matthew, June 19, 2018, The Next Web, July 2, 2018, en-US, NEWS,weblink GitHub Education is a free software development package for schools, Engadget, July 2, 2018, en-US,

    Acquisition by Microsoft

    On June 4, 2018, Microsoft announced its intent to acquire GitHub for US$7.5 billion, and the deal closed on October 26, 2018.WEB,weblink Microsoft completes GitHub acquisition, Msn.com, 2018-10-26, 2019-03-18, GitHub will continue to operate independently as a community, platform and business. Under Microsoft, the service will be led by Xamarin's Nat Friedman, reporting to Scott Guthrie, executive vice president of Microsoft Cloud and AI. Current CEO Chris Wanstrath will be retained as a "technical fellow", also reporting to Guthrie. Microsoft had become a significant user of GitHub, using it to host open source projects and development tools such as Chakra Core, PowerShell, Visual Studio Code, and Windows Terminal and has backed other open source projects such as Linux, and developed Virtual File System for Git (VFS for Git; formerly Git Virtual File System or GVFS)—a Git extension for managing large-scale repositories (and itself has been adopted by GitHub).There have been concerns from developers Kyle Simpson, JavaScript trainer and author, and Rafael Laguna, CEO at Open-Xchange over Microsoft's purchase, citing uneasiness over Microsoft's handling of previous acquisitions, such as Nokia's mobile business or Skype.NEWS,weblink Here’s what GitHub developers really think about Microsoft’s acquisition, Warren, Tom, The Verge, August 22, 2018, NEWS,weblink Microsoft has snapped up GitHub and the internet has feelings {{!, TheINQUIRER|last=Merriman|first=Chris|date=|work=The Inquirer|access-date=August 22, 2018|language=en}} Some{{Who|date=August 2018}} saw this as a culmination of Microsoft's recent changes in business strategy under CEO Satya Nadella, which has seen a larger focus on the sale of cloud computing services as its main line of business, alongside development of and contributions to open source software (such as Linux), as opposed to the Microsoft Windows operating system.NEWS,weblink GitHub users are already fuming about the company's sale to Microsoft, Horwitz, Josh, Quartz, June 9, 2018, en-US, WEB,weblink Microsoft has acquired GitHub for $7.5B in stock, TechCrunch, en-US, June 4, 2018, NEWS,weblink Microsoft confirms it will acquire GitHub for $7.5 billion, The Verge, June 4, 2018, Harvard Business Review argued that Microsoft was intending to acquire GitHub to get access to its userbase, so it can be used as a loss leader to encourage use of its other development products and services.NEWS,weblink Why Microsoft Is Willing to Pay So Much for GitHub, June 6, 2018, Harvard Business Review, June 9, 2018, Concerns over the sale bolstered interest in competitors: Bitbucket (owned by Atlassian), GitLab (a commercial open source product that also runs a hosted service version) and SourceForge (owned by BIZX, LLC) reported that they had seen spikes in new users intending to migrate projects from GitHub to their respective services.NEWS,weblink 10 reasons why teams are switching from GitHub to Bitbucket after Microsoft acquisition, June 4, 2018, en, NEWS,weblink GitHub rivals gain from Microsoft acquisition but it's no mass exodus, yet, Tung, Liam, ZDNet, June 9, 2018, en, NEWS,weblink If Microsoft buying GitHub freaks you out, here are your best alternatives, TechRepublic, June 4, 2018, en, NEWS,weblink GitHub Importer, SourceForge, June 12, 2018, en,

    Company affairs

    Organizational structure

    GitHub, Inc. was originally a flat organization with no middle managers; in other words, "everyone is a manager" (self-management).WEB,weblink Show How, Don't Tell What - A Management Style, Tomayko, Ryan, April 2, 2012, August 28, 2013, Employees could choose to work on projects that interested them (open allocation), but salaries were set by the chief executive.NEWS,weblink Dreams of 'Open' Everything, Hardy, Quentin, New York Times, {{update inline|date=August 2014}}In 2014, GitHub, Inc. introduced a layer of middle management.NEWS,weblink Harassment claims make startup GitHub grow up, Evelyn, Rusli, July 17, 2014, The Wall Street Journal, July 18, 2014,

    Finance

    GitHub.com was a start-up business, which in its first years provided enough revenue to be funded solely by its three founders and start taking on employees.WEB,weblink GitHub CEO explains why the company took so damn long to raise venture capital, Michael, Carney, June 20, 2013, PandoDaily, July 10, 2014, In July 2012, four years after the company was founded, Andreessen Horowitz invested $100 million in venture capital. In July 2015 GitHub raised another $250 million of venture capital in a series B round. Investors were Sequoia Capital, Andreessen Horowitz, Thrive Capital and other venture capital funds.WEB,weblink GitHub Raises $250M Series B Round To Take Risks, Lardinois, Frederic, TechCrunch, July 4, 2016, As of August 2016, GitHub was making $140 million in Annual Recurring Revenue.WEB,weblink GitHub is making $140M in ARR, Plassnig, Moritz, Medium, December 19, 2016,

    Mascot

    GitHub's mascot is an anthropomorphized "octocat" with five octopus-like arms.WEB,weblink GitHub Octodex FAQ, github.com, September 21, 2015, WEB,weblink From Sticker to Sculpture: The making of the Octocat figurine, Jaramillo, Tony, November 24, 2014, The GitHub Blog, GitHub, April 19, 2017, (File:Octocat GitHub Mascot.png|thumb|right|Octocat, the mascot of GitHub)The character was created by graphic designer Simon Oxley as clip art to sell on iStock,WEB,weblink Original GitHub Octocat designer Simon Oxley on his famous creation: "I don’t remember drawing it", DeAmicis, Carmel, July 8, 2013, PandoDaily, April 19, 2017, a website that enables designers to market royalty-free digital images.GitHub became interested in Oxley's work after Twitter selected a bird that he designed for their own logo.WEB,weblink Meet the Accidental Designer of the GitHub and Twitter Logos, Campbell-Dollaghan, Kelsey, April 26, 2013, Co.Design, Fast Company, April 19, 2017, The illustration GitHub chose was a character that Oxley had named Octopuss. Since GitHub wanted Octopuss for their logo (a use that the iStock license disallows), they negotiated with Oxley to buy exclusive rights to the image.GitHub renamed Octopuss to Octocat, and trademarked the character along with the new name. Later, GitHub hired illustrator Cameron McEfee to adapt Octocat for different purposes on the website and promotional materials; McEfee and various GitHub users have since created hundreds of variations of the character, which are available on The Octodex.WEB,weblink The Octocat—a nerdy household name, McEfee, Cameron, May 12, 2016, CameronMcEfee.com, Cameron McEfee, April 19, 2017, NEWS,weblink What IS that thing behind Satya Nadella in the GitHub photo?, Goldman, David, CNNMoney, July 19, 2018,

    Harassment allegations

    In March 2014, GitHub programmer Julie Ann Horvath alleged that founder and CEO Tom Preston-Werner and his wife Theresa engaged in a pattern of harassment against her that led to her leaving the company.WEB,weblink Meet the Married Duo Behind Tech's Biggest New Harassment Scandal, Biddle, Sam, Tiku, Nitasha, March 17, 2014, Gawker,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140317225437weblink">weblink March 17, 2014, yes, March 17, 2014, Vallywag, dmy, In April 2014, GitHub released a statement denying Horvath's allegations.WEB,weblink GitHub Founder Resigns After Investigation, Miller, Claire Cain, April 21, 2014, Bits, The New York Times, WEB,weblink GitHub Denies Allegations Of "Gender-Based Harassment," Co-Founder Preston-Werner Resigns, Wilhelm, Alex, April 21, 2014, TechCrunch, However, following an internal investigation, GitHub confirmed the claims. GitHub's CEO Chris Wanstrath wrote on the company blog, "The investigation found Tom Preston-Werner in his capacity as GitHub's CEO acted inappropriately, including confrontational conduct, disregard of workplace complaints, insensitivity to the impact of his spouse's presence in the workplace, and failure to enforce an agreement that his spouse should not work in the office."WEB,weblink Follow up to the investigation results, April 28, 2014, Preston-Werner then resigned from the company. In 2017 more allegations were made of discriminatory and unsupportive behavior at GitHub by a developer who had been recruited following a commitment by GitHub to improve its diversity and inclusivity.WEB,weblink A GitHub programmer turned down a severance check so she could speak out about her frustrating experience, Bort, Julie, July 7, 2017, Business Insider Deutschland, en, 2019-03-01,

    Services

    GitHub

    Development of the GitHub platform began on October 19, 2007.WEB,weblink GitHub CEO and Co-Founder Chris Wanstrath Keynoting Esri's DevSummit!, Kristina, Weis, February 10, 2014, in 2007 they began working on GitHub as a side project, WEB,weblink GitHub Turns One!, GitHub, October 19, 2008, Tom, Preston-Werner, March 28, 2014, WEB,weblink The first commit was on a Friday night in October, around 10 pm., December 7, 2009, Chris, Wanstrath, November 4, 2017, The site was launched in April 2008 by Tom Preston-Werner, Chris Wanstrath, P. J. Hyett and Scott Chacon after it had been made available for a few months prior as a beta release.WEB,weblink GitHub Gist is Pastie on Steroids, July 24, 2008, Josh, Catone, GitHub hosts about 10,000 projects and officially launched in April of this year after a beta period of a few months., Projects on GitHub can be accessed and manipulated using the standard Git command-line interface and all of the standard Git commands work with it. GitHub also allows registered and non-registered users to browse public repositories on the site. Multiple desktop clients and Git plugins have also been created by GitHub and other third parties that integrate with the platform.The site provides social networking-like functions such as feeds, followers, wikis (using wiki software called Gollum) and a social network graph to display how developers work on their versions ("forks") of a repository and what fork (and branch within that fork) is newest.A user must create an account in order to contribute content to the site, but public repositories can be browsed and downloaded by anyone. With a registered user account, users are able to have discussions, manage repositories, submit contributions to others' repositories, and review changes to code. Github began offering unlimited private repositories at no cost in January 2019 (limited to three contributors per project). Previously, only public repositories were free.WEB,weblink Microsoft-Owned GitHub Just Made It Free for Coders to Keep Projects Private in Small Teams, Fortune, en, 2019-06-13, WEB,weblink GitHub is giving free users unlimited private repositories, Zhou, Marrian, CNET, en, 2019-06-13, WEB,weblink GitHub makes its first major move since Microsoft bought it for $7.5 billion — and it's something customers have long been asking for, Chan, Rosalie, Business Insider, 2019-06-13, The fundamental software that underpins GitHub is Git itself, written by Linus Torvalds, creator of Linux. The additional software that provides the GitHub user interface was written using Ruby on Rails and Erlang by GitHub, Inc. developers Wanstrath,WEB,weblink Interview with Chris Wanstrath, Doeswhat.com, March 6, 2012, February 26, 2013, Hyett, and Preston-Werner.

    Scope

    {{proseline|section|date=August 2019}}GitHub is mostly used for code.In addition to source code, GitHub supports the following formats and features:
    • Documentation, including automatically rendered README files in a variety of Markdown-like file formats (see README files on GitHub)
    • Issue tracking (including feature requests) with labels, milestones, assignees and a search engine
    • Wikis
    • Pull requests with code review and comments
    • Commits history
    • Graphs: pulse, contributors, commits, code frequency, punch card, network, members
    • Integrations DirectoryWEB,weblink Integrations Directory, GitHub, April 30, 2016,
    • Unified and split diffs
    • Email notifications
    • Option to subscribe someone to notifications by @ mentioning them.WEB,weblink Mention @somebody. They're notified., GitHub, April 30, 2016,
    • EmojisWEB,weblink Github Help / Categories / Writing on GitHub, Github.com, April 30, 2016,
    • GitHub Pages: small websites can be hosted from public repositories on GitHub. The URL format is https://username.github.io.WEB,weblink GitHub Pages,
    • Nested task-lists within files
    • Visualization of geospatial data
    • 3D render files that can be previewed using a new integrated STL file viewer that displays the files on a "3D canvas".WEB,weblink GitHub Now Supports STL File Viewing, April 9, 2013, Weinhoffer, Eric, The viewer is powered by WebGL and Three.js.
    • Photoshop's native PSD format can be previewed and compared to previous versions of the same file.
    • PDF document viewer
    • Security Alerts of known Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures in different packages

    Licensing of repositories

    GitHub's Terms of Service do not require public software projects hosted on GitHub to meet the Open Source Definition. For that reason, it is essential for users and developers intending to use a piece of software found on GitHub to read the software license in the repository (usually found in a top-level file called "LICENSE", "LICENSE.txt", or similar) to determine if it meets their needs{{citation needed|date=July 2016}}.The Terms of Service state, "By setting your repositories to be viewed publicly, you agree to allow others to view and fork your repositories."WEB,weblink GitHub Terms of Service - User Documentation, Help.github.com, February 11, 2016, December 5, 2016,

    GitHub Enterprise

    GitHub Enterprise is a self managed version with similar functionalities to GitHub's public service, it can run on your own premises or on a cloud provider, it is available since November 2011weblink

    GitHub Pages

    GitHub Pages is a static web hosting service offered by GitHub since 2008 to GitHub users for hosting user blogs, project documentation,BOOK,weblink Introducing GitHub: A Non-Technical Guide, Bell, Peter, Beer, Brent, 2014-11-11, "O'Reilly Media, Inc.", 9781491949832, en, BOOK,weblink GitHub Essentials, Pipinellis, Achilleas, 2015-09-30, Packt Publishing Ltd, 9781783553723, en, or even whole books created as a page.BOOK,weblink bookdown: Authoring Books and Technical Documents with R Markdown, Xie, Yihui, 2016-12-12, CRC Press, 9781351792608, en, All GitHub Pages content is stored in Git repository, either as files served to visitors verbatim or in Markdown format. GitHub is seamlessly integrated with Jekyll static web site and blog generator and GitHub continuous integration pipelines. Each time the content source is updated, Jekyll regenerates the website and automatically serves it via GitHub Pages infrastructure.WEB,weblink Build A Blog With Jekyll And GitHub Pages, 2014-08-01, Smashing Magazine, en, 2019-06-15, As with the rest of GitHub, it includes both free and paid tiers of service, instead of being supported by web advertising. Web sites generated through this service are hosted either as subdomains of the github.io domain, or as custom domains bought through a third-party domain name registrar.BOOK,weblink Ubuntu Server Cookbook, Sawant, Uday R., 2016-06-30, Packt Publishing Ltd, 9781785887987, en,

    Gist

    GitHub also operates other services: a pastebin-style site called Gist that is for hosting code snippets (GitHub proper is for hosting larger projects).Tom Preston-Werner presented the then-new Gist feature at a punk rock Ruby conference in 2008.CONFERENCE, God's memory leak - a scientific treatment, Tom, Preston-Werner,weblink July 20, 2008, RubyFringe,weblink October 21, 2014, He previewed the upcoming git feature gist, Gist builds on the traditional simple concept of a pastebin by adding version control for code snippets, easy forking, and SSL encryption for private pastes. Because each "gist" has its own Git repository, multiple code snippets can be contained in a single paste and they can be pushed and pulled using Git. Further, forked code can be pushed back to the original author in the form of a patch, so gists (pastes) can become more like mini-projects.{{Citation needed|date=January 2019}}

    Education program

    GitHub launched a new program called the GitHub Student Developer Pack to give students free access to popular development tools and services. GitHub partnered with Bitnami, Crowdflower, DigitalOcean, DNSimple, HackHands, Namecheap, Orchestrate, Screenhero, SendGrid, Stripe, Travis CI and Unreal Engine to launch the program.NEWS, Frederic, Lardinois, TechCrunch,weblink GitHub Partners With Digital Ocean, Unreal Engine, Others To Give Students Free Access To Developer Tools, October 7, 2014, October 7, 2014, In 2016 GitHub announced the launch of the GitHub Campus Experts programWEB,weblink GitHub Campus Experts - Technology leadership at your school, 2016-06-25, The GitHub Blog, en-US, 2019-01-22, to train and encourage students to grow technology communities at their universities. The Campus Experts program is open to university students of 18 years and older across the world.WEB,weblink GitHub Campus Experts, GitHub Education, 2019-01-22, GitHub Campus Experts are one of the primary ways that GitHub funds student oriented events and communities, Campus Experts are given access to training, funding, and additional resources to run events and grow their communities. To become a Campus Expert applicants must complete an online training course consisting of multiple modules designed to grow community leadership skills.

    GitHub Marketplace service

    GitHub also provides some software as a service integrations for adding extra features to projects. Those services include:
    • Waffle.io: Project management for software teams. Automatically see pull requests, automated builds, reviews, and deployments across all of your repositories in GitHub.
    • Rollbar: Integrate with GitHub to provide real time debugging tools and full-stack exception reporting. It is compatible with all well used code languages, such as JavaScript, Python, .NET, Ruby, PHP, Node.js, Android, iOS, Go, Java, and C.
    • Codebeat: For automated code analysis specialized in web and mobile developers. The supported languages for this software are: Elixir, Go, Java, Swift, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, Kotlin, Objective-C, and TypeScript.
    • Travis CI: To provide confidence for your apps while doing test and ship. Also gives full control over the build environment, to adapt it to the code. Supported languages: Go, Java, JavaScript, Objective-C, Python, PHP, Ruby, and Swift.
    • GitLocalize: Developed for teams that are translating their content from one point to another. GitLocalize automatically syncs with your repository so you can keep your workflow on GitHub. It also keeps you updated on what needs to be translated.

    GitHub Community Forum

    Site:weblink maintains a community forum where users can ask questions publicly or answer questions of other users.

    GitHub Sponsors

    Site:weblink Sponsors allows users to make monthly money donations to projects hosted on GitHub. The public beta was announced on May 23, 2019 and currently the project accepts wait list registrations. The Verge said that GitHub Sponsors "works exactly like Patreon" because "developers can offer various funding tiers that come with different perks, and they’ll receive recurring payments from supporters who want to access them and encourage their work" except with "zero fees to use the program". Furthermore, GitHub offer incentives for early adopters during the first year: it pledges to cover payment processing costs, and match sponsorship payments up to $5,000 per developer. Furthermore, users still can use other similar services like Patreon and Open Collective and link to their own websites.WEB,weblink GitHub launches Sponsors, a Patreon-style funding tool for developers, Kastrenakes, Jacob, 2019-05-23, The Verge, 2019-05-24, WEB,weblink Announcing GitHub Sponsors: a new way to contribute to open source, 2019-05-23, The GitHub Blog, en-US, 2019-05-24,

    Sanctions

    On July 25, 2019, a developer based in Iran wrote on Medium about how GitHub blocked his private repositories, and prohibited access to GitHub Pages.WEB,weblink GitHub blocked my account and they think I’m developing nuclear weapons, Saeedi Fard, Hamed, 2019-07-29, Medium, en, 2019-08-12, Soon after, GitHub confirmed that it was now blocking developers in Iran, Crimea, Cuba, North Korea, and Syria from accessing private repositories. WEB,weblink GitHub confirms it has blocked developers in Iran, Syria and Crimea, TechCrunch, en-US, 2019-08-10, However, GitHub reopened access to GitHub Pages days later, for public repositories regardless of location. It was also revealed that using GitHub while visiting sanctioned countries could result in similar action occurring on a user's account. GitHub responded to complaints and the media through a spokesperson, saying: "GitHub is subject to US trade control laws, and is committed to full compliance with applicable law. At the same time, GitHub's vision is to be the global platform for developer collaboration, no matter where developers reside. As a result, we take seriously our responsibility to examine government mandates thoroughly to be certain that users and customers are not impacted beyond what is required by law. This includes keeping public repositories services, including those for open source projects, available and accessible to support personal communications involving developers in sanctioned regions." WEB,weblink GitHub starts blocking developers in countries facing US trade sanctions, Tung, Liam, ZDNet, en, 2019-08-10, WEB,weblink GitHub restricts developer accounts based in Iran, Crimea, and other countries under US sanctions, Porter, Jon, 2019-07-29, The Verge, 2019-08-10, Developers who feel that they should not have restrictions can appeal for the removal of said restrictions, including those who only travel to, and not reside, in those countries. GitHub has forbidden the use of VPNs and IP proxies to access the site from sanctioned countries, as purchase history and IP addresses are how they flag users, among other sources.WEB,weblink GitHub and Trade Controls - GitHub Help, help.github.com, 2019-08-12,

    Developed projects

    • Atom, a free and open-source text and source code editor
    • Electron, an open-source framework to use JavaScript-based websites as desktop applications.

    Censorship

    {{proseline|section|date=August 2019}}On December 3, 2014, GitHub was blacklisted in Russia because GitHub initially refused to take down user-posted suicide manuals.WEB,weblink Russia Blacklists, Blocks GitHub Over Pages That Refer To Suicide, After a day, Russia withdrew its block.NEWS,weblink Russia’s Creeping Descent Into Internet Censorship, McMillan, Robert, WIRED, June 3, 2018, en-US, {{Failed verification|date=October 2018}}On December 31, 2014, GitHub was blocked in India (along with 31 other websites) over pro-ISIS content posted by users.WEB,weblink GitHub, Vimeo and 30 more sites blocked in India over content from ISIS, December 31, 2014, thenextweb.com, The Next Web, On January 10, 2015, GitHub was unblocked{{citation needed|date=October 2018}}.On March 26, 2015, GitHub fell victim to a massive DDoS attack that lasted for more than 118 hours.WEB,weblink Large Scale DDoS Attack on github.com, March 27, 2015, github.com, GitHub, March 31, 2015, The attack, which appeared to originate from China, primarily targeted GitHub-hosted user content describing methods of circumventing Internet censorship.WEB,weblink Last night, GitHub was hit with massive denial-of-service attack from China, March 27, 2015, theverge.com, The Verge, March 27, 2015, WEB,weblink U.S. Coding Website GitHub Hit With Cyberattack, March 29, 2015, wsj.com, The Wall Street Journal, March 29, 2015, WEB,weblink Massive denial-of-service attack on GitHub tied to Chinese government, March 31, 2015, arstechnica.com, Ars Technica, April 1, 2015, On October 8, 2016, GitHub access was blocked by the Turkish government to prevent email leakage of a hacked account belonging to the country's Energy Minister.WEB,weblink Turkey blocked GitHub and Dropbox to hide leaks – reports, On July 25, 2019, GitHub started blocking developers in countries facing US trading sanctions.WEB,weblink GitHub starts blocking developers in countries facing US trade sanctions,

    Prominent users

    Some prominent open source organizations and projects use GitHub as a primary place for collaboration, including:
    • The Apache Software FoundationWEB, The Apache Software Foundation,weblink GitHub, en, (finished migration in February 2019)WEB,weblink Apache Software Foundation joins GitHub open source community, 2019-04-29, The GitHub Blog, en-US, 2019-05-24, WEB,weblink The Apache® Software Foundation Expands Infrastructure with GitHub Integration : The Apache Software Foundation Blog, blogs.apache.org, 2019-05-24,
    • Node.jsWEB, Node.js,weblink GitHub, en,
    • npm package managerWEB, npm,weblink GitHub, en,
    • Express web frameworkWEB, expressjs,weblink GitHub, en,
    • MySQL libraryWEB, mysqljs,weblink GitHub, en,
    • MicrosoftWEB, Microsoft,weblink GitHub, en,
      • .NET CoreWEB, This repo is the official home of .NET on GitHub. It&39;s a great starting point to find many .NET OSS projects from Microsoft and the community, including many that are part of the .NET Foundation,weblink GitHub,
      • ASP.NET Core
      • Visual Studio CodeWEB, Visual Studio Code,weblink GitHub, Microsoft, 26 August 2019,
      • TypeScriptWEB, TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript that compiles to clean JavaScript output.: microsoft/TypeScript,weblink GitHub,
      • Windows CalculatorWEB, Windows Calculator: A simple yet powerful calculator that ships with Windows: microsoft/calculator,weblink GitHub,
      • Windows TerminalWEB, The new Windows Terminal, and the original Windows console host -- all in the same place!: microsoft/terminal,weblink GitHub, and Windows Console
    • GoogleWEB, Google,weblink GitHub, en,
    • uBlock OriginWEB, uBlock Origin: An efficient blocker for Chromium and Firefox. Fast and lean. - gorhill/uBlock,weblink
    • Bootstrap (front-end framework)WEB, Bootstrap,weblink GitHub, en,

    See also

    References

    {{Reflist|30em}}

    External links

    {{Commons category}} {{Microsoft}}


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