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{{About|the current Apple operating system for Mac computers|pre-2001 versions|Classic Mac OS}}{{Redirect2|OSX|OS X}}{{Pp|small=yes}}{{Short description|Operating system for Apple computers}}{{Use mdy dates|date=August 2019}}{{Lowercase title}}

Aqua (user interface)>Aqua (Graphical)| license = Commercial software, proprietary softwareweblink}} }}Closed source software>Closed source (with open source components)| working_state = Current| marketing_target = Personal computingHybrid kernel>Hybrid (XNU)
  • C
  • C++WEB,weblink What Is the I/O Kit?, IOKit Fundamentals, Apple considered several programming languages for the I/O Kit and chose a restricted subset of C++.,
  • {{nowrap|Objective-C}}
  • SwiftWEB,weblink What's New in Swift, June 14, 2016, Apple Developer, At 2:40, Video, June 16, 2016, live,weblink August 4, 2016, mdy-all,
}} }}| preceded_by = Classic Mac OS| support_status = Supported}}macOS ({{IPAc-en|ËŒ|m|æ|k|oÊŠ|ˈ|É›|s}};AV MEDIA,weblink 36:28, Apple Events - WWDC Keynote June 2016, live,weblink September 11, 2017, mdy-all, YouTube mirror. previously Mac OS X and later OS X) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.JOURNAL,weblink Desktop Operating System Market Share, Net Applications, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 3, 2014, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Top 8 Operating Systems from Sept 2011 to Aug 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 26, 2012, mdy-all, macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS 9 in 1999. The first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving later that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California.NEWS,weblink Apple Has A New, California-Based Naming Scheme For OS X, Starting With OS X Mavericks, TechCrunch, June 10, 2013, June 10, 2013, Ha, Anthony, live,weblink July 9, 2017, mdy-all, Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and then changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. The latest version is macOS Catalina, which was publicly released in October 2019.Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold a separate series of operating systems called Mac OS X Server. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of {{nowrap|Mac OS X}}. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.WEB,weblink macOS Server, Mac App Store, November 6, 2018, macOS is based on the Unix operating system and on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving Apple in 1985. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is the Roman numeral for the number 10 and is pronounced as such. The X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but gradually receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 LeopardWEB,weblink Mac OS X Version 10.5 on Intel-based Macintosh computers, The Open Group, December 4, 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 11, 2008, mdy-all, and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version also have UNIX 03 certification.
  • WEB,weblink Mac OS X Version 10.6 on Intel-based Macintosh computers, The Open Group, December 4, 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 16, 2014, mdy-all,
  • WEB,weblinkOSX_for_UNIX_Users_TB_July2011.pdf, Apple technology brief on UNIX, Apple Inc., Apple, November 5, 2008, live, July 10, 2012, mdy-all,
  • WEB,weblink Mac OS X Version 10.8 on Intel-based Macintosh computers, The Open Group, December 4, 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 16, 2014, mdy-all,
  • WEB,weblink OS X Version 10.9 on Intel-based Macintosh computers, The Open Group, December 4, 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 4, 2013, mdy-all,
  • WEB,weblink OS X version 10.10 Yosemite on Intel-based Mac computers, The Open Group, December 4, 2014, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 10, 2014, mdy-all,
  • WEB,weblink OS X version 10.11 El Capitan on Intel-based Mac computers, The Open Group, October 23, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 15, 2015, mdy-all,
  • WEB,weblink macOS version 10.12 Sierra on Intel-based Mac computers, The Open Group, September 29, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 2, 2016, mdy-all,
  • WEB,weblink macOS version 10.13 High Sierra on Intel-based Mac computers, The Open Group, November 19, 2017, live,weblink September 28, 2017, mdy-all,
  • WEB,weblink macOS version 10.14 Mojave on Intel-based Mac computers, The Open Group, September 24, 2018, macOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, and many of its frameworks with iOS,WEB, Chris, Foresman,weblink Apple TV definitely running iOS, could be jailbreak target, Condé Nast Publishing, Condé Nast Digital, Ars Technica, November 16, 2010, September 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 17, 2010, mdy-all, iPadOS, tvOS, and watchOS. A heavily modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV.WEB, Walter S., Mossberg, Walt Mossberg,weblink From PC to TV â€“ via Apple, All Things Digital, Dow Jones & Company, May 18, 2008, March 21, 2007, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 20, 2008, mdy-all,
Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion (2011) run exclusively on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, and do not support PowerPC applications.{{macOS sidebar}}



File:Unix timeline.en.svg|thumb|450px|Simplified history of Unix-likeUnix-likeThe heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, and then launched in 1989. The kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, which was originally developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the {{nowrap|Objective-C}} programming language.Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent, Copland and Gershwin projects, but all of them were eventually abandoned.WEB,weblink Apple Facts, December 15, 2008, The Apple Museum, a joint venture with IBM, called Taligent, but was discontinued soon thereafter, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 21, 2008, mdy-all, This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP, then called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system.NEWS,weblink Why Apple Sees Next as a Match Made in Heaven, Markoff, John, The New York Times, The New York Times Company, December 23, 1996, D1, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 31, 2008, mdy-all, This purchase also led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, and then the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals. The project was first code named "Rhapsody" and then officially named Mac OS X.WEB, Neil, Fawcett, Rhapsody suffers an identity crisis,weblink April 19, 2012, February 12, 1998, Computer Weekly, Reed Business Information, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 2, 2013, mdy-all, {{subscription required}}WEB, Siracusa, John, Rhapsody and Blues,weblink Ars Technica, 30 November 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 4, 2015, mdy-all,

Mac OS X

Launch of Mac OS X

Mac OS X was originally presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers; current versions of macOS retain the major version number "10". Previous Macintosh operating systems (versions of the classic Mac OS) were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9. The letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to the number 10, a Roman numeral, and Apple has stated that it should be pronounced "ten" in this context.WEB,weblink What is an operating system (OS)?, Apple Inc., Apple, The current version of Mac OS is Mac OS X (pronounced "Mac O-S ten")., July 15, 2004, December 20, 2006, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 26, 2009, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Five years of Mac OS X, Condé Nast Publishing, Condé Nast Digital, Ars Technica, John, Siracusa, Even Steve Jobs still says "ecks" instead of "ten" sometimes., March 24, 2006, April 15, 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 25, 2009, mdy-all, However, it is also commonly pronounced like the letter "X".AV MEDIA,weblink Click - BBC TV programme, BBC, Kelly, Spencer, 00:12:45, Of course X ("ex") does mean 10, but anyone who used to poke around on Unix systems will know that in those days anything Unix had an X ("ex") in it, and OS Ten is written OS X ("ex") in honour of the fact that it is based on UNIX, unlike its predecessors. So, hey, you can say it any way you want; me, I'm showing my age and sticking with X (ex)., February 26, 2011, March 20, 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 18, 2011, mdy-all, The first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system. Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; many could also be run directly through the Classic Environment with a reduction in performance.The consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface, but criticizing it for sluggish performance.WEB, Siracusa, John, Here’s to the crazy ones: a decade of Mac OS X reviews,weblink Ars Technica, May 13, 2011, November 30, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 8, 2015, mdy-all, With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X.WEB, Dalrymple, Jim, Adobe discontinues FrameMaker for Macintosh,weblink Macworld, March 23, 2004, 30 November 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 8, 2015, mdy-all, Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as 'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as 'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'.WEB, Rubenstein, John, Jon Rubinstein sends message to HP staff; Addresses TouchPad reviews,weblink WebOS Nation, July 1, 2011, November 30, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 8, 2015, mdy-all,

Following releases

Apple rapidly developed several new releases of Mac OS X.WEB, Joel, Spolsky, How Microsoft Lost the API War,weblink June 13, 2004, April 15, 2009, The developers of the Macintosh OS at Apple have always been in this camp [i.e. not trying to be backwards compatible no matter what]. It's why so few applications from the early days of the Macintosh still work..., live,weblink" title="">weblink April 26, 2009, mdy-all, Siracusa's review of version 10.3, Panther, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases."WEB, Siracusa, John, OS X Panther review,weblink Ars Technica, 30 November 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 26, 2015, mdy-all, Version 10.4, Tiger, reportedly shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file searching and improved graphics processing, that Microsoft had spent several years struggling to add to Windows with acceptable performance.MAGAZINE,weblink Microsoft's Vista Had Major Mac Envy, Company E-Mails Reveal, Gregg Keizer, Information Week, January 29, 2007, February 28, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 20, 2013, mdy-all, As the operating system evolved, it moved away from the classic Mac OS, with applications being added and removed.WEB, Orlowski, Andrew, Andrew Orlowski, The Jagwyre Review,weblink The Register, 19 September 2017, Using Mac OS X is like touring a land of fabulous ancient treasures - with a tourist authority that's still busy renovating them, and that hasn't quite completed the infrastructure. The sights can be breathtaking, but the roads are potholed and incomplete, and sometimes you have to get out and push. There are a few magnificent modern additions - Rendezvous, AppleScript Studio, for example - but in places the modern Apple archaeologists seem to have forgotten their ancestors techniques, and have resorted to inferior contemporary methods such as the Windows bodge of using three letter extensions for identifying the file type., live,weblink September 20, 2017, mdy-all, Considering music to be a key market, Apple developed the iPod music player and music software for the Mac, including iTunes and GarageBand.WEB, Thompson, Ben, Apple and the Oak Tree,weblink Stratechery, 19 September 2017, live,weblink September 20, 2017, mdy-all, Targeting the consumer and media markets, Apple emphasized its new "digital lifestyle" applications such as the iLife suite, integrated home entertainment through the Front Row media center and the Safari web browser. With increasing popularity of the internet, Apple offered additional online services, including the .Mac, MobileMe and most recently iCloud products. It later began selling third-party applications through the Mac App Store.Newer versions of Mac OS X also included modifications to the general interface, moving away from the striped gloss and transparency of the initial versions. Some applications began to use a brushed metal appearance, or non-pinstriped titlebar appearance in version 10.4.WEB, John, Rizzo,weblink Mac OS X 10.3 Panther, April 15, 2009, November 12, 2003, Once you reboot, you'll notice that Apple has abandoned the light and airy Aqua interface for the darker, heavier brushed-metal look of iTunes., live,weblink" title="">weblink December 8, 2008, mdy-all, In Leopard, Apple announced a unification of the interface, with a standardized gray-gradient window style.WEB,weblink University of Wisconsin, April 15, 2009, May 27, 2008, Jeff, W., Mac OS X (10.5) â€“ User Interface Changes, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 20, 2011, mdy-all, WEB, Siracusa, John, OS X Leopard review,weblink Ars Technica, 30 November 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 25, 2015, mdy-all, In 2006, the first Intel Macs released used a specialized version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger.WEB, Mac OS X versions (builds) for computers – Apple Support,weblink, May 24, 2015, live,weblink May 14, 2015, mdy-all, A key development for the system was the announcement and release of the iPhone from 2007 onwards. While Apple's previous iPod media players used a minimal operating system, the iPhone used an operating system based on Mac OS X, which would later be called "iPhone OS" and then iOS. The simultaneous release of two operating systems based on the same frameworks placed tension on Apple, which cited the iPhone as forcing it to delay Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard.WEB, Chartier, David, Apple announces Leopard delays due to the iPhone,weblink Engadget, 30 November 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 8, 2015, mdy-all, However, after Apple opened the iPhone to third-party developers its commercial success drew attention to Mac OS X, with many iPhone software developers showing interest in Mac development.WEB, Gruber, John, WWDC 2009 Wrap-Up,weblink Daring Fireball, 30 November 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 8, 2015, mdy-all, In 2007, Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard was the sole release with universal binary components, allowing installation on both Intel Macs and select PowerPC Macs.WEB, Apple – Press Info – Apple to Ship Mac OS X Leopard on October 26,weblink, January 2, 2018, live,weblink January 28, 2018, mdy-all, It is also the final release with PowerPC Mac support. Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard was the first version of OS X to be built exclusively for Intel Macs, and the final release with 32-bit Intel Mac support.WEB, Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard,weblink Apple Store (U.S.), May 24, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 25, 2015, mdy-all, The name was intended to signal its status as an iteration of Leopard, focusing on technical and performance improvements rather than user-facing features; indeed it was explicitly branded to developers as being a 'no new features' release.WEB, Turner, Dan, Apple’s Snow Leopard—an OS without new features,weblink Macworld, 8 January 2018, live,weblink January 9, 2018, mdy-all, Since its release, several OS X or macOS releases (namely OS X Mountain Lion, OS X El Capitan and macOS High Sierra) follow this pattern, with a name derived from its predecessor, similar to the 'tick-tock model' used by Intel.In two succeeding versions, Lion and Mountain Lion, Apple moved some applications to a highly skeuomorphic style of design inspired by contemporary versions of iOS, at the same time simplifying some elements by making controls such as scroll bars fade out when not in use.WEB, Siracusa, John, Lion review,weblink Ars Technica, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 14, 2015, mdy-all, This direction was, like brushed metal interfaces, unpopular with some users, although it continued a trend of greater animation and variety in the interface previously seen in design aspects such as the Time Machine backup utility, which presented past file versions against a swirling nebula, and the glossy translucent dock of Leopard and Snow Leopard.WEB, Brand, Thomas, Apple's History of Skeuomorphism,weblink Egg Freckles, January 18, 2018, In addition, with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, Apple ceased to release separate server versions of Mac OS X, selling server tools as a separate downloadable application through the Mac App Store. A review described the trend in the server products as becoming "cheaper and simpler... shifting its focus from large businesses to small ones."WEB, Cunningham, Andrew, Server, simplified: A power user’s guide to OS X Server,weblink Ars Technica, 2 December 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 8, 2015, mdy-all,


(File:The OS X Logo.svg|thumb|200px|OS X logo from 2012–2013)In 2012, with the release of OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion, the name of the system was shortened from Mac OS X to OS X. That year, Apple removed the head of OS X development, Scott Forstall, and design was changed towards a more minimal direction.NEWS, Charles Arthur, technology editor,weblink Apple's Tim Cook shows ruthless streak in firing maps and retail executives | Technology |, Guardian, 2012-10-30, 2012-12-06, London, live,weblink October 24, 2017, mdy-all, Apple's new user interface design, using deep color saturation, text-only buttons and a minimal, 'flat' interface, was debuted with iOS 7 in 2013. With OS X engineers reportedly working on iOS 7, the version released in 2013, OS X 10.9 Mavericks, was something of a transitional release, with some of the skeuomorphic design removed, while most of the general interface of Mavericks remained unchanged.WEB, Siracusa, John, OS X Mavericks review,weblink Ars Technica, 30 November 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 22, 2015, mdy-all, The next version, OS X 10.10 Yosemite, adopted a design similar to iOS 7 but with greater complexity suitable for an interface controlled with a mouse.WEB, Siracusa, John, OS X Yosemite review,weblink Ars Technica, 30 November 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 24, 2015, mdy-all, From 2012 onwards, the system has shifted to an annual release schedule similar to that of iOS. It also steadily cut the cost of updates from Snow Leopard onwards, before removing upgrade fees altogether from 2013 onwards.WEB, Gruber, John, Mountain Lion,weblink Daring Fireball, 15 August 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink August 11, 2015, mdy-all, Some journalists and third-party software developers have suggested that this decision, while allowing more rapid feature release, meant less opportunity to focus on stability, with no version of OS X recommendable for users requiring stability and performance above new features.WEB, Arment, Marco, Apple has lost the functional high ground,weblink 15 August 2015, Apple's 2015 update, OS X 10.11 El Capitan, was announced to focus specifically on stability and performance improvements.NEWS,weblink Mac OS X El Capitan review: The best (and worst) new features, Hattersley, Lucy, Macworld UK, 2017-05-19, en-GB, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 11, 2017, mdy-all,


In 2016, with the release of macOS 10.12 Sierra, the name was changed from OS X to macOS to streamline it with the branding of Apple's other primary operating systems: iOS, watchOS, and tvOS.NEWS,weblink Apple just renamed one of its oldest and most important products, June 13, 2016, Business Insider, November 11, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 11, 2016, mdy-all, macOS 10.12 Sierra's main features are the introduction of Siri to macOS, Optimized Storage, improvements to included applications, and greater integration with Apple's iPhone and Apple Watch. The Apple File System (APFS) was announced at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference in 2016 as a replacement for HFS+, a highly criticized file system.AV MEDIA,weblink Introducing Apple File System, Apple, 2016, live,weblink August 4, 2016, mdy-all, Apple previewed macOS 10.13 High Sierra at the 2017 Worldwide Developers Conference, before releasing it later that year.WEB, MacOS 10.13 High Sierra Announced, Release Date Set for Fall,weblink OS X Daily, 6 June 2017, live,weblink" title="">weblink 27 June 2017, When running on solid state drives, it uses APFS, rather than HFS+.WEB, macOS High Sierra now available as a free update,weblink 21 August 2019, Its successor, macOS 10.14 Mojave, was released in 2018, adding a dark user interface option and a dynamic wallpaper setting.WEB,weblink Apple Releases macOS Mojave With Dark Mode, Stacks, Dynamic Desktop and More, Juli Clover, MacRumors, September 24, 2018, September 24, 2018, It was succeeded by macOS 10.15 Catalina in 2019, which replaces iTunes with separate apps for different types of media, and introduces the Catalyst system for porting iOS apps.WEB,weblink macOS 10.15 Catalina: The Ars Technica review, Cunningham, Andrew, 2019-10-07, Ars Technica, en-us, 2019-10-07,


At macOS's core is a POSIX-compliant operating system built on top of the XNU kernel, with standard Unix facilities available from the command line interface. Apple has released this family of software as a free and open source operating system named Darwin. On top of Darwin, Apple layered a number of components, including the Aqua interface and the Finder, to complete the GUI-based operating system which is macOS.WEB,weblink Mac OS X Lion to tone down the Aqua, AOL, The Unofficial Apple Weblog, April 12, 2011, April 9, 2012, Grothaus, Michael, live,weblink" title="">weblink August 28, 2011, mdy-all, With its original introduction as Mac OS X, the system brought a number of new capabilities to provide a more stable and reliable platform than its predecessor, the classic Mac OS. For example, pre-emptive multitasking and memory protection improved the system's ability to run multiple applications simultaneously without them interrupting or corrupting each other. Many aspects of macOS's architecture are derived from OPENSTEP, which was designed to be portable, to ease the transition from one platform to another. For example, NeXTSTEP was ported from the original 68k-based NeXT workstations to x86 and other architectures before NeXT was purchased by Apple, and OPENSTEP was later ported to the PowerPC architecture as part of the Rhapsody project.Prior to macOS High Sierra, and on drives other than solid state drives (SSDs), the default file system is HFS+, which it inherited from the classic Mac OS. Operating system designer Linus Torvalds has criticized HFS+, saying it is "probably the worst file system ever", whose design is "actively corrupting user data". He criticized the case insensitivity of file names, a design made worse when Apple extended the file system to support Unicode.WEB,weblink Linus Torvalds: Apple's HFS+ is probably the worst file system ever, Swapnil Bhartiya, January 13, 2015, CIO, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 25, 2015, mdy-all, WEB,weblink CVE-2014-9390 aka "Git on case-insensitive filesystems"I did not give the…,, live,weblink November 7, 2015, mdy-all, Initially, HFS+ was designed for classic Mac OS, which runs on big-endian 68K and PowerPC systems. When Apple switched Macintosh to little-endian Intel processors, it continued to use big-endian byte order on HFS+ file systems. As a result, macOS on current Macs must do byte swap when it reads file system data.WEB,weblink WWDC's biggest disappointment, Robin Harris, ZDNet, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 22, 2015, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Mac OS X 10.7 Lion: the Ars Technica review, Ars Technica, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 22, 2016, mdy-all, These concerns are being addressed with the new Apple File System, which is used for file systems on SSDs in macOS High Sierra.The Darwin subsystem in macOS is in charge of managing the file system, which includes the Unix permissions layer. In 2003 and 2005, two Macworld editors expressed criticism of the permission scheme; Ted Landau called misconfigured permissions "the most common frustration" in macOS, while Rob Griffiths suggested that some users may even have to reset permissions every day, a process which can take up to 15 minutes.WEB, Rob, Griffiths, Prevent Mac Disasters,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, IDG, February 2005, February 8, 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 21, 2009, mdy-all, More recently, another Macworld editor, Dan Frakes, called the procedure of repairing permissions vastly overused.WEB, Dan, Frakes, Repairing permissions: what you need to know,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, IDG, August 2006, February 8, 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 19, 2009, mdy-all, He argues that macOS typically handles permissions properly without user interference, and resetting permissions should only be tried when problems emerge.WEB, Dan, Frakes, Five Mac maintenance myths,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, IDG, June 2008, February 8, 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink January 23, 2009, mdy-all, The architecture of macOS incorporates a layered design:WEB,weblink About the Technologies for Developing Mac OS X Software, Apple Inc., Apple, April 4, 2012, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 2, 2012, mdy-all, the layered frameworks aid rapid development of applications by providing existing code for common tasks.WEB, Tom, Zepko,weblink Why Cocoa?, April 15, 2009, November 6, 2003, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 4, 2009, mdy-all, Apple provides its own software development tools, most prominently an integrated development environment called Xcode. Xcode provides interfaces to compilers that support several programming languages including C, C++, Objective-C, and Swift. For the Apple–Intel transition, it was modified so that developers could build their applications as a universal binary, which provides compatibility with both the Intel-based and PowerPC-based Macintosh lines.WEB,weblink Adopting Universal Binaries on Mac OS X, December 15, 2008, February 22, 2007, Apple Inc., Apple, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 20, 2008, mdy-all, First and third-party applications can be controlled programatically using the AppleScript framework,WEB,weblink AppleScript: Graphic User Interface (GUI) Scripting, Productions, Nyhthawk,, 2017-01-03, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 21, 2016, mdy-all, retained from the classic Mac OS,WEB,weblink AppleScript Introduction,, 2017-01-03, live,weblink" title="">weblink January 31, 2016, mdy-all, or using the newer Automator application that offers pre-written tasks that do not require programming knowledge.WEB,weblink The really simple guide to Automator in OS X on the Mac {{!, RAW Mac||access-date=2017-01-03|url-status=live|archiveurl=|archivedate=January 3, 2017|df=mdy-all}}

Software compatibility

{{See also|List of Macintosh software}}{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"|+ List of macOS versions and the software they run! Operating system! Safari! Mail! QuickTime! iTunes! Messages/iChat! iWork! style="text-align: left;" |10.15 "Catalina"13.0.2| 13.010.5| N/A| 13.0| 2019! style="text-align: left;" |10.14 "Mojave"| 12.0| 12.9| 12.0| 2018! style="text-align: left;" | 10.13 "High Sierra" 11.0 10.4 12.8.2| 11.0 2017! style="text-align: left;" | 10.12 "Sierra"|12.1.2| 10.0! style="text-align: left;" | 10.11 "El Capitan"| 11.0 9.3| 9.2| 2016! style="text-align: left;" | 10.10 "Yosemite" 9.1.3 8.0| 2014! style="text-align: left;" | 10.9 "Mavericks"| 7.3| 10.3| 12.6.2| 2013! style="text-align: left;" | 10.8 "Mountain Lion" 6.1| rowspan="2" {{dunno}}| 10.2WEBSITE=APPLE ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160905124649/HTTP://WWW.APPLE.COM/ITUNES/DOWNLOAD/ DATE=JUNE 1, 2016, '09! style="text-align: left;" | 10.7 "Lion" 10.1WEBSITE=APPLE ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20150916003346/HTTP://WWW.APPLE.COM/ITUNES/DOWNLOAD/ DATE=SEPTEMBER 16, 2015, | 8.0b or 6.0.1! style="text-align: left;" | 10.6 "Snow Leopard"WEBSITE=APPLELANGUAGE=ENURL-STATUS=LIVEARCHIVEDATE=FEBRUARY 22, 2015, mdy-all, WEBSITE=APPLEDATE=MARCH 23, 2016, WEBSITE=APPLELANGUAGE=ENURL-STATUS=LIVEARCHIVEDATE=FEBRUARY 11, 2015, mdy-all, | 5.0! style="text-align: left;" | 10.5 "Leopard"| 5.0.6| 3.6| 7.7WEBSITE=APPLELANGUAGE=ENURL-STATUS=LIVEARCHIVEDATE=FEBRUARY 16, 2015, mdy-all, | 4.0! style="text-align: left;" | 10.4 "Tiger"| 4.1.3| 2.1.3| 7.6.4WEBSITE=APPLELANGUAGE=ENURL-STATUS=LIVEARCHIVEDATE=FEBRUARY 26, 2015, mdy-all, | 3.0! style="text-align: left;" | 10.3 "Panther"| 1.3.2 1.x| 7.5WEBSITE=OFFICIAL APPLE SUPPORT COMMUNITIESDATE=AUGUST 25, 2012ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20170417072338/HTTPS://DISCUSSIONS.APPLE.COM/THREAD/4239503?START=0&TSTART=0DF=MDY-ALL, WEBSITE=APPLE ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20070429174825/HTTP://WWW.APPLE.COM/SUPPORT/DOWNLOADS/ICHATAV21.HTML DATE=MARCH 23, 2004 DF=, | '05! style="text-align: left;" | 10.2 "Jaguar" | 1.0.3| 6.5.3| 6.0.5| 2.0Keynote (presentation software)>Keynote! style="text-align: left;" | 10.1 "Puma"| rowspan="2" {{n/a}}| 6.3.1| 4.7.1| rowspan="2" {{n/a}}| rowspan="2" {{n/a}}! style="text-align: left;" | 10.0 "Cheetah" | 5.0| 2.0.4
was a beta release that only functioned from February 16 to December 12, 2012. Afterwards, users could either revert to iChat or upgrade to a newer version of OS X (10.8 "Mountain Lion" for US$19.99, or 10.9 "Mavericks" or newer for free) to continue using Messages.weblink" title="">Keynote 1.0 is the only iLife program that is compatible with Mac OS X 10.2 "Jaguar". Two minor updates, 1.1 and 1.1.1, can be applied to this version.iTunes 2.0.4 can only run if Classic is installed. Otherwise, Mac OS X 10.0 can only run iTunes 1.1.1 natively.}}Apple offered two main APIs to develop software natively for macOS: Cocoa and Carbon. Cocoa was a descendant of APIs inherited from OPENSTEP with no ancestry from the classic Mac OS, while Carbon was an adaptation of classic Mac OS APIs, allowing Mac software to be minimally rewritten in order to run natively on Mac OS X.The Cocoa API was created as the result of a 1993 collaboration between NeXT Computer and Sun Microsystems. This heritage is highly visible for Cocoa developers, since the "NS" prefix is ubiquitous in the framework, standing variously for NeXTSTEP or NeXT/Sun. The official OPENSTEP API, published in September 1994, was the first to split the API between Foundation and ApplicationKit and the first to use the "NS" prefix.WEB,weblinkapple_ref/doc/uid/TP40002974-CH3-SW12, Cocoa Fundamentals Guide: A Bit of History, January 18, 2018, Apple Developer Connection, ADC Reference Library, Traditionally, Cocoa programs have been mostly written in Objective-C, with Java as an alternative. However, on July 11, 2005, Apple announced that "features added to Cocoa in Mac OS X versions later than 10.4 will not be added to the Cocoa-Java programming interface."WEB,, Introduction to Cocoa-Java Integration Guide, April 8, 2006, Apple Developer Connection, ADC Reference Library, live,weblink" title="">weblink August 31, 2009, mdy-all, macOS also used to support the Java Platform as a "preferred software package"—in practice this means that applications written in Java fit as neatly into the operating system as possible while still being cross-platform compatible, and that graphical user interfaces written in Swing look almost exactly like native Cocoa interfaces. Since 2014, Apple has promoted its new programming language Swift as the preferred language for software development on Apple platforms.Apple's original plan with macOS was to require all developers to rewrite their software into the Cocoa APIs. This caused much outcry among existing Mac developers, who threatened to abandon the platform rather than invest in a costly rewrite, and the idea was shelved. To permit a smooth transition from Mac OS 9 to Mac OS X, the Carbon Application Programming Interface (API) was created. Applications written with Carbon were initially able to run natively on both classic Mac OS and Mac OS X, although this ability was later dropped as Mac OS X developed. Carbon was not included in the first product sold as Mac OS X: the little-used original release of Mac OS X Server 1.0, which also did not include the Aqua interface.NEWS,weblink Looking back at OS X's origins, Macworld, 2017-04-17, en, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 17, 2017, mdy-all, Apple limited further development of Carbon from the release of Leopard onwards, announcing Carbon applications would not receive the ability to run at 64-bit.WEB, Nack, John, Photoshop, Lightroom, and Adobe's 64-bit roadmap,weblink Adobe Systems, March 30, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink April 14, 2015, mdy-all, A number of macOS applications continued to use Carbon for some time afterwards, especially ones with heritage dating back to the classic Mac OS and for which updates would be difficult, uneconomic or not necessary. This included Microsoft Office up to Office 2016, and Photoshop up to CS5.WEB, Hall, Zac, Back to the Mac: Microsoft releases redesigned Office for Mac 2016 Preview w/ Retina support, collaboration, more,weblink 9to5 Mac, 27 December 2017, live,weblink December 28, 2017, mdy-all, Early versions of macOS could also run some classic Mac OS applications through the Classic Environment with performance limitations; this feature was removed from 10.5 onwards and all Macs using Intel processors.Because macOS is POSIX compliant, many software packages written for the other Unix-like systems including Linux can be recompiled to run on it, including much scientific and technical software.WEB, Steele, Billy, NASA WISE Deputy Project Scientist Amy Mainzer,weblink Engadget, As an astrophysicist, having the Unix core underlying the OS is key, since virtually all of our software is Unix-based in some sense, live,weblink June 25, 2017, mdy-all, Third-party projects such as Homebrew, Fink, MacPorts and pkgsrc provide pre-compiled or pre-formatted packages. Apple and others have provided versions of the X Window System graphical interface which can allow these applications to run with an approximation of the macOS look-and-feel.WEB, X11 for Mac OS X 1.0, October 28, 2003,weblink Apple Inc., Apple, December 15, 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 24, 2008, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Re: X11 in Leopard: xterm on start-up, Ben Byer, October 27, 2007, Apple's x11-users mailing list, January 18, 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 10, 2008, mdy-all, WEB,weblink X.Org Server 1.10.2 Brings A Bunch Of Bug-Fixes, Michael Larabel, May 28, 2011, phoronix, May 29, 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 3, 2011, mdy-all, The current Apple-endorsed method is the open-source XQuartz project; earlier versions could use the X11 application provided by Apple, or before that the XDarwin project.WEB,weblink Apple Removes X11 in OS X Mountain Lion, Shifts Support to Open Source XQuartz, MacRumors, February 17, 2012, February 23, 2012, Slivka, Eric, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 22, 2012, mdy-all, Applications can be distributed to Macs and installed by the user from any source and by any method such as downloading (with or without code signing, available via an Apple developer account) or through the Mac App Store, a marketplace of software maintained by Apple by way of a process requiring the company's approval. Apps installed through the Mac App Store run within a sandbox, restricting their ability to exchange information with other applications or modify the core operating system and its features. This has been cited as an advantage, by allowing users to install apps with confidence that they should not be able to damage their system, but also as a disadvantage due to blocking the Mac App Store's use for professional applications that require elevated privileges.WEB, Counsell, Dan, Not on the Mac App Store,weblink November 16, 2015,weblink" title="">weblink December 8, 2015, WEB, Distributing Apps Outside the Mac App Store,weblink Apple Developer, Apple, 1 December 2015, live,weblink December 8, 2015, mdy-all, Applications without any code signature cannot be run by default except from a computer's administrator account.WEB, Kazmucha, Allyson, How to open apps from an unidentified developer in OS X Mountain Lion,weblink IMore, 1 December 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink November 23, 2015, mdy-all, WEB, About Gatekeeper,weblink Apple, 1 December 2015, live,weblink December 4, 2015, mdy-all, Apple produces macOS applications, some of which are included and some sold separately. This includes iWork, Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, iLife, and the database application FileMaker. Numerous other developers also offer software for macOS.In 2018 Apple introduced an application layer, reportedly codenamed Marzipan, to port iOS apps to macOS.WEB, Gurman, Masrk, Apple Plans Combined iPhone, iPad & Mac Apps to Create One User Experience,weblink Bloomberg, 2 February 2019, WEB, Steinberger, Peter, Marzipan: Porting iOS Apps to the Mac,weblink PSPDFKit, 2 February 2019, macOS Mojave included ports of four first-party iOS apps including Home and News, and it was announced that the API would be available for third-party developers to use from 2019.WEB, Gartenberg, Chaim, Bohn, Dieter, The future of the Mac comes from iOS apps,weblink The Verge, 29 January 2019, WEB, Ritchie, Rene, Marzipan: What you need to know about iOS apps on the Mac,weblink iMore, 29 January 2019, WEB, Mayo, Benjamin, Marzipan,weblink, 29 January 2019, ">

Hardware compatibility{| class"wikitable sortable" style"text-align:center"|+ List of macOS versions, the supported systems on which they run, and their RAM requirements

! Operating system! Supported systems! RAM requirementmacOS Catalina>10.1564-bit computing>64-bit) released in:2013 (Mac Pro), 2012 (other) or later| 4 GBmacOS Mojave>10.1464-bit computing>64-bit) released in:2010 (Mac Pro with compatible graphics card), 2012 (other) or later2 GBmacOS Sierra>10.12 – 10.1364-bit computing>64-bit) released in:2009 (iMac and main MacBook line) or laterHTTPS://ARSTECHNICA.COM/APPLE/2017/06/ANYTHING-THAT-CAN-RUN-MACOS-SIERRA-CAN-ALSO-RUN-MACOS-XXX/>TITLE=ANYTHING THAT CAN RUN MACOS SIERRA CAN ALSO RUN MACOS HIGH SIERRADATE=JUNE 5, 2017ARS TECHNICA>URL-STATUS=LIVEARCHIVEDATE=JUNE 6, 2017, mdy-all, OS X Mountain Lion>10.8 – 10.11| Intel Macs (64-bit) released in:2007 (prosumer and iMac), 2008 (other consumer), 2009 (Xserve) or laterMac OS X Lion>10.7LANGUAGE=EN-AUURL-STATUS=LIVEARCHIVEDATE=SEPTEMBER 23, 2016Rosetta (software)>Rosetta support dropped from 10.7 and newer.Mac OS X Snow Leopard>10.6| Intel Macs (32-bit or 64-bit)| 1 GBMac OS X Leopard>10.5List of macOS components#Classic>Classic support dropped from 10.5 and newer.| 512 MBMac OS X Tiger>10.4| Macs with built-in FireWire and either a New World ROM or Intel processor| 256 MBMac OS X Panther>10.3New World ROMDECEMBER 20, 2006 TITLE=MAC OS X: SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS PUBLISHER=APPLE INC. > URL-STATUS=DEAD ARCHIVEDATE=AUGUST 9, 2007, mdy-all, 128 MBMac OS X 10.0>10.0 – 10.2iBook and PowerBook, Power Macintosh>Power Mac and iMac(except PowerBook G3 "Kanga")Tools such as XPostFacto and patches applied to the installation media have been developed by third parties to enable installation of newer versions of macOS on systems not officially supported by Apple. This includes a number of pre-G3 Power Macintosh systems that can be made to run up to and including Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar, all G3-based Macs which can run up to and including Tiger, and sub-867 MHz G4 Macs can run Leopard by removing the restriction from the installation DVD or entering a command in the Mac's Open Firmware interface to tell the Leopard Installer that it has a clock rate of 867 MHz or greater. Except for features requiring specific hardware such as graphics acceleration or DVD writing, the operating system offers the same functionality on all supported hardware.As most Mac hardware components, or components similar to those, since the Intel transition are available for purchase,WEB, iMac - Tech Specs - Apple,weblink Apple Inc., July 28, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 28, 2015, mdy-all, some technology-capable groups have developed software to install macOS on non-Apple computers. These are referred to as Hackintoshes, a portmanteau of the words "hack" and "Macintosh". This violates Apple's EULA (and is therefore unsupported by Apple technical support, warranties etc.), but communities that cater to personal users, who do not install for resale and profit, have generally been ignored by Apple.WEB, Home page – footer,weblink, July 28, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 28, 2015, mdy-all, WEB, K, M, Is installing Mavericks on Hackintosh legal?,weblink, July 28, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink August 23, 2015, mdy-all, WEB, Choosing the right CPU for your hackintosh,weblink, July 28, 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 11, 2015, mdy-all, These self-made computers allow more flexibility and customization of hardware, but at a cost of leaving the user more responsible for their own machine, such as on matter of data integrity or security.WEB,weblink Far Too Much Analysis Of The Alleged New Mac Pro Geekbench Score,, Arment, Marco, 14 August 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink April 5, 2015, mdy-all, Psystar, a business that attempted to profit from selling macOS on non-Apple certified hardware, was sued by Apple in 2008.WEB, Taub, Eric, Apple sues Psystar to block Macintosh clones,,weblink New York Times, 1 August 2015,

PowerPC–Intel transition

(File:Steve Jobs Presentation 1.jpg|thumb|Steve Jobs talks about the transition to Intel processors.)In April 2002, eWeek announced a rumor that Apple had a version of Mac OS X code-named Marklar, which ran on Intel x86 processors. The idea behind Marklar was to keep Mac OS X running on an alternative platform should Apple become dissatisfied with the progress of the PowerPC platform.WEB, Rothenbourg, Matthew, dePlume, Nick,weblink Apple Keeps x86 Torch Lit with 'Marklar', June 8, 2013, August 30, 2002,, These rumors subsided until late in May 2005, when various media outlets, such as The Wall Street JournalWEB, Clark, Don, Wingfield, Nick,weblink Apple Explores Use Of Chips From Intel For Macintosh Line, May 23, 2005, The Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones & Company, February 8, 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink January 15, 2015, mdy-all, and CNET,WEB, Kanellos, Michael,weblink Apple to Intel: Some advantage, lots of risk, April 28, 2006, May 23, 2005, CNET, CBS Interactive, announced that Apple would unveil Marklar in the coming months.WEB, Gruber, John, John Gruber, I'll See You Intel,weblink Daring Fireball, 31 March 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 13, 2016, mdy-all, WEB, Gruber, John, Intel-Apple Odds and Ends,weblink Daring Fireball, 31 March 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 8, 2005, mdy-all, WEB, Gruber, John, Bombs Away,weblink Daring Fireball, 31 March 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink April 11, 2016, mdy-all, On June 6, 2005, Steve Jobs announced in his keynote address at the annual Apple Worldwide Developers Conference that Apple would be making the transition from PowerPC to Intel processors over the following two years, and that Mac OS X would support both platforms during the transition. Jobs also confirmed rumors that Apple had versions of Mac OS X running on Intel processors for most of its developmental life. Intel-based Macs would run a new recompiled version of OS X along with Rosetta, a binary translation layer which enables software compiled for PowerPC Mac OS X to run on Intel Mac OS X machines.WEB, Siracusa, John, Picking up the pieces: John Siracusa mourns the Power PC,weblink Ars Technica, 31 March 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 29, 2016, mdy-all, The system was included with Mac OS X versions up to version 10.6.8.WEB,weblink Mac OS X Lion drops Front Row, Java runtime, Rosetta, AppleInsider Staff, February 26, 2011, AppleInsider, AppleInsider, Inc, February 27, 2011,weblink" title="">weblink March 1, 2011, live, Apple dropped support for Classic mode on the new Intel Macs. Third party emulation software such as Mini vMac, Basilisk II and SheepShaver provided support for some early versions of Mac OS. A new version of Xcode and the underlying command-line compilers supported building universal binaries that would run on either architecture.PRESS RELEASE,weblink January 2, 2018, Apple to Use Intel Microprocessors Beginning in 2006, Apple Inc., Apple, June 6, 2005, live,weblink January 30, 2018, mdy-all, PowerPC-only software is supported with Apple's official emulation software, Rosetta, though applications eventually had to be rewritten to run properly on the newer versions released for Intel processors. Apple initially encouraged developers to produce universal binaries with support for both PowerPC and Intel.WEB, Adopting Universal Binaries, December 20, 2006, January 2006,weblink Apple Inc., Apple, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 17, 2006, mdy-all, There is a performance penalty when PowerPC binaries run on Intel Macs through Rosetta. Moreover, some PowerPC software, such as kernel extensions and System Preferences plugins, are not supported on Intel Macs at all. Some PowerPC applications would not run on macOS at all. Plugins for Safari need to be compiled for the same platform as Safari, so when Safari is running on Intel, it requires plug-ins that have been compiled as Intel-only or universal binaries, so PowerPC-only plug-ins will not work.WEB, Landau, Ted, OS X First Aid,weblink Macworld, International Data Group, IDG, May 2006, February 8, 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink January 9, 2009, mdy-all, While Intel Macs are able to run PowerPC, Intel, and universal binaries; PowerPC Macs support only universal and PowerPC builds.Support for the PowerPC platform was dropped following the transition. In 2009, Apple announced at its Worldwide Developers Conference that Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard would drop support for PowerPC processors and be Intel-only.WEB, Stevens, Tim, Snow Leopard officially puts PowerPC Macs on endangered species list,weblink Engadget, AOL, June 10, 2009, June 15, 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 23, 2010, mdy-all, Rosetta continued to be offered as an optional download or installation choice in Snow Leopard before it was discontinued with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion.WEB,weblink Mac OS X Lion: Drops PowerPC Emulation, Adds QuickTime Pro Features, Much More, Arnold Kim, February 27, 2011, MacRumors, February 27, 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 27, 2011, mdy-all, In addition, new versions of Mac OS X first- and third-party software increasingly required Intel processors, including new versions of iLife, iWork, Aperture and Logic Pro.


Aqua user interface

File:Macosxpb.png|thumb|250px|The original Aqua user interface as seen in the Mac OS X Public BetaMac OS X Public BetaOne of the major differences between the classic Mac OS and the current macOS was the addition of Aqua, a graphical user interface with water-like elements, in the first major release of Mac OS X. Every window element, text, graphic, or widget is drawn on-screen using spatial anti-aliasing technology.WEB,weblink Apple Inc., Apple, December 16, 2008, June 9, 2008, Apple Human Interface Guidelines, The Aqua Interface,weblink" title="">weblink December 9, 2008, ColorSync, a technology introduced many years before, was improved and built into the core drawing engine, to provide color matching for printing and multimedia professionals.BOOK, Learning Cocoa With Objective-C, 6, Davidson, James Duncan, O'Reilly, 2002, 0-596-00301-3, Also, drop shadows were added around windows and isolated text elements to provide a sense of depth. New interface elements were integrated, including sheets (dialog boxes attached to specific windows) and drawers, which would slide out and provide options.The use of soft edges, translucent colors, and pinstripes, similar to the hardware design of the first iMacs, brought more texture and color to the user interface when compared to what Mac OS 9 and Mac OS X Server 1.0's "Platinum" appearance had offered. According to Siracusa, the introduction of Aqua and its departure from the then conventional look "hit like a ton of bricks."WEB, Siracusa, John,weblink Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard: the Ars Technica review, Condé Nast Publishing, Condé Nast Digital, Ars Technica, December 16, 2008, October 28, 2007, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 16, 2008, mdy-all, Bruce Tognazzini (who founded the original Apple Human Interface Group) said that the Aqua interface in Mac OS X 10.0 represented a step backwards in usability compared with the original Mac OS interface.WEB, February 2000, Bruce, Tognazzini,weblink OS X: A First Look, November 5, 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 27, 2008, mdy-all, WEB, February 16, 2004, Matthew Paul, Thomas,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink October 14, 2008, My first 48 hours enduring Mac OS X, November 5, 2008, Third-party developers started producing skins for customizable applications and other operating systems which mimicked the Aqua appearance. To some extent, Apple has used the successful transition to this new design as leverage, at various times threatening legal action against people who make or distribute software with an interface the company says is derived from its copyrighted design.WEB, Apple lowers boom on Aqua 'skins', February 2, 2001,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink October 31, 2001, May 22, 2006, ZDNet, CBS Interactive, dead, Apple has continued to change aspects of the macOS appearance and design, particularly with tweaks to the appearance of windows and the menu bar. Since 2012, Apple has sold many of its Mac models with high-resolution Retina displays, and macOS and its APIs have extensive support for resolution-independent development on supporting high-resolution displays. Reviewers have described Apple's support for the technology as superior to that on Windows.WEB, Castle, Alex, How to make the Windows desktop look good on high-DPI displays,weblink PC World, 9 July 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 11, 2015, mdy-all, WEB, Cunningham, Andrew, Using the Retina MacBook as a Windows PC,weblink Ars Technica, 9 July 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 9, 2015, mdy-all, WEB, Hutchinson, Lee, The Retina iMac and its 5K display… as a gaming machine? [Updated],weblink Ars Technica, 9 July 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 10, 2015, mdy-all, The human interface guidelines published by Apple for macOS are followed by many applications, giving them consistent user interface and keyboard shortcuts.BOOK, Programming Mac OS X: A Guide for Unix Developers, 2003, Manning, 1-930110-85-5, O'Malley, Kevin, 7, In addition, new services for applications are included, which include spelling and grammar checkers, special characters palette, color picker, font chooser and dictionary; these global features are present in every Cocoa application, adding consistency. The graphics system OpenGL composites windows onto the screen to allow hardware-accelerated drawing. This technology, introduced in version 10.2, is called Quartz Extreme, a component of Quartz. Quartz's internal imaging model correlates well with the Portable Document Format (PDF) imaging model, making it easy to output PDF to multiple devices. As a side result, PDF viewing and creating PDF documents from any application are built-in features.WEB,weblink Apple Inc., Apple, March 2, 2011, Mac OS X. It's what makes a Mac a Mac., dead,weblink" title="">weblink February 22, 2011, mdy-all, Reflecting its popularity with design users, macOS also has system support for a variety of professional video and image formats and includes an extensive pre-installed font library, featuring many prominent brand-name designs.WEB, Girard, Dave, Making the ultimate creative content OS from bits of Windows, Mac, and Linux,weblink Ars Technica, 14 August 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink August 19, 2015, mdy-all,


The Finder is a file browser allowing quick access to all areas of the computer, which has been modified throughout subsequent releases of macOS.WEB, Thom, Holwerda,weblink April 15, 2009, December 6, 2007, Review: Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard, OS News, The next area where Apple claims to have made major improvements is the Finder., live,weblink" title="">weblink May 15, 2009, mdy-all, WEB, John, Siracusa, April 15, 2009, January 26, 2006, Finding Leopard,weblink Condé Nast Publishing, Condé Nast Digital, Ars Technica, Unsurprisingly, each new Mac OS X release has been the vehicle for a parade of Finder fantasies., live,weblink" title="">weblink February 4, 2009, mdy-all, Quick Look is part of the Finder since version 10.5. It allows for dynamic previews of files, including videos and multi-page documents without opening any other applications. Spotlight, a file searching technology which has been integrated into the Finder since version 10.4, allows rapid real-time searches of data files; mail messages; photos; and other information based on item properties (metadata) and/or content.WEB,weblink John, Siracusa, Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger, April 15, 2009, Condé Nast Publishing, Condé Nast Digital, Ars Technica, April 28, 2005, live,weblink" title="">weblink April 2, 2009, mdy-all, WEB, Mac 101: Spotlight,weblink Apple Inc., Apple, November 6, 2008, April 15, 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink January 19, 2009, mdy-all, macOS makes use of a Dock, which holds file and folder shortcuts as well as minimized windows.Apple added "Exposé" in version 10.3 (called Mission Control since version 10.7), a feature which includes three functions to help accessibility between windows and desktop. Its functions are to instantly display all open windows as thumbnails for easy navigation to different tasks, display all open windows as thumbnails from the current application, and hide all windows to access the desktop.WEB,weblink Apple Inc., Apple, December 16, 2008, October 31, 2008, Mac 101: Exposé, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 16, 2008, mdy-all, Also, FileVault was introduced, which is an optional encryption of the user's files with the 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES-128).WEB,weblink Apple Inc., Apple, December 16, 2008, About FileVault, Mac OS X 10.5 Help, live,weblink" title="">weblink January 13, 2009, mdy-all, Features introduced in version 10.4 include Automator, an application designed to create an automatic workflow for different tasks;WEB,weblink Mac 101: Automator, November 6, 2008, December 16, 2008, Apple Inc., Apple, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 21, 2008, mdy-all, Dashboard, a full-screen group of small applications called desktop widgets that can be called up and dismissed in one keystroke;WEB,weblink Mac 101: Dashboard, November 11, 2008, December 16, 2008, Apple Inc., Apple, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 10, 2008, mdy-all, and Front Row, a media viewer interface accessed by the Apple Remote.WEB,weblink Apple Inc., Apple, December 16, 2008, Front Row,weblink" title="">weblink December 15, 2008, Moreover, the Sync Services were included, which is a system that allows applications to access a centralized extensible database for various elements of user data, including calendar and contact items. The operating system then managed conflicting edits and data consistency.WEB,weblink Apple Inc., Apple, December 16, 2008, October 31, 2007, Why Use Sync Services?,weblink" title="">weblink October 12, 2008, All system icons are scalable up to 512×512 pixels as of version 10.5 to accommodate various places where they appear in larger size, including for example the Cover Flow view, a three-dimensional graphical user interface included with iTunes, the Finder, and other Apple products for visually skimming through files and digital media libraries via cover artwork. That version also introduced Spaces, a virtual desktop implementation which enables the user to have more than one desktop and display them in an Exposé-like interface;WEB,weblink December 16, 2008, Spaces. Room for everything., Apple Inc., Apple,weblink" title="">weblink December 15, 2008, an automatic backup technology called Time Machine, which provides the ability to view and restore previous versions of files and application data;WEB,weblink December 16, 2008, Time Machine. A giant leap backward., Apple Inc., Apple, live,weblink December 15, 2008, mdy-all, and Screen Sharing was built in for the first time.WEB,weblink December 16, 2008, Finder, Apple Inc., Apple,weblink" title="">weblink December 15, 2008, In more recent releases, Apple has developed support for emoji characters by including the proprietary Apple Color Emoji font.WEB,weblink 2014-07-28, How emoji conquered the world, Jeff Blagdon, The Verge, 2013-03-04, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 6, 2013, mdy-all, WEB, Sternbergh, Adam, Smile, You’re Speaking EMOJI: the rapid evolution of a wordless tongue,weblink New York magazine, 15 August 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 26, 2017, mdy-all, Apple has also connected macOS with social networks such as Twitter and Facebook through the addition of share buttons for content such as pictures and text.WEB, OS X Mountain Lion: Share with iCloud, Facebook, Twitter, and other services,weblink Apple, 14 August 2015, live,weblink April 19, 2016, mdy-all, Apple has brought several applications and features that originally debuted in iOS, its mobile operating system, to macOS in recent releases, notably the intelligent personal assistant Siri, which was introduced in version 10.12 of macOS.WEB,weblink September 28, 2016, 13 Things You Can Do with MacOS Sierra You Couldn't Before, Gizmodo, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 27, 2016, mdy-all, MAGAZINE,weblink September 28, 2016, How to use Siri in macOS Sierra: A look at using the Apple's virtual assistant on the Mac, Macworld, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 4, 2017, mdy-all,

Multilingual support

There are 38 system languages available in macOS for the user at the moment of installation; the system language is used throughout the entire operating system environment. Input methods for typing in dozens of scripts can be chosen independently of the system language.WEB, System – New system languages.,weblink Apple Inc., Apple, June 6, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 23, 2011, Recent updates have added increased support for Chinese characters and interconnections with popular social networks in China.WEB, Cheng, Jacqui, Apple’s Tim Cook visits China to talk expansion, expansion, expansion,weblink Ars Technica, 14 August 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 18, 2015, mdy-all, WEB, Foresman, Chris, Next version of OS X to be more iOS-like than ever with Mountain Lion,weblink Ars Technica, Conde Nast, 14 August 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink August 20, 2015, mdy-all, WEB, Campbell, Mikey, Apple targets China, Japan with new OS X El Capitan system fonts and input,weblink Apple Insider, 14 August 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 6, 2015, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Apple courts China with Sina Weibo, Baidu, Youku and more integrated in Mountain Lion, The Next Web, February 16, 2012, March 15, 2012, Panzarino, Matthew, live,weblink" title="">weblink March 21, 2012, mdy-all,

Updating methods

{{Anchor|Functionality|Software Update}}macOS can be updated using the Software Update preference pane in System Preferences or the softwareupdate command line utility. Until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion, a separate Software Update application performed this functionality. In Mountain Lion and later, this was merged into the Mac App Store application, although the underlying update mechanism remains unchanged and is fundamentally different than the download mechanism used when purchasing an App Store application. In macOS 10.14 Mojave, the updating function was moved again to the Software Update preference pane.

Release history

File:Osxboxes.png|thumb|center|747px|Box/Mac App Store artwork for every version of macOS. Left to right: Cheetah/Puma (1), Jaguar (2), Panther (3), Tiger (4), Leopard (5), Snow Leopard (6), Lion (7), Mountain Lion (8), Mavericks (9), Yosemite (10), El Capitan (11), Sierra (12), High Sierra (13), and Mojave (14).rect 3 1 4 4 60 71 Mac OS X v10.0rect 64 4 4 4 127 72 Mac OS X v10.2rect 131 4 4 2 194 71 Mac OS X Pantherrect 196 4 4 2 256 72 Mac OS X Tigerrect 260 4 4 2 317 75 Mac OS X Leopardrect 318 4 4 3 375 75 Mac OS X Snow Leopardrect 378 4 4 2 434 76 Mac OS X Lionrect 437 4 4 4 497 76 OS X Mountain Lionrect 500 4 4 4 557 76 OS X Mavericksrect 563 4 4 4 618 76 OS X Yosemiterect 626 4 4 4 681 76 OS X El Capitanrect 687 4 4 4 743 76 macOS Sierrarect 749 4 4 4 855 76 macOS High Sierradesc bottom-left{| class="wikitable"|+ Mac OS X, OS X, and macOS version information! Version! Codename! Darwin version! Processor support! Application support! Kernel! Date announced! Release date! Most recent versionRhapsody (operating system)>Rhapsody Developer Release| Grail1Z4 / Titan1U| 32-bit PowerPC 32-bit PowerPC 32-bitLAST=DATE=7 JANUARY 1997PUBLISHER=APPLE COMPUTER, INC.ARCHIVEDATE=16 JANUARY 1999ACCESSDATE=18 SEPTEMBER 2018, | August 31, 1997| DR2 (May 14, 1998)| Mac OS X Server 1.0| Hera|| {{unknown}}| March 16, 1999| 1.2v3 (October 27, 2000)|Mac OS X Developer Preview| {{unknown}}|AUTHOR=DAVIS, JIM ACCESSDATE=JULY 17, 2013 CNET >URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE=SEPTEMBER 13, 2014, mdy-all, | March 16, 1999| DP4 (April 5, 2000)| Mac OS X Public BetaAUTHOR=STEVEN BORDEN-WEILLPUBLISHER=NETWORK WORLDARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20160617204612/HTTP://WWW.NETWORKWORLD.COM/ARTICLE/2869105/SOFTWARE/KODIAK-TO-LION--10-YEARS-OF-MAC-OS-X.HTMLDF=MDY-ALL, | 1.2.1WORK=APPLE NEWSROOMLANGUAGE=EN-US, | September 13, 2000| {{n/a}}| Mac OS X 10.0| Cheetah| 1.3.1WORK=APPLE NEWSROOMLANGUAGE=EN-US, | March 24, 2001| 10.0.4 (June 22, 2001)| Mac OS X 10.1Cougar>Puma| 1.4.1 / 5 PUBLISHER=APPLE INC. > DATE=JULY 18, 2001 URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE=JANUARY 3, 2018, mdy-all, | September 25, 2001| 10.1.5 (June 6, 2002)| Mac OS X 10.2| Jaguar| 6g5jaguarnone}} PUBLISHER=APPLE INC. > DATE=MAY 6, 2002 URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE=JANUARY 3, 2018, mdy-all, | August 24, 2002| 10.2.8 (October 3, 2003)Mac OS X Panther>Mac OS X 10.3Cougar>Panther| 7| 32/64-bit PowerPC PUBLISHER=APPLE INC. > DATE=JUNE 23, 2003 URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE=JANUARY 3, 2018, mdy-all, | October 24, 2003| 10.3.9 (April 15, 2005)Mac OS X Tiger>Mac OS X 10.4| Tiger| 8 32/64-bit PowerPC and Inteltiger64bitclinone}} PowerPC{{ref labelNote 3|none}} and Intel PUBLISHER=APPLE INC. > ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 2, 2018 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180103133653/HTTPS://WWW.APPLE.COM/NEWSROOM/2004/05/04STEVE-JOBS-TO-KICK-OFF-APPLES-WORLDWIDE-DEVELOPERS-CONFERENCE-2004-WITH-PREVIEW-OF-MAC-OS-X-TIGER/ DF=MDY-ALL, | April 29, 2005| 10.4.11 (November 14, 2007)Mac OS X Leopard>Mac OS X 10.5| Leopard| 9rosettanone}} and Intel PUBLISHER=APPLE INC. > ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 2, 2018 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180103133415/HTTPS://WWW.APPLE.COM/NEWSROOM/2006/06/26APPLE-EXECUTIVES-TO-PREVIEW-MAC-OS-X-LEOPARD-AT-WWDC-2006-KEYNOTE/ DF=MDY-ALL, | October 26, 2007| 10.5.8 (August 5, 2009)Mac OS X Snow Leopard>Mac OS X 10.6| Snow Leopard| 10| 32/64-bit Intelrosettanone}} 32/64-bitROAD TO MAC OS X SNOW LEOPARD: 64-BIT TO THE KERNEL>URL=HTTP://APPLEINSIDER.COM/ARTICLES/08/10/28/ROAD_TO_MAC_OS_X_SNOW_LEOPARD_64_BIT_TO_THE_KERNELACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 28, 2015URL-STATUS=LIVEARCHIVEDATE=SEPTEMBER 28, 2015, mdy-all, PUBLISHER=APPLE INC. > DATE=JUNE 9, 2008 URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE=NOVEMBER 1, 2017, mdy-all, | August 28, 2009| 10.6.8 v1.1 (July 25, 2011)Mac OS X Lion>Mac OS X 10.7| Lion| 11 64-bit Intel 32/64-bit Intel PUBLISHER=APPLE INC. > DATE=OCTOBER 20, 2010 URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE=JANUARY 3, 2018, mdy-all, | July 20, 2011| 10.7.5 (September 19, 2012)OS X Mountain Lion>OS X 10.8Cougar>Mountain Lion| 12 64-bitOLDER 64-BIT MACS OUT OF THE PICTURE FOR MOUNTAIN LION>URL=HTTP://WWW.CNET.COM/NEWS/OLDER-64-BIT-MACS-OUT-OF-THE-PICTURE-FOR-MOUNTAIN-LION/ACCESSDATE=SEPTEMBER 28, 2015URL-STATUS=LIVEARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 1, 2015, mdy-all, PUBLISHER=APPLE INC. > DATE=FEBRUARY 16, 2012 URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE=NOVEMBER 23, 2017, mdy-all, PUBLISHER=APPLE INC. > DATE=JULY 25, 2012 URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 10, 2017, mdy-all, |10.8.5 (12F45) (October 3, 2013)OS X Mavericks>OS X 10.9Mavericks, California>Mavericks| 13 PUBLISHER=APPLE INC.> DATE=JUNE 10, 2013 URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE=FEBRUARY 13, 2018, mdy-all, |October 22, 2013PUBLISHER=APPLEINSIDERARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20141218000221/HTTP://APPLEINSIDER.COM/ARTICLES/14/09/17/APPLE-RELEASES-OS-X-1095-MAVERICKS-WITH-RELIABILITY-ENHANCEMENTS-INCLUDES-SAFARI-706DF=MDY-ALL, Retrieved on December 18, 2014.OS X Yosemite>OS X 10.10Yosemite National Park>Yosemite| 14 PUBLISHER=APPLE INC.> DATE=JUNE 2, 2014 URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 9, 2017, mdy-all, |October 16, 2014|10.10.5 (14F27) (August 13, 2015)OS X El Capitan>OS X 10.11| El Capitan| 15 PUBLISHER=APPLE INC.> DATE=JUNE 8, 2015 URL-STATUS=LIVE ARCHIVEDATE=OCTOBER 8, 2017, mdy-all, |September 30, 2015|10.11.6 (15G31) (July 18, 2016)macOS Sierra>macOS 10.12Sierra Nevada (U.S.)>Sierra| 16PUBLISHER=APPLE ACCESSDATE=JANUARY 2, 2018 ARCHIVEURL=HTTPS://WEB.ARCHIVE.ORG/WEB/20180103133417/HTTPS://WWW.APPLE.COM/NEWSROOM/2016/06/APPLE-PREVIEWS-MAJOR-UPDATE-WITH-MACOS-SIERRA.HTML DF=MDY-ALL, | September 20, 2016| 10.12.6 (16G29) (July 19, 2017)macOS High Sierra>macOS 10.13Sierra Nevada (U.S.)>High Sierra| 17| June 5, 2017| September 25, 2017| 10.13.6 (17G65) (July 9, 2018)macOS Mojave>macOS 10.14Mojave Desert>Mojave| 18| June 4, 2018| September 24, 2018| 10.14.6 (18G84) (July 22, 2019)macOS Catalina>macOS 10.15Santa Catalina Island (California)>Catalina| 19| 64-bit Intel| June 3, 2019| October 7, 2019| 10.15.1 (19B88) (October 29, 2019)File:MacOS Version History.svg|thumb|650px|TimelineTimeline
{{note label|g5jaguar||Note 1}}The PowerMac G5 had special Jaguar builds. {{note label|tiger64bitcli||Note 2}}Tiger did not support 64-bit GUI applications, only 64-bit CLI applications. {{note label|rosetta||Note 3}}32-bit PowerPC applications were supported on Intel processors with Rosetta.
With the exception of Mac OS X Server 1.0 and the original public beta, OS X versions were named after big cats until OS X 10.9 Mavericks, when Apple switched to using California locations. Prior to its release, Mac OS X 10.0 was code named "Cheetah" internally at Apple, and Mac OS X 10.1 was code named internally as "Puma". After the immense buzz surrounding Mac OS X 10.2, codenamed "Jaguar", Apple's product marketing began openly using the code names to promote the operating system. Mac OS X 10.3 was marketed as "Panther", Mac OS X 10.4 as "Tiger", Mac OS X 10.5 as "Leopard", Mac OS X 10.6 as "Snow Leopard", Mac OS X 10.7 as "Lion", OS X 10.8 as "Mountain Lion", and OS X 10.9 as "Mavericks"."Panther", "Tiger" and "Leopard" are registered as trademarks of Apple,{{US trademark|78257226}}{{US trademark|78269988}}{{US trademark|78270003}} but "Cheetah", "Puma" and "Jaguar" have never been registered. Apple has also registered "Lynx" and "Cougar" as trademarks, though these were allowed to lapse.{{US trademark|78271630}}{{US trademark|78271639}} Computer retailer Tiger Direct sued Apple for its use of the name "Tiger". On May 16, 2005 a US federal court in the Southern District of Florida ruled that Apple's use did not infringe on Tiger Direct's trademark.WEB, Jade, Kasper, Court sides with Apple over "Tiger" trademark dispute,weblink AppleInsider, April 25, 2006, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 27, 2007, mdy-all,

Mac OS X Public Beta

On September 13, 2000, Apple released a $29.95WEB, John Siracusa,weblink Mac OS X Beta â€“ Page 1 – (10/2000), Condé Nast Publishing, Condé Nast Digital, Ars Technica, March 11, 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 30, 2009, mdy-all, "preview" version of Mac OS X internally codenamed Kodiak in order to gain feedback from users.The "PB", as it was known, marked the first public availability of the Aqua interface and Apple made many changes to the UI based on customer feedback. Mac OS X Public Beta expired and ceased to function in Spring 2001.WEB,weblink Mac OS X Public Beta Expires Today | News, The Mac Observer, March 11, 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 8, 2011, mdy-all,

Mac OS X 10.0 Cheetah

(File:MacOSX10-0screenshot.png|thumb|right|Screenshot of OS X 10.0)On March 24, 2001, Apple released Mac OS X 10.0 (internally codenamed Cheetah).Although the version is now called Cheetah by users, rare evidences can be found to prove that it was called so internally. For instance, a Q&A was created in 2005 which mentions it.WEB, Technical Q&A,weblink Apple Inc., Apple, December 20, 2006, October 4, 2005, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 18, 2008, mdy-all, The initial version was slow,NEWS,weblink Mac OS X 10.0, Ars Technica, 2017-04-17, en-us, live,weblink April 17, 2017, mdy-all, incomplete,WEB,weblink Mac OS X 10.0 - Page 17 - (03/2001),, 2017-04-29, live,weblink" title="">weblink August 17, 2016, mdy-all, and had very few applications available at the time of its launch, mostly from independent developers.BOOK,weblink Getting StartED with Mac OS X Leopard, Williams, Justin, 2008-03-11, Apress, 9781430205197, en, While many critics suggested that the operating system was not ready for mainstream adoption, they recognized the importance of its initial launch as a base on which to improve. Simply releasing Mac OS X was received by the Macintosh community as a great accomplishment, for attempts to completely overhaul the Mac OS had been underway since 1996, and delayed by countless setbacks. Following some bug fixes, kernel panics became much less frequent.{{citation needed|date=March 2014}}

Mac OS X 10.1 Puma

Later that year on September 25, 2001, Mac OS X 10.1 (internally codenamed Puma) was released. It featured increased performance and provided missing features, such as DVD playback. Apple released 10.1 as a free upgrade CD for 10.0 users, in addition to the US$129 boxed version for people running Mac OS 9. It was discovered that the upgrade CDs were full install CDs that could be used with Mac OS 9 systems by removing a specific file; Apple later re-released the CDs in an actual stripped-down format that did not facilitate installation on such systems.WEB,weblink Apple Cease-And-Desists Stupidity Leak, 2001, Slashdot, November 5, 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink January 13, 2013, mdy-all, On January 7, 2002, Apple announced that Mac OS X was to be the default operating system for all Macintosh products by the end of that month.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Apple Makes Mac OS X the Default Operating System on All Macs, January 7, 2002, January 2, 2018, Apple Inc., Apple, live,weblink October 10, 2017, mdy-all,

Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar

On August 23, 2002,PRESS RELEASE,weblink Jaguar "Unleashed" at 10:20 pm Tonight, August 23, 2002, January 2, 2018, Apple Inc., Apple, live,weblink January 3, 2018, mdy-all, Apple followed up with Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar, the first release to use its code name as part of the branding.The headline of the press release mention "Jaguar", while the codename was not mentioned for earlier versions. See Apple's "Jaguar" press release {{webarchive|url= |date=January 3, 2018 }}, compared to their Mac OS X v10.0 press release {{webarchive|url= |date=January 3, 2018 }} and their Mac OS X v10.1 press release {{webarchive|url= |date=January 3, 2018 }}It brought great raw performance improvements, a sleeker look, and many powerful user-interface enhancements (over 150, according to AppleWEB
, Mac OS X 10.2 Product Information Page
, June 12, 2008
, August 29, 2002
, Apple Inc., Apple
,weblink" title="">weblink
, August 29, 2002
, dead
, ), including Quartz Extreme for compositing graphics directly on an ATI Radeon or Nvidia GeForce2 MX AGP-based video card with at least 16 MB of VRAM, a system-wide repository for contact information in the new Address Book, and an instant messaging client named iChat.PRESS RELEASE, Apple Previews "Jaguar," the Next Major Release of Mac OS X,weblink January 2, 2018, May 6, 2002, Apple Inc., Apple, live,weblink January 3, 2018, mdy-all, The Happy Mac which had appeared during the Mac OS startup sequence for almost 18 years was replaced with a large grey Apple logo with the introduction of Mac OS X v10.2.WEB,weblink Murder on Macintosh Row: Happy Mac, 1984-2002, Thomas, Tommy,, en, 2017-04-29, live,weblink" title="">weblink January 3, 2018, mdy-all,

Mac OS X 10.3 Panther

Mac OS X v10.3 Panther was released on October 24, 2003. In addition to providing much improved performance, it also incorporated the most extensive update yet to the user interface. Panther included as many or more new features as Jaguar had the year before, including an updated Finder, incorporating a brushed-metal interface, Fast user switching, Exposé (Window manager), FileVault, Safari, iChat AV (which added videoconferencing features to iChat), improved Portable Document Format (PDF) rendering and much greater Microsoft Windows interoperability.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Apple Announces Mac OS X "Panther", October 8, 2003, January 2, 2018, Apple Inc., Apple, live,weblink January 3, 2018, mdy-all, Support for some early G3 computers such as "beige" Power Macs and "WallStreet" PowerBooks was discontinued.NEWS,weblink Mac OS X 10.3 Panther, 2003-10-24, Low End Mac, en-US, 2016-12-31, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 30, 2016, mdy-all,

Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger

(File:TigerDesk.png|thumb|right|Screenshot of Tiger)Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was released on April 29, 2005. Apple stated that Tiger contained more than 200 new features.PRESS RELEASE, Apple Unleashes "Tiger" Friday at 6:00 p.m.,weblink April 28, 2005, January 2, 2018, Apple Inc., Apple, live,weblink March 22, 2018, mdy-all, As with Panther, certain older machines were no longer supported; Tiger requires a Mac with 256 MB and a built-in FireWire port. Among the new features, Tiger introduced Spotlight, Dashboard, Smart Folders, updated Mail program with Smart Mailboxes, QuickTime 7, Safari 2, Automator, VoiceOver, Core Image and Core Video. The initial release of the Apple TV used a modified version of Tiger with a different graphical interface and fewer applications and services. On January 10, 2006, Apple released the first Intel-based Macs along with the 10.4.4 update to Tiger. This operating system functioned identically on the PowerPC-based Macs and the new Intel-based machines, with the exception of the Intel release lacking support for the Classic environment.WEB,weblink Apple unveils Intel iMacs, AppleInsider, January 2006, December 15, 2008, live,weblink" title="">weblink January 13, 2009, mdy-all,

Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard

Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard was released on October 26, 2007. It was called by Apple "the largest update of Mac OS X". It brought more than 300 new features.WEB,weblink Apple â€“ Mac OS X Leopard â€“ Features â€“ 300+ New Features, 2008, June 13, 2008, Apple Inc., Apple,weblink" title="">weblink May 1, 2008, Leopard supports both PowerPC- and Intel x86-based Macintosh computers; support for the G3 processor was dropped and the G4 processor required a minimum clock rate of 867 MHz, and at least 512 MB of RAM to be installed. The single DVD works for all supported Macs (including 64-bit machines). New features include a new look, an updated Finder, Time Machine, Spaces, Boot Camp pre-installed,WEB,weblink Apple â€“ BootCamp, 2006, June 5, 2006, Apple Inc., Apple,weblink" title="">weblink June 2, 2006, full support for 64-bit applications (including graphical applications), new features in Mail and iChat, and a number of new security features. Leopard is an Open Brand UNIX 03 registered product on the Intel platform. It was also the first BSD-based OS to receive UNIX 03 certification.WEB, Apple Inc., Apple, Mac OS X Leopard â€“ Technology â€“ UNIX,weblink Leopard Technology Overview, October 26, 2007, Leopard is now an Open Brand UNIX 03 Registered Product, conforming to the SUSv3 and POSIX 1003.1 specifications for the C API, Shell Utilities, and Threads., live,weblink" title="">weblink June 9, 2011, mdy-all, Leopard dropped support for the Classic Environment and all Classic applications.WEB,weblink Do Classic applications work with Mac OS X 10.5 or Intel-based Macs?, Apple Inc., Apple, Knowledge Base, January 13, 2006, October 25, 2007, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 25, 2007, mdy-all, It was the final version of Mac OS X to support the PowerPC architecture.BOOK,weblink Cocoa Recipes for Mac OS X, Cheeseman, Bill, 2010-04-26, Pearson Education, 9780321702883, en,

Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard

Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard was released on August 28, 2009. Rather than delivering big changes to the appearance and end user functionality like the previous releases of {{nowrap|Mac OS X}}, Snow Leopard focused on "under the hood" changes, increasing the performance, efficiency, and stability of the operating system. For most users, the most noticeable changes were: the disk space that the operating system frees up after a clean install compared to Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard, a more responsive Finder rewritten in Cocoa, faster Time Machine backups, more reliable and user-friendly disk ejects, a more powerful version of the Preview application, as well as a faster Safari web browser. Snow Leopard only supported machines with Intel CPUs, required at least 1 GB of RAM, and dropped default support for applications built for the PowerPC architecture (Rosetta could be installed as an additional component to retain support for PowerPC-only applications).WEB, Steven, Lynch,weblink HardOCP, Mac OS X Snow Leopard Drops PowerPC Support, June 12, 2008, October 20, 2010, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 27, 2011, mdy-all, Snow Leopard also featured new 64-bit technology capable of supporting greater amounts of RAM, improved support for multi-core processors through Grand Central Dispatch, and advanced GPU performance with OpenCL.NEWS,weblink The 64-Bitness of Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard, 2009-08-19, Low End Mac, en-US, 2016-12-31, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 27, 2016, mdy-all, The 10.6.6 update introduced support for the Mac App Store, Apple's digital distribution platform for macOS applications.WEB,weblink Mac App Store launches on Snow Leopard, Don, Reisinger, January 6, 2011, CBS Interactive, CNET, live,weblink" title="">weblink August 10, 2012, mdy-all, File:WWDC 2011 Moscone West Interior.jpg|thumb|250px|Mac OS X Lion was announced at WWDC 2011 at Moscone WestMoscone West

Mac OS X 10.7 Lion

Mac OS X 10.7 Lion was released on July 20, 2011. It brought developments made in Apple's iOS, such as an easily navigable display of installed applications called Launchpad and a greater use of multi-touch gestures, to the Mac. This release removed Rosetta, making it incompatible with PowerPC applications.Changes made to the GUI include auto-hiding scrollbars that only appear when they are being used, and Mission Control which unifies Exposé, Spaces, Dashboard, and full-screen applications within a single interface.WEB, Apple – OS X Lion – The world's most advanced desktop operating system.,weblink October 20, 2010, October 20, 2010, Apple Inc., Apple, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 23, 2011, mdy-all, Apple also made changes to applications: they resume in the same state as they were before they were closed, similar to iOS. Documents auto-save by default.WEB, Mac OS X 10.7 Lion Review - Document Model,weblink July 20, 2011, December 11, 2016, Ars Technica, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 20, 2016, mdy-all,

OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion

OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion was released on July 25, 2012. Following the release of Lion the previous year, it was the first of the annual rather than two-yearly updates to OS X (and later macOS), which also closely aligned with the annual iOS operating system updates. It incorporates some features seen in iOS 5, which include Game Center, support for iMessage in the new Messages messaging application, and Reminders as a to-do list app separate from iCal (which is renamed as Calendar, like the iOS app). It also includes support for storing iWork documents in iCloud.WEB, Apple – OS X Mountain Lion – The world's most advanced desktop operating system.,weblink February 16, 2012, February 16, 2012, Apple Inc., Apple, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 16, 2012, mdy-all, Notification Center, which makes its debut in Mountain Lion, is a desktop version similar to the one in iOS 5.0 and higher. Application pop-ups are now concentrated on the corner of the screen, and the Center itself is pulled from the right side of the screen. Mountain Lion also includes more Chinese features including support for Baidu as an option for Safari search engine, QQ, and services for Mail, Contacts and Calendar, Youku, Tudou and Sina Weibo are integrated into share sheets.Starting with Mountain Lion, Apple software updates (including the OS) are distributed via the App Store.WEB,weblink Inside OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion: Apple overhauls software updates, App Store, AppleInsider, en-US, 2017-04-29, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 6, 2016, mdy-all, This updating mechanism replaced the Apple Software Update utility.WEB,weblink Software Update to Move Inside Mac App Store in OS X Mountain Lion, Slivka, Eric, 2017-04-29, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 1, 2016, mdy-all, (File:Macintosh OS X Mavericks representation.png|thumb|right|A screenshot of OS X Mavericks)

OS X 10.9 Mavericks

OS X 10.9 Mavericks was released on October 22, 2013. It was a free upgrade to all users running Snow Leopard or later with a 64-bit Intel processor.NEWS, Oct 22, 2013, Poornima, Gupta, Edwin, Chan,weblink Apple gives away Mac software, unveils iPad Air, Reuters, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 4, 2017, mdy-all, Its changes include the addition of the previously iOS-only Maps and iBooks applications, improvements to the Notification Center, enhancements to several applications, and many under-the-hood improvements.PRESS RELEASE,weblink OS X Mavericks Available Today Free from the Mac App Store, October 22, 2013, Apple Inc., live,weblink October 10, 2017, mdy-all,

OS X 10.10 Yosemite

OS X 10.10 Yosemite was released on October 16, 2014. It features a redesigned user interface similar to that of iOS 7, intended to feature a more minimal, text-based 'flat' design, with use of translucency effects and intensely saturated colors.WEB, Siracusa, John, Yosemite review,weblink Ars Technica, live,weblink July 20, 2017, mdy-all, Apple's showcase new feature in Yosemite is Handoff, which enables users with iPhones running iOS 8.1 or later to answer phone calls, receive and send SMS messages, and complete unfinished iPhone emails on their Mac. As of OS X 10.10.3, Photos replaced iPhoto and Aperture.NEWS,weblink 16 April 2015, 27 July 2017, Samuel, Gibbs, The Guardian, London, Upgrading from iPhoto or Aperture to Apple's Photos? Read this, live,weblink May 27, 2018, mdy-all,

OS X 10.11 El Capitan

(File:El capitan desktop display.png|thumb|Screenshot of El Capitan)OS X 10.11 El Capitan was released on September 30, 2015. Similar to Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard, Apple described this release as containing "refinements to the Mac experience" and "improvements to system performance" rather than new features. Refinements include public transport built into the Maps application, GUI improvements to the Notes application, adopting San Francisco as the system font for clearer legibility, and the introduction of System Integrity Protection.The Metal API, first introduced in iOS 8, was also included in this operating system for "all Macs since 2012".WEB,weblink What’s New in Metal, Part 1, June 2015, June 17, 2015, Apple Developer, Apple, Dhiraj, Rav, 84, pdf, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 17, 2015, mdy-all, According to Apple, Metal accelerates system-level rendering by up to 50 percent, resulting in faster graphics performance for everyday apps. Metal also delivers up to 10 times faster draw call performance for more fluid experience in games and pro apps.PRESS RELEASE,weblink Apple - Press Info - Apple Announces OS X El Capitan with Refined Experience & Improved Performance, Apple Inc., live,weblink" title="">weblink June 8, 2015, mdy-all,

macOS 10.12 Sierra

macOS 10.12 Sierra was released to the public on September 20, 2016. New features include the addition of Siri, Optimized Storage, and updates to Photos, Messages, and iTunes.WEB,weblink macOS, September 26, 2016, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 26, 2016, mdy-all, WEB,weblink September 28, 2016, Siri for Mac: How it works in Apple's macOS Sierra and what it's capable of, AppleInsider, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 1, 2016, mdy-all,

macOS 10.13 High Sierra

macOS 10.13 High Sierra was released to the public on September 25, 2017.NEWS,weblink Apple is releasing macOS High Sierra on September 25, Dillet, Romain, TechCrunch, 2017-10-12, en, live,weblink October 13, 2017, mdy-all, Like OS X El Capitan and OS X Mountain Lion, High Sierra is a refinement-based update having very few new features visible to a user, including updates to Safari, Photos, and Mail, among other changes.NEWS,weblink MacOS 10.13 High Sierra Release Date Set for Fall, 2017-06-05, OS X Daily, 2017-10-12, en-US, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 27, 2017, mdy-all, The major change under the hood is the switch to the Apple File System, which is optimized for solid-state storage used in most new Mac computers.NEWS,weblink Apple macOS High Sierra preview: the biggest Mac update you’ll never see, The Verge, 2017-10-13, live,weblink October 13, 2017, mdy-all,

macOS 10.14 Mojave

macOS 10.14 Mojave was released on September 24, 2018. The update introduced a system-wide dark mode and several new apps lifted from iOS, such as Apple News.

macOS 10.15 Catalina

macOS 10.15 Catalina was released on October 7, 2019.WEB, macOS Catalina,weblink Apple Inc., 7 October 2019, Updates included enchanced voice control, and bundled apps for music, video, and podcasts that together replace the functions of iTunes, with support for 32-bit applications being officially dropped.WEB, Nield, David, 12 Things You Can Do in macOS Catalina That You Couldn't Before,weblink Gizmodo, G/O Media Group, 7 October 2019,


Usage share

{{See also|Usage share of operating systems}}As of July 2016, macOS is the second-most-active general-purpose desktop client operating system in use on the World Wide Web following Microsoft Windows, with a 4.90% usage share according to statistics compiled by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is the second most widely used desktop operating system (for web browsing), after Windows, and is estimated at approximately five times the usage of Linux (which has 1.01%). Usage share generally continues to shift away from the desktop and toward mobile operating systems such as iOS and Android.WEB,weblink Wikimedia Traffic Analysis Report - Operating Systems, Jun27-Jul31, 2016, live,weblink May 3, 2017, mdy-all,

Malware and spyware

In its earlier years, Mac OS X enjoyed a near-absence of the types of malware and spyware that have affected Microsoft Windows users.MAGAZINE,weblink John, Welch, Review: Mac OS X Shines In Comparison With Windows Vista, Information Week, January 6, 2007, February 5, 2007, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 9, 2007, mdy-all, WEB,weblink Scott, Granneman, Linux vs. Windows Viruses, The Register, October 6, 2003, February 5, 2007, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 7, 2015, mdy-all, WEB, Gruber, John, John Gruber, June 4, 2004,weblink Broken Windows, Daring Fireball, April 24, 2006, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 4, 2011, mdy-all, macOS has a smaller usage share compared to Windows,WEB,weblink Operating System Market Share, April 10, 2009, September 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink January 25, 2010, mdy-all, but it also has traditionally more secure Unix roots. Worms, as well as potential vulnerabilities, were noted in 2006, which led some industry analysts and anti-virus companies to issue warnings that Apple's Mac OS X is not immune to malware.WEB,weblink New Safari Flaw, Worms Turn Spotlight on Apple Security, eWeek, Roberts, Paul, February 21, 2006, November 23, 2007, Increasing market share coincided with additional reports of a variety of attacks.WEB,weblink 'Macs don't get viruses' myth dissolves before public's eyes, Tim, Conneally, August 28, 2009,, live,weblink" title="">weblink August 30, 2009, mdy-all, In early 2011, Mac OS X experienced a large increase in malware attacks,MAGAZINE, Grimes, Roger A.,weblink 7 questions about the Mac malware scare | Security, InfoWorld, May 23, 2011, July 5, 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink June 7, 2011, mdy-all, and malware such as Mac Defender, MacProtector, and MacGuard were seen as an increasing problem for Mac users. At first, the malware installer required the user to enter the administrative password, but later versions were able to install without user input.WEB,weblink Mac Security Boasts Threatened by Malware Surge – International Business Times,, May 26, 2011, July 5, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink August 8, 2011, mdy-all, Initially, Apple support staff were instructed not to assist in the removal of the malware or admit the existence of the malware issue, but as the malware spread, a support document was issued. Apple announced an OS X update to fix the problem. An estimated 100,000 users were affected.WEB, Trenholm, Rich,weblink Apple tells support staff not to confirm Mac Defender infections, Crave., UK, May 20, 2011, July 5, 2011, live,weblink" title="">weblink May 22, 2011, mdy-all, NEWS,weblink Mac Defender 2.0 Released – Security Watch, PC Mag, May 25, 2011, July 5, 2011, Larry, Seltzer, live,weblink" title="">weblink July 17, 2011, mdy-all, Apple releases security updates for macOS on a regular basis,WEB, Apple security updates, Apple, January 21, 2009,weblink January 29, 2009, live,weblink" title="">weblink February 5, 2009, mdy-all, as well as signature files for Xprotect, an anti-malware feature part of File Quarantine present since Mac OS X Snow Leopard.WEB, XProtect Explained: How Your Mac’s Built-in Anti-malware Software Works, How-To Geek, May 18, 2015,weblink live,weblink March 23, 2018, mdy-all,


As a devices company, Apple has mostly promoted macOS to sell Macs, with promotion of macOS updates focused on existing users, promotion at Apple Store and other retail partners, or through events for developers. In larger scale advertising campaigns, Apple specifically promoted macOS as better for handling media and other home-user applications, and comparing Mac OS X (especially versions Tiger and Leopard) with the heavy criticism Microsoft received for the long-awaited Windows Vista operating system.WEB, Nudd, Tim, Apple's Get a Mac campaign,weblink AdWeek, 2 December 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink October 5, 2011, mdy-all, WEB, Arthur, Charles, Apple tweaks Microsoft over Vista ad spending,weblink The Guardian, 2 December 2015, live,weblink" title="">weblink December 8, 2015, mdy-all,

See also

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External links

  • {{Official websiteweblink|macOS}} – official site
  • macOS – official support page
{{macOS}}{{Navboxes|list1={{Darwin derivations}}{{Apple Inc. operating systems}}{{Apple software}}{{Apple}}{{Unix}}{{Operating system}}}}{{Authority control}}

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