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IBM
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{{About|the American multinational technology company}}{{Redirect|Big Blue}}{{Use American English|date=February 2019}}{{short description|American multinational technology and consulting corporation}}







factoids
>Dow Jones Industrial Average>S&P 100>S&P 500 Component}}| ISIN = US4592001014Charles Ranlett Flint|Thomas J. Watson Sr.}}WEBSITE= FORTUNE.COM, July 22, 2016, Ginni Rometty({{small>Chairman, President and CEO}}) | industry = Cloud computingArtificial intelligenceComputer hardwareComputer software List of IBM products>See IBM productsOutsourcingConsulting>Managed services}} link=yes}}79.59 billion (2018)HTTPS://WWW.IBM.COM/ANNUALREPORT/ASSETS/DOWNLOADS/IBM_ANNUAL_REPORT_2018.PDF > TITLE=IBM CORPORATION FINANCIALS STATEMENTS, IBM, link=yes}}13.21 billion (2018) link=yes}}8.72 billion (2018){{Decrease}}{{US$|link=yes}}123.38 billion (2018)}}link=yes}}16.79 billion (2018)| owner = FORMAT=PDF, IBM.com, weblink}}| caption = Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company)Endicott, New York, New York (state)>New York, U.S.Certificate of Incorporation of Computing-Tabulating-Recording-Co, 14th day of June 1911| location_city = Armonk, New YorkUnited States>U.S.}}{{Listen| filename = Think Thomas J Watson Sr.ogg| title = "THINK"| description = Thomas J. Watson, who led IBM from 1914 to 1956, discussing the company's motto "THINK"| pos =| image =(File:Thomas J Watson Sr.jpg|100px)}}International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, with operations in over 170 countries. The company began in 1911, founded in Endicott, New York, as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) and was renamed "International Business Machines" in 1924.IBM produces and sells computer hardware, middleware and software, and provides hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology. IBM is also a major research organization, holding the record for most U.S. patents generated by a business ({{as of|2019|lc=y}}) for 26 consecutive years.WEB, IBM Marks More Than a Quarter Century of Patent Leadership with Record Year,weblink IBM, January 9, 2019, Inventions by IBM include the automated teller machine (ATM), the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the SQL programming language, the UPC barcode, and dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). The IBM mainframe, exemplified by the System/360, was the dominant computing platform during the 1960s and 1970s.IBM has continually shifted business operations by focusing on higher-value, more profitable markets. This includes spinning off printer manufacturer Lexmark in 1991 and the sale of personal computer (ThinkPad/ThinkCentre) and x86-based server businesses to Lenovo (in 2005 and 2014, respectively), and acquiring companies such as PwC Consulting (2002), SPSS (2009), The Weather Company (2016), and Red Hat (2019). Also in 2015, IBM announced that it would go "fabless", continuing to design semiconductors, but offloading manufacturing to GlobalFoundries.Nicknamed Big Blue, IBM is one of 30 companies included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average and one of the world's largest employers, with ({{as of|2017|lc=y}}) over 380,000 employees, known as "IBMers". At least 70% of IBMers are based outside the United States, and the country with the largest number of IBMers is Indiaweblink IBM employees have been awarded five Nobel Prizes, six Turing Awards, ten National Medals of Technology (USA) and five National Medals of Science (USA).

History

In the 1880s, technologies emerged that would ultimately form the core of International Business Machines (IBM). Julius E. Pitrap patented the computing scale in 1885;BOOK, Images of America: IBM in Endicott, Aswad, Ed, Meredith, Suzanne, 2005, Arcadia Publishing, 0-7385-3700-4,weblink Alexander Dey invented the dial recorder (1888);WEB,weblink Dey dial recorder, early 20th century, UK Science Museum, December 30, 2010, Herman Hollerith (1860–1929) patented the Electric Tabulating Machine;WEB,weblink Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator, Columbia University, December 30, 2010, and Willard Bundy invented a time clock to record a worker's arrival and departure time on a paper tape in 1889.WEB,weblink Employee Punch Clocks, Florida Time Clock, December 30, 2010, On June 16, 1911, their four companies were amalgamated in New York State by Charles Ranlett Flint forming a fifth company, the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) based in Endicott, New York.NY Times June 10, 1911 Tabulating Concerns Unite: Flint & Co. Bring Four Together with $19,000,000 capital The five companies had 1,300 employees and offices and plants in Endicott and Binghamton, New York; Dayton, Ohio; Detroit, Michigan; Washington, D.C.; and Toronto.They manufactured machinery for sale and lease, ranging from commercial scales and industrial time recorders, meat and cheese slicers, to tabulators and punched cards. Thomas J. Watson, Sr., fired from the National Cash Register Company by John Henry Patterson, called on Flint and, in 1914, was offered a position at CTR.BOOK, Belden, Thomas Graham, Belden, Marva Robins, 1962, The Lengthening Shadow: The Life of Thomas J. Watson, Little, Brown and Co., 89–93, Watson joined CTR as General Manager then, 11 months later, was made President when court cases relating to his time at NCR were resolved.NCR Corporation#Expansion Having learned Patterson's pioneering business practices, Watson proceeded to put the stamp of NCR onto CTR's companies.Belden (1962) p.105 He implemented sales conventions, "generous sales incentives, a focus on customer service, an insistence on well-groomed, dark-suited salesmen and had an evangelical fervor for instilling company pride and loyalty in every worker".WEB,weblink Chronological History of IBM, 1910s, IBM, January 30, 2015, BOOK, Marcosson, Isaac F., Wherever Men Trade: The Romance of the Cash Register, 1945, Dodd, Mead, His favorite slogan, "THINK", became a mantra for each company's employees. During Watson's first four years, revenues reached $9 million and the company's operations expanded to Europe, South America, Asia and Australia. Watson never liked the clumsy hyphenated name "Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company" and on February 14, 1924 chose to replace it with the more expansive title "International Business Machines".Belden (1962) p.125 By 1933 most of the subsidiaries had been merged into one company, IBM.(Rodgers, THINK, p.83)File:IBM Electronic Data Processing Machine - GPN-2000-001881.jpg|thumb|left|NACA researchers using an IBM type 704 electronic data processing machine in 1957]]In 1937, IBM's tabulating equipment enabled organizations to process unprecedented amounts of data, its clients including the U.S. Government, during its first effort to maintain the employment records for 26 million people pursuant to the Social Security Act,WEB,weblink Early Automation Challenges for SSA, Larry, DeWitt, April 2000, March 2, 2011, and the tracking of persecuted groups by Hitler's Third Reich,WEB,weblink February 14, 2001, IBM Statement on Nazi-era Book and Lawsuit, IBM Press room, WEB,weblink This Is the Hidden Nazi History of IBM — And the Man Who Tried to Expose It, Tech.Mic, largely through the German subsidiary Dehomag.In 1949, Thomas Watson, Sr., created IBM World Trade Corporation, a subsidiary of IBM focused on foreign operations.WEB,weblink The Creation of the World Trade Corporation, IBM Corp., ibm.com, June 8, 2016, In 1952, he stepped down after almost 40 years at the company helm, and his son Thomas Watson, Jr. was named president. In 1956, the company demonstrated the first practical example of artificial intelligence when Arthur L. Samuel of IBM's Poughkeepsie, New York, laboratory programmed an IBM 704 not merely to play checkers but "learn" from its own experience. In 1957, the FORTRAN scientific programming language was developed. In 1961, IBM developed the SABRE reservation system for American Airlines and introduced the highly successful Selectric typewriter. In 1963, IBM employees and computers helped NASA track the orbital flights of the Mercury astronauts. A year later, it moved its corporate headquarters from New York City to Armonk, New York. The latter half of the 1960s saw IBM continue its support of space exploration, participating in the 1965 Gemini flights, 1966 Saturn flights and 1969 lunar mission.File:IBM360-67AtUmichWithMikeAlexander.jpg|thumb|right|An IBM System/360 in use at the University of MichiganUniversity of MichiganOn April 7, 1964, IBM announced the first computer system family, the IBM System/360. It spanned the complete range of commercial and scientific applications from large to small, allowing companies for the first time to upgrade to models with greater computing capability without having to rewrite their applications. It was followed by the IBM System/370 in 1970. Together the 360 and 370 made the IBM mainframe the dominant mainframe computer and the dominant computing platform in the industry throughout this period and into the early 1980s. They, and the operating systems that ran on them such as OS/VS1 and MVS, and the middleware built on top of those such as the CICS transaction processing monitor, had a near-monopoly-level hold on the computer industry and became almost synonymous with IBM products due to their marketshare.BOOK, From Airline Reservations to Sonic the Hedgehog: A History of the Software Industry, Martin, Campbell-Kelly, Martin Campbell-Kelly, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2003, 140–143, 175–176, 237, In 1974, IBM engineer George J. Laurer developed the Universal Product Code.WEB,weblink The history of the UPC bar code and how the bar code symbol and system became a world standard., Cummingsdesign, May 17, 2011, IBM and the World Bank first introduced financial swaps to the public in 1981 when they entered into a swap agreement.BOOK, Fundamentals of Corporate Finance, 9th, alternate, Ross, Westerfield, Jordan, 2010, McGraw Hill, 746, The IBM PC, originally designated IBM 5150, was introduced in 1981, and it soon became an industry standard. In 1991, IBM spun out its printer manufacturing into a new business called Lexmark.In 1993, IBM posted a US$8 billion loss - at the time the biggest in American corporate history.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140223004332weblink">weblink yes, February 23, 2014, PDF, Life science: Fade or flourish ?, Guy, Lefever, Michele, Pesanello, Heather, Fraser, Lee, Taurman, 2011, IBM Institute for Business Value, July 6, 2013, p. 2, Lou Gerstner was hired as CEO from RJR Nabisco to turn the company around.WEB, IBM Archives: Louis V. Gerstner, Jr.,weblink In 2002, IBM acquired PwC consulting, and in 2003 it initiated a project to redefine company values, hosting a three-day online discussion of key business issues with 50,000 employees. The result was three values: "Dedication to every client's success", "Innovation that matters—for our company and for the world", and "Trust and personal responsibility in all relationships".WEB,weblink IBM About IBM – United States, May 28, 2015, JOURNAL, Leading Change When Business Is Good: The HBR Interview—Samuel J. Palmisano, Harvard Business Review, Harvard University Press, December 2004, File:IBMinventions.png|thumb|left|IBM inventions: (clockwise from top-left) the hard-disk drive, DRAM, the UPC bar code, and the magnetic stripe cardmagnetic stripe cardIn 2005, the company sold its personal computer business to Chinese technology company LenovoWEB,weblink Lenovo Completes Acquisition Of IBM's Personal Computing Division, IBM, and, in 2009, it acquired software company SPSS Inc. Later in 2009, IBM's Blue Gene supercomputing program was awarded the National Medal of Technology and Innovation by U.S. President Barack Obama. In 2011, IBM gained worldwide attention for its artificial intelligence program Watson, which was exhibited on Jeopardy! where it won against game-show champions Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter. The company also celebrated its 100th anniversary in the same year on June 16. In 2012, IBM announced it has agreed to buy Kenexa, and a year later it also acquired SoftLayer Technologies, a web hosting service, in a deal worth around $2 billion.NEWS,weblink IBM to buy website hosting service SoftLayer, Jennifer Saba, Reuters, June 5, 2013, In 2014, IBM announced it would sell its x86 server division to Lenovo for $2.1 billion.PRESS RELEASE, Reuters, September 29, 2014, Lenovo says $2.1 billion IBM x86 server deal to close on Wednesday,weblink {{better source|date=November 2017}} Also that year, IBM began announcing several major partnerships with other companies, including Apple Inc.,WEB, Apple + IBM,weblink IBM, July 18, 2014, WEB, Etherington, Darrell, Apple Teams Up With IBM For Huge, Expansive Enterprise Push,weblink Tech Crunch, July 18, 2014, July 15, 2014, Twitter,WEB, Landmark IBM Twitter partnership to help businesses make decisions,weblink Market Business News, November 2, 2014, Facebook,WEB, Ha, Anthony, IBM Announces Marketing Partnership With Facebook,weblink TechCrunch, August 13, 2016, Tencent,WEB, Kyung-Hoon, Kim, Tencent teams up with IBM to offer business software over the cloud,weblink Reuters, August 13, 2016, Cisco,WEB, Vanian, Jonathan, Cisco and IBM's New Partnership Is a Lot About Talk,weblink Fortune, August 13, 2016, UnderArmour,WEB, Terdiman, Daniel, IBM, Under Armour Team Up To Bring Cognitive Computing To Fitness Apps,weblink Fast Company, August 13, 2016, Box,WEB, Franklin Jr., Curtis, IBM, Box Cloud Partnership: What It Means,weblink Information Week, August 13, 2016, Microsoft,WEB, Weinberger, Matt, Microsoft just made a deal with IBM — and Apple should be nervous,weblink Business Insider, August 13, 2016, VMware,WEB, Forrest, Conner, VMware and SugarCRM expand partnerships with IBM, make services available on IBM Cloud,weblink Tech Republic, August 13, 2016, CSC,WEB, Taft, Darryl, IBM, CSC Expand Their Cloud Deal to the Mainframe, eWeek,weblink August 13, 2016, Macy's,WEB, Taft, Darryl, Macy's Taps IBM, Satisfi for In-Store Shopping Companion,weblink eWeek, August 13, 2016, Sesame Workshop,WEB, Toppo, Greg, Sesame Workshop, IBM partner to use Watson for preschoolers,weblink USA Today, August 13, 2016, the parent company of Sesame Street, and Salesforce.com.WEB, Nusca, Andrea, IBM, Salesforce Strike Global Partnership on Cloud, AI,weblink Fortune, March 7, 2017, In 2015, IBM announced three major acquisitions: Merge Healthcare for $1 billion,NEWS,weblink Bloomberg, IBM Buys Merge Healthcare to Boost Watson Health Cloud, August 6, 2015, data storage vendor Cleversafe, and all digital assets from The Weather Company, including Weather.com and the Weather Channel mobile app.NEWS, IBM Agrees to Acquire Weather Channel's Digital Assets,weblink October 28, 2015, Bloomberg, NEWS, IBM to Acquire the Weather Company,weblink October 28, 2015, The New York Times, Also that year, IBMers created the film A Boy and His Atom, which was the first molecule movie to tell a story. In 2016, IBM acquired video conferencing service Ustream and formed a new cloud video unit.WEB, IBM acquires Ustream, launches cloud video unit,weblink USA Today, January 21, 2016, WEB,weblink IBM Acquires Ustream: Behind the Acquisition, Tilly, McLain, January 21, 2016, Ustream Online Video Blog,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160122013620weblink">weblink January 22, 2016, no, August 22, 2016, In April 2016, it posted a 14-year low in quarterly sales.Matt Egan, CNN Money. "Big Blue isn't so big anymore." April 19, 2016. April 22, 2016. The following month, Groupon sued IBM accusing it of patent infringement, two months after IBM accused Groupon of patent infringement in a separate lawsuit.Jonathan Stempel, Reuters. "Groupon sues 'once-great' IBM over patent." May 9, 2016. May 9, 2016.In 2015, IBM bought the digital part of The Weather Companyweblink IBM Buys Digital Part of The Weather Company by David Goldman, October 28, 2015In October 2018, IBM announced its intention to acquire Red Hat for $34 billion.NEWS,weblink IBM to Acquire Red Hat for About $33 Billion, Greene, Jay, October 28, 2018, Wall Street Journal, October 29, 2018, McMillan, Robert, en-US, 0099-9660, WEB, Hammond, Ed, Porter, Kiel, Barinka, Alex, IBM Nears Deal to Acquire Software Maker Red Hat,weblink www.bloomberg.com, October 28, 2018, WEB, IBM to Acquire Red Hat,weblink October 28, 2018, The acquisition was completed on July 9, 2019.WEB,weblink IBM Closes Landmark Acquisition of Red Hat for $34 Billion; Defines Open, Hybrid Cloud Future, www.redhat.com, en, 2019-07-09, In June 2019, IBM cut 2,000 jobs.NEWS,weblink IBM Is Cutting Almost 2,000 Jobs as It Reshapes the Business, 2019-06-07, 2019-06-08, en,

Headquarters and offices

File:IBM CHQ - Oct 2014.jpg|thumb|IBM CHQ in Armonk, New YorkArmonk, New YorkFile:IBM Beijing, Pangu Plaza.jpg|thumb|Pangu Plaza, one of IBM's offices in Beijing, ChinaBeijing, ChinaIBM is headquartered in Armonk, New York, a community {{convert|37|mi}} north of Midtown Manhattan.WEB,weblink Contact Us, IBM, October 20, 2009, Its principal building, referred to as CHQ, is a {{convert|283000|sqft|m2|adj=on}} glass and stone edifice on a {{convert|25|acre|adj=on}} parcel amid a 432-acre former apple orchard the company purchased in the mid-1950s.WEB,weblink IBM's New Headquarters Reflects A Change in Corporate Style, Laurence, Zuckerman, September 17, 1997, The New York Times, August 22, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160305201259weblink">weblink March 5, 2016, no, There are two other IBM buildings within walking distance of CHQ: the North Castle office, which previously served as IBM's headquarters; and the Louis V. Gerstner, Jr., Center for LearningWEB,weblink On the Dedication of the Louis V. Gerstner, Jr., Center for Learning – THINK Blog, IBM, October 2, 2018, (formerly known as IBM Learning Center (ILC)), a resort hotel and training center, which has 182 guest rooms, 31 meeting rooms, and various amenities.WEB, Property Overview,weblink Dolce Hotels and Resorts, August 12, 2016,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160917145017weblink">weblink September 17, 2016, yes, IBM operates in 174 countries {{as of|2016|lc=y}}, with mobility centers in smaller markets areas and major campuses in the larger ones. In New York City, IBM has several offices besides CHQ, including the IBM Watson headquarters at Astor Place in Manhattan. Outside of New York, major campuses in the United States include Austin, Texas; Research Triangle Park (Raleigh-Durham), North Carolina; Rochester, Minnesota; and Silicon Valley, California.IBM's real estate holdings are varied and globally diverse. Towers occupied by IBM include 1250 René-Lévesque (Montreal, Canada), Tour Descartes (Paris, France), and One Atlantic Center (Atlanta, Georgia, USA). In Beijing, China, IBM occupies Pangu Plaza,WEB,weblink Company Overview of IBM China Company Limited, Bloomberg, the city's seventh tallest building and overlooking Beijing National Stadium ("Bird's Nest"), home to the 2008 Summer Olympics.IBM India Private Limited is the Indian subsidiary of IBM, which is headquartered at Bengaluru, Karnataka. It has facilities in Bengaluru, Ahmedabad, Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, Pune, Gurugram, Noida, Bhubaneshwar, Coimbatore, Visakhapatnam and Hyderabad.Other notable buildings include the IBM Rome Software Lab (Rome, Italy), the Hursley House (Winchester, UK), 330 North Wabash (Chicago, Illinois, United States), the Cambridge Scientific Center (Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States), the IBM Toronto Software Lab (Toronto, Canada), the IBM Building, Johannesburg (Johannesburg, South Africa), the IBM Building (Seattle) (Seattle, Washington, United States), the IBM Hakozaki Facility (Tokyo, Japan), the IBM Yamato Facility (Yamato, Japan), the IBM Canada Head Office Building (Ontario, Canada) and the Watson IoT HeadquartersWEB,weblink Watson IoT Headquarters, May 17, 2017, IBM, (Munich, Germany). Defunct IBM campuses include the IBM Somers Office Complex (Somers, New York). The company's contributions to industrial architecture and design include works by Eero Saarinen, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and I.M. Pei. Van der Rohe's building in Chicago was recognized with the 1990 Honor Award from the National Building Museum.NEWS, In the IBM Honoring the Corporation's Buildings, Benjamin Forgey, March 24, 1990, Washington Post, IBM was recognized as one of the Top 20 Best Workplaces for Commuters by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2005, which recognized Fortune 500 companies that provided employees with excellent commuter benefits to help reduce traffic and air pollution.WEB,weblink Environmental Protection, May 3, 2008, IBM, In 2004, concerns were raised related to IBM's contribution in its early days to pollution in its original location in Endicott, New York.NEWS,weblink Village of Endicott Environmental Investigations, January 28, 2015, NEWS,weblink In an I.B.M. Village, Pollution Fears Taint Relations With Neighbors, March 15, 2004, May 1, 2008, New York Times Online, Samme, Chittum,

Finance

For the fiscal year 2017, IBM reported earnings of US$5.7 billion, with an annual revenue of US$79.1 billion, a decline of 1.0% over the previous fiscal cycle. IBM's shares traded at over $125 per share, and its market capitalization was valued at over US$113.9 billion in September 2018.WEB,weblink IBM Revenue 2006–2018 {{!, IBM|website=www.macrotrends.net|access-date=October 28, 2018}} IBM ranked No. 34 on the 2018 Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.WEB,weblink Fortune 500 Companies 2018: Who Made the List, Fortune, en-US, November 9, 2018, {| class="wikitable float-left" style="text-align: right;"!Year!Revenuein mil. USD$!Net incomein mil. USD$!Total Assetsin mil. USD$!Price per Sharein USD$!Employees|2005|91,134|7,934|105,748|61.80||2006|91,424 {{increase}}|9,492|103,234|62.01||2007|98,786 {{increase}}|10,418|120,431|80.04||2008|103,630 {{increase}}|12,334|109,524|84.49||2009|95,758 {{decrease}}|13,425|109,022|85.67||2010|99,870 {{increase}}|14,833|113,452|105.32||2011|106,916 {{increase}}|15,855|116,433|138.97||2012|102,874 {{decrease}}|16,604|119,213|162.46||2013|98,367 {{decrease}}|16,483|126,223|163.30|431,212|2014|92,793 {{decrease}}|12,022|117,271|156.69|379,592|2015|81,741 {{decrease}}|13,190|110,495|137.27|377,757|2016|79,919 {{decrease}}|11,872|117,470|138.09|380,300|2017|79,139 {{decrease}}|5,753|125,356|149.76|366,600|2018|79,591 {{increase}}|8,723|125,356|149.76|350,600

Products and services

{{see also|List of IBM products}}File:IBM Interconnect.jpg|thumb|InterConnect, IBM's annual conference on cloud computing and mobile technologies ]]File:Mira - Blue Gene Q at Argonne National Laboratory - Skin.jpg|thumb|right|Blue Gene was awarded the National Medal of Technology and InnovationNational Medal of Technology and InnovationIBM has a large and diverse portfolio of products and services. {{as of|2016}}, these offerings fall into the categories of cloud computing, Artificial intelligence, commerce, data and analytics, Internet of Things (IoT),NEWS,weblink IBM Investing $3B in Internet of Things, PCMAG, May 28, 2015, IT infrastructure, mobile, and security.WEB, IBM Products,weblink IBM, August 13, 2016, IBM Cloud includes infrastructure as a service (IaaS), software as a service (SaaS) and platform as a service (PaaS) offered through public, private and hybrid cloud delivery models. For instance, the IBM Bluemix PaaS enables developers to quickly create complex websites on a pay-as-you-go model. IBM SoftLayer is a dedicated server, managed hosting and cloud computing provider, which in 2011 reported hosting more than 81,000 servers for more than 26,000 customers.WEB, Data Center Knowledge – SoftLayer: $78 Million in First Quarter Revenue,weblink August 14, 2016, IBM also provides Cloud Data Encryption Services (ICDES), using cryptographic splitting to secure customer data.WEB,weblink Cloud computing news: Security, ibm.com, October 21, 2015, September 23, 2016, IBM also hosts the industry-wide cloud computing and mobile technologies conference InterConnect each year.WEB, Lunden, Ingrid, IBM Inks VMware, GitHub, Bitly Deals, Expands Apple Swift Use As It Doubles Down On The Cloud,weblink TechCrunch, August 14, 2016, Hardware designed by IBM for these categories include IBM's POWER microprocessors, which are employed inside many console gaming systems, including Xbox 360,WEB,weblink IBM delivers Power-based chip for Microsoft Xbox 360 worldwide launch, IBM, October 25, 2005, PlayStation 3, and Nintendo's Wii U.WEB, Staff Writer, mybroadband,weblink IBM microprocessors drive the new Nintendo WiiU console, mybroadband.co.za, Jun 8, 2011, June 17, 2011, WEB, Leung, Isaac, Electronics News,weblink IBM'S 45NM SOI MICROPROCESSORS AT CORE OF NINTENDO WII U, electronicsnews.com.au, June 8, 2011, June 17, 2011, IBM Secure Blue is encryption hardware that can be built into microprocessors,WEB,weblink Building a smarter planet, Asmarterplanet.com, May 23, 2010, and in 2014, the company revealed TrueNorth, a neuromorphic CMOS integrated circuit and announced a $3 billion investment over the following five years to design a neural chip that mimics the human brain, with 10 billion neurons and 100 trillion synapses, but that uses just 1 kilowatt of power.NEWS, New research initiative sees IBM commit $3 bn,weblink July 10, 2014, San Francisco News.Net,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140714183807weblink">weblink July 14, 2014, yes, In 2016, the company launched all-flash arrays designed for small and midsized companies, which includes software for data compression, provisioning, and snapshots across various systems.Larry Dignan, ZDNet. "IBM launches flash arrays for smaller enterprises, aims to court EMC, Dell customers." August 23, 2016. August 23, 2016.IT outsourcing also represents a major service provided by IBM, with more than 40 data centers worldwide.NEWS,weblink BBC News, IBM commits .2bn to cloud data centre expansion, January 17, 2014, alphaWorks is IBM's source for emerging software technologies, and SPSS is a software package used for statistical analysis. IBM's Kenexa suite provides employment and retention solutions, and includes the BrassRing, an applicant tracking system used by thousands of companies for recruiting.WEB,weblink Kenexa Corporation | Company Profile from Hoover's, Hoovers.com, October 8, 2015, IBM also owns The Weather Company, which provides weather forecasting and includes weather.com and Weather Underground.NEWS,weblink IBM to Acquire the Weather Company, September 19, 2018, en, Smarter Planet is an initiative that seeks to achieve economic growth, near-term efficiency, sustainable development, and societal progress,NEWS,weblink The New York Times, Big Blue's Smarter Marketing Playbook, Steve, Lohr, January 12, 2010, August 8, 2010, NEWS,weblink CNET News, At IBM Research, a constant quest for the bleeding edge, Daniel, Terdiman, August 2, 2010, August 8, 2010, targeting opportunities such as smart grids,WEB,weblink Smart Grid, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110409051620weblink">weblink April 9, 2011, water management systems,WEB,weblink Smarter Water Management, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100418005337weblink">weblink April 18, 2010, solutions to traffic congestion,WEB,weblink Smart traffic, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100504161755weblink">weblink May 4, 2010, and greener buildings.WEB,weblink Smarter Buildings, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110614230343weblink">weblink June 14, 2011, Services provisions include Redbooks, which are publicly available online books about best practices with IBM products, and developerWorks, a website for software developers and IT professionals with how-to articles and tutorials, as well as software downloads, code samples, discussion forums, podcasts, blogs, wikis, and other resources for developers and technical professionals.WEB,weblink About developerWorks, IBM developerWorks, August 22, 2016, IBM Watson is a technology platform that uses natural language processing and machine learning to reveal insights from large amounts of unstructured data.WEB, What is Watson?,weblink IBM, August 13, 2016, Watson was debuted in 2011 on the American game-show Jeopardy!, where it competed against champions Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter in a three-game tournament and won. Watson has since been applied to business, healthcare, developers, and universities. For example, IBM has partnered with Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center to assist with considering treatment options for oncology patients and for doing melanoma screenings.WEB, Watson Oncology,weblink Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, August 13, 2016,weblink October 13, 2016, yes, Also, several companies have begun using Watson for call centers, either replacing or assisting customer service agents.WEB, Upbin, Bruce, IBM's Watson Now A Customer Service Agent, Coming To Smartphones Soon,weblink Forbes, August 13, 2016, In January 2019, IBM introduced its first commercial quantum computer IBM Q System One.NEWS, IBM Unveils Q System One Quantum Computer,weblink ExtremeTech, 10 January 2019, IBM also provides infrastructure for the New York City Police Department through their IBM Cognos Analytics to perform data visualizations of CompStat crime data."NYPD changes the crime control equation by transforming the way it uses information", IBM Corporation, Global Solution Sales New Orchard Road Armonk, NY 10504 U.S.A., 2006. Retrieved on 8 June 2019.

Research

File:IBM Yorktown Heights.jpg|thumb|The Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New YorkYorktown Heights, New YorkFile:Benoit Mandelbrot, TED 2010.jpg|thumb|upright|IBM Fellow Benoit Mandelbrot discusses fractal geometryfractal geometryResearch has been a part of IBM since its founding, and its organized efforts trace their roots back to 1945, when the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory was founded at Columbia University in New York City, converting a renovated fraternity house on Manhattan's West Side into IBM's first laboratory. Now, IBM Research constitutes the largest industrial research organization in the world, with 12 labs on 6 continents.WEB,weblink IBM Research: Global labs, May 28, 2015, IBM Research is headquartered at the Thomas J. Watson Research Center in New York, and facilities include the Almaden lab in California, Austin lab in Texas, Australia lab in Melbourne, Brazil lab in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, China lab in Beijing and Shanghai, Ireland lab in Dublin, Haifa lab in Israel, India lab in Delhi and Bangalore, Tokyo lab, Zurich lab and Africa lab in Nairobi.In terms of investment, IBM's R&D expenditure totals several billion dollars each year. In 2012, that expenditure was approximately US$6.9 billion.WEB, IBM's expenditure on research and development from 2005 to 2015 (in billion U.S. dollars),weblink Statista, August 12, 2016, Recent allocations have included $1 billion to create a business unit for Watson in 2014, and $3 billion to create a next-gen semiconductor along with $4 billion towards growing the company's "strategic imperatives" (cloud, analytics, mobile, security, social) in 2015.WEB, Bort, Julie, Ginni Rometty just set a big goal for IBM: spending $4 billion to bring in $40 billion,weblink Business Insider, August 12, 2016, IBM has been a leading proponent of the Open Source Initiative, and began supporting Linux in 1998.WEB,weblink IBM launches biggest Linux lineup ever, March 2, 1999, IBM,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/19991110114228weblink">weblink November 10, 1999, The company invests billions of dollars in services and software based on Linux through the IBM Linux Technology Center, which includes over 300 Linux kernel developers.WEB, IBM invests in Brazil Linux Tech Center,weblink May 24, 2006, LWN.net, Farrah Hamid, IBM has also released code under different open source licenses, such as the platform-independent software framework Eclipse (worth approximately US$40 million at the time of the donation),WEB,weblink Interview: The Eclipse code donation, November 1, 2001, IBM, yes,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20091218093727weblink">weblink December 18, 2009, the three-sentence weblink" title="archive.today/20121220184517weblink">International Components for Unicode (ICU) license, and the Java-based relational database management system (RDBMS) Apache Derby. IBM's open source involvement has not been trouble-free, however (see SCO v. IBM).Famous inventions and developments by IBM include: the Automated teller machine (ATM), Dynamic random access memory (DRAM), the electronic keypunch, the financial swap, the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, RISC, the SABRE airline reservation system, SQL, the Universal Product Code (UPC) bar code, and the virtual machine. Additionally, in 1990 company scientists used a scanning tunneling microscope to arrange 35 individual xenon atoms to spell out the company acronym, marking the first structure assembled one atom at a time.WEB,weblink IBM Archives: "IBM" atoms, IBM, A major part of IBM research is the generation of patents. Since its first patent for a traffic signaling device, IBM has been one of the world's most prolific patent sources. In 2018, the company holds the record for most patents generated by a business, marking 25 consecutive years for the achievement.Five IBMers have received the Nobel Prize: Leo Esaki, of the Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, N.Y., in 1973, for work in semiconductors; Gerd Binnig and Heinrich Rohrer, of the Zurich Research Center, in 1986, for the scanning tunneling microscope;WEB,weblink The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986 – Press Release, Nobel Media AB, October 15, 1986, January 1, 2014, and Georg Bednorz and Alex Müller, also of Zurich, in 1987, for research in superconductivity. Several IBMers have also won the Turing Award, including the first female recipient Frances E. Allen.JOURNAL, Jr, S., Guy, L., 10.1145/1866739.1866752, An interview with Frances E. Allen, Communications of the ACM, 54, 39, 2011, Current research includes a collaboration with the University of Michigan to see computers act as an academic adviser for undergraduate computer science and engineering students at the university,Clare Hopping, IT Pro. "IBM and University of Michigan develop human computer." January 18, 2016. January 18, 2016. and a partnership with AT&T, combining their cloud and Internet of Things (IoT) platforms to make them interoperable and to provide developers with easier tools.Larry Dignan, ZDNet. "IBM, AT&T to meld Internet of Things platforms." July 13, 2016. July 13, 2016.The company is also involved in research into advanced algorithms and machine learning and their decision-making processes.NEWS,weblink IBM scientists demonstrate 10x faster large-scale machine learning using GPUs, September 19, 2018, To that end, the company recently released an analysis tool for how and why algorithms make decisions while scanning for biases in automated decision-making.NEWS,weblink IBM launches bias detector for AI, Kleinman, Zoe, September 19, 2018, BBC News, September 19, 2018, en-GB,

Brand and reputation

File:IBM ads at JFK.jpg|thumb|IBM ads at John F. Kennedy International AirportJohn F. Kennedy International AirportIBM is nicknamed Big Blue in part due to its blue logo and color scheme,BOOK,weblink Postphenomenology: A Critical Companion to Ihde, 228, 0-7914-6787-2, 2006, State University of New York Press, edited by Evan Selinger., BOOK,weblink Logos, Letterheads & Business Cards: Design for Profit, 15, 2-88046-750-0, 2004, Rotovision, Conway Lloyd Morgan and Chris Foges., and also partially since IBM once had a de facto dress code of white shirts with blue suits.BOOK, 55, The Essential Guide to Computing: The Story of Information Technology,weblink Publisher: Prentice Hall PTR, 0-13-019469-7, E. Garrison Walters., 2001, The company logo has undergone several changes over the years, with its current "8-bar" logo designed in 1972 by graphic designer Paul Rand.WEB,weblink IBM Archives, IBM, It was a general replacement for a 13-bar logo, since period photocopiers did not render large areas well. Aside from the logo, IBM used Helvetica as a corporate typeface for 50 years, until it was replaced in 2017 by the custom-designed IBM Plex.IBM has a valuable brand as a result of over 100 years of operations and marketing campaigns. Since 1996, IBM has been the exclusive technology partner for the Masters Tournament, one of the four major championships in professional golf, with IBM creating the first Masters.org (1996), the first course cam (1998), the first iPhone app with live streaming (2009), and first-ever live 4K Ultra High Definition feed in the United States for a major sporting event (2016).WEB, Clayton, Ward, IBM and Masters Celebrate 20 Years,weblink Masters, August 12, 2016, As a result, IBM CEO Ginni Rometty became the third female member of the Master's governing body, the Augusta National Golf Club.WEB, Weinman, Sam, IBM CEO Ginni Rometty is Augusta National's third female member,weblink Golf Digest, August 12, 2016, IBM is also a major sponsor in professional tennis, with engagements at the U.S. Open, Wimbledon, the Australian Open, and the French Open.WEB, Snyder, Benjamin, Why IBM dominates the U.S. Open,weblink Forbes, August 12, 2016, The company also sponsored the Olympic Games from 1960–2000,WEB, DiCarlo, Lisa, IBM, Olympics Part Ways After 40 Years,weblink Forbes, August 12, 2016, and the National Football League from 2003–2012.WEB, Jinks, Beth, IBM Ends Its NFL Sponsorship Over Difference in Views,weblink Bloomberg L.P., August 12, 2016, In 2012, IBM's brand was valued at $75.5 billion and ranked by Interbrand as the second-best brand worldwide.WEB,weblink Best Global Brands Ranking for 2012, Interbrand, June 6, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130531080346weblink">weblink May 31, 2013, yes, That same year, it was also ranked the top company for leaders (Fortune), the number two green company in the U.S. (Newsweek),WEB,weblink IBM #1 in Green Rankingss for 2012, thedailybeast.com, the second-most respected company (Barron's),WEB,weblink The World's Most Respected Companies, Santoli, Michael, June 23, 2012, Barron's, June 23, 2012, the fifth-most admired company (Fortune), the 18th-most innovative company (Fast Company), and the number one in technology consulting and number two in outsourcing (Vault).WEB,weblink Tech Consulting Firm Rankings 2012: Best Firms in Each Practice Area, Vault, December 29, 2011, In 2015, Forbes ranked IBM the fifth-most valuable brand.WEB, The World's Most Valuable Brands,weblink September 2, 2015,

Antitrust lawsuit

In January, 1969, on the last day of the Johnson administration, the United States Department of Justice Antitrust Division filed suit against IBM, alledging that the company engaged in monopolistic business practces. While there were talks IBM would agree to a settlement or consent decree, the two sudes were unable to come to terms. The case went to trial in 1975, a legal matter the Justice Department estimated would take 60 days. After three years, and millions of pages of evidence, the Justice Department decided to drop the suit. As the New York Times article states, {{cquote|Some outside observers view the I.B.M. case as proof that the Justice Department cannot and should not be trying to restructure major global industries. Irving S. Shapiro, chairman of E.I. duPont de Nemours & Company, a lawyer who spent several years in Justice, says: "All the ballplayers are above their heads in these cases that concern the structure of key industries. From the lawyer who drafted the case right on up, you're talking about people who have no experience in economics or industry."}} IBM has never publicly disclosed how much it spent defending the suit, but it is estimated to be in the tens of millions of dollars.U.S. vs. I.B.M., The New York Times, February 15, 1981,weblink , (Retrieved July 13, 2019).

People and culture

Employees

{{See also|List of IBM CEOs}}(File:Ibmaustin designcamp.jpg|thumb|New IBMers being welcomed to bootcamp at IBM Austin, 2015)File:Watson Jeopardy demo.jpg|thumb|Employees demonstrating IBM Watson capabilities in a Jeopardy!Jeopardy!IBM has one of the largest workforces in the world, and employees at Big Blue are referred to as "IBMers". The company was among the first corporations to provide group life insurance (1934), survivor benefits (1935), training for women (1935), paid vacations (1937), and training for disabled people (1942). IBM hired its first black salesperson in 1946, and in 1952, CEO Thomas J. Watson, Jr. published the company's first written equal opportunity policy letter, one year before the U.S. Supreme Court decision in Brown vs. Board of Education and 11 years before the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The Human Rights Campaign has rated IBM 100% on its index of gay-friendliness every year since 2003,WEB,weblink International Business Machines Corp. (IBM) profile, HRC Corporate Equality Index Score, {{Dead link|date=July 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }} with IBM providing same-sex partners of its employees with health benefits and an anti-discrimination clause. Additionally, in 2005, IBM became the first major company in the world to commit formally to not use genetic information in employment decisions; and in 2017, IBM was named to Working Mother{{'}}s 100 Best Companies List for the 32nd consecutive year.WEB, 2017 Working Mother 100 Best Companies,weblink IBM has several leadership development and recognition programs to recognize employee potential and achievements. For early-career high potential employees, IBM sponsors leadership development programs by discipline (e.g., general management (GMLDP), human resources (HRLDP), finance (FLDP)). Each year, the company also selects 500 IBMers for the IBM Corporate Service Corps (CSC),WEB, The IBM Corporate Service Corps,weblink IBM CSC, August 12, 2016, which has been described as the corporate equivalent of the Peace Corps and gives top employees a month to do humanitarian work abroad.WEB, Why IBM Gives Top Employees a Month to Do Service Abroad,weblink Harvard Business Review, August 12, 2016, For certain interns, IBM also has a program called Extreme Blue that partners top business and technical students to develop high-value technology and compete to present their business case to the company's CEO at internship's end.WEB,weblink Extreme Blue web page, 01.ibm.com, September 7, 2007, May 23, 2010, The company also has various designations for exceptional individual contributors such as Senior Technical Staff Member (STSM), Research Staff Member (RSM), Distinguished Engineer (DE), and Distinguished Designer (DD).WEB, Taft, Derryl, IBM Launches Distinguished Designer Program,weblink eWeek, August 12, 2016, Prolific inventors can also achieve patent plateaus and earn the designation of Master Inventor. The company's most prestigious designation is that of IBM Fellow. Since 1963, the company names a handful of Fellows each year based on technical achievement. Other programs recognize years of service such as the Quarter Century Club established in 1924, and sellers are eligible to join the Hundred Percent Club, composed of IBM salesmen who meet their quotas, convened in Atlantic City, New Jersey. Each year, the company also selects 1,000 IBMers annually to award the Best of IBM Award, which includes an all-expenses paid trip to the awards ceremony in an exotic location.IBM's culture has evolved significantly over its century of operations. In its early days, a dark (or gray) suit, white shirt, and a "sincere" tie constituted the public uniform for IBM employees.BOOK, Smith, Paul Russell, Strategic Marketing Communications: New Ways to Build and Integrate Communications, Kogan Page, 1999, 24,weblink 0-7494-2918-6, During IBM's management transformation in the 1990s, CEO Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. relaxed these codes, normalizing the dress and behavior of IBM employees.WEB, IBM Attire,weblink IBM Archives, IBM Corp., May 31, 2012, The company's culture has also given to different plays on the company acronym (IBM), with some saying is stands for "I've Been Moved" due to relocations and layoffs,WEB, Goldman, David, IBM stands for 'I've Been Moved',weblink CNN Money, August 12, 2016, others saying it stands for "I'm By Myself" pursuant to a prevalent work-from-anywhere norm,WEB, IBM stands for "I'm by myself' for teleworkers of the blue giant,weblink African America, August 12, 2016, and others saying it stands for "I'm Being Mentored" due to the company's open door policy and encouragement for mentoring at all levels.WEB, Intelligent Mentoring,weblink IBM Press, August 12, 2016, In terms of labor relations, the company has traditionally resisted labor union organizing,JOURNAL, Logan, John, The Union Avoidance Industry in the United States, British Journal of Industrial Relations, December 2006, 651–675,weblink PDF, December 17, 2010,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160817122539weblink">weblink August 17, 2016, yes, mdy-all, although unions represent some IBM workers outside the United States.WEB,weblink IBM Global Unions Links, EndicottAlliance.org, October 12, 2013,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131014040215weblink">weblink October 14, 2013, yes, mdy-all, In Japan, IBM employees also have an American football team complete with pro stadium, cheerleaders and televised games, competing in the Japanese X-League as the "Big Blue".WEB, Bort, Julie, In Japan, IBM employees have formed a football team complete with pro stadium, cheerleaders and televised games,weblink Business Insider, August 12, 2016, In 2015, IBM started giving employees the option of choosing either a PC or a Mac as their primary work device, resulting in IBM becoming the world's largest Mac shop.WEB, Switch to Macs from PCs reportedly saves IBM $270 per user,weblink CIO, August 12, 2016, In 2016, IBM eliminated forced rankings and changed its annual performance review system to focus more on frequent feedback, coaching, and skills development.Shana Lebowitz, Business Insider. "After overhauling its performance review system, IBM now uses an app to give and receive real-time feedback." May 20, 2016. May 20, 2016.

IBM alumni

Many IBMers have also achieved notability outside of work and after leaving IBM. In business, former IBM employees include Apple Inc. CEO Tim Cook,NEWS,weblink Forbes, Timothy D. Cook Profile, November 10, 2017,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120518015746weblink">weblink May 18, 2012, yes, mdy-all, former EDS CEO and politician Ross Perot, Microsoft chairman John W. Thompson, SAP co-founder Hasso Plattner, Gartner founder Gideon Gartner, Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) CEO Lisa Su,WEB,weblink Executive Biographies – Lisa Su, Amd.com, October 10, 2014, former Citizens Financial Group CEO Ellen Alemany, former Yahoo! chairman Alfred Amoroso, former AT&T CEO C. Michael Armstrong, former Xerox Corporation CEOs David T. Kearns and G. Richard Thoman,NEWS, Kearns, David T, Crossing the Bridge: Family, Business, Education, Cancer, and the Lessons Learned, May 31, 2005, Meliora Press, former Fair Isaac Corporation CEO Mark N. Greene,WEB,weblink Fair Isaac CEO: FICO criticism isn't 'fair' – Feb. 8, 2008, By Paul R. La Monica, CNNMoney.com editor at, large, money.cnn.com, December 28, 2017, Citrix Systems co-founder Ed Iacobucci, ASOS.com chairman Brian McBride, former Lenovo CEO Steve Ward, and former Teradata CEO Kenneth Simonds.In government, alumna Patricia Roberts Harris served as United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, the first African American woman to serve in the United States Cabinet.BOOK, (Women in World History, Women in World History, Vol. 7: Harr-I), 2000, Yorkin Publications, Waterford, CT, 0-7876-4066-2, 14–17, DeLaat, Jacqueline, Harris, Patricia Roberts, Samuel K. Skinner served as U.S. Secretary of Transportation and as the White House Chief of Staff. Alumni also include U.S. Senators Mack Mattingly and Thom Tillis; Wisconsin governor Scott Walker;NEWS, Miller, Zeke J., Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker: A 2016 Contender But Not A College Graduate,weblink May 1, 2015, TIME, November 19, 2013, former U.S. Ambassadors Vincent Obsitnik (Slovakia), Arthur K. Watson (France), and Thomas Watson Jr. (Soviet Union); and former U.S. Representatives Todd Akin,Official Manual of the State of Missouri, 1993–1994{{dead link|date=March 2018 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}, p. 157 Glenn Andrews, Robert Garcia, Katherine Harris,"Katherine Harris' Biography". Project Vote Smart. Retrieved April 30, 2006. Amo Houghton, Jim Ross Lightfoot, Thomas J. Manton, Donald W. Riegle Jr., and Ed Zschau.Others are NASA astronaut Michael J. Massimino, Canadian astronaut and Governor-General Julie Payette, Harvey Mudd College president Maria Klawe, Western Governors University president emeritus Robert Mendenhall, former University of Kentucky president Lee T. Todd Jr., NFL referee Bill Carollo,WEB, Board of Directors — Officers,weblink National Association of Sports Officials, September 27, 2007,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070915040843weblink">weblink September 15, 2007, yes, former Rangers F.C. chairman John McClelland, and recipient of the Nobel Prize in Literature J. M. Coetzee. Thomas Watson Jr. also served as the 11th national president of the Boy Scouts of America and Tucker Technologies Founder and CEO Mycah E. Tucker. Ken Olisa {{post-nominals|country=GBR|sep=,|OBE|CStJ|FRSA|FBCS}}. Lord-Lieutenant of Greater London.

Board and shareholders

The company's 14 member Board of Directors are responsible for overall corporate management and includes the CEOs of American Express, Ford Motor Company, Boeing, Dow Chemical, Johnson and Johnson, and Cemex as well as the president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.WEB,weblink Board of Directors, IBM, December 17, 2010, In 2011, IBM became the first technology company Warren Buffett's holding company Berkshire Hathaway invested in.WEB, McFarland, Matt, Warren Buffett never liked tech stocks. So why does he own Apple?,weblink Washington Post, August 11, 2016, Initially he bought 64 million shares costing 10.5 billion dollars. Over the years he increased his IBM holdings however he reduced it by 94.5% to 2.05 million shares at the end of 2017. By May 2018 he was completely out of IBM.WEB,weblink Warren Buffett says Berkshire Hathaway has sold completely out of IBM, Matthew J. Belvedere, CNBC, May 4, 2018,

See also

References

{{Reflist|colwidth=40em}}

Further reading

{{for|additional books about IBM, biographies, memoirs, technology and more|History of IBM#Further reading}}
  • BOOK, Henry Bakis, F. E. Ian Hamilton, 1987, Industrial change in advanced economies, Croom Helm, London, Telecommunications and the Global Firm, 130–160, 9780709938286,
  • BOOK, Roy A Bauer, 1992, The Silverlake Project: Transformation at IBM (AS/400), Oxford University Press, etal,
  • BOOK, Edwin Black, 2001, IBM and the Holocaust: The Strategic Alliance Between Nazi Germany and America's Most Powerful Corporation, 0-914153-10-2,
  • BOOK, Paul Carroll, 1993, Big Blues: The Unmaking of IBM, Crown Publishers,
  • BOOK, Doug Garr, 1999, IBM Redux: Lou Gerstner & The Business Turnaround of the Decade, Harper Business,
  • BOOK, Louis V. Gerstner, Jr., 2002, Who Says Elephants can't Dance?, HarperCollins, 0-00-715448-8,
  • Greulich, Peter E. (2014) A View from Beneath the Dancing Elephant: Rediscovering IBM's Corporate Constitution MBI Concepts Corporation. {{ISBN|0-9833734-6-9}}.
  • BOOK, John Harwood, 2011, The Interface: IBM and the Transformation of Corporate Design, 1945–1976, 978-0-8166-7039-0,
  • BOOK, Robert Heller, 1994, The Fate of IBM, Little Brown,
  • BOOK, David Mercer, 1987, IBM: How the World's Most Successful Corporation is Managed, Kogan Page,
  • BOOK, David Mercer, 1988, The Global IBM: Leadership in Multinational Management, Dodd, Mead, 374,
  • Mills, D. Quinn; Friesen, G. Bruce (1996). Broken Promises: An Unconventional View of What Went Wrong at IBM. Harvard Business School. {{ISBN|0-87584-654-8}}.
  • BOOK, Emerson W. Pugh, 1996, Building IBM: Shaping an Industry, MIT Press,
  • BOOK, Robert Slater, 1999, Saving Big Blue: IBM's Lou Gerstner, McGraw Hill,
  • BOOK, Ulrich Steinhilper, 2006, Don't Talk – Do It! From Flying To Word Processing, 1-872836-75-5,
  • BOOK, Ernest von Simson, 2009, The Limits of Strategy: Lessons in Leadership from the Computer Industry, iUniverse, 978-1-4401-9258-6,
  • BOOK, Thomas Watson, Jr., 1990, Father, Son & Co: My Life at IBM and Beyond, 0-553-29023-1,

External links

{{Sister project links}}{{finance links| name = IBM Corp.| symbol = IBM| sec_cik = 786000| yahoo = IBM| google = IBM}}
  • NEWS, Samme Chittum, In an I.B.M. Village, Pollution Fears Taint Relations With Neighbors,weblink New York Times, March 15, 2004,
  • {{OpenCorp|IBM}}
{{Finance links| name = IBM| symbol = IBM| sec_cik = IBM| yahoo = IBM| google = IBM}}{{IBM}}{{Dow Jones Industrial Average companies}}{{Major computer hardware companies}}{{Major information storage companies}}{{Major software companies}}{{Electronics industry in the United States}}{{Authority control}}{{Use American English|date=April 2015}}{{Use mdy dates|date=February 2019}}

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