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Comparison of programming languages

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Comparison of programming languages
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{{ProgLangCompare}}Programming languages are used for controlling the behavior of a machine (often a computer). Like natural languages, programming languages conform to rules for syntax and semantics.There are thousands of programming languagesAs of May 2006 Diarmuid Pigott's Encyclopedia of Computer Languages {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110220044217weblink |date=2011-02-20 }} hosted at Murdoch University, Australia lists 8512 computer languages. and new ones are created every year. Few languages ever become sufficiently popular that they are used by more than a few people, but professional programmers may use dozens of languages in a career.Most programming languages are not standardized by an international (or national) standard, even widely used ones, such as Perl or Standard ML (despite the name). Notable standardized programming languages include ALGOL, C, C++, JavaScript (under the name ECMAScript), Smalltalk, Prolog, Common Lisp, Scheme (IEEE standard), Ada, Fortran, COBOL, SQL and XQuery.__TOC__{{-}}

General comparison

The following table compares general and technical information for a selection of commonly used programming languages. See the individual languages' articles for further information. Please note that the following table may be missing some information.{|class="wikitable sortable" style="text-align:center; align="center"! Language! Intended use ! Imperative! Object-oriented! Functional! Procedural! Generic! Reflective! Event-driven! Other paradigm(s)! Standardized?
align="center"! ActionScript 3.0 | Application, client-side, web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | {{Yes}}|
1996}}, ECMA
align="center"! Ada
System programming language>system | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}Ada Reference Manual, ISO/IEC 8652:2005(E) Ed. 3, 3.9 Tagged Types and Type Extensions | | {{Yes}}Ada Reference Manual, ISO/IEC 8652:2005(E) Ed. 3, Section 6: Subprograms | {{Yes}}Ada Reference Manual, ISO/IEC 8652:2005(E) Ed. 3, Section 12: Generic Units | | concurrent programming language>concurrent,Ada Reference Manual, ISO/IEC 8652:2005(E) Ed. 3, Section 9: Tasks and Synchronization distributed,Ada Reference Manual, ISO/IEC 8652:2005(E) Ed. 3 Annex E: Distributed Systems1983}}, 2005, 2012, ANSI, ISO, GOST 27831-88Vak.ru
align="center"! Aldor | Highly domain-specific, symbolic computing | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! ALGOL 58 | Application | {{Yes}}| | | | | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! ALGOL 60 | Application | {{Yes}}| | | | | | |
1960}}, IFIP WG 2.1, ISOISO 1538:1984
align="center"! ALGOL 68 | Application | {{Yes}}| | | | | | | concurrent
1968}}, IFIP WG 2.1, GOST 27974-88,Vak.ru
align="center"! Ateji PX | Parallel application | | {{Yes}}| | | | | | pi calculus | {{no}}
align="center"! APL | Application, data processing | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}
array programming>array-oriented, tacit 1989}}, ISO
align="center"! Assembly language
General purpose programming language>General | {{Yes}}| | | | | | | any, syntax is usually highly specific, related to the target processor | {{no}}
align="center"! AutoHotkey | GUI automation (macros), highly domain-specific | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}AutoHotkey object protocol and concepts| | {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| | {{no}}
align="center"! AutoIt | GUI automation (macros), highly domain-specific | {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| | {{no}}
align="center"! Bash | Shell, scripting | {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| | | | |
align="center"! Ballerina | Integration, agile, server-side, general | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| concurrent, transactional, statically and strongly typed programming, diagrammatic / visual programming
2018}} De facto standard via Ballerina Language SpecificationHTTPS://BALLERINA.IO/RES/BALLERINA-LANGUAGE-SPECIFICATION-WD-2015-05-01.PDF >PUBLISHER=WSO2 DATE=2018-05-01, 2018-05-03,
align="center"! BASIC | Application, education | {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| | | |
1983}}, ANSI, ISO, ECMA
align="center"! BBj | Application, business, web | | {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! BeanShell | Application, scripting | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| |
In progress}}, JCPJSR 274
align="center"! BitC | System | {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! BLISS | System | | | | {{Yes}}| | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! BlitzMax | Application, game | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | | {{no}}
align="center"! Blue | Education | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| | | | {{no}}
align="center"! Boo | Application | | | | | | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! Bro | domain-specific, application | {{Yes}}| | | | | | {{Yes}}| | {{no}}
align="center"! C | Application, system,bell-labs.com general purpose, low-level operations | {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | |
1989}}, ANSI C89, ISO C90, ISO C99, ISO C11ANSI C89, ISO/IEC 9899:1990, 1999, 2011, 2018
align="center"! C++ | Application, system | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | |
1998}}, ISO/IEC 1998, ISO/IEC 2003, ISO/IEC 2011,ISO/IEC 2014ISO/IEC 14882:1998, 2003, 2011
align="center"! C# | Application, RAD, business, client-side, general, server-side, web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}Codeproject.com: Functional Programming in C# 3.0 using Lambda Expression | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| structured, concurrent
2000}}, ECMA, ISOECMA-334; ISO/IEC 23270:2006
align="center"! Clarion | General, business, web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}Softvelocity.com | | | | | |{{unknown}}
align="center"! Clean | General | | | {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | | | {{no}}
align="center"! Clojure | General | | | {{Yes}}| | | | | concurrent | {{no}}
align="center"! CLU | General | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | {{no}}
align="center"! COBOL | Application, business | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | | |
ANSI X3.23 1968, 1974, 1985; ISO/IEC 1989:1985, 2002, 2014}}
align="center"! Cobra | Application, business, general, web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | {{no}}
align="center"! ColdFusion (CFML) | Web | | {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! Common Lisp | General | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}
Array-oriented, Macro (computer science)#Syntactic macros>syntactic macros, multiple dispatch, concurrent1994}}, ANSI
align="center"! COMAL 80 | Education | {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! Crystal| General purpose | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}weblink| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | alpha stagweblink | {{no}}
align="center"! Cython | Application, general, numerical computing | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}|
aspect-oriented programming>aspect-oriented | {{no}}
align="center"! D | Application, system | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | generative, concurrent | {{no}}
align="center"! Dart | Application, web, server-side, mobile, IoT | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | | structured
Ecma-408 standard}}
align="center"! Dylan | Application | | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! Eiffel | General, application, business, client-side, server-side, web (EWF) | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}
Basic Eiffel language mechanisms(Closure (computer programming)#Inline agents .28Eiffel.29:>Closure (computer programming)) | | {{Yes}} | {{Yes}} Erl-G Agents) distributed programming>distributed SCOOP, Void-safe 2005}}, ECMA, ISOECMA-367; ISO/IEC 25436:2006
align="center"! Elixir | Application, distributed | | | {{Yes}}| | | | {{Yes}}
distributed programming>distributed | {{no}}
align="center"! Erlang | Application, distributed | | | {{Yes}}| | | | {{Yes}}
distributed programming>distributed | {{no}}
align="center"! Euphoria | Application| | | | {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | | {{no}}
align="center"! Factor | General| {{Yes}}| | can be viewed as| | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}|
stack-oriented programming language>stack-oriented | {{no}}
align="center"! FP | | | | {{Yes}}| | | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! F# | Application | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | | | {{no}}
align="center"! Forth | General | {{Yes}}| | can be viewed as| | | | | stack-oriented
1994}}, ANSI
align="center"! Fortran | Application, numerical computing | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | |
1966}}, ANSI 66, ANSI 77, MIL-STD-1753, ISO 90, ISO 95, ISO 2003, ISO/IEC 1539-1:2010 (2008)
align="center"! FreeBASIC | Application, numerical computing | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | {{no}}
align="center"! G2 | Application, inference, expert system | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | | {{Yes}}| common graphical development and runtime environment | {{no}}
align="center"! Gambas | Application | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | | {{Yes}}| | {{no}}
align="center"! Game Maker Language| Application, games| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | | {{Yes}}| | {{no}}
align="center"! GLBasic | Application, games | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | | | simple object-oriented | {{no}}
align="center"! Go | Application, web, server-side| {{Yes}}| weblink | | {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| concurrent
De facto standard}} via Go Language Specification
align="center"! Gosu | Application, general, scripting, web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | {{no}}
align="center"! GraphTalk | Application | | {{Yes}}| | | | | | logic | {{no}}
align="center"! Groovy | Application, general, scripting, web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | | aspect-oriented
In progress}}, JCPJSR 241
align="center"! Harbour | Application, business, data processing, general, web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}|
declarative programming>declarative | {{no}}
align="center"! Haskell | Application | | | {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | | lazy evaluation
2010}}, Haskell 2010HTTP://WWW.HASKELL.ORG/ONLINEREPORT/HASKELL2010/ >TITLE=THE HASKELL 2010 LANGUAGE REPORT, 2011-12-07, Most Haskell implementations extend the Haskell 2010 standard.
align="center"! Haxe | Application, general, web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | {{no}}
align="center"! HyperNext | Application, education | | | | {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}
weak typing>weakly typed | {{no}}
align="center"! HyperTalk | Application, RAD, general | | {{Yes}}| | | | | {{Yes}}
weak typing>weakly typed | {{unk}}
align="center"! Io | Application, host-driven scripting | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! IPL | General | | | {{Yes}}| | | | | | {{unk}}
align="center"! ISLISP | General | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | |
1997}}, ISO
align="center"! J | Data processing | | | | | | |
function-level programming>function-level, tacit | {{no}}
align="center"! JADE | Application, distributed | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! Java | Application, business, client-side, general, mobile development, server-side, web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| concurrent
De facto standard}} via Java Language Specification
align="center"! JavaScript | Client-side, server-side, web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| prototype-based
1997}}, ECMA
align="center"! Joy | Research | | | {{Yes}}| | | | | stack-oriented | {{no}}
align="center"! Julia | General, technical computing | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}|
multiple dispatch, meta, scalar and Array programming>array-oriented, parallel, concurrent, distributed ("cloud") | {{No}}
align="center"! K | Data processing, business | | | | | | | | array-oriented, tacit | {{unk}}
align="center"! Kotlin | Application, mobile development, server-side, client-side, web| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}
QUOTE=AS A FIRST PEEK INTO THE FUTURE REFLECTIVE CAPABILITIES OF KOTLIN, YOU CAN NOW ACCESS PROPERTIES AS FIRST-CLASS OBJECTS IN KOTLIN, | | |{{no}}
align="center"! LabVIEW (G) | Application, industrial instrumentation-automation | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | {{Yes}}
dataflow programming>dataflow, visual | {{no}}
align="center"! Lisp | General | | | {{Yes}}| | | | | | {{unk}}
align="center"! LiveCode | Application, RAD, general | | {{Yes}}| | | | | {{Yes}}
weak typing>weakly typed | {{no}}
align="center"! Logtalk | Artificial intelligence, application | | {{Yes}}| | | | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| logic | {{no}}
align="center"! LSL | Virtual worlds content scripting and animation | {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| Scripts exist in in-world objects | {{Yes}}"De facto" reference is the Second_Life implementation of LSL. Halcyon (Inworldz) and Open Sims propose compatible implementations with additionnal functions
align="center"! Lua | Application, embedded scripting | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}Lua doesn't have explicit "object" type (more general type of "table" is used for object definition), but does have explicit syntax for object method calling | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | aspect-oriented
virtual machine>VM implementations and compilers such as Kahlua and LLVM-Lua.
align="center"! Maple | Symbolic computation, numerical computing | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | |
distributed programming>distributed | {{no}}
align="center"! Mathematica | Symbolic language | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | logic, distributed | {{no}}
align="center"! MATLAB | Highly domain-specific, numerical computing | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! Modula-2 | Application, system | {{Yes}}| | | | {{Yes}}| | |
1996}}, ISOISO/IEC 10514-1:1996
align="center"! Modula-3 | Application | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| | | | {{no}}
align="center"! MUMPS (M) | Application, databases | {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| | |
Concurrent computing>concurrent, multi-user, NoSQL, transaction processing1977}}, ANSI
align="center"! Nim | Application, general, web, scripting, system | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}|
multiple dispatch, Concurrent, Metaprogramming>meta| {{no}}
align="center"! Oberon | Application, system | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! Object Pascal | Application, general, mobile app, web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| structured | {{no}}
align="center"! Objective-C | Application, general | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | concurrent | {{no}}
align="center"! OCaml | Application, general | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | {{no}}
align="center"! Occam | General | {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| | |
process-oriented programming>process-oriented | {{no}}
align="center"! Opa | Web applications | {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| |
distributed programming>distributed | {{no}}
align="center"! OpenLisp | General, Embedded Lisp Engine | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | |
Supersedes ISLISP}}, ISO
align="center"! Oxygene | Application | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| | | | {{no}}
align="center"! Oz-Mozart | Application, distribution, education | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | | concurrent, logic | {{no}}
align="center"! Pascal | Application, education | {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| | | |
1983}}, ISOISO 7185
align="center"! Perl | Application, scripting, text processing, Web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | {{no}}
align="center"! Perl 6 | Scripting, text processing, glue | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | aspect-oriented, array, lazy evaluation, multiple dispatch, metaprogramming| {{yes}}
align="center"! PHP | Server-side, web application, web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}PHP Manual, Chapter 19. Classes and Objects (PHP 5), | {{Yes}}PHP Manual, Chapter 17. Functions| {{Yes}} | | {{Yes}}| |
"De facto" standard}} via language specification and Requests for Comments (RFCs)
align="center"! PL/I | Application | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | | |
1969}}, ECMA-50 (1976)
align="center"! Plus | Application, system development | {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! PowerShell | Administration, application, general, scripting | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}|
pipeline programming>pipeline | {{no}}
align="center"! Prolog | Application, artificial intelligence | | | | | | | | logic, declarative
1995}}, ISO
align="center"! PureBasic | Application | | | | {{Yes}}| | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! Python | Application, general, web, scripting, artificial intelligence, scientific computing | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| aspect-oriented
"De facto" standard}} via Python Enhancement Proposals (PEPs)
align="center"! R | Application, statistics | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | | {{no}}
align="center"! Racket | Education, general, scripting | | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | modular, logic, meta | {{no}}
align="center"! REALbasic | Application | | | | {{Yes}}| | | | | {{unk}}
align="center"! Rebol | Distributed | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}
dialecting>dialected | {{no}}
align="center"! RPG | Application, system | {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! Ruby | Application, scripting, web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| | aspect-oriented
2011(JIS X 3017), 2012(ISO/IEC 30170)}}
align="center"! Rust | Application, system | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}Is Rust an Object-Oriented Programming Language?| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | concurrent | {{no}}
align="center"! S | Application, statistics | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! S-Lang | Application, numerical, scripting | {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| | | | | {{no}}
align="center"! Scala | Application, distributed, web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}|
De facto standard}} via Scala Language Specification (SLS)
align="center"! Scheme | Education, general | | | {{Yes}}| | | | | extensible syntax
1998}}, R6RS
align="center"! Seed7 | Application, general, scripting, web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | multi-paradigm, extensible, structured | {{no}}
align="center"! Simula | Education, general | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | | {{Yes}}| discrete event simulation, multi-threaded (quasi-parallel) program execution
1968}}
align="center"! Small Basic | Application, education, games | {{Yes}}| | | | | | {{Yes}}
component-oriented programming>component-oriented | {{no}}
align="center"! Smalltalk | Application, general, business, artificial intelligence, education, web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| concurrent, declarative
1998}}, [ANSI
align="center"! SNOBOL | Text processing | | | | | | | | | {{unk}}
align="center"! Standard ML | Application | {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | |
1997}}, SML '97SMLNJ.org
align="center"! Swift | Application, general | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| concurrent, Multi-paradigm | {{no}}
align="center"! Tcl | Application, scripting, web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{no}}
align="center"! Visual Basic | Application, RAD, education, business, general, (Includes VBA), office automation | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}
component-oriented programming>component-oriented | {{no}}
align="center"! {{nowrap|Visual Basic .NET}} | Application, RAD, education, web, business, general | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| structured, concurrent | {{no}}
align="center"! Visual FoxPro | Application | | {{Yes}}| | | | | | data-centric, logic | {{no}}
align="center"! Visual Prolog | Application | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | {{Yes}}| declarative, logic | {{no}}
align="center"! Wolfram Language | Symbolic language | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | logic, distributed | {{no}}
align="center"! XL | | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | | | concept programming | {{no}}
align="center"! Xojo | Application, RAD, general, web | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| | {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | {{no}}
align="center"! XPath/XQuery | Databases, data processing, scripting | | | {{Yes}}| | | |
Tree (data structure)>tree-oriented W3C}} 1999 XPath 1, 2010 XQuery 1, 2014 XPath/XQuery 3.0
align="center"! Caché Object Script| Application Programming| {{Yes}}| {{No}}| {{Yes}}| {{Yes}}| | | | Concurrent| {{No}}

Type systems

Failsafe I/O and system calls

Most programming languages will print an error message or throw an exception if an input/output operation or other system call (e.g., chmod, kill) fails, unless the programmer has explicitly arranged for different handling of these events. Thus, these languages fail safely in this regard.Some (mostly older) languages require that the programmer explicitly add checks for these kinds of errors. Psychologically, different cognitive biases (e.g., optimism bias) may affect novice and experts alike and these omissions can lead to erroneous behavior.{|class="wikitable sortable"! Language! Failsafe I/O
! Ada| {{yes}} (exceptions)
! ALGOL| {{yes}} (exceptions or return value depending on function)
! AutoHotkey| {{no}} (global ErrorLevel must be explicitly checked)
! Bash| {{Optional}}set -e enables termination if any unchecked exit status is nonzero.
! Ballerina| {{yes}}
! Bro| {{yes}}
! C
GNU compiler collection>gcc can warn on unchecked errno.h. Newer versions of Visual Studio usually throw exceptions on failed I/O when using C file input/output>stdio.
! C++
Input/output (C++)>STL iostreams throw on failure but C APIs like C file input/output or C POSIX library>POSIX do not)
! C#| {{yes}}
! COBOL| {{no}}
! Common Lisp| {{yes}} ("conditions and restarts" system)
! D| {{yes}} (throwing on failure)weblink
! Eiffel| {{no}} – It actually depends on the library and it is not defined by the language
! Erlang| {{yes}}
! Fortran| {{yes}}
! GLBasic| {{no}} – Will generally cause program to crash
! Go| {{yes}} (unless result explicitly ignored)
! Gosu| {{yes}}
! Harbour| {{yes}}
! Haskell| {{yes}}
! ISLISP| {{yes}}
! Java| {{yes}}
! Julia| {{yes}}
! Kotlin| {{yes}}
! LabVIEW| {{yes}}
! Lua| {{no}} (some functions do not warn or throw exceptions)
! Mathematica| {{yes}}
! Object Pascal| {{some}}
! Objective-C| {{yes}} (exceptions)
! OCaml| {{yes}} (exceptions)
! OpenLisp| {{yes}}
! Perl| {{no}}Considerable error checking can be enabled optionally, but by default Perl is not failsafe.
! Perl 6| {{yes}}
! PHP| {{yes}}
! Python| {{yes}}
! Rebol| {{yes}}
! Rexx| {{yes}} (with optional signal on… trap handling)
! RPG| {{no}}
! Ruby| {{yes}}
! Rust| {{yes}} (unless result explicitly ignored)
! S| {{unknown}}
! Smalltalk| {{yes}}
! Scala| {{yes}}Scala runs on the Java Virtual Machine from which it inherits the runtime exception handling.
! Standard ML
date=February 2011}}
! Swift ≥ 2.0| {{yes}} (exceptions)
! Tcl| {{yes}}
! Visual Basic| {{yes}}
! Visual Prolog| {{yes}}
! Wolfram Language| {{yes}}
! Xojo| {{yes}}
! XPath/XQuery| {{yes}} (exceptions)
class="sortbottom"! Language! Failsafe I/O
{{Reflist|group=FSIO}}">

Expressiveness{| id"Expressiveness" class"wikitable sortable" style"float:right;"

! Language !! Statements ratioData from Code Complete, p. 100. The Statements ratio column "shows typical ratios of source statements in several high-level languages to the equivalent code in C. A higher ratio means that each line of code in the language listed accomplishes more than does each line of code in C.! Lines ratioThe ratio of line count tests won by each language to the number won by C when using the Compare to feature at benchmarksgame.alioth.debian.org. Last updated May, 2006. C gcc was used for C, C++ g++ was used for C++, FORTRAN G95 was used for FORTRAN, Java JDK Server was used for Java, and Smalltalk GST was used for Smalltalk.
| 1
| 1
| 0.8
| 1.5
| 6
| 6.25
| 6.5
The literature on programming languages contains an abundance of informal claims about their relative expressive power, but there is no framework for formalizing such statements nor for deriving interesting consequences.CONFERENCE, 10.1.1.51.4656, On the Expressive Power of Programming Languages, Matthias, Felleisen, ESOP '90 3rd European Symposium on Programming, This table provides two measures of expressiveness from two different sources. An additional measure of expressiveness, in GZip bytes, can be found on the Computer Language Benchmarks Game.WEB,weblink How programs are measured {{!, Computer Language Benchmarks Game|website=benchmarksgame-team.pages.debian.net/benchmarksgame|access-date=2018-05-29}}{{-}}

Benchmarks

Benchmarks are designed to mimic a particular type of workload on a component or system. The computer programs used for compiling some of the benchmark data in this section may not have been fully optimized, and the relevance of the data is disputed. The most accurate benchmarks are those that are customized to your particular situation. Other people's benchmark data may have some value to others, but proper interpretation brings many challenges. The Computer Language Benchmarks Game site warns against over-generalizing from benchmark data, but contains a large number of micro-benchmarks of reader-contributed code snippets, with an interface that generates various charts and tables comparing specific programming languages and types of tests.WEB,weblink The Ultimate Benchmark {{!, The Computer Language Benchmarks Game|website=benchmarksgame-team.pages.debian.net/benchmarksgame|access-date=2018-05-29}}

Timeline of specific language comparisons

  • 1973 – Comparative Notes on Algol 68 and PL/I – S. H. Valentine – February 1973
  • 1976 – Evaluation of ALGOL 68, JOVIAL J3B, Pascal, Simula 67, and TACPOL Versus TINMAN – Requirements for a Common High Order Programming Language.
  • 1977 – A comparison of PASCAL and ALGOL 6weblink – Andrew S. Tanenbaum – June 1977.
  • 1993 – Five Little Languages and How They Grew – BLISS, Pascal, ALGOL 68, BCPL & C – Dennis M. Ritchie – April 1993.
  • 2009 – On Go – oh, go on – How well will Google's Go stand up against Brand X programming language? – David Given – November 2009

See also

{{category tree all|Lists of programming languages|mode=all|depth=2}}

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • BOOK, A Guide to Programming Languages: Overview and Comparison, Ruknet, Cezzar, 978-0-89006-812-0,


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