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Self (programming language)>Self, HyperTalk, AWK, C (programming language), CoffeeScript, Perl, Python (programming language)>Python, Java (programming language), Scheme (programming language)>Scheme}}

{{JavaScriptSidebar}}ECMAScript (or ES)BOOK, Stefanov, Stoyan, JavaScript Patterns,weblink O'Reilly Media, Inc., 2010, 5, 9781449396947, 2016-01-12, The core JavaScript programming language [...] is based on the ECMAScript standard, or ES for short., is a scripting-language specification standardized by Ecma International in ECMA-262 and ISO/IEC 16262. It was created to standardize JavaScript, so as to foster multiple independent implementations. JavaScript has remained the best-known implementation of ECMAScript since the standard was first published, with other well-known implementations including JScript and ActionScript.WEB, A Short History of JavaScript,weblink W3C, 31 March 2017, ECMAScript is commonly used for client-side scripting on the World Wide Web, and it is increasingly being used for writing server applications and services using Node.js.


The ECMAScript specification is a standardized specification of a scripting language developed by Brendan Eich of Netscape; initially it was named Mocha, later LiveScript, and finally JavaScript.WEB, Krill, Paul,weblink JavaScript creator ponders past, future, InfoWorld, 2008-06-23, 2013-10-31, In December 1995, Sun Microsystems and Netscape announced JavaScript in a press release.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink 1998-12-03, Industry Leaders to Advance Standardization of Netscape's JavaScript at Standards Body Meeting, Netscape, November 15, 1996, 2013-10-31, The first edition of ECMA-262 was adopted by the Ecma General Assembly in June 1997. Several editions of the language standard have been published since then. The name "ECMAScript" was a compromise between the organizations involved in standardizing the language, especially Netscape and Microsoft, whose disputes dominated the early standards sessions. Eich commented that "ECMAScript was always an unwanted trade name that sounds like a skin disease."WEB,weblink Will there be a suggested file suffix for es4?,, 2006-10-03, 2013-10-31, While both JavaScript and JScript aim to be compatible with ECMAScript, they also provide additional features not described in the ECMA specifications.WEB,weblink JScript VS JavaScript,, 2015-11-25,


There are ten editions of ECMA-262 published. Work on version 10 of the standard was finalized in June 2019.{| class="wikitable" style="background:#ccf;"! Edition! Date published! style="width: 13em;" | Name! Changes from prior edition! Editor| 1| June 1997|| First edition| Guy L. Steele Jr.| 2| June 1998|| Editorial changes to keep the specification fully aligned with ISO/IEC 16262 international standard| Mike Cowlishaw| 3| December 1999|| Added regular expressions, better string handling, new control statements, try/catch exception handling, tighter definition of errors, formatting for numeric output and other enhancements| Mike Cowlishaw| 4| Abandoned|| Fourth Edition was abandoned, due to political differences concerning language complexity. Many features proposed for the Fourth Edition have been completely dropped; some were incorporated into the sixth edition.|| 5| December 2009|JSON, and more complete reflection (computer science)>reflection on object properties.HTTPS://WWW.YOUTUBE.COM/WATCH?V=KQ4FPME6CRS >TITLE=CHANGES TO JAVASCRIPT, PART 1: ECMASCRIPT 5 DATE=2009-05-18, 2013-10-31, | Pratap Lakshman, Allen Wirfs-Brock| 5.1| June 2011|| This edition 5.1 of the ECMAScript standard is fully aligned with third edition of the international standard ISO/IEC 16262:2011.| Pratap Lakshman, Allen Wirfs-Brock| 6| June 2015|ECMAScript 2015 (ES2015)#ES2015>6th Edition - ECMAScript 2015 | Allen Wirfs-Brock| 7| June 2016|ECMAScript 2016 (ES2016)#ES2016>7th Edition - ECMAScript 2016| Brian Terlson| 8| June 2017|ECMAScript 2017 (ES2017)#ES2017>8th Edition - ECMAScript 2017| Brian Terlson| 9| June 2018|ECMAScript 2018 (ES2018)#ES2018>9th Edition - ECMAScript 2018| Brian Terlson| 10| June 2019|ECMAScript 2019 (ES2019)#ES2019>10th Edition - ECMAScript 2019| Brian Terlson, Bradley Farias, Jordan HarbandIn June 2004, Ecma International published ECMA-357 standard, defining an extension to ECMAScript, known as ECMAScript for XML (E4X). Ecma also defined a "Compact Profile" for ECMAScript – known as ES-CP, or ECMA 327 – that was designed for resource-constrained devices, which was withdrawn in 2015.2015-03-24 Meeting Notes. ESDiscuss. Also see Ecma withdrawn Standards. ECMA.

4th Edition (abandoned)

The proposed fourth edition of ECMA-262 (ECMAScript 4 or ES4) would have been the first major update to ECMAScript since the third edition was published in 1999. The specification (along with a reference implementation) was originally targeted for completion by October 2008.WEB,weblink ES4 overview paper released,, 2013-10-31, An overview of the language was released by the working group on October 23, 2007.WEB,weblink Proposed ECMAScript 4th Edition – Language Overview, 23 October 2007,, yes,weblink 13 July 2010, By August 2008, the ECMAScript 4th edition proposal had been scaled back into a project codenamed ECMAScript Harmony. Features under discussion for Harmony at the time included Intent of these features was partly to better support programming in the large, and to allow sacrificing some of the script's ability to be dynamic to improve performance. For example, Tamarin – the virtual machine for ActionScript, developed and open sourced by Adobe – has just-in-time compilation (JIT) support for certain classes of scripts.In addition to introducing new features, some ES3 bugs were proposed to be fixed in edition 4.WEB, John Resig,weblink John Resig – Bug Fixes in JavaScript 2,, 2013-10-31, WEB,weblink Compatibility Between ES3 and Proposed ES4,, 2013-10-31, These fixes and others, and support for JSON encoding/decoding, have been folded into the ECMAScript, 5th Edition specification.WEB,weblink" title="">weblink Wayback Machine, 2009-04-19, 2018-03-19, Work started on Edition 4 after the ES-CP (Compact Profile) specification was completed, and continued for approximately 18 months where slow progress was made balancing the theory of Netscape's JavaScript 2 specification with the implementation experience of Microsoft's JScript .NET. After some time, the focus shifted to the ECMAScript for XML (E4X) standard. The update has not been without controversy. In late 2007, a debate between Eich, later the Mozilla Foundation's CTO, and Chris Wilson, Microsoft's platform architect for Internet Explorer, became public on a number of blogs. Wilson cautioned that because the proposed changes to ECMAScript made it backwards incompatible in some respects to earlier versions of the language, the update amounted to "breaking the Web,"WEB,weblink ECMAScript 3 and Beyond – IEBlog – Site Home – MSDN Blogs,, 2007-10-30, 2013-10-31, and that stakeholders who opposed the changes were being "hidden from view".WEB,weblink What I think about ES4. - Albatross! - Site Home – MSDN Blogs,, 2007-10-31, 2013-10-31, Eich responded by stating that Wilson seemed to be "repeating falsehoods in blogs" and denied that there was attempt to suppress dissent and challenged critics to give specific examples of incompatibility.WEB,weblink Open letter to Chris Wilson, Brendan Eich, 2007-10-31, 2013-10-31, He pointed out that Microsoft Silverlight and Adobe AIR rely on C# and ActionScript 3 respectively, both of which are larger and more complex than ECMAScript Edition 3.WEB,weblink JavaScript 2 and the Open Web, 2007-11-20, 2014-01-20,

5th Edition

Yahoo, Microsoft, Google, and other 4th edition dissenters formed their own subcommittee to design a less ambitious update of ECMAScript 3, tentatively named ECMAScript 3.1. This edition would focus on security and library updates with a large emphasis on compatibility. After the aforementioned public sparring, the ECMAScript 3.1 and ECMAScript 4 teams agreed on a compromise: the two editions would be worked on, in parallel, with coordination between the teams to ensure that ECMAScript 3.1 remains a strict subset of ECMAScript 4 in both semantics and syntax.However, the differing philosophies in each team resulted in repeated breakages of the subset rule, and it remained doubtful that the ECMAScript 4 dissenters would ever support or implement ECMAScript 4 in the future. After over a year since the disagreement over the future of ECMAScript within the Ecma Technical Committee 39, the two teams reached a new compromise in July 2008: Brendan Eich announced that Ecma TC39 would focus work on the ECMAScript 3.1 (later renamed to ECMAScript, 5th Edition) project with full collaboration of all parties, and vendors would target at least two interoperable implementations by early 2009.WEB,weblink ECMAScript Harmony,, 2013-10-31, WEB,weblink A Major Milestone in JavaScript Standardization – JScript Blog – Site Home – MSDN Blogs,, 2009-04-09, 2013-10-31, In April 2009, Ecma TC39 published the "final" draft of the 5th edition and announced that testing of interoperable implementations was expected to be completed by mid-July.WEB, Ecma International finalises major revision of ECMAScript,weblink Ecma International, 2009-04-09, 2009-05-22, On December 3, 2009, ECMA-262 5th edition was published.WEB,weblink Ecma latest news,, 2013-10-31, {{anchor|ES2015}}

6th Edition - ECMAScript 2015

The 6th edition, initially known as ECMAScript 6 (ES6) then and later renamed to ECMAScript 2015, was finalized in June 2015.WEB,weblink ECMAScript 2015 Language Specification, June 2015, Ecma International, NEWS,weblink It's official: ECMAScript 6 is approved, Krill, Paul, InfoWorld, 2018-03-19, en, This update adds significant new syntax for writing complex applications, including class declarations (class Foo { ... } ), ES6 modules like import * as moduleName from "..."; export const Foo, but defines them semantically in the same terms as ECMAScript 5 strict mode. Other new features include iterators and for/of loops, Python-style generators, arrow function expression (() => {...} ), let keyword for local declarations, const keyword for constant variable declarations, binary data, typed arrays, new collections (maps, sets and WeakMap), promises, number and math enhancements, reflection, proxies (metaprogramming for virtual objects and wrappers) and template literals for strings.NEWS,weblink 5 Great Features in EcmaScript 6 (ES6 Harmony) - Wintellect, 2014-03-24, Wintellect, 2018-03-19, en-US, NEWS,weblink ECMAScript 6 (ES6): What's New In The Next Version Of JavaScript, 2015-10-28, Smashing Magazine, 2018-03-19, en-US, The complete list is extensive.WEB,weblink ECMAScript 6: New Features: Overview and Comparison,, 2018-03-19, WEB,weblink Standard ECMA-262 6th Edition / June 2015 ECMAScript® 2015 Language Specification 14.2 Arrow Function Definitions, 2015,, As the first "ECMAScript Harmony" specification, it is also known as "ES6 Harmony."{{anchor|ES2016}}

7th Edition - ECMAScript 2016

The 7th edition, officially known as ECMAScript 2016, was finalized in June 2016.WEB, ECMAScript 2016 Language Specification,weblink June 2016, Ecma International, The major standard language features include block-scoping of variables and functions, destructuring patterns (of variables), proper tail calls, exponentiation operator ** for numbers, await, async keywords for asynchronous programming.WEB,weblink ECMAScript 6 Proper Tail Calls in WebKit, Saboff, Michael, 2016-05-23, WebKit, 2019-04-11, {{anchor|ES2017}}

8th Edition - ECMAScript 2017

The 8th edition, officially known as ECMAScript 2017, was finalized in June 2017.WEB, ECMAScript 2017 Language Specification,weblink June 2017, Ecma International, Includesasync/awaitconstructions, which work using generators and promises. WEB,weblink ECMAScript 2017 (ES8): the final feature set, 2ality, 2018-04-23, ECMAScript 2017 (ES2017), the eighth edition, includes features for concurrency and atomics, syntactic integration with promises (async/await).{{anchor|ES2018}}

9th Edition - ECMAScript 2018

The 9th edition, officially known as ECMAScript 2018, was finalized in June 2018.WEB, ECMAScript 2018 Language Specification,weblink June 2018, Ecma International, New features include rest/spread operators for variables (three dots: ...identifier), asynchronous iteration, Promise.prototype.finally() and additions to RegExp.WEB, ECMAScript 2018 Language Specification,weblink June 2018, Ecma International, {{anchor|ES2019}}

10th Edition - ECMAScript 2019

The 10th edition, officially known as ECMAScript 2019, was published in June 2019.WEB, ECMAScript 2019 Language Specification,weblink June 2019, Ecma International, .


ES.Next is a dynamic name that refers to whatever the next version is at time of writing. ES.Next features are more correctly called proposals, because, by definition, the specification has not been finalized yet.{{citation needed|date=August 2018}}


{{expand section|date=February 2017}}The ECMAScript language includes structured, dynamic, functional, and prototype-based features.WEB,weblink About, ECMAScript, 2009-12-17, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2012-08-02,

Concise syntax

ES6 brought with it a new mode of defining functions, so called "arrow functions."NEWS,weblink Arrow Functions: Fat and Concise Syntax in JavaScript, 2018-04-09, SitePoint, 2018-11-21, en-US, In ES5, a function would be defined as such:var readWikiArticle = function(content) {
// Read it!
};Whereas in ES6, using the new concise arrow function syntax:var readWikiArticle = (content) => {
//Read article!
};Arrow functions also improve variable binding between functions.


Since ES 2015, transpiling JavaScript has become very common. Transpilation is a source to source compilation in which the newer versions of JavaScript are used in the user's source code and the transpiler rewrites them so that they are compliant with the current specification.NEWS,weblink Using ES2015 today, 2016-05-12, Wisdom Geek, 2018-08-29, Usually, transpilers transpile down to ES3 to maintain compatibility with all versions of browsers. The settings to transpiling to a specific version can be configured according to need. Transpiling adds an extra step to the build process and is sometimes done to avoid needing polyfills. Polyfills allow using functionalities from newer ECMA versions in older environments that lack them. Polyfills do this at runtime in the interpreter, such as the user's browser or on the server. Instead, transpiling rewrites the ECMA code itself during the build phase of development, before it reaches the interpreter.


In 2010, Ecma International started developing a standards test for Ecma 262 ECMAScript.WEB,weblink ECMAScript Language – test262,, 2013-10-31, yes,weblink" title="">weblink 2011-05-14, Test262 is an ECMAScript conformance test suite that can be used to check how closely a JavaScript implementation follows the ECMAScript 5th Edition Specification. The test suite contains thousands of individual tests, each of which tests some specific requirements of the ECMAScript specification.Development of test262 is a project of Ecma Technical Committee 39 (TC39). The testing framework and individual tests are created by member organizations of TC39 and contributed to Ecma for use in Test262.Important contributions were made by Google (Sputnik testsuite) and Microsoft who both contributed thousands of tests.The Test262 testsuite already contains more than 11,000 tests and is being developed further {{as of|2013|lc=y}}.ECMAScript specifications through ES7 are well-supported in major web browsers. The table below shows the conformance rate for current versions of software with respect to the most recent editions of ECMAScript.{| class="wikitable sortable" style="background:#ccf;"! rowspan="2" | Scripting engine! rowspan="2" | Reference application(s)! colspan="4" | ConformanceES5 is the baseline for this test suite. The conformance rate for other editions reflects support for new features only, not a comprehensive score.! ES5WEB,weblink ECMAScript 5 compatibility table,, en, 2018-11-08, ! ES6WEB,weblink ECMAScript 6 compatibility table,, en, 2018-11-08, ! ES7WEB,weblink ECMAScript 2016+ compatibility table,, en, 2018-11-08, ! Newer (2016+)WEB,weblink ECMAScript 2016+ compatibility table,, en, 2018-11-08, Composite score that includes new features from ES7 through next edition draftsChakra (JavaScript engine)>Chakra| Microsoft Edge 18| 48%| SpiderMonkey| Firefox 67| 83%| Chrome V8Google Chrome 75, Opera (web browser)>Opera 62| 98%| JavaScriptCore (Nitro)Safari (web browser)>Safari 12.1| 87%

See also



External links

  • {{official website}}

ISO Standard

Ecma Standards
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