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Inuit
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{{About||the 2010 film|Inuk (film)|other uses of Inuit}}{{distinguish|text=the Innu, a First Nations people in eastern Quebec and Labrador}}{{short description|Group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions}}







factoids
{{Indigenous Peoples of Canada}}The Inuit ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|ɪ|nj|u|ɪ|t}}; syllabics: , "the people", singular: Inuk ᐃᓄᒃ, dual: Inuuk ᐃᓅᒃ)Correct use of Inuit and Inuk are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting Inuit Nunangat, the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.WEB, Kaplan, Lawrence,weblink Comparative Yupik and Inuit, Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2011-07-01, 2015-05-12, The Inuit languages are part of the Eskimo–Aleut family.WEB,weblink The Hunters of the Arctic, bambusspiele.de, 2008-01-07, Inuit Sign Language is a critically endangered language isolate used in Nunavut.JOURNAL, Inuit Sign Language: a contribution to sign language typology, Schuit, Joke, Baker, Anne, Pfau, Roland,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150919191834weblink">weblink 19 September 2015, Universiteit van Amsterdam, 1 August 2015, dead, In Canada and the United States, the term "Eskimo" was commonly used to describe the Inuit and Siberia's and Alaska's Yupik and Iñupiat peoples. However, "Inuit" is not accepted as a term for the Yupik, and "Eskimo" is the only term that applies to Yupik, Iñupiat and Inuit. Since the late 20th century, Indigenous peoples in Canada and Greenlandic Inuit consider "Eskimo" to be a pejorative term, and they more frequently identify as "Inuit" for an autonym.The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20010412155403weblink |date=April 12, 2001 }} In Canada, sections 25 and 35 of the Constitution Act of 1982 classified the Inuit as a distinctive group of Aboriginal Canadians who are not included under either the First Nations or the Métis.WEB,weblink Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Department of Justice Canada, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110105224835weblink">weblink 2011-01-05, The Inuit live throughout most of Northern Canada in the territory of Nunavut, Nunavik in the northern third of Quebec, Nunatsiavut and NunatuKavut in Labrador, and in various parts of the Northwest Territories, particularly around the Arctic Ocean, in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. With the exception of NunatuKavut these areas are known in the Inuit languages as Inuit Nunangat.WEB,weblink Maps of Inuit Nunaat (Inuit Regions of Canada), Itk.ca, 2009-06-10, 2011-02-25, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110217073541weblink">weblink 2011-02-17, WEB,weblink Inuit population by residence inside or outside Inuit Nunangat, 2016, Canada, Government of Canada, Statistics, www.statcan.gc.ca, en, 2017-11-12, 2017-10-25, In the United States, the Iñupiat live primarily on the Alaska North Slope and on Little Diomede Island. The Greenlandic Inuit are descendants of ancient indigenous migrations from Canada, as these people migrated to the east through the continent. They are citizens of Denmark, although not of the European Union.

History

Pre-contact history

{{For|earlier pre-contact history|Indigenous peoples in Canada#Paleo-Indians period}}File:Arctic cultures 900-1500 (no caption).png|thumb|upright=1.1|alt=Maps showing the different cultures (Dorset, Thule, Norse, Innu, and Beothuk) in Greenland, Labrador, Newfoundland and the Canadian arctic islands in the years 900, 1100, 1300 and 1500|Arctic cultures from 900 to 1500:{{aligned table|fullwidth=y|nowrap2=y|{{legend-line|15px #56BD7E solid|Dorset}}|{{legend-line|15px #F5F402 solid|Innu}}|{{legend-line|15px #2E42A2 solid|Thule}}|{{legend-line|15px #F09C00 solid|Beothuk}}|{{legend-line|15px #A00018 solid|Norse}}}}]]Inuit are the descendants of what anthropologists call the Thule people,BOOK, Bruce G. Trigger, Wilcomb E. Washburn, The Cambridge History of the Native Peoples of the Americas,weblink 1996, Cambridge University Press, 978-0-521-57392-4, 192, who emerged from western Alaska around 1000 CE. They had split from the related Aleut group about 4000 years ago and from northeastern Siberian migrants, possibly related to the Chukchi language group, still earlier, descended from the third major migration from Siberia. They spread eastwards across the Arctic.BOOK, William G. Dean, Geoffrey J. Matthews, Concise Historical Atlas of Canada,weblink 1998, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-4203-3, 2, They displaced the related Dorset culture, called the Tuniit in Inuktitut, which was the last major Paleo-Eskimo culture.BOOK, Harris, R. Cole, R. Louis Gentilcore, Geoffrey J. Matthews, Donald P. Kerr, Historical Atlas of Canada,weblink 1987, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-2495-4, 28–29, Inuit legends speak of the Tuniit as "giants", people who were taller and stronger than the Inuit.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060529123547weblink">101. Nunavut Handbook, Qaummaarviit Historic Park Less frequently, the legends refer to the Dorset as "dwarfs".WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110514020806weblink">weblink 2011-05-14, Tooth wear and the sexual division of labor in an Inuit population, 2011-01-24, Researchers believe that Inuit society had advantages by having adapted to using dogs as transport animals, and developing larger weapons and other technologies superior to those of the Dorset culture.BOOK, Jared M. Diamond, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail Or Succeed,weblink 2006, Penguin (University of California), 978-0-14-303655-5, 256, By 1300, Inuit migrants had reached west Greenland, where they settled. During the next century, they also settled in East Greenland BOOK, John F. Hoffecker, A Prehistory of the North: Human Settlement of the Higher Latitudes,weblink 2005, Rutgers University Press, 978-0-8135-3469-5, 3, JOURNAL, Sandell, Hanne Tuborg, Sandell, Birger, 1991, Archaeology and Environment in the Scoresby Sund Fjord,weblink Meddelelser om Grønland Man & Society, Museum Tusculanum Press, 15, 23, 2019-03-18, 9788763512084, Faced with population pressures from the Thule and other surrounding groups, such as the Algonquian and Siouan-speaking peoples to the south, the Tuniit gradually receded.BOOK, The Dorset : An Enigma = Le Dorset : une énigme, Palmer, J. W, 1998, 201–222, 19, North American Archaeologist, 3, The Tuniit were thought to have become completely extinct as a people by about 1400 or 1500.But, in the mid-1950s, researcher Henry B. Collins determined that, based on the ruins found at Native Point, the Sadlermiut were likely the last remnants of the Dorset culture, or Tuniit.BOOK, National Geographic Magazine, Vanished Mystery Men of Hudson Bay, Henry B., Collins, Vol. CX No. 5, 1956, 674, The Sadlermiut population survived up until winter 1902–03, when exposure to new infectious diseases brought by contact with Europeans led to their extinction as a people.WEB, Library and Archives Canada, Aboriginal 7 – Life in Canada,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20120804215759weblink">weblink dead, 2012-08-04, 2008-03-21, In the early 21st century, mitochondrial DNA research has supported the theory of continuity between the Tuniit and the Sadlermiut peoples.WEB,weblink Floyd L., Davidson, 2004-04-26, 2008-10-13, Re: Barrow Boy gibberish..., WEB,weblink Arctic Studies Center Newsletter, 2008-10-13, June 2002, Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, It also provided evidence that a population displacement did not occur within the Aleutian Islands between the Dorset and Thule transition.WEB,weblink Ancestor descendant relationships in North American Arctic prehistory: Ancient DNA evidence from the Aleutian Islands and the Eastern Canadian Arctic., 2008-10-13, M.G., Hayes, 2001, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080514033111weblink">weblink May 14, 2008, In contrast to other Tuniit populations, the Aleut and Sadlermiut benefited from both geographical isolation and their ability to adopt certain Thule technologies.In Canada and Greenland, Inuit circulated almost exclusively north of the "arctic tree line", the effective southern border of Inuit society. The most southern "officially recognized" Inuit community in the world is RigoletWEB, rigolet.ca, Welcome to Rigolet,weblink 2010-06-04, in Nunatsiavut.South of Nunatsiavut, the descendants of the southern Labrador Inuit in NunatuKavut continued their traditional transhumant semi-nomadic way of life until the mid-1900s. The Nunatukavummuit people usually moved among islands and bays on a seasonal basis. They did not establish stationary communities. In other areas south of the tree line, non-Inuit indigenous cultures were well established. The culture and technology of Inuit society that served so well in the Arctic were not suited to subarctic regions, so they did not displace their southern neighbors.Inuit had trade relations with more southern cultures; boundary disputes were common and gave rise to aggressive actions. Warfare was not uncommon among those Inuit groups with sufficient population density. Inuit such as the Nunamiut (Uummarmiut), who inhabited the Mackenzie River delta area, often engaged in warfare. The more sparsely settled Inuit in the Central Arctic, however, did so less often.Their first European contact was with the Vikings who settled in Greenland and explored the eastern Canadian coast. The sagas recorded meeting skrælingar, probably an undifferentiated label for all the indigenous peoples whom the Norse encountered, whether Tuniit, Inuit, or Beothuk.BOOK, Scott Weidensaul, The First Frontier: The Forgotten History of Struggle, Savagery, and Endurance in Early America',weblink 2012, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 978-0-547-53956-0, 20, After about 1350, the climate grew colder during the period known as the Little Ice Age. During this period, Alaskan natives were able to continue their whaling activities. But, in the high Arctic, the Inuit were forced to abandon their hunting and whaling sites as bowhead whales disappeared from Canada and Greenland. These Inuit had to subsist on a much poorer diet, and lost access to the essential raw materials for their tools and architecture which they had previously derived from whaling.BOOK, William F. Perrin, Bernd Wursig, J. G.M. Hans Thewissen, Thewissen, Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals,weblink 2009, Academic Press, 978-0-08-091993-5, 630, The changing climate forced the Inuit to work their way south, pushing them into marginal niches along the edges of the tree line. These were areas which Native Americans had not occupied or where they were weak enough for the Inuit to live near them. Researchers have difficulty defining when Inuit stopped this territorial expansion. There is evidence that they were still moving into new territory in southern Labrador when they first began to interact with European colonists in the 17th century.

Post-contact history

(File:Histoire de l'Amerique Septentrionale - divisée en quatre tomes (1753) (14577039230).jpg|thumb|A European ship coming into contact with the Inuit in the ice of Hudson Bay in 1697.)

Canada

Early contact with Europeans

The lives of Paleo-Eskimos of the far north were largely unaffected by the arrival of visiting Norsemen except for mutual trade.McGhee 1992:194 The Labrador Inuit have had the longest continuous contact with Europeans.Kleivan 1966:9 After the disappearance of the Norse colonies in Greenland, the Inuit had no contact with Europeans for at least a century. By the mid-16th century, Basque whalers and fishermen were already working the Labrador coast and had established whaling stations on land, such as the one that has been excavated at Red Bay, Labrador.WEB,weblink Basque Whaling in Red Bay, Labrador, Heritage.nf.ca, 2011-01-24, WEB,weblink The International Fishery of the 16th Century, Heritage.nf.ca, 2011-01-24, The Inuit do not appear to have interfered with their operations, but the Natives raided the stations in winter, taking tools and items made of worked iron, which they adapted to their own needs.File:Zentralbibliothek Zürich - Merckliche Beschreibung sampt eygenlicher Abbildung eynes frembden unbekanten Volcks - 000003625 (cropped).jpg|thumb|left|An anonymous 1578 illustration believed to show Kalicho (left), and ArnaqArnaqMartin Frobisher's 1576 search for the Northwest Passage was the first well-documented contact between Europeans and Inuit. Frobisher's expedition landed in Frobisher Bay, Baffin Island, not far from the settlement now called the City of Iqaluit. Frobisher encountered Inuit on Resolution Island where five sailors left the ship, under orders from Frobisher. They became part of Inuit mythology. The homesick sailors, tired of their adventure, attempted to leave in a small vessel and vanished. Frobisher brought an unwilling Inuk to England, possibly the first Inuk ever to visit Europe.Account of the Inuit in England In contrast, the Inuit oral tradition recounts the natives helping Frobisher's crewmen, whom they believed had been abandoned.The semi-nomadic eco-centred Inuit were fishers and hunters harvesting lakes, seas, ice platforms and tundra. While there are some allegations that Inuit were hostile to early French and English explorers, fishers and whalers, more recent research suggests that the early relations with whaling stations along the Labrador coast and later James Bay were based on a mutual interest in trade.Mitchell 1996:49–62 In the final years of the 18th century, the Moravian Church began missionary activities in Labrador, supported by the British who were tired of the raids on their whaling stations. The Moravian missionaries could easily provide the Inuit with the iron and basic materials they had been stealing from whaling outposts, materials whose real cost to Europeans was almost nothing, but whose value to the Inuit was enormous. From then on, contacts between the national groups in Labrador were far more peaceful.File:HBC-Upper Savage Islands-Hudson Strait.jpg|thumb|alt=The Hudson's Bay Company ships Prince of Wales and Eddystone with Inuit boats off the Upper Savage Islands, Hudson Strait, Canada|Hudson's Bay Company Ships bartering with Inuit off the Upper Savage Islands, Hudson StraitHudson StraitThe exchanges that accompanied the arrival and colonization by the Europeans greatly damaged the Inuit way of life. Mass death was caused by the new infectious diseases carried by whalers and explorers, to which the Indigenous peoples had no acquired immunity. The high mortality rate contributed to the enormous social disruptions caused by the distorting effect of Europeans' material wealth and introduction of different materials. Nonetheless, Inuit society in the higher latitudes largely remained in isolation during the 19th century.The Hudson's Bay Company opened trading posts such as Great Whale River (1820), today the site of the twin villages of Whapmagoostui and Kuujjuarapik, where whale products of the commercial whale hunt were processed and furs traded. The British Naval Expedition of 1821–23 led by Admiral William Edward Parry twice over-wintered in Foxe Basin. It provided the first informed, sympathetic and well-documented account of the economic, social and religious life of the Inuit. Parry stayed in what is now Igloolik over the second winter. Parry's writings, with pen and ink illustrations of Inuit everyday life, and those of George Francis Lyon were widely read after they were both published in 1824.D'Anglure 2002:205 Captain George Comer's Inuit wife Shoofly, known for her sewing skills and elegant attire,Driscoll 1980:6 was influential in convincing him to acquire more sewing accessories and beads for trade with Inuit.

Early 20th century

During the early 20th century a few traders and missionaries circulated among the more accessible bands. After 1904, they were accompanied by a handful of Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). Unlike most Aboriginal peoples in Canada, however, the Inuit did not occupy lands that were coveted by European settlers. Used to more temperate climates and conditions, most Europeans considered the homeland of the Inuit to be a hostile hinterland. Southerners enjoyed lucrative careers as bureaucrats and service providers to the peoples of the North, but very few ever chose to visit there.Once its more hospitable lands were largely settled, the government of Canada and entrepreneurs began to take a greater interest in its more peripheral territories, especially the fur and mineral-rich hinterlands. By the late 1920s, there were no longer any Inuit who had not been contacted by traders, missionaries or government agents. In 1939, the Supreme Court of Canada found, in a decision known as Re Eskimos, that the Inuit should be considered Indians and were thus under the jurisdiction of the federal government.Native customs were worn down by the actions of the RCMP, who enforced Canadian criminal law on the Inuit. People such as Kikkik often did not understand the rules of the alien society with which they had to interact. In addition, the generally Protestant missionaries of the British preached a moral code very different from the one the Inuit had as part of their tradition. Many of the Inuit were systematically converted to Christianity in the 19th and 20th centuries, through rituals such as the Siqqitiq.

Second World War to the 1960s

World War II and the Cold War made Arctic Canada strategically important to the great powers for the first time. Thanks to the development of modern long-distance aircraft, these areas became accessible year-round. The construction of air bases and the Distant Early Warning Line in the 1940s and 1950s brought more intensive contacts with European society, particularly in the form of public education for children. The traditionalists complained that Canadian education promoted foreign values that were disdainful of the traditional structure and culture of Inuit society.Heather E. McGregor, Inuit Education and Schools in the Eastern Arctic (2010).In the 1950s, the Government of Canada undertook what was called the High Arctic relocation for several reasons. These were to include protecting Canada's sovereignty in the Arctic, alleviating hunger (as the area currently occupied had been over-hunted), and attempting to solve the "Eskimo problem", by seeking assimilation of the people and the end of their traditional Inuit culture. One of the more notable relocations was undertaken in 1953, when 17 families were moved from Port Harrison (now Inukjuak, Quebec) to Resolute and Grise Fiord. They were dropped off in early September when winter had already arrived. The land they were sent to was very different from that in the Inukjuak area; it was barren, with only a couple of months when the temperature rose above freezing, and several months of polar night. The families were told by the RCMP they would be able to return to their home territory within two years if conditions were not right. However, two years later more Inuit families were relocated to the High Arctic. Thirty years passed before they were able to visit Inukjuak.WEB,weblink 2.2 To Improve the Lives of Aboriginal People, Ainc-inac.gc.ca, 2011-01-18, 2011-01-24, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110221142959weblink">weblink 2011-02-21, WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070204055507weblink">weblink dead, 2007-02-04, High Arctic Relocation,  {{small|(2 MB)}}WEB,weblink Broken Promises, Nutaaq.com, 2011-01-24, By 1953, Canada's prime minister Louis St. Laurent publicly admitted, "Apparently we have administered the vast territories of the north in an almost continuing absence of mind."Parker 1996:32 The government began to establish about forty permanent administrative centres to provide education, health, and economic development services. Inuit from hundreds of smaller camps scattered across the north, began to congregate in these hamlets.Mitchell 1996:118Regular visits from doctors, and access to modern medical care raised the birth rate and decreased the death rate, causing a marked natural increase in the population that made it more difficult for them to survive by traditional means. In the 1950s, the Canadian government began to actively settle Inuit into permanent villages and cities, occasionally against their will (such as in Nuntak and Hebron). In 2005 the Canadian government acknowledged the abuses inherent in these forced resettlements.WEB, Ashley Fitzpatrick Published on August 15, 2012,weblink Forced relocation of Inuit acknowledged – Local, The Telegram, 2012-08-15, 2015-10-25, By the mid-1960s, encouraged first by missionaries, then by the prospect of paid jobs and government services, and finally forced by hunger and required by police, most Canadian Inuit lived year-round in permanent settlements. The nomadic migrations that were the central feature of Arctic life had become a much smaller part of life in the North. The Inuit, a once self-sufficient people in an extremely harsh environment were, in the span of perhaps two generations, transformed into a small, impoverished minority, lacking skills or resources to sell to the larger economy, but increasingly dependent on it for survival.Although anthropologists like Diamond Jenness (1964) were quick to predict that Inuit culture was facing extinction, Inuit political activism was already emerging.

Cultural renewal

In the 1960s, the Canadian government funded the establishment of secular, government-operated high schools in the Northwest Territories (including what is now Nunavut) and Inuit areas in Quebec and Labrador along with the residential school system. The Inuit population was not large enough to support a full high school in every community, so this meant only a few schools were built, and students from across the territories were boarded there. These schools, in Aklavik, Iqaluit, Yellowknife, Inuvik and Kuujjuaq, brought together young Inuit from across the Arctic in one place for the first time, and exposed them to the rhetoric of civil and human rights that prevailed in Canada in the 1960s. This was a real wake-up call for the Inuit, and it stimulated the emergence of a new generation of young Inuit activists in the late 1960s who came forward and pushed for respect for the Inuit and their territories.The Inuit began to emerge as a political force in the late 1960s and early 1970s, shortly after the first graduates returned home. They formed new politically active associations in the early 1970s, starting with the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada (Inuit Brotherhood and today known as Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami), an outgrowth of the Indian and Eskimo Association of the '60s, in 1971, and more region specific organizations shortly afterwards, including the Committee for the Original People's Entitlement (representing the Inuvialuit),WEB,weblink Committee for Original Peoples Entitlement (COPE), Connexions.org, 2007-06-05, 2011-01-24, the Northern Quebec Inuit Association (Makivik Corporation) and the Labrador Inuit Association (LIA) representing Northern Labrador Inuit. Since the mid-1980s the Southern Labrador Inuit of NunatuKavut began organizing politically after being geographically cut out of the LIA, however, for political expediency the organization was erroneously called the Labrador Métis Nation. These various activist movements began to change the direction of Inuit society in 1975 with the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement. This comprehensive land claims settlement for Quebec Inuit, along with a large cash settlement and substantial administrative autonomy in the new region of Nunavik, set the precedent for the settlements to follow. The northern Labrador Inuit submitted their land claim in 1977, although they had to wait until 2005 to have a signed land settlement establishing Nunatsiavut. Southern Labrador Inuit of NunatuKavut are currently in the process of establishing landclaims and title rights that would allow them to negotiate with the Newfoundland Government.Canada's 1982 Constitution Act recognized the Inuit as Aboriginal peoples in Canada, but not First Nations. In the same year, the Tunngavik Federation of Nunavut (TFN) was incorporated, in order to take over negotiations for land claims on behalf of the Inuit living in the eastern Northwest Territories, that would later become Nunavut, from the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, which became a joint association of the Inuit of Quebec, Labrador, and the Northwest Territories.

Inuit cabinet members at the federal level

On October 30, 2008, Leona Aglukkaq was appointed as Minister of Health, "[becoming] the first Inuk to hold a senior cabinet position, although she is not the first Inuk to be in cabinet altogether."NEWS,weblink 2008-12-21, CBC News, Nunavut's Aglukkaq named federal health minister, 2008-10-30, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090119195019weblink">weblink 2009-01-19, Jack Anawak and Nancy Karetak-Lindell were both parliamentary secretaries respectively from 1993 to 1996 and in 2003.

Genocide in the 20th and 21st centuries

In 2019, the final report, Reclaiming Power and Place,Reclaiming Power and Place: The Final Report of the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls by the National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls concluded that Canada was involved in "race-based genocide of indigenous peoples", resulting in more than 1.000 women killed since 1980.Canada 'complicit in race-based genocide' of indigenous womenDeaths of indigenous women 'a Canadian genocide', leaked report says

Nomenclature

{{See also|Eskimo#Nomenclature}}In the United States, the term "Eskimo" is still commonly used, because it includes Inuit, Iñupiat, and Yupik peoples whilst distinguishing them from American Indians. The Yupik do not speak an Inuit language nor consider themselves to be Inuit. However, the term is probably a Montagnaisweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20010222085413weblink">"Eskimo" by Mark IsraelGoddard, Ives (1984). "Synonymy". In Arctic, ed. David Damas. Vol. 5 of Handbook of North American Indians, ed. William C. Sturtevant, pp. 5–7. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. Cited in Campbell 1997Campbell, Lyle (1997). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America, p. 394. New York: Oxford University Press exonym as well as being widely used inJOURNAL, Mailhot, Jose, L'etymologie de "esquimau" revue et corrigée, Etudes/Inuit/Studies, 2, 2, 1978, Cree Mailing List Digest November 1997BOOK, Goddard, Ives, Ives Goddard, Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 5 (Arctic), Smithsonian Institution, 1984, 978-0-16-004580-6, folk etymology as meaning "eater of raw meat" in the Cree language.Setting the Record Straight About Native Languages: What Does "Eskimo" Mean In Cree?Eskimo {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20010412155403weblink |date=April 12, 2001 }}, American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition, 2000 It is now considered pejorative or even a racial slur amongst the Canadian and English-speaking Greenlandic Inuit.In Canada and Greenland, "Inuit" is preferred. Inuit is the Eastern Canadian Inuit (Inuktitut) and West Greenlandic (Kalaallisut) word for "the people". Since Inuktitut and Kalaallisut are the prestige dialects in Canada and Greenland, respectively, their version has become dominant, although every Inuit dialect uses cognates from the Proto-Eskimo *ińuɣ {{ndash}} for example, "people" is inughuit in North Greenlandic and iivit in East Greenlandic.

Cultural history

Languages

(File:Inuktitut dialect map.svg|thumb|upright=1.35|alt=Inuktitut dialect map with labels in Inuktitut inuujingajut or local Roman alphabet|Distribution of Inuit dialects)Inuit speak Inuinnaqtun, Inuktitut, Inuvialuktun, and Greenlandic languages, which belong to the Inuit-Inupiaq branch of the Eskimo–Aleut language family. The Greenlandic languages are divided into: Kalaallisut (Western), Inuktun (Northern), and Tunumiit (Eastern)."Greenland." Ethnologue. Retrieved 18 Oct 2013.Inuktitut is spoken in Canada and along with Inuinnaqtun is one of the official languages of Nunavut; they are known collectively as the Inuit Language.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110706191503weblink">Consolidation of (S.Nu. 2008, c.10) (NIF) Official Languages Act and Consolidation of Inuit Language Protection Act {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110706191509weblink |date=2011-07-06 }} In the Northwest Territories, Inuvialuktun, Inuinnaqtun and Inuktitut are all official languages.weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110809180703weblink">Northwest Territories Official Languages Act, 1988 (as amended 1988, 1991–1992, 2003) Kalaallisut is the official language of Greenland.BOOK, Pamela R. Stern, Historical Dictionary of the Inuit,weblink 27 July 2004, Scarecrow Press, 978-0-8108-6556-3, 75, As Inuktitut was the language of the Eastern Canadian Inuit and Kalaallisut is the language of the Western Greenlandic Inuit, they are related more closely than most other dialects.BOOK, Louis-Jacques Dorais, Language of the Inuit: Syntax, Semantics, and Society in the Arctic,weblink 2010, McGill-Queen's Press, 978-0-7735-8162-3, 62, Inuit in Alaska and Northern Canada also typically speak English.{{citation needed|date=April 2014}} In Greenland, Inuit also speak Danish and learn English in school. Canadian Inuit may also speak Québécois French.Finally, Deaf Inuit speak Inuit Sign Language, which is a language isolate and almost extinct as only around 50 people still speak it.{{e18|iks|Inuit Sign Language}}

Diet

The Inuit have traditionally been fishers and hunters. They still hunt whales (esp. bowhead whale), seal, polar bears, muskoxen, birds, and fish and at times other less commonly eaten animals such as the Arctic fox. The typical Inuit diet is high in protein and very high in fat – in their traditional diets, Inuit consumed an average of 75% of their daily energy intake from fat.WEB,weblink The Inuit Paradox, DISCOVER Magazine, 2008-03-25, While it is not possible to cultivate plants for food in the Arctic, the Inuit have traditionally gathered those that are naturally available. Grasses, tubers, roots, stems, berries, and seaweed (kuanniq or edible seaweed) were collected and preserved depending on the season and the location.BOOK, Kuhnlein, Harriet, Traditional Plant Foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples: Nutrition, Botany and Use (Food and Nutrition in History and Anthropology),weblink 2007-11-19, 1st, Taylor and Francis, 978-2-88124-465-0, 26–29, Chapter 4. Descriptions and Uses of Plant Foods by Indigenous Peoples,weblink 1991, 1991, WEB,weblink Arctic Wildlife, 2007-11-20, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Not included are the myriad of other species of plants and animals that Inuit use, such as geese, ducks, rabbits, ptarmigan, swans, halibut, clams, mussels, cod, berries and seaweed.,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070813015442weblink">weblink 2007-08-13, BOOK, Bennett, John, Rowley, Susan, Uqalurait: An Oral History of Nunavut,weblink 2004, McGill-Queen's University Press, 978-0-7735-2340-1, 84–85, Chapter 5. Gathering,weblink ...shorelines, Inuit gathered seaweed and shellfish. For some, these foods were a treat;..., WEB,weblink kuanniq, Asuilaak Living Dictionary, 2007-02-16, BOOK, Bennett, John, Rowley, Susan, Uqalurait: An Oral History of Nunavut,weblink 2004, McGill-Queen's University Press, 978-0-7735-2340-1, 78–85, Chapter 5. Gathering, There is a vast array of different hunting technologies that the Inuit used to gather their food.In the 1920s, anthropologist Vilhjalmur Stefansson lived with and studied a group of Inuit.Lieb et al. (1926). "The Effects of an Exclusive Long-Continued Meat Diet." JAMA, July 3, 1926 The study focused on the fact that the Inuit's low-carbohydrate diet had no adverse effects on their health, nor indeed, Stefansson's own health. Stefansson (1946) also observed that the Inuit were able to get the necessary vitamins they needed from their traditional winter diet, which did not contain any plant matter. In particular, he found that adequate vitamin C could be obtained from items in their traditional diet of raw meat such as ringed seal liver and whale skin (muktuk). While there was considerable skepticism when he reported these findings, they have been borne out in recent studies and analyses.JOURNAL, Kang-Jey Ho, Belma Mikkelson, Lena A. Lewis, Sheldon A. Feldman, C. Bruce Taylor, 1972, Alaskan Arctic Eskimo: responses to a customary high fat diet,weblink PDF, Am J Clin Nutr, 25, 8, 737–745, 2014-03-07, 10.1093/ajcn/25.8.737, 5046723, However, the Inuit have lifespans 12 to 15 years shorter than the average Canadian's, which is thought to be a result of limited access to medical services.Inuit lifespan stagnates while Canada's rises The life expectancy gap is not closing.WEB,weblink May 29, 2013, dead, Inuit & Cancer: Fact sheets, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, February 2009,weblink October 23, 2013, WILKINS > FIRST1 = R. FIRST2 = S. FIRST3 = P. FIRST4 = S. FIRST5 = E. FIRST6 = R., Life expectancy in the Inuit-inhabited areas of Canada, 1989 to 2003, Health reports / Statistics Canada, Canadian Centre for Health Information = Rapports sur la sante / Statistique Canada, Centre canadien d'information sur la sante, 19, 1, 7–19, 2008, 18457208, Furthermore, fish oil supplement studies have failed to support claims of preventing heart attacks or strokes.NEWS, Zimmer, Carl, Carl Zimmer, Inuit Study Adds Twist to Omega-3 Fatty Acids' Health Story,weblink September 17, 2015, New York Times, October 11, 2015, NEWS, O'Connor, Anahad, Fish Oil Claims Not Supported by Research,weblink March 30, 2015, New York Times, October 11, 2015, JOURNAL, Grey, Andrew, Bolland, Mark, Clinical Trial Evidence and Use of Fish Oil Supplements,weblink March 2014, JAMA Internal Medicine, 174, 3, 460–462, 10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.12765, October 11, 2015, 24352849,

Transport, navigation, and dogs

File:Inuit man by Curtis - Noatak AK.jpg|thumb|alt=Photograph of an Inuit man seated in a kayak, holding a paddle|Inupiat in a kayak, Noatak, Alaska, c. 1929 (photo by Edward S. CurtisEdward S. CurtisFile:Qinngorput-Nuuk.JPG|thumb|Urbanization in GreenlandGreenlandThe Inuit peoples hunted sea animals from single-passenger, covered seal-skin boats called qajaq (Inuktitut syllabics: ᖃᔭᖅ)WEB,weblink Qajaq, Asuilaak Living Dictionary, 2007-05-12, which were extraordinarily buoyant, and could easily be righted by a seated person, even if completely overturned. Because of this property, the design was copied by Europeans and Americans who still produce them under the Inuit name kayak.File:Inuitbasket.jpg|thumb|Inupiat baleen basket, with an ivory handle, made by Kinguktuk (1871–1941) of Barrow, Alaska. Displayed at the Museum of Man, San Diego, CaliforniaCaliforniaInuit also made umiaq ("woman's boat"), larger open boats made of wood frames covered with animal skins, for transporting people, goods, and dogs. They were {{convert|6|-|12|m|ft|abbr=on}} long and had a flat bottom so that the boats could come close to shore. In the winter, Inuit would also hunt sea mammals by patiently watching an aglu (breathing hole) in the ice and waiting for the air-breathing seals to use them. This technique is also used by the polar bear, who hunts by seeking holes in the ice and waiting nearby.In winter, both on land and on sea ice, the Inuit used dog sleds (qamutik) for transportation. The husky dog breed comes from Inuit breeding of dogs and wolves for transportation. A team of dogs in either a tandem/side-by-side or fan formation would pull a sled made of wood, animal bones, or the baleen from a whale's mouth and even frozen fish,WEB, Hegener, Helen,weblink The Inuit Sled Dog, Mushinghistory.blogspot.com, 2008-12-30, 2011-01-24, over the snow and ice. The Inuit used stars to navigate at sea and landmarks to navigate on land; they possessed a comprehensive native system of toponymy. Where natural landmarks were insufficient, the Inuit would erect an inukshuk.Dogs played an integral role in the annual routine of the Inuit. During the summer they became pack animals, sometimes dragging up to {{convert|20|kg|abbr=on}} of baggage and in the winter they pulled the sled. Yearlong they assisted with hunting by sniffing out seals' holes and pestering polar bears. They also protected the Inuit villages by barking at bears and strangers. The Inuit generally favored, and tried to breed, the most striking and handsome of dogs, especially ones with bright eyes and a healthy coat. Common husky dog breeds used by the Inuit were the Canadian Eskimo Dog, the official animal of Nunavut,WEB,weblink Legislative Assembly of Nunavut. "The Canadian Inuit Dog, Assembly.nu.ca, 2011-01-24, 2011-02-25, (Qimmiq; Inuktitut for dog), the Greenland Dog, the Siberian Husky and the Alaskan Malamute. The Inuit would perform rituals over the newborn pup to give it favorable qualities; the legs were pulled to make them grow strong and the nose was poked with a pin to enhance the sense of smell.{{Citation needed|date=April 2018}}

Industry, art, and clothing

File:Early 20th Century Inuit parka (UBC).jpg|thumb|Inuit woman's parka, Canada.]](File:Inuit-Kleidung 1.jpg|thumb|Traditional clothing; left: seal, right: caribou.)Inuit industry relied almost exclusively on animal hides, driftwood, and bones, although some tools were also made out of worked stones, particularly the readily worked soapstone. Walrus ivory was a particularly essential material, used to make knives. Art played a big part in Inuit society and continues to do so today. Small sculptures of animals and human figures, usually depicting everyday activities such as hunting and whaling, were carved from ivory and bone. In modern times prints and figurative works carved in relatively soft stone such as soapstone, serpentinite, or argillite have also become popular.Inuit made clothes and footwear from animal skins, sewn together using needles made from animal bones and threads made from other animal products, such as sinew. The anorak (parka) is made in a similar fashion by Arctic peoples from Europe through Asia and the Americas, including the Inuit. The hood of an amauti, (women's parka, plural amautiit) was traditionally made extra large with a separate compartment below the hood to allow the mother to carry a baby against her back and protect it from the harsh wind. Styles vary from region to region, from the shape of the hood to the length of the tails. Boots (mukluk or kamikkamik Inuktitut Living Dictionary. Retrieved July 16, 2013.), could be made of caribou or seal skin, and designed for men and women.(File:Inuit-Igloo.tif|thumb|Inuit building an igloo|left)During the winter, certain Inuit lived in a temporary shelter made from snow called an igloo, and during the few months of the year when temperatures were above freezing, they lived in tents, known as tupiq,BOOK, Ohokak, G., M. Kadlun, B. Harnum, Inuinnaqtun-English Dictionary, Kitikmeot Heritage Society,weblink 2013-03-20, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120904191006weblink">weblink 2012-09-04, made of animal skins supported by a frame of bones or wood.BOOK, Larsen, Olga Popovič, Tyas, Andy, Conceptual Structural Design: Bridging the Gap Between Architects and Engineers,weblink 2013-03-20, 2003-01-01, ICE Publishing, 978-0727732354, 19, 3, WEB,weblink Warm Season Dwellings -Tupiq, 2013-03-20,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131021052212weblink">weblink 2013-10-21, dead, Some, such as the Siglit, used driftwood,JOURNAL,weblink The Mackenzie Inuit Winter House, Arctic, 45, 2, June 1992, 2011-01-24, 10.14430/arctic1393, Arnold, Charles D., Hart, Elisa J., while others built sod houses.WEB,weblink Reconstructing traditional Inuit house forms using three-dimensional interactive computer modelling, 2011-01-24,

Gender roles, marriage, birth, and community

{{See also|Eskimo kinship|Inuit women}}File:Inuit Woman 1907 Crisco edit 2.jpg|thumb|Inupiat woman, AlaskaAlaskaThe division of labor in traditional Inuit society had a strong gender component, but it was not absolute. The men were traditionally hunters and fishermen and the women took care of the children, cleaned the home, sewed, processed food, and cooked. However, there are numerous examples of women who hunted, out of necessity or as a personal choice. At the same time men, who could be away from camp for several days at a time, would be expected to know how to sew and cook.Inuit Women, by Janet Mancini Billson, Kyra Mancini. Published by Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. {{ISBN|0-7425-3597-5}}, {{ISBN|978-0-7425-3597-8}}. p. 38The marital customs among the Inuit were not strictly monogamous: many Inuit relationships were implicitly or explicitly sexual. Open marriages, polygamy, divorce, and remarriage were known. Among some Inuit groups, if there were children, divorce required the approval of the community and particularly the agreement of the elders. Marriages were often arranged, sometimes in infancy, and occasionally forced on the couple by the community.Billson 2007:65File:Inupiat Family from Noatak, Alaska, 1929, Edward S. Curtis (restored).jpg|thumb|An Inupiat family from Noatak, AlaskaNoatak, AlaskaMarriage was common for women at puberty and for men when they became productive hunters. Family structure was flexible: a household might consist of a man and his wife (or wives) and children; it might include his parents or his wife's parents as well as adopted children; it might be a larger formation of several siblings with their parents, wives and children; or even more than one family sharing dwellings and resources. Every household had its head, an elder or a particularly respected man.Billson 2007:56There was also a larger notion of community as, generally, several families shared a place where they wintered. Goods were shared within a household, and also, to a significant extent, within a whole community.The Inuit were hunter–gatherers,Snow, Dean R. "The first Americans and the differentiation of hunter-gatherer cultures." North America. Eds. Bruce G. Trigger and Wilcomb E. Washburn. Cambridge University Press, 1996. Cambridge Histories Online. Cambridge University Press. 5 May 2008 {{doi|10.1017/CHOL9780521573924.004}} and have been referred to as nomadic.WEB,weblink The Inuit, 2011-01-24, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110706181657weblink">weblink 2011-07-06, One of the customs following the birth of an infant was for an Angakkuq (shaman) to place a tiny ivory carving of a whale into the baby's mouth, in hopes this would make the child good at hunting. Loud singing and drumming were also customary after a birth.Olmert, Michael (1996). Milton's Teeth and Ovid's Umbrella: Curiouser & Curiouser Adventures in History, p.158. Simon & Schuster, New York. {{ISBN|0-684-80164-7}}.

Raiding

Virtually all Inuit cultures have oral traditions of raids by other indigenous peoples, including fellow Inuit, and of taking vengeance on them in return, such as the Bloody Falls massacre. Western observers often regarded these tales as generally not entirely accurate historical accounts, but more as self-serving myths. However, evidence shows that Inuit cultures had quite accurate methods of teaching historical accounts to each new generation.WEB, From Skeptic to Believer, Ernest S. Burch, Jr.,weblink In northern Canada, historically there were ethnic feuds between the Dene and the Inuit, as witnessed by Samuel Hearne in 1771.From: Samuel Hearne, A Journey from Prince of Wales's Fort in Hudson's Bay to the Northern Ocean, 1769, 1770, 1771, 1772 (London, Eng: Strahan and Cadell, 1795) {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110612042514weblink |date=June 12, 2011 }} at the University of Western Ontario In 1996, Dene and Inuit representatives participated in a healing ceremony to reconcile the centuries-old grievances.NEWS,weblink CBC News, CBC's David McLauchlin dies at 56, May 26, 2003, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080620203125weblink">weblink June 20, 2008, The historic accounts of violence against outsiders does make clear that there was a history of hostile contact within the Inuit cultures and with other cultures.BOOK, Eskimo Essays, Ann, Fienup-Reordan, Rutgers University Press, 1990, It also makes it clear that Inuit nations existed through history, as well as confederations of such nations. The known confederations were usually formed to defend against a more prosperous, and thus stronger, nation. Alternately, people who lived in less productive geographical areas tended to be less warlike, as they had to spend more time producing food.Justice within Inuit culture was moderated by the form of governance that gave significant power to the elders. As in most cultures around the world, justice could be harsh and often included capital punishment for serious crimes against the community or the individual. During raids against other peoples, the Inuit, like their non-Inuit neighbors, tended to be merciless.WEB,weblink War by Rachel Attituq Qitsualik, Nunatsiaq.com, 2011-01-24,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090823183025weblink">weblink 2009-08-23, dead,

Suicide, murder, and death

{{anchor|Suicide}}{{further|Suicide in Greenland|Suicide in Canada#Among aboriginal people|l2=Suicide among Canadian aboriginal people}}A pervasive European myth about Inuit is that they killed elderly (senicide) and "unproductive people",JOURNAL, Book reviews, Canadian Historical Review, 79, 3, 591, September 1998, 10.3138/CHR.79.3.577,weblink 0008-3755, {{dead link|date=November 2016}} but this is not generally true."Senilicide and Invalidicide among the Eskimos" by Rolf Kjellstrom in Folk: Dansk etnografisk tidsskrift, volume 16/17 (1974/75)JOURNAL, Leighton, Alexander H., Hughes, Charles C., Notes on Eskimo Patterns of Suicide, Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 11, 4, 327–38, Winter 1955, 3628908, 10.1086/soutjanth.11.4.3628908, Eskimos and Explorers, 2d ed., by Wendell H. Oswalt (1999) In a culture with an oral history, elders are the keepers of communal knowledge, effectively the community library.WEB,weblink What is Traditional Knowledge?, Alaska Native Science Commission, 2008-05-05, Because they are of extreme value as the repository of knowledge, there are cultural taboos against sacrificing elders.BOOK, Kawagley, Angayuqaq, A Yupiaq World View, Waveland Press Inc, 1995, 978-0-88133-859-1, BOOK, The Eskimos, Ernest S, Burch, University of Oklahoma Press, 978-0-8061-2126-0, 1988, 21, Given the importance that Eskimos attached to the aged, it is surprising that so many Westerners believe that they systematically eliminated elderly people as soon as they became incapable of performing the duties related to hunting or sewing.,weblink In Antoon A. Leenaars' book Suicide in Canada he states that "Rasmussen found that the death of elders by suicide was a commonplace among the Iglulik Inuit".BOOK, Suicide in Canada, Leenaars, Antoon A., Antoon Leenaars, Michael J. Kral, Ronald J. Dyck, 1998, University of Toronto Press, 978-0-8020-7791-2, 196,weblink According to Franz Boas, suicide was "not of rare occurrence" and was generally accomplished through hanging.Boas, Franz (1964, p. 207) Writing of the Labrador Inuit, Hawkes (1916) was considerably more explicit on the subject of suicide and the burden of the elderly:}}When food is not sufficient, the elderly are the least likely to survive. In the extreme case of famine, the Inuit fully understood that, if there was to be any hope of obtaining more food, a hunter was necessarily the one to feed on whatever food was left. However, a common response to desperate conditions and the threat of starvation was infanticide.Inuit Women: Their Powerful Spirit in a Century of Change By Janet Mancini BillsonNEWS,weblinkweblink" title="archive.today/20120720002434weblink">weblink dead, 2012-07-20, Female infanticide: northern exposure – Intuit may have killed one out of every five female babies between 1880 and 1940, Findarticles.com, 1994-11-26, 2011-01-24, Bruce, Bower, A mother abandoned an infant in hopes that someone less desperate might find and adopt the child before the cold or animals killed it. The belief that the Inuit regularly resorted to infanticide may be due in part to studies done by Asen Balikci,BOOK, Balikci, Asen, The Netsilik Eskimo, Doubleday, Garden City, N.Y, 1970, 978-0-385-05766-0,weblink Milton FreemanJOURNAL, Freeman, Milton M. R., A Social and Ecologic Analysis of Systematic Female Infanticide among the Netsilik Eskimo, American Anthropologist, 73, 5, 1011–8, October 1971, 10.1525/aa.1971.73.5.02a00020, 672815, and David RichesJOURNAL, Riches, David., The Netsilik Eskimo: A Special Case of Selective Female Infanticide, Ethnology, 13, 4, 351–61, October 1974, 10.2307/3773051, 3773051, among the Netsilik, along with the trial of Kikkik.WEB,weblink Remembering Kikkik, Nunatsiaq.com, 2002-06-21, 2011-01-24,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080607013315weblink">weblink 2008-06-07, dead, WEB,weblink Kikkik, When Justice Was Done, Mysteriesofcanada.com, 2011-01-24, Other recent research has noted that "While there is little disagreement that there were examples of infanticide in Inuit communities, it is presently not known the depth and breadth of these incidents. The research is neither complete nor conclusive to allow for a determination of whether infanticide was a rare or a widely practiced event."BOOK, Hund, Andrew, Inuit, The Edwin Mellen Press, 2010, 978-0-7734-1402-0, There is no agreement about the actual estimates of the frequency of newborn female infanticide in the Inuit population. Carmel Schrire mentions diverse studies ranging from 15–50% to 80%.JOURNAL, Schrire, Carmel, Carmel Schrire, William Lee, Steiger, A matter of life and death: an investigation into the practice of female infanticide in the Arctic, The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Society, 9, 2, 162, 1974, 10.2307/2800072, 2800072, Anthropologists believed that Inuit cultures routinely killed children born with physical defects because of the demands of the extreme climate. These views were changed by late 20th century discoveries of burials at an archaeological site. Between 1982 and 1994, a storm with high winds caused ocean waves to erode part of the bluffs near Barrow, Alaska, and a body was discovered to have been washed out of the mud. Unfortunately the storm claimed the body, which was not recovered. But examination of the eroded bank indicated that an ancient house, perhaps with other remains, was likely to be claimed by the next storm. The site, known as the "Ukkuqsi archaeological site", was excavated. Several frozen bodies (now known as the "frozen family") were recovered, autopsies were performed, and they were re-interred as the first burials in the then-new Imaiqsaun Cemetery south of Barrow.BOOK, Hess, Bill, Gift of the Whale: The Inupiat Bowhead Hunt, A Sacred Tradition, Sasquatch Books, 2003, 978-1-57061-382-1, Years later another body was washed out of the bluff. It was a female child, approximately 9 years old, who had clearly been born with a congenital birth defect.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080529083129weblink">weblink 2008-05-29, Barrow Visitors Guide 2006, Touch Alaska, This child had never been able to walk, but must have been cared for by family throughout her life.WEB,weblink Dear Young Girl, She was the best preserved body ever recovered in Alaska, and radiocarbon dating of grave goods and of a strand of her hair all place her back to about 1200 CE.

Health

{{See also|Indian hospital}}During the 19th century, the Western Arctic suffered a population decline of close to 90%, resulting from exposure to new diseases, including tuberculosis, measles, influenza, and smallpox. Autopsies near Greenland reveal that, more commonly pneumonia, kidney diseases, trichinosis, malnutrition, and degenerative disorders may have contributed to mass deaths among different Inuit tribes. The Inuit believed that the causes of the disease were of a spiritual origin.Information from "Inuit: Glimpses of an Arctic Past" by Morrison and GermainCanadian churches and, eventually, the federal government, ran the earliest health facilities for the Inuit population, whether fully segregated hospitals or "annexes" and wards attached to settler hospitals. These "Indian hospitals" were focused on treating people for tuberculosis, though diagnosis was difficult and treatment involved forced removal of individuals from their communities for in-patient confinement in other parts of the country."In October (2017) the federal Minister of Indigenous Services, Jane Philpott, announced that in 2015 tuberculosis ... Was 270 times ... More common among the Canadian Inuit than it is among non-indigenous southern Canadians." The Canadian Medical Association Journal published in 2013 that "tuberculosis among Canadian Inuit has dramatically increased since 1997. In 2010 the incidence in Nunavut ... Was 304 per 100,000 â€” more than 66 times the rate seen in the general population".Dr. Kevin Patterson, "Out in the cold", The Globe and Mail, 31 March 2018.

Traditional law

Inuit traditional laws are anthropologically different from Western law concepts. Customary law was thought non-existent in Inuit society before the introduction of the Canadian legal system. Hoebel, in 1954, concluded that only "rudimentary law" existed amongst the Inuit. No known Western observer before 1970 was aware that any form of governance existed among any Inuit,WEB,weblink Tirigusuusiit, Piqujait and Maligait: Inuit Perspectives on Traditional Law, 2007-10-17, Nunavut Arctic College, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110221063926weblink">weblink 2011-02-21, however, there was a set way of doing things that had to be followed:
  • maligait refers to what has to be followed
  • piqujait refers to what has to be done
  • tirigusuusiit refers to what has to be avoided
If an individual's actions went against the tirigusuusiit, maligait or piqujait, the angakkuq (shaman) might have to intervene, lest the consequences be dire to the individual or the community.WEB,weblink Tirigusuusiit and Maligait, 2007-10-17, Listening to our past, }}

Traditional beliefs

{{See also|Inuit mythology|Shamanism among Eskimo peoples}}File:Polarlicht.jpg|thumb|Some Inuit (including Alaska Natives) believed that the spirits of their ancestors could be seen in the aurora borealis ]]The environment in which the Inuit lived inspired a mythology filled with adventure tales of whale and walrus hunts. Long winter months of waiting for caribou herds or sitting near breathing holes hunting seals gave birth to stories of mysterious and sudden appearance of ghosts and fantastic creatures. Some Inuit looked into the aurora borealis, or northern lights, to find images of their family and friends dancing in the next life.WEB,weblink Aurora borealis observation journal of Sir George Back, Mccord-museum.qc.ca, 2011-01-24, However, some Inuit believed that the lights were more sinister and if you whistled at them, they would come down and cut off your head. This tale is still told to children today.WEB,weblink The Canadian Association of Aboriginal Entrepreneurship, Aurora-inn.mb.ca, 2011-01-24, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110511084622weblink">weblink 2011-05-11, For others they were invisible giants, the souls of animals, a guide to hunting and as a spirit for the angakkuq to help with healing.BOOK,weblink First Nations, Inuit, and Métis peoples : exploring their past, present, and future, 2011-01-24, 978-1-55239-167-9, 2006, Roberts, John A., Sproule, Fredrick C., Montgomery, Randy, They relied upon the angakkuq (shaman) for spiritual interpretation. The nearest thing to a central deity was the Old Woman (Sedna), who lived beneath the sea. The waters, a central food source, were believed to contain great gods.The Inuit practiced a form of shamanism based on animist principles. They believed that all things had a form of spirit, including humans, and that to some extent these spirits could be influenced by a pantheon of supernatural entities that could be appeased when one required some animal or inanimate thing to act in a certain way. The angakkuq of a community of Inuit was not the leader, but rather a sort of healer and psychotherapist, who tended wounds and offered advice, as well as invoking the spirits to assist people in their lives. His or her role was to see, interpret and exhort the subtle and unseen. Angakkuit were not trained; they were held to be born with the ability and recognized by the community as they approached adulthood.Inuit religion was closely tied to a system of rituals integrated into the daily life of the people. These rituals were simple but held to be necessary. According to a customary Inuit saying,By believing that all things, including animals, have souls like those of humans, any hunt that failed to show appropriate respect and customary supplication would only give the liberated spirits cause to avenge themselves.The harshness and unpredictability of life in the Arctic ensured that Inuit lived with concern for the uncontrollable, where a streak of bad luck could destroy an entire community. To offend a spirit was to risk its interference with an already marginal existence. The Inuit understood that they had to work in harmony with supernatural powers to provide the necessities of day-to-day life.

Demographics

In total there are about 148,000 Inuit living in four countries, Canada, Greenland, Denmark, and the United States.

Canada

Although the 50,480WEB,weblink 2006 Aboriginal Population Profile (Canada), Statistics Canada, January 15, 2008, October 20, 2013, Inuit listed in the 2006 Canada Census can be found throughout Canada the majority, 44,470, live in four regions.As of the 2006 Canada Census there were 4,715 Inuit living in Newfoundland and LabradorWEB,weblink 2006 Aboriginal Population Profile (Newfoundland and Labrador), Statistics Canada, January 15, 2008, October 20, 2013, and about 2,160 live in Nunatsiavut.WEB,weblink 2006 Aboriginal Population Profile (Nunatsiavut), Statistics Canada, January 15, 2008, October 20, 2013, There are also about 6,000 NunatuKavut people (Labrador Metis or Inuit-metis) living in southern Labrador in what is called NunatuKavut.NunatuKavut About UsAs of the 2006 Canada Census there were 4,165 Inuit living in the Northwest Territories.WEB,weblink 2006 Aboriginal Population Profile (Northwest Territories), Statistics Canada, January 15, 2008, October 20, 2013, The majority, about 3,115, live in the six communities of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region.WEB,weblink 2006 Aboriginal Population Profile (Inuvialuit), Statistics Canada, January 15, 2008, October 20, 2013, As of the 2006 Canada Census there were 24,640 Inuit living in Nunavut.WEB,weblink 2006 Aboriginal Population Profile (Nunavut), Statistics Canada, January 15, 2008, October 20, 2013, In Nunavut the Inuit population forms a majority in all communities and is the only jurisdiction of Canada where Aboriginal peoples form a majority.As of the 2006 Canada Census there were 10,950 Inuit living in Quebec.WEB,weblink 2006 Aboriginal Population Profile (Quebec), Statistics Canada, January 15, 2008, October 20, 2013, The majority, about 9,565, live in Nunavik.WEB,weblink 2006 Aboriginal Population Profile (Nunavik), Statistics Canada, January 15, 2008, October 20, 2013,

Greenland

According to the 2018 edition of The World Factbook, published by the Central Intelligence Agency, the Inuit population of Greenland is 88% (50,787) out of a total of 57,713 people.WEB,weblink The World Factbook (Greenland), Central Intelligence Agency, 2018, November 13, 2018, Like Nunavut the population lives throughout the region.

Denmark

The population size of Greenlandic people in Denmark varies from source to source between 15,000 and 20,000. According to 2015 figures from Statistics Denmark there are 15,815 people residing in Denmark of Greenlandic Inuit ancestry.WEB,weblink Statistikbanken, Statistics Denmark, 2018, July 22, 2018, Most travel to Denmark for educational purposes, and many remain after finishing their education,WEB,weblink Greenland: Brain drain to Denmark, 2015-03-30, January 25, 2016, which results in the population being mostly concentrated in the big 4 educational cities of Copenhagen, Aarhus, Odense, and Aalborg, which all have vibrant Greenlandic communities and cultural centers (Kalaallit Illuutaat).

United States

According to the 2000 United States Census there were a total of 16,581 Inuit/Inupiat living throughout the country.WEB,weblink xls, Table 1: American Indian and Alaska Native Alone and Alone or in Combination Population by Tribe for the United States: 2000, United States Census Bureau, 2000, October 20, 2013, The majority, about 14,718, live in the state of Alaska.WEB,weblink xls, Table 16: American Indian and Alaska Native Alone and Alone or in Combination Population by Tribe for Alaska: 2000, United States Census Bureau, 2000, October 20, 2013,

Governance

(File:Inuit conf map.png|thumb|upright=1|Inuit Circumpolar Conference members)The Inuit Circumpolar Council is a United Nations-recognized non-governmental organization (NGO), which defines its constituency as Canada's Inuit and Inuvialuit, Greenland's Kalaallit Inuit, Alaska's Inupiat and Yup'ik, and Russia's Siberian Yupik,Inuit Circumpolar Council. (2006). "HotCarl." {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20100305060320weblink |date=March 5, 2010 }} Inuit Circumpolar Council (Canada). Retrieved on 2007-04-06. despite the last two neither speaking an Inuit dialectWEB, Kaplan, Lawrence,weblink Inuit or Eskimo: Which names to use?, Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 2011-07-01, 2015-05-12, or considering themselves "Inuit". Nonetheless, it has come together with other circumpolar cultural and political groups to promote the Inuit and other northern people in their fight against ecological problems such as climate change which disproportionately affects the Inuit population. The Inuit Circumpolar Council is one of the six group of Arctic indigenous peoples that have a seat as a so-called "Permanent Participant" on the Arctic Council,See: Arctic Council an international high level forum in which the eight Arctic Countries (USA, Canada, Russia, Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Finland) discuss Arctic policy. On 12 May 2011, Greenland's Prime Minister Kuupik Kleist hosted the ministerial meeting of the Arctic Council, an event for which the American Secretary of State Hillary Clinton came to Nuuk, as did many other high-ranking officials such as Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, Swedish Foreign Minister Carl Bildt and Norwegian Foreign Minister Jonas Gahr Støre. At that event they signed the Nuuk Declaration.Nuuk Declaration {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111016021822weblink |date=October 16, 2011 }}

Inuit Nunangat

{{see also|Nunavut|Nunavik|Nunatsiavut|Nunangit}}(File:Map-regions-inuit.jpg|thumb|Regions of Inuit Nunangat)The Inuvialuit are western Canadian Inuit who remained in the Northwest Territories when Nunavut split off. They live primarily in the Mackenzie River delta, on Banks Island, and parts of Victoria Island in the Northwest Territories. They are officially represented by the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation and, in 1984, received a comprehensive land claims settlement, the first in Northern Canada, with the signing of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement.WEB,weblink Inuvialuit Final Agreement, Irc.inuvialuit.com, 1984-06-05, 2011-01-24, The TFN worked for ten years and, in September 1992, came to a final agreement with the Government of Canada. This agreement called for the separation of the Northwest Territories into an eastern territory whose Aboriginal population would be predominately Inuit,WEB,weblink Aboriginal identity population in 2001, 2.statcan.ca, 2003-01-21, 2011-01-24, the future Nunavut, and a rump Northwest Territories in the west. It was the largest land claim agreement in Canadian history. In November 1992, the Nunavut Final Agreement was approved by nearly 85% of the Inuit of what would become Nunavut. As the final step in this long process, the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement was signed on May 25, 1993, in Iqaluit by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and by Paul Quassa, the president of Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, which replaced the TFN with the ratification of the Nunavut Final Agreement. The Canadian Parliament passed the supporting legislation in June of the same year, enabling the 1999 establishment of Nunavut as a territorial entity.

Canada

{{see also|NunatuKavut}}While Inuit Nunangat is within Canada, and the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami oversees only the four official regions, there remains NunatuKavut in southern Labrador. NunatuKavummuit retain a treaty with the Crown since 1765,WEB, British-Inuit Treaty of 1765,weblink NunatuKavut Our Ancient Land, NunatuKavut, 20 June 2019, and the NunatuKavut Community Council (NCC) oversees governance in this region.WEB, Our Governance,weblink NunatuKavut Our Ancient Land, NunatuKavut, 20 June 2019,

Greenland

{{see also|Kalaallit|History of Greenland}}In 1953, Denmark put an end to the colonial status of Greenland and granted home rule in 1979 and in 2008 a self-government referendum was passed with 75% approval. Although still a part of the Kingdom of Denmark (along with Denmark proper and the Faroe Islands), Greenland, known as Kalaallit Nunaat in the Greenlandic language, maintains much autonomy today. Of a population of 56,000, 80% of Greenlanders identify as Inuit. Their economy is based on fishing and shrimping.Hessel, p. 20.The Thule people arrived in Greenland in the 13th century. There they encountered the Norsemen, who had established colonies there since the late 10th century, as well as a later wave of the Dorset people. Because most of Greenland is covered in ice, the Greenland Inuit (or Kalaallit) only live in coastal settlements, particularly the northern polar coast, the eastern Amassalik coast and the central coasts of western Greenland.Hessel, p. 11.

Alaska

{{see also|Alaska Native Regional Corporations|Russian America|Alaska Statehood Act|List of Alaska Native tribal entities}}Alaska is governed as a state with very limited autonomy for Alaska Native peoples. European colonization of Alaska started in the 18th century by Russia. By the 1860s, the Russian government was considering ridding itself of its Russian America colony. Alaska was officially incorporated to United States on January 3, 1959.The Inuit of Alaska are the Iñupiat who live in the Northwest Arctic Borough, the North Slope Borough and the Bering Strait region. Barrow, the northernmost city in the United States, is in the Inupiat region. Their language is Iñupiaq.

Modern culture

File:Femmes Nain.jpg|left|thumb|Inuit women at Nain, Newfoundland and LabradorNain, Newfoundland and LabradorInuit art, carving, print making, textiles and Inuit throat singing, are very popular, not only in Canada but globally, and Inuit artists are widely known. Canada has adopted some of the Inuit culture as national symbols, using Inuit cultural icons like the inukshuk in unlikely places, such as its use as a symbol at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. Respected art galleries display Inuit art, the largest collection of which is at the Winnipeg Art Gallery.Some Inuit languages, such as Inuktitut, appears to have a more secure future in Quebec and Nunavut. There are a surprising number of Inuit, even those who now live in urban centres such as Ottawa, Montreal and Winnipeg, who have experienced living on the land in the traditional life style. People such as Legislative Assembly of Nunavut member, Levinia Brown and former Commissioner of Nunavut and the NWT, Helen Maksagak were born and lived the early part of their life "on the land". Inuit culture is alive and vibrant today in spite of the negative impacts of recent history.An important biennial event, the Arctic Winter Games, is held in communities across the northern regions of the world, featuring traditional Inuit and northern sports as part of the events. A cultural event is also held. The games were first held in 1970, and while rotated usually among Alaska, Yukon and the Northwest Territories, they have also been held in Schefferville, Quebec, in 1976, in Slave Lake, Alberta, and a joint Iqaluit, Nunavut-Nuuk, Greenland staging in 2002. In other sporting events, Jordin Tootoo became the first Inuk to play in the National Hockey League in the 2003–04 season, playing for the Nashville Predators.Although Inuit life has changed significantly over the past century, many traditions continue. Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit, or traditional knowledge, such as storytelling, mythology, music, and dancing remain important parts of the culture. Family and community are very important. The Inuktitut language is still spoken in many areas of the Arctic and is common on radio and in television programming.Well-known Inuit politicians include Premier of Nunavut, Peter Taptuna, Nancy Karetak-Lindell, former MP for the riding of Nunavut, and Kuupik Kleist, Prime Minister of Greenland. Leona Aglukkaq, current MP, was the first Inuk to be sworn into the Canadian Federal Cabinet as Health Minister in 2008. In May 2011 after being re-elected for her second term, Ms. Aglukkaq was given the additional portfolio of Minister of the Canadian Northern Economic Development Agency. In July 2013 she was sworn in as the Minister of the Environment.NEWS,weblink Biography of the Honourable Leona Aglukkaq, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141227200005weblink">weblink 2014-12-27, (File:Greenland kayak seal hunter 2006.jpg|thumb|Inuit seal hunter in a kayak, armed with a harpoon)Visual and performing arts are strong. In 2002 the first feature film in Inuktitut, (Atanarjuat: The Fast Runner), was released worldwide to great critical and popular acclaim. It was directed by Zacharias Kunuk, and written, filmed, produced, directed, and acted almost entirely by the Inuit of Igloolik. In 2009, the film Le Voyage D'Inuk, a Greenlandic-language feature film, was directed by Mike Magidson and co-written by Magidson and French film producer Jean-Michel Huctin.iletaitunefoislecinema.com (French) Google translation: by Samir Ardjoum, "Interview with Jean-Michel Huctin, co-author of Tour Inuk". Retrieved 01-20-2009. One of the most famous Inuit artists is Pitseolak Ashoona. Susan Aglukark is a popular singer. Mitiarjuk Attasie Nappaaluk worked at preserving Inuktitut and wrote one of the first novels ever published in that language.WEB,weblink Northern resident helps bridge the gap between cultures, Thefreelibrary.com, 1999-04-01, 2011-02-25, In 2006, Cape Dorset was hailed as Canada's most artistic city, with 23% of the labor force employed in the arts.NEWS, CBC Arts,weblink Cape Dorset named most 'artistic' municipality, Cbc.ca, 2006-02-13, 2011-01-24, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070808115551weblink">weblink 2007-08-08, Inuit art such as soapstone carvings is one of Nunavut's most important industries.Recently, there has been an identity struggle among the younger generations of Inuit, between their traditional heritage and the modern society which their cultures have been forced to assimilate into in order to maintain a livelihood. With current dependence on modern society for necessities, (including governmental jobs, food, aid, medicine, etc.), the Inuit have had much interaction with and exposure to the societal norms outside their previous cultural boundaries. The stressors regarding the identity crisis among teenagers have led to disturbingly high numbers of suicide.WEB,weblinkweblink 2008-11-14, Suicide in Inuit Nunaat:An analysis of suicide rates and the effect of Community-level factors, Penney, Christopher, Senecal S, Guimond E, Bobet E, Uppal S., 27 June 2008, Position paper for the 5th NRF open assembly, INAC, 2009-11-05, dead, A series of authors has focused upon the increasing myopia in the youngest generations of Inuit. Myopia was almost unknown prior to the Inuit adoption of western culture. Principal theories are the change to a western style diet with more refined foods, and extended education.WEB,weblink Short-sightedness may be tied to refined diet, Newscientist.com, 5 April 2002, 2011-01-24, JOURNAL, Morgan RW, Speakman JS, Grimshaw SE, Inuit myopia: an environmentally induced "epidemic"?, Can Med Assoc J, 112, 5, 575–7, March 1975, 1116086, 1956268, BOOK, Bernard Gilmartin, Mark Rosenfield, Myopia and nearwork, Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, 1998, 21, 978-0-7506-3784-8,weblink David Pisurayak Kootook was awarded the Meritorious Service Cross, posthumously, for his heroic efforts in a 1972 plane crash. Other notable Inuk people include the freelance journalist Ossie Michelin, whose iconic photograph of the activist Amanda Polchies went viral after the 2013 anti-fracking protests at Elsipogtog First Nation.NEWS, Inuk journalist awarded for best image in human rights exhibition,weblink 9 April 2019, CBC News, June 23, 2017,

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

{{further|Bibliography of Canadian Aboriginals}}
  • BOOK, Alia, Valerie, 2009, Names and Nunavut: Culture and Identity in Arctic Canada,weblink Berghahn Books, 978-1-84545-165-3,
  • BOOK, Billson, Janet Mancini, Kyra Mancini, 2007, Inuit women: their powerful spirit in a century of change,weblink Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0-7425-3596-1,
  • BOOK, Briggs, Jean L., Never in Anger: Portrait of an Eskimo Family, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1971,weblink 978-0-674-60828-3,
  • BOOK, Forman, Werner, Burch, Ernest S., The Eskimos, University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1988,weblink 978-0-8061-2126-0,
  • CBC. weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130825230419weblink">History of the Thule Migration, The Nature of Things, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Informational webpage related to the TV documentary, Inuit Odyssey, shown below in the External links section.
  • BOOK, Crandall, Richard C, 2000, Inuit Art: A History,weblink McFarland, 978-0-7864-0711-8,
  • De Poncins, Gontran. Kabloona. St. Paul, MN: Graywolf Press, 1996 (originally 1941). {{ISBN|1-55597-249-7}}
  • BOOK, Eber, Dorothy, 1997, Images of Justice: A Legal History of the Northwest Territories and Yellowknife,weblink McGill-Queen's University Press, 978-0-7735-1675-5,
  • BOOK, Eber, Dorothy, 2008, Encounters on the Passage: Inuit meet the explorers,weblink University of Toronto Press, 978-1-4426-8798-1,
  • BOOK, Hauser, Michael, Erik Holtved, Bent Jensen, 2010, Traditional Inuit songs from the Thule area, Volume 2,weblink Museum Tusculanum Press, 978-87-635-2589-3,
  • BOOK, Hessell, Ingo, Arctic Spirit: The Albrecht Collection of Inuit Art at the Heard Museum, Douglas & McIntyre, Vancouver, 2006, 978-1-55365-189-5,
  • BOOK, Hund, Andrew, 2012, Inuit., SAGE Publications, Inc., 978-1412992619,
  • BOOK, Kulchyski, Peter Keith, Frank J. Tester, 2007, Kiumajut (talking back): game management and Inuit rights, 1900–70,weblink UBC Press, 978-0-7748-1241-2,
  • BOOK, King, J. C. H, Birgit Pauksztat, Robert Storrie, 2005, Arctic clothing of North America—Alaska, Canada, Greenland,weblink McGill-Queen's University Press, 978-0-7735-3008-9,
  • BOOK, McGrath, Melanie, The long exile: a tale of Inuit betrayal and survival in the high Arctic, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2007, 978-1-4000-4047-6,weblink
  • BOOK, Paver, Michelle, Chronicles of Ancient Darkness Omnibus Edition (Volume 1, 2, and 3), Orion, London, 2008, 978-1-84255-705-1,
  • BOOK, Ruesch, Hans, Top of the World, Pocket, New York, 1986, 978-950-637-164-7, (weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20030405232342weblink">Hebrew version)
  • Sowa, F. 2014. Inuit. in: Hund, A. Antarctica and the Arctic Circle: A Geographic Encyclopedia of the Earth's Polar Regions. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, pp. 390–395.
  • BOOK, Stern, Pamela R, Lisa Stevenson, 2006, Critical Inuit studies: an anthology of contemporary Arctic ethnography,weblink University of Nebraska Press, 978-0-8032-4303-3,
  • BOOK, Steckley, John, 2008, White Lies about the Inuit,weblink Broadview Press, 978-1-55111-875-8,
  • BOOK, Stern, Pamela R, 2004, Historical dictionary of the Inuit,weblink Scarecrow Press, 978-0-8108-5058-3,
  • BOOK, Walk, Ansgar., Kenojuak: the life story of an Inuit artist, Penumbra Press, Manotick, Ontario, 1999, 978-0-921254-95-9, Kenojuak Ashevak,

External links

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