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{{Other uses}}{{pp-pc1|small=yes}}{{short description|musical style and genre}}

| cultural_origins = Late 19th century, Southern United Statespianotrumpet>trombonesaxophone>clarinetkeyboard instrument>keyboardsdouble bass>drum kit>guitarSinging>vocals}}| derivative forms =| subgenrelist =| subgenres = }}Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States.WEB,weblink Jazz Origins in New Orleans – New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park, National Park Service, 2017-03-19, It originated in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.WEB,weblink "The Jazz Book": A Map of Jazz Styles, Germuska, Joe, WNUR-FM, Northwestern University, University of Salzburg, 2017-03-19, Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music".JOURNAL, On the Instrumental Origins of Jazz, Roth, Russell, American Quarterly, 0003-0678, 1952, 4, 4, 305–16, 10.2307/3031415, 3031415, Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression. It then emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation.BOOK,weblink Hennessey, Thomas, From Jazz to Swing: Black Jazz Musicians and Their Music, 1917–1935, Ph.D. dissertation, Northwestern University, 1973, 470–473, Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes, call and response vocals, polyrhythms and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, and in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music.Ferris, Jean (1993) America's Musical Landscape. Brown and Benchmark. {{ISBN|0-697-12516-5}}. pp. 228, 233 Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms".Starr, Larry, and Christopher Waterman. "Popular Jazz and Swing: America's Original Art Form." IIP Digital. Oxford University Press, 26 July 2008.As jazz spread around the world, it drew on national, regional, and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine, ragtime and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation. In the 1930s, heavily arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, bluesy, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz (a style that emphasized musette waltzes) were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music" which was played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines.The 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter, beat and formal structures, and in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues, gospel, and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, and highly amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay. Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Latin and Afro-Cuban jazz.{{TOC limit|3}}

Etymology and definition

File:EubieBlake.jpg|thumb|right|American jazz composer, lyricist, and pianist Eubie BlakeEubie BlakeFile:Albert Gleizes, 1915, Composition pour Jazz, oil on cardboard, 73 x 73 cm, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.jpg|thumb|left|Albert Gleizes, 1915, Composition for "Jazz"Composition for "Jazz"The origin of the word jazz has resulted in considerable research, and its history is well documented. It is believed to be related to jasm, a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you simply can't do anything with it".NEWS, Wilton, Dave, The Baseball Origin of 'Jazz',weblink 20 June 2016,, Oxford University Press, 6 April 2015, The use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune.NEWS,weblink Blues is Jazz and Jazz Is Blues, Seagrove, Gordon, Chicago Tribune, Chicago Daily Tribune, July 11, 1915, November 4, 2011, dead,weblink" title="">weblink January 30, 2012, Paris-Sorbonne University, Archived at Observatoire Musical Français, Paris-Sorbonne University. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands".WEB, Benjamin Zimmer, Benjamin Zimmer, "Jazz": A Tale of Three Cities,weblink Word Routes, The Visual Thesaurus, June 8, 2009, June 8, 2009, In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it 'J-A-Z-Z'. It wasn't called that. It was spelled 'J-A-S-S'. That was dirty, and if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."WEB, Vitale, Tom, The Musical That Ushered In The Jazz Age Gets Its Own Musical,weblink, 2 January 2019, 19 March 2016, The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the 20th Century.WEB, 1999 Words of the Year, Word of the 1990s, Word of the 20th Century, Word of the Millennium,weblink American Dialect Society, 2 January 2019, 13 January 2000, Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music. But critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader,Joachim E. Berendt. The Jazz Book: From Ragtime to Fusion and Beyond. Translated by H. and B. Bredigkeit with Dan Morgenstern. 1981. Lawrence Hill Books, p. 371. defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music"BOOK, Berendt, Joachim Ernst, The New Jazz Book,weblink 4 August 2013, 1964, P. Owen, 278, and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as 'swing{{'"}}. Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".NEWS, Christgau, Robert, Robert Christgau, October 28, 1986,weblink Christgau's Consumer Guide, The Village Voice, New York, September 10, 2015, A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, improvising, group interaction, developing an 'individual voice', and being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition".BOOK, Cooke, Mervyn, Horn, David G., The Cambridge Companion to Jazz, 2002, Cambridge University Press, New York, 978-0-521-66388-5, 1, 6, In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music."JOURNAL, Luebbers, Johannes, September 8, 2008, It's All Music, Resonate,

Elements and issues


Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations. These work songs were commonly structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was also improvisational. Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation, ornamentation, and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition as it was written. In contrast, jazz is often characterized by the product of interaction and collaboration, placing less value on the contribution of the composer, if there is one, and more on the performer.Giddins 1998, 70. The jazz performer interprets a tune in individual ways, never playing the same composition twice. Depending on the performer's mood, experience, and interaction with band members or audience members, the performer may change melodies, harmonies, and time signatures.Giddins 1998, 89.In early Dixieland, a.k.a. New Orleans jazz, performers took turns playing melodies and improvising countermelodies. In the swing era of the 1920s–'40s, big bands relied more on arrangements which were written or learned by ear and memorized. Soloists improvised within these arrangements. In the bebop era of the 1940s, big bands gave way to small groups and minimal arrangements in which the melody was stated briefly at the beginning and most of the song was improvised. Modal jazz abandoned chord progressions to allow musicians to improvise even more. In many forms of jazz, a soloist is supported by a rhythm section of one or more chordal instruments (piano, guitar), double bass, and drums. The rhythm section plays chords and rhythms that outline the song structure and complement the soloist.Jazz Drum Lessons {{webarchive|url= |date=October 7, 2010 }} – In avant-garde and free jazz, the separation of soloist and band is reduced, and there is license, or even a requirement, for the abandoning of chords, scales, and meters.

Tradition and race

Since the emergence of bebop, forms of jazz that are commercially oriented or influenced by popular music have been criticized. According to Bruce Johnson, there has always been a "tension between jazz as a commercial music and an art form".In Review of The Cambridge Companion to Jazz by Peter Elsdon, FZMw (Frankfurt Journal of Musicology) No. 6, 2003. Traditional jazz enthusiasts have dismissed bebop, free jazz, and jazz fusion as forms of debasement and betrayal. An alternative view is that jazz can absorb and transform diverse musical styles.WEB,weblink Jazz Inc.: The bottom line threatens the creative line in corporate America's approach to music, 2001-07-20, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink 2001-07-20, by Andrew Gilbert, Metro Times, December 23, 1998. By avoiding the creation of norms, jazz allows avant-garde styles to emerge.For some African Americans, jazz has drawn attention to African-American contributions to culture and history. For others, jazz is a reminder of "an oppressive and racist society and restrictions on their artistic visions".JOURNAL, African American Musicians Reflect On 'What Is This Thing Called Jazz?' In New Book By UC Professor, Oakland Post, 20 March 2001, 38, 79, 7,weblink December 6, 2011, Amiri Baraka argues that there is a "white jazz" genre that expresses whiteness.BOOK, Baraka, Amiri, The LeRoi Jones/Amiri Baraka reader, 2000, Thunder's Mouth Press, 978-1-56025-238-2, 42, 2nd, White jazz musicians appeared in the midwest and in other areas throughout the U.S. Papa Jack Laine, who ran the Reliance band in New Orleans in the 1910s, was called "the father of white jazz".BOOK, Yurochko, Bob, A Short History of Jazz, 1993, Rowman & Littlefield, 978-0-8304-1595-3, 10, He is known as the 'Father of White Jazz', The Original Dixieland Jazz Band, whose members were white, were the first jazz group to record, and Bix Beiderbecke was one of the most prominent jazz soloists of the 1920s.BOOK, Larkin, Philip, Jazz Writings, 2004, Continuum, 978-0-8264-7699-9, 94, The Chicago Style was developed by white musicians such as Eddie Condon, Bud Freeman, Jimmy McPartland, and Dave Tough. Others from Chicago such as Benny Goodman and Gene Krupa became leading members of swing during the 1930s.BOOK, Cayton, Andrew R.L., Sisson, Richard, Zacher, Chris, The American Midwest: An Interpretive Encyclopedia, 2006, Indiana University Press, 978-0-253-00349-2, 569, Many bands included both black and white musicians. These musicians helped change attitudes toward race in the U.S.NEWS, Hentoff, Nat, How Jazz Helped Hasten the Civil Rights Movement, The Wall Street Journal, 15 January 2009,

Roles of women

File:Ethel_Waters_-_William_P._Gottlieb.jpg|thumb|right|175px|Ethel Waters sang "Stormy Weather" at the Cotton ClubCotton ClubFemale jazz performers and composers have contributed to jazz throughout its history. Although Betty Carter, Ella Fitzgerald, Adelaide Hall, Billie Holiday, Abbey Lincoln, Anita O'Day, Dinah Washington, and Ethel Waters were recognized for their vocal talent, less familiar were bandleaders, composers, and instrumentalists such as pianist Lil Hardin Armstrong and songwriters Irene Higginbotham and Dorothy Fields. Women began playing instruments in jazz in the early 1920s, drawing particular recognition on piano.WEB, NPR's Jazz Profiles: Women In Jazz, Part 1,weblink NPR, April 24, 2015, John, Murph, When male jazz musicians were drafted during World War II, many all-female bands replaced them. The International Sweethearts of Rhythm, which was founded in 1937, was a popular band that became the first all-female integrated band in the U.S. and the first to travel with the USO, touring Europe in 1945. Women were members of the big bands of Woody Herman and Gerald Wilson. Beginning in the 1950s, many women jazz instrumentalists were prominent, some sustaining long careers. Some of the most distinctive improvisers, composers, and bandleaders in jazz have been women.BOOK, Placksin, Sally, Jazzwomen, 1985, Pluto Press, London,

Origins and early history

Jazz originated in the late-19th to early-20th century as interpretations of American and European classical music entwined with African and slave folk songs and the influences of West African culture.WEB, 15 Most Influential Jazz Artists,weblink Listverse, July 27, 2014, February 27, 2010, Its composition and style have changed many times throughout the years with each performer's personal interpretation and improvisation, which is also one of the greatest appeals of the genre.WEB, Criswell, Chad, What Is a Jazz Band?,weblink 25 July 2014, dead,weblink July 28, 2014,

Blended African and European music sensibilities

File:Dancing in Congo Square - Edward Winsor Kemble, 1886.jpg|thumb|right|Dance in Congo Square in the late 1700s, artist's conception by E. W. KembleE. W. KembleFile:Slave dance to banjo, 1780s.jpg|thumb|right|In the late 18th-century painting The Old PlantationThe Old Plantation By the 18th century, slaves in the New Orleans area gathered socially at a special market, in an area which later became known as Congo Square, famous for its African dances.WEB,weblink Jazz Origins in New Orleans, U.S. National Park Service, New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park, April 14, 2015, By 1866, the Atlantic slave trade had brought nearly 400,000 Africans to North America.WEB,weblink How Many Slaves Landed in the U.S.?, The African Americans: Many Rivers to Cross, 3 January 2013, PBS, live,weblink" title="">weblink September 21, 2015, Gates, Henry Louis, Jr., The slaves came largely from West Africa and the greater Congo River basin and brought strong musical traditions with them.{{harvnb|Cooke|1999|pp=7–9}}. The African traditions primarily use a single-line melody and call-and-response pattern, and the rhythms have a counter-metric structure and reflect African speech patterns.JOURNAL, DeVeaux, Scott, 1991, Constructing the Jazz Tradition: Jazz Historiography, 3041812, Black American Literature Forum, 25, 3, 525–560, 10.2307/3041812, An 1885 account says that they were making strange music (Creole) on an equally strange variety of 'instruments'—washboards, washtubs, jugs, boxes beaten with sticks or bones and a drum made by stretching skin over a flour-barrel.BOOK, Hearn, Lafcadio, Delphi Complete Works of Lafcadio Hearn,weblink 2 January 2019, 3 August 2017, Delphi Classics, 978-1-78656-090-2, 4079–, Lavish festivals with African-based dances to drums were organized on Sundays at Place Congo, or Congo Square, in New Orleans until 1843."The primary instrument for a cultural music expression was a long narrow African drum. It came in various sized from three to eight feet long and had previously been banned in the South by whites. Other instruments used were the triangle, a jawbone, and early ancestors to the banjo. Many types of dances were performed in Congo Square, including the 'flat-footed-shuffle' and the 'Bamboula.'" African American Registry. {{webarchive|url= |date=2014-12-02 }} There are historical accounts of other music and dance gatherings elsewhere in the southern United States. Robert Palmer said of percussive slave music:Usually such music was associated with annual festivals, when the year's crop was harvested and several days were set aside for celebration. As late as 1861, a traveler in North Carolina saw dancers dressed in costumes that included horned headdresses and cow tails and heard music provided by a sheepskin-covered "gumbo box", apparently a frame drum; triangles and jawbones furnished the auxiliary percussion. There are quite a few [accounts] from the southeastern states and Louisiana dating from the period 1820–1850. Some of the earliest [Mississippi] Delta settlers came from the vicinity of New Orleans, where drumming was never actively discouraged for very long and homemade drums were used to accompany public dancing until the outbreak of the Civil War.BOOK, Palmer, Robert, Deep Blues, 1981, Viking, New York, 978-0-670-49511-5, 37,weblink Another influence came from the harmonic style of hymns of the church, which black slaves had learned and incorporated into their own music as spirituals.{{harvnb|Cooke|1999|pp=14–17, 27–28}}. The origins of the blues are undocumented, though they can be seen as the secular counterpart of the spirituals. However, as Gerhard Kubik points out, whereas the spirituals are homophonic, rural blues and early jazz "was largely based on concepts of heterophony."Kubik, Gerhard (1999: 112).File:Virginia Minstrels, 1843.jpg|thumb|right|The blackface Virginia Minstrels in 1843, featuring tambourine, fiddle, banjo and bones ]]During the early 19th century an increasing number of black musicians learned to play European instruments, particularly the violin, which they used to parody European dance music in their own cakewalk dances. In turn, European-American minstrel show performers in blackface popularized the music internationally, combining syncopation with European harmonic accompaniment. In the mid-1800s the white New Orleans composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk adapted slave rhythms and melodies from Cuba and other Caribbean islands into piano salon music. New Orleans was the main nexus between the Afro-Caribbean and African-American cultures.

African rhythmic retention

{{See also|Traditional sub-Saharan African harmony}}The Black Codes outlawed drumming by slaves, which meant that African drumming traditions were not preserved in North America, unlike in Cuba, Haiti, and elsewhere in the Caribbean. African-based rhythmic patterns were retained in the United States in large part through "body rhythms" such as stomping, clapping, and patting juba dancing.{{harvnb|Palmer|1981|p=39}}.In the opinion of jazz historian Ernest Borneman, what preceded New Orleans jazz before 1890 was "Afro-Latin music", similar to what was played in the Caribbean at the time.Borneman, Ernest (1969: 104). Jazz and the Creole Tradition." Jazz Research I: 99–112. A three-stroke pattern known in Cuban music as tresillo is a fundamental rhythmic figure heard in many different slave musics of the Caribbean, as well as the Afro-Caribbean folk dances performed in New Orleans Congo Square and Gottschalk's compositions (for example "Souvenirs From Havana" (1859)). Tresillo (shown below) is the most basic and most prevalent duple-pulse rhythmic cell in sub-Saharan African music traditions and the music of the African Diaspora.BOOK, Sublette, Ned, The World That Made New Orleans : From Spanish Silver to Congo Square, 2008, Chicago Review Press, Chicago, 978-1-55652-958-0, 124, 287, {{harvnb|Peñalosa|2010|pp=38–46}}.
new RhythmicStaff {
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}Tresillo is heard prominently in New Orleans second line music and in other forms of popular music from that city from the turn of the 20th century to present.Wynton Marsalis states that tresillo is the New Orleans "clave." "Wynton Marsalis part 2." 60 Minutes. CBS News (June 26, 2011). "By and large the simpler African rhythmic patterns survived in jazz ... because they could be adapted more readily to European rhythmic conceptions," jazz historian Gunther Schuller observed. "Some survived, others were discarded as the Europeanization progressed."{{Harvard citation no brackets|Schuller|1968|p=19}}.In the post-Civil War period (after 1865), African Americans were able to obtain surplus military bass drums, snare drums and fifes, and an original African-American drum and fife music emerged, featuring tresillo and related syncopated rhythmic figures.Kubik, Gerhard (1999: 52). Africa and the Blues. Jackson, MI: University Press of Mississippi. This was a drumming tradition that was distinct from its Caribbean counterparts, expressing a uniquely African-American sensibility. "The snare and bass drummers played syncopated cross-rhythms," observed the writer Robert Palmer, speculating that "this tradition must have dated back to the latter half of the nineteenth century, and it could have not have developed in the first place if there hadn't been a reservoir of polyrhythmic sophistication in the culture it nurtured."

Afro-Cuban influence

{{Further|Music of African heritage in Cuba}}African-American music began incorporating Afro-Cuban rhythmic motifs in the 19th century when the habanera (Cuban contradanza) gained international popularity."[Afro]-Latin rhythms have been absorbed into black American styles far more consistently than into white popular music, despite Latin music's popularity among whites" (Roberts 1979: 41). Musicians from Havana and New Orleans would take the twice-daily ferry between both cities to perform, and the habanera quickly took root in the musically fertile Crescent City. John Storm Roberts states that the musical genre habanera "reached the U.S. twenty years before the first rag was published."BOOK, Roberts, John Storm, Latin Jazz, 1999, Schirmer Books, New York, 12, 16, For the more than quarter-century in which the cakewalk, ragtime, and proto-jazz were forming and developing, the habanera was a consistent part of African-American popular music.Habaneras were widely available as sheet music and were the first written music which was rhythmically based on an African motif (1803).BOOK, Manuel, Peter, Creolizing Contradance in the Caribbean, 2000, Temple University Press, Philadelphia, 67, 69, From the perspective of African-American music, the "habanera rhythm" (also known as "congo"), "tango-congo",BOOK, Acosta, Leonardo, Cubano Be Cubano Bop: One Hundred Years of Jazz in Cuba, 2003, Smithsonian Books, Washington, D.C., 5, or tango.BOOK, Mauleon, Salsa guidebook: For Piano and Ensemble, 1999, Sher Music, Petaluma, California, 0-9614701-9-4, 4, can be thought of as a combination of tresillo and the backbeat.{{harvnb|Peñalosa|2010|p=42}}. The habanera was the first of many Cuban music genres which enjoyed periods of popularity in the United States and reinforced and inspired the use of tresillo-based rhythms in African-American music.
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New Orleans native Louis Moreau Gottschalk's piano piece "Ojos Criollos (Danse Cubaine)" (1860) was influenced by the composer's studies in Cuba: the habanera rhythm is clearly heard in the left hand.{{rp|125}} In Gottschalk's symphonic work "A Night in the Tropics" (1859), the tresillo variant cinquillo appears extensively.BOOK, Sublette, Ned, Cuba and Its Music: From the First Drums to the Mambo, 2008, Chicago Review Press, Chicago, 125, The figure was later used by Scott Joplin and other ragtime composers.
new RhythmicStaff {
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}Comparing the music of New Orleans with the music of Cuba, Wynton Marsalis observes that tresillo is the New Orleans "clave", a Spanish word meaning "code" or "key", as in the key to a puzzle, or mystery."Wynton Marsalis part 2." 60 Minutes. CBS News (June 26, 2011). Although the pattern is only half a clave, Marsalis makes the point that the single-celled figure is the guide-pattern of New Orleans music. Jelly Roll Morton called the rhythmic figure the Spanish tinge and considered it an essential ingredient of jazz.Morton, Jelly Roll (1938: Library of Congress Recording) The Complete Recordings By Alan Lomax.


File:Scott Joplin 19072.jpg|thumb|right|upright|Scott JoplinScott JoplinThe abolition of slavery in 1865 led to new opportunities for the education of freed African Americans. Although strict segregation limited employment opportunities for most blacks, many were able to find work in entertainment. Black musicians were able to provide entertainment in dances, minstrel shows, and in vaudeville, during which time many marching bands were formed. Black pianists played in bars, clubs, and brothels, as ragtime developed.{{harvnb|Cooke|1999|pp=28, 47}}.WEB,weblink Ragtime, October 18, 2007, Catherine Schmidt-Jones, 2006, Connexions, Ragtime appeared as sheet music, popularized by African-American musicians such as the entertainer Ernest Hogan, whose hit songs appeared in 1895. Two years later, Vess Ossman recorded a medley of these songs as a banjo solo known as "Rag Time Medley".{{harvnb|Cooke|1999|pp=28–29}}.WEB,weblink The First Ragtime Records (1897–1903), October 18, 2007, Also in 1897, the white composer William Krell published his "Mississippi Rag" as the first written piano instrumental ragtime piece, and Tom Turpin published his "Harlem Rag", the first rag published by an African-American.Classically trained pianist Scott Joplin produced his "Original Rags" in 1898 and, in 1899, had an international hit with "Maple Leaf Rag", a multi-strain ragtime march with four parts that feature recurring themes and a bass line with copious seventh chords. Its structure was the basis for many other rags, and the syncopations in the right hand, especially in the transition between the first and second strain, were novel at the time.BOOK, Tanner, Paul, Megill, David W., Gerow, Maurice, Jazz, 2009, McGraw-Hill, Boston, 328–331, 11, The last four measures of Scott Joplin's "Maple Leaf Rag" (1899) are shown below.
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When John Coltrane covered "Afro Blue" in 1963, he inverted the metric hierarchy, interpreting the tune as a {{music|time|3|4}} jazz waltz with duple cross-beats superimposed (2:3). Originally a B{{music|flat}} pentatonic blues, Coltrane expanded the harmonic structure of "Afro Blue."Perhaps the most respected Afro-cuban jazz combo of the late 1950s was vibraphonist Cal Tjader's band. Tjader had Mongo Santamaria, Armando Peraza, and Willie Bobo on his early recording dates.

Dixieland revival

In the late 1940s, there was a revival of Dixieland, harking back to the contrapuntal New Orleans style. This was driven in large part by record company reissues of jazz classics by the Oliver, Morton, and Armstrong bands of the 1930s. There were two types of musicians involved in the revival: the first group was made up of those who had begun their careers playing in the traditional style and were returning to it (or continuing what they had been playing all along), such as Bob Crosby's Bobcats, Max Kaminsky, Eddie Condon, and Wild Bill Davison.Collier, 1978. Most of these players were originally Midwesterners, although there were a small number of New Orleans musicians involved. The second group of revivalists consisted of younger musicians, such as those in the Lu Watters band, Conrad Janis, and Ward Kimball and his Firehouse Five Plus Two Jazz Band. By the late 1940s, Louis Armstrong's Allstars band became a leading ensemble. Through the 1950s and 1960s, Dixieland was one of the most commercially popular jazz styles in the US, Europe, and Japan, although critics paid little attention to it.{{listen|image = none|filename = DukeEllington_TakeTheATrain.ogg|title = "Take The 'A' Train"|description = This 1941 sample of Duke Ellington's signature tune is an example of the swing style.|format = Ogg|image4 = none|filename4 = CharlieParker_YardbirdSuite.ogg|title4 = "Yardbird Suite"|description4 = Excerpt from a saxophone solo by Charlie Parker. The fast, complex rhythms and substitute chords of bebop were important to the formation of jazz.|format4 = Ogg|image5 = none|filename5 = JohnColtrane_MrPC.ogg|title5 = "Mr. P.C."|description5 = This hard blues by John Coltrane is an example of hard bop, a post-bebop style which is informed by gospel music, blues, and work songs.|format5 = Ogg|image6 = none|filename6 = MahavishnuOrchestra Birds of Fire.ogg|title6 = "Birds of Fire"|description6 = This 1973 piece by the Mahavishnu Orchestra merges jazz improvisation and rock instrumentation into jazz fusion|format6 = Ogg|image7 = none|filename7 = CourtneyPine_TheJazzstep.ogg|title7 = "The Jazzstep"|description7 = This 2000 track by Courtney Pine shows how electronica and hip hop influences can be incorporated into modern jazz.|format7 = Ogg}}

Hard bop

Hard bop is an extension of bebop (or "bop") music that incorporates influences from blues, rhythm and blues, and gospel, especially in saxophone and piano playing. Hard bop was developed in the mid-1950s, coalescing in 1953 and 1954; it developed partly in response to the vogue for cool jazz in the early 1950s and paralleled the rise of rhythm and blues. Miles Davis' 1954 performance of "Walkin'" at the first Newport Jazz Festival announced the style to the jazz world.JOURNAL, Natambu, Kofi, Miles Davis: A New Revolution in Sound, Black Renaissance/Renaissance Noire, 2014, 2, 39, The quintet Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers, led by Blakey and featuring pianist Horace Silver and trumpeter Clifford Brown, were leaders in the hard bop movement with Davis.

Modal jazz

Modal jazz is a development which began in the later 1950s which takes the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Previously, a solo was meant to fit into a given chord progression, but with modal jazz, the soloist creates a melody using one (or a small number of) modes. The emphasis is thus shifted from harmony to melody:{{harvnb|Litweiler|1984|pp=110–111}}. "Historically, this caused a seismic shift among jazz musicians, away from thinking vertically (the chord), and towards a more horizontal approach (the scale),"{{harvnb|Levine|1995|p=30}}. explained pianist Mark Levine.The modal theory stems from a work by George Russell. Miles Davis introduced the concept to the greater jazz world with Kind of Blue (1959), an exploration of the possibilities of modal jazz which would become the best selling jazz album of all time. In contrast to Davis' earlier work with hard bop and its complex chord progression and improvisation, Kind of Blue was composed as a series of modal sketches in which the musicians were given scales that defined the parameters of their improvisation and style.JOURNAL, Yudkin, Jeremy, The Naming of Names: "Flamenco Sketches" or "All Blues"? Identifying the Last Two Tracks on Miles Davis's Classic Album Kind of Blue, Musical Quarterly, 2012, 95, 1, 15–35, 10.1093/musqtl/gds006, "I didn't write out the music for Kind of Blue, but brought in sketches for what everybody was supposed to play because I wanted a lot of spontaneity,"Davis, Miles (1989: 234). The Autobiography. New York: Touchstone. recalled Davis. The track "So What" has only two chords: D-7 and E{{music|b}}-7.{{harvnb|Levine|1995|p=29}}.Other innovators in this style include Jackie McLean,{{harvnb|Litweiler|1984|pp=120–123}}. and two of the musicians who had also played on Kind of Blue: John Coltrane and Bill Evans.

Free jazz

(File:John Coltrane 1963.jpg|thumb|upright|John Coltrane, 1963)Free jazz, and the related form of avant-garde jazz, broke through into an open space of "free tonality" in which meter, beat, and formal symmetry all disappeared, and a range of world music from India, Africa, and Arabia were melded into an intense, even religiously ecstatic or orgiastic style of playing.Joachim Berendt. The Jazz Book. 1981. Page 21. While loosely inspired by bebop, free jazz tunes gave players much more latitude; the loose harmony and tempo was deemed controversial when this approach was first developed. The bassist Charles Mingus is also frequently associated with the avant-garde in jazz, although his compositions draw from myriad styles and genres.The first major stirrings came in the 1950s with the early work of Ornette Coleman (whose 1960 album (Free Jazz: A Collective Improvisation) coined the term) and Cecil Taylor. In the 1960s, exponents included Albert Ayler, Gato Barbieri, Carla Bley, Don Cherry, Larry Coryell, John Coltrane, Bill Dixon, Jimmy Giuffre, Steve Lacy, Michael Mantler, Sun Ra, Roswell Rudd, Pharoah Sanders, and John Tchicai. In developing his late style, Coltrane was especially influenced by the dissonance of Ayler's trio with bassist Gary Peacock and drummer Sunny Murray, a rhythm section honed with Cecil Taylor as leader. In November 1961, Coltrane played a gig at the Village Vanguard, which resulted in the classic Chasin' the 'Trane, which Down Beat magazine panned as "anti-jazz". On his 1961 tour of France, he was booed, but persevered, signing with the new Impulse! Records in 1960 and turning it into "the house that Trane built", while championing many younger free jazz musicians, notably Archie Shepp, who often played with trumpeter Bill Dixon, who organized the 4-day "October Revolution in Jazz" in Manhattan in 1964, the first free jazz festival.A series of recordings with the Classic Quartet in the first half of 1965 show Coltrane's playing becoming increasingly abstract, with greater incorporation of devices like multiphonics, utilization of overtones, and playing in the altissimo register, as well as a mutated return to Coltrane's sheets of sound. In the studio, he all but abandoned his soprano to concentrate on the tenor saxophone. In addition, the quartet responded to the leader by playing with increasing freedom. The group's evolution can be traced through the recordings The John Coltrane Quartet Plays, Living Space and Transition (both June 1965), New Thing at Newport (July 1965), Sun Ship (August 1965), and First Meditations (September 1965).In June 1965, Coltrane and 10 other musicians recorded Ascension, a 40-minute-long piece without breaks that included adventurous solos by young avante-garde musicians as well as Coltrane, and was controversial primarily for the collective improvisation sections that separated the solos. Dave Liebman later called it "the torch that lit the free jazz thing.". After recording with the quartet over the next few months, Coltrane invited Pharoah Sanders to join the band in September 1965. While Coltrane used over-blowing frequently as an emotional exclamation-point, Sanders would opt to overblow his entire solo, resulting in a constant screaming and screeching in the altissimo range of the instrument.

Free jazz in Europe

File:Peter-broetzmann.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Peter BrötzmannPeter BrötzmannFree jazz was played in Europe in part because musicians such as Ayler, Taylor, Steve Lacy, and Eric Dolphy spent extended periods of time there, and European musicians such as Michael Mantler and John Tchicai traveled to the U.S. to experience American music firsthand. European contemporary jazz was shaped by Peter Brötzmann, John Surman, Krzysztof Komeda, Zbigniew Namysłowski, Tomasz Stanko, Lars Gullin, Joe Harriott, Albert Mangelsdorff, Kenny Wheeler, Graham Collier, Michael Garrick and Mike Westbrook. They were eager to develop approaches to music that reflected their heritage.Since the 1960s, creative centers of jazz in Europe have developed, such as the creative jazz scene in Amsterdam. Following the work of drummer Han Bennink and pianist Misha Mengelberg, musicians started to explore by improvising collectively until a form (melody, rhythm, a famous song) is found Jazz critic Kevin Whitehead documented the free jazz scene in Amsterdam and some of its main exponents such as the ICP (Instant Composers Pool) orchestra in his book New Dutch Swing. Since the 1990s Keith Jarrett has defended free jazz from criticism. British writer Stuart Nicholson has argued European contemporary jazz has an identity different from American jazz and follows a different trajectory.BOOK, Nicholson, Stuart, Is Jazz Dead? Or Has it Moved to a New Address?, 2004, Routledge, New York,

Latin jazz

Latin jazz is jazz that employs Latin American rhythms and is generally understood to have a more specific meaning than simply jazz from Latin America. A more precise term might be Afro-Latin jazz, as the jazz subgenre typically employs rhythms that either have a direct analog in Africa or exhibit an African rhythmic influence beyond what is ordinarily heard in other jazz. The two main categories of Latin jazz are Afro-Cuban jazz and Brazilian jazz.In the 1960s and 1970s, many jazz musicians had only a basic understanding of Cuban and Brazilian music, and jazz compositions which used Cuban or Brazilian elements were often referred to as "Latin tunes", with no distinction between a Cuban son montuno and a Brazilian bossa nova. Even as late as 2000, in Mark Gridley's Jazz Styles: History and Analysis, a bossa nova bass line is referred to as a "Latin bass figure."Gridley, Mark C. (2000: 444). Jazz Styles: History and Analysis, 7th ed. It was not uncommon during the 1960s and 1970s to hear a conga playing a Cuban tumbao while the drumset and bass played a Brazilian bossa nova pattern. Many jazz standards such as "Manteca", "On Green Dolphin Street" and "Song for My Father" have a "Latin" A section and a swung B section. Typically, the band would only play an even-eighth "Latin" feel in the A section of the head and swing throughout all of the solos. Latin jazz specialists like Cal Tjader tended to be the exception. For example, on a 1959 live Tjader recording of "A Night in Tunisia", pianist Vince Guaraldi soloed through the entire form over an authentic mambo.Tjader, Cal (1959). Monterey Concerts. Prestige CD. ASIN: B000000ZCY.

Afro-Cuban jazz renaissance

For most of its history, Afro-Cuban jazz had been a matter of superimposing jazz phrasing over Cuban rhythms. But by the end of the 1970s, a new generation of New York City musicians had emerged who were fluent in both salsa dance music and jazz, leading to a new level of integration of jazz and Cuban rhythms. This era of creativity and vitality is best represented by the Gonzalez brothers Jerry (congas and trumpet) and Andy (bass).Andy Gonzalez interviewed by Larry Birnbaum. Ed. Boggs, Vernon W. (1992: 297–298). Salsiology; Afro-Cuban Music and the Evolution of Salsa in New York City. New York: Greenwood Press. {{ISBN|0-313-28468-7}} During 1974–1976, they were members of one of Eddie Palmieri's most experimental salsa groups: salsa was the medium, but Palmieri was stretching the form in new ways. He incorporated parallel fourths, with McCoy Tyner-type vamps. The innovations of Palmieri, the Gonzalez brothers and others led to an Afro-Cuban jazz renaissance in New York City.This occurred in parallel with developments in CubaAcosta, Leonardo (2003). Cubano Be, Cubano Bop: One Hundred Years of Jazz in Cuba, p. 59. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Books. {{ISBN|1-58834-147-X}} The first Cuban band of this new wave was Irakere. Their "Chékere-son" (1976) introduced a style of "Cubanized" bebop-flavored horn lines that departed from the more angular guajeo-based lines which were typical of Cuban popular music and Latin jazz up until that time. It was based on Charlie Parker's composition "Billie's Bounce", jumbled together in a way that fused clave and bebop horn lines.Moore, Kevin (2007) "History and Discography of Irakere". In spite of the ambivalence of some band members towards Irakere's Afro-Cuban folkloric / jazz fusion, their experiments forever changed Cuban jazz: their innovations are still heard in the high level of harmonic and rhythmic complexity in Cuban jazz and in the jazzy and complex contemporary form of popular dance music known as timba.

Afro-Brazilian jazz

File:Naná Vasconcelos.jpg|thumb|upright|Naná Vasconcelos playing the Afro-Brazilian BerimbauBerimbauBrazilian jazz, such as bossa nova, is derived from samba, with influences from jazz and other 20th-century classical and popular music styles. Bossa is generally moderately paced, with melodies sung in Portuguese or English, whilst the related jazz-samba is an adaptation of street samba into jazz.The bossa nova style was pioneered by Brazilians João Gilberto and Antônio Carlos Jobim and was made popular by Elizete Cardoso's recording of "Chega de Saudade" on the Canção do Amor Demais LP. Gilberto's initial releases, and the 1959 film Black Orpheus, achieved significant popularity in Latin America; this spread to North America via visiting American jazz musicians. The resulting recordings by Charlie Byrd and Stan Getz cemented bossa nova's popularity and led to a worldwide boom, with 1963's Getz/Gilberto, numerous recordings by famous jazz performers such as Ella Fitzgerald and Frank Sinatra, and the eventual entrenchment of the bossa nova style as a lasting influence in world music.Brazilian percussionists such as Airto Moreira and Naná Vasconcelos also influenced jazz internationally by introducing Afro-Brazilian folkloric instruments and rhythms into a wide variety of jazz styles, thus attracting a greater audience to them.WEB, Yanow, Scott, {{Allmusic, artist, p36965/biography, yes, |title=Airto Moreira|website=AllMusic|date=August 5, 1941|accessdate=2011-10-22}}[{{Allmusic|class=artist|id=p6300/biography|pure_url=yes}} Allmusic Biography]NEWS, Palmer, Robert,weblink Jazz Festival – A Study Of Folk-Jazz Fusion – Review, New York Times, 1982-06-28, 2012-07-07,


(File:Randy Weston.jpg|thumb|upright|Randy Weston)


{{unreferenced section|date=September 2018}}There was a resurgence of interest in jazz and other forms of African-American cultural expression during the Black Arts Movement and Black nationalist period of the 1960s and 1970s. African themes became popular, and many new jazz compositions were given African-related titles: "Black Nile" (Wayne Shorter), "Blue Nile" (Alice Coltrane), "Obirin African" (Art Blakey), "Zambia" (Lee Morgan), "Appointment in Ghana" (Jackie McLean), "Marabi" (Cannonball Adderley), "Yoruba" (Hubert Laws), and many more. Pianist Randy Weston's music incorporated African elements, such as in the large-scale suite "Uhuru Africa" (with the participation of poet Langston Hughes) and "Highlife: Music From the New African Nations." Both Weston and saxophonist Stanley Turrentine covered the Nigerian Bobby Benson's piece "Niger Mambo", which features Afro-Caribbean and jazz elements within a West African Highlife style. Some musicians, including Pharoah Sanders, Hubert Laws, and Wayne Shorter, began using African instruments such as kalimbas, bells, beaded gourds and other instruments which were not traditional to jazz.


During this period, there was an increased use of the typical African 12/8 cross-rhythmic structure in jazz. Herbie Hancock's "Succotash" on Inventions and Dimensions (1963) is an open-ended modal {{music|time|12|8}} improvised jam, in which Hancock's pattern of attack-points, rather than the pattern of pitches, is the primary focus of his improvisations, accompanied by Paul Chambers on bass, percussionist Osvaldo Martinez playing a traditional Afro-Cuban chekeré part and Willie Bobo playing an Abakuá bell pattern on a snare drum with brushes.The first jazz standard composed by a non-Latino to use an overt African {{music|time|12|8}} cross-rhythm was Wayne Shorter's "Footprints" (1967)."Footprints" Miles Smiles (Miles Davis). Columbia CD (1967). On the version recorded on Miles Smiles by Miles Davis, the bass switches to a {{music|time|4|4}} tresillo figure at 2:20. "Footprints" is not, however, a Latin jazz tune: African rhythmic structures are accessed directly by Ron Carter (bass) and Tony Williams (drums) via the rhythmic sensibilities of swing. Throughout the piece, the four beats, whether sounded or not, are maintained as the temporal referent. The following example shows the {{music|time|12|8}} and {{music|time|4|4}} forms of the bass line. The slashed noteheads indicate the main beats (not bass notes), where one ordinarily taps their foot to "keep time."
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Pentatonic scales

The use of pentatonic scales was another trend associated with Africa. The use of pentatonic scales in Africa probably goes back thousands of years.An ancient west central Sudanic stratum of pentatonic song composition, often associated with simple work rhythms in a regular meter, but with notable off-beat accents ... reaches back perhaps thousands of years to early West African sorgum agriculturalists—Kubik, Gerhard (1999: 95). Africa and the Blues. Jackson, MI: University Press of Mississippi.McCoy Tyner perfected the use of the pentatonic scale in his solos,Gridley, Mark C. (2000: 270). Jazz Styles: History and Analysis, 7th ed. and also used parallel fifths and fourths, which are common harmonies in West Africa.Map showing distribution of harmony in Africa. Jones, A.M. (1959). Studies in African Music. Oxford Press.The minor pentatonic scale is often used in blues improvisation, and like a blues scale, a minor pentatonic scale can be played over all of the chords in a blues. The following pentatonic lick was played over blues changes by Joe Henderson on Horace Silver's "African Queen" (1965).{{harvnb|Levine|1995|p=235}}.Jazz pianist, theorist, and educator Mark Levine refers to the scale generated by beginning on the fifth step of a pentatonic scale as the V pentatonic scale.Levine, Mark (1989: 127). The Jazz Piano Book. Petaluma, CA: Sher Music. ASIN: B004532DEE(File:I IV V pentatonic.tiff|thumb|center|upright=2.05|C pentatonic scale beginning on the I (C pentatonic), IV (F pentatonic), and V (G pentatonic) steps of the scale.{{clarify|date=August 2012}})Levine points out that the V pentatonic scale works for all three chords of the standard II-V-I jazz progression.Levine (1989: 127). This is a very common progression, used in pieces such as Miles Davis' "Tune Up." The following example shows the V pentatonic scale over a II-V-I progression.After Mark Levine (1989: 127). The Jazz Piano Book.(File:II V I.tiff|thumb|center|upright=2.05|V pentatonic scale over II-V-I chord progression.)Accordingly, John Coltrane's "Giant Steps" (1960), with its 26 chords per 16 bars, can be played using only three pentatonic scales. Coltrane studied Nicolas Slonimsky's Thesaurus of Scales and Melodic Patterns, which contains material that is virtually identical to portions of "Giant Steps".Bair, Jeff (2003: 5). Cyclic Patterns in John Coltrane's Melodic Vocabulary as Influenced by Nicolas Slonimsky's Thesaurus of Scales and Melodic Patterns: An Analysis of Selected Improvisations. PhD Thesis. University of North Texas. The harmonic complexity of "Giant Steps" is on the level of the most advanced 20th-century art music. Superimposing the pentatonic scale over "Giant Steps" is not merely a matter of harmonic simplification, but also a sort of "Africanizing" of the piece, which provides an alternate approach for soloing. Mark Levine observes that when mixed in with more conventional "playing the changes", pentatonic scales provide "structure and a feeling of increased space."Levine, Mark (1995: 205). The Jazz Theory Book. Sher Music. {{ISBN|1-883217-04-0}}.

Jazz fusion

File:Miles Davis 24.jpg|thumb|right|Fusion trumpeter Miles DavisMiles DavisIn the late 1960s and early 1970s, the hybrid form of jazz-rock fusion was developed by combining jazz improvisation with rock rhythms, electric instruments and the highly amplified stage sound of rock musicians such as Jimi Hendrix and Frank Zappa. Jazz fusion often uses mixed meters, odd time signatures, syncopation, complex chords, and harmonies.According to AllMusic:... until around 1967, the worlds of jazz and rock were nearly completely separate. [However, ...] as rock became more creative and its musicianship improved, and as some in the jazz world became bored with hard bop and did not want to play strictly avant-garde music, the two different idioms began to trade ideas and occasionally combine forces.WEB, {{Allmusic, explore, style/d299, yes, |title=Explore: Fusion|website=AllMusic|accessdate=November 7, 2010}}

Miles Davis' new directions

In 1969, Davis fully embraced the electric instrument approach to jazz with In a Silent Way, which can be considered his first fusion album. Composed of two side-long suites edited heavily by producer Teo Macero, this quiet, static album would be equally influential to the development of ambient music.As Davis recalls:The music I was really listening to in 1968 was James Brown, the great guitar player Jimi Hendrix, and a new group who had just come out with a hit record, "Dance to the Music", Sly and the Family Stone ... I wanted to make it more like rock. When we recorded In a Silent Way I just threw out all the chord sheets and told everyone to play off of that.Davis, Miles, with Quincy Troupe (1989: 298) The Autobiography. New York: Simon and Schuster.Two contributors to In a Silent Way also joined organist Larry Young to create one of the early acclaimed fusion albums: Emergency! by The Tony Williams Lifetime.


Weather Report

Weather Report's self-titled electronic and psychedelic Weather Report debut album caused a sensation in the jazz world on its arrival in 1971, thanks to the pedigree of the group's members (including percussionist Airto Moreira), and their unorthodox approach to music. The album featured a softer sound than would be the case in later years (predominantly using acoustic bass with Shorter exclusively playing soprano saxophone, and with no synthesizers involved), but is still considered a classic of early fusion. It built on the avant-garde experiments which Joe Zawinul and Shorter had pioneered with Miles Davis on Bitches Brew, including an avoidance of head-and-chorus composition in favour of continuous rhythm and movement – but took the music further. To emphasise the group's rejection of standard methodology, the album opened with the inscrutable avant-garde atmospheric piece "Milky Way", which featured by Shorter's extremely muted saxophone inducing vibrations in Zawinul's piano strings while the latter pedalled the instrument. Down Beat described the album as "music beyond category", and awarded it Album of the Year in the magazine's polls that year.Weather Report's subsequent releases were creative funk-jazz works.Dan, Morgenstern (1971). Down Beat May 13.


Although some jazz purists protested against the blend of jazz and rock, many jazz innovators crossed over from the contemporary hard bop scene into fusion. As well as the electric instruments of rock (such as electric guitar, electric bass, electric piano and synthesizer keyboards), fusion also used the powerful amplification, "fuzz" pedals, wah-wah pedals and other effects that were used by 1970s-era rock bands. Notable performers of jazz fusion included Miles Davis, Eddie Harris, keyboardists Joe Zawinul, Chick Corea, and Herbie Hancock, vibraphonist Gary Burton, drummer Tony Williams (drummer), violinist Jean-Luc Ponty, guitarists Larry Coryell, Al Di Meola, John McLaughlin, and Frank Zappa, saxophonist Wayne Shorter and bassists Jaco Pastorius and Stanley Clarke. Jazz fusion was also popular in Japan, where the band Casiopea released over thirty fusion albums.According to jazz writer Stuart Nicholson, "just as free jazz appeared on the verge of creating a whole new musical language in the 1960s ... jazz-rock briefly suggested the promise of doing the same" with albums such as Williams' Emergency! (1970) and Davis' Agharta (1975), which Nicholson said "suggested the potential of evolving into something that might eventually define itself as a wholly independent genre quite apart from the sound and conventions of anything that had gone before." This development was stifled by commercialism, Nicholson said, as the genre "mutated into a peculiar species of jazz-inflected pop music that eventually took up residence on FM radio" at the end of the 1970s.BOOK, 614, Harrison, Max, Thacker, Eric, Nicholson, Stuart, The Essential Jazz Records: Modernism to Postmodernism, 2000, A&C Black, 978-0-7201-1822-3,


By the mid-1970s, the sound known as jazz-funk had developed, characterized by a strong back beat (groove), electrified soundsWEB,weblink Free Jazz-Funk Music: Album, Track and Artist Charts, November 28, 2010, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink 2008-09-20, , Rhapsody Online â€” (October 20, 2010). and, often, the presence of electronic analog synthesizers. Jazz-funk also draws influences from traditional African music, Afro-Cuban rhythms and Jamaican reggae, notably Kingston bandleader Sonny Bradshaw. Another feature is the shift of emphasis from improvisation to composition: arrangements, melody and overall writing became important. The integration of funk, soul, and R&B music into jazz resulted in the creation of a genre whose spectrum is wide and ranges from strong jazz improvisation to soul, funk or disco with jazz arrangements, jazz riffs and jazz solos, and sometimes soul vocals.WEB,weblink Explore: Jazz-Funk, October 19, 2010, bot: unknown,weblink" title="">weblink October 19, 2010, Early examples are Herbie Hancock's Headhunters band and Miles Davis' On the Corner album, which, in 1972, began Davis' foray into jazz-funk and was, he claimed, an attempt at reconnecting with the young black audience which had largely forsaken jazz for rock and funk. While there is a discernible rock and funk influence in the timbres of the instruments employed, other tonal and rhythmic textures, such as the Indian tambora and tablas and Cuban congas and bongos, create a multi-layered soundscape. The album was a culmination of sorts of the musique concrète approach that Davis and producer Teo Macero had begun to explore in the late 1960s.

Traditionalism in the 1980s

(File:Wynton Marsalis 2009 09 13.jpg|thumb|right|Wynton Marsalis)The 1980s saw something of a reaction against the fusion and free jazz that had dominated the 1970s. Trumpeter Wynton Marsalis emerged early in the decade, and strove to create music within what he believed was the tradition, rejecting both fusion and free jazz and creating extensions of the small and large forms initially pioneered by artists such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington, as well as the hard bop of the 1950s. It is debatable whether Marsalis' critical and commercial success was a cause or a symptom of the reaction against Fusion and Free Jazz and the resurgence of interest in the kind of jazz pioneered in the 1960s (particularly modal jazz and post-bop); nonetheless there were many other manifestations of a resurgence of traditionalism, even if fusion and free jazz were by no means abandoned and continued to develop and evolve.For example, several musicians who had been prominent in the fusion genre during the 1970s began to record acoustic jazz once more, including Chick Corea and Herbie Hancock. Other musicians who had experimented with electronic instruments in the previous decade had abandoned them by the 1980s; for example, Bill Evans, Joe Henderson, and Stan Getz. Even the 1980s music of Miles Davis, although certainly still fusion, adopted a far more accessible and recognisably jazz-oriented approach than his abstract work of the mid-1970s, such as a return to a theme-and-solos approach.The emergence of young jazz talent beginning to perform in older, established musicians' groups further impacted the resurgence of traditionalism in the jazz community. In the 1970s, the groups of Betty Carter and Art Blakey and the Jazz Messengers retained their conservative jazz approaches in the midst of fusion and jazz-rock, and in addition to difficulty booking their acts, struggled to find younger generations of personnel to authentically play traditional styles such as hard bop and bebop. In the late 1970s, however, a resurgence of younger jazz players in Blakey's band began to occur. This movement included musicians such as Valery Ponomarev and Bobby Watson, Dennis Irwin and James Williams.In the 1980s, in addition to Wynton and Branford Marsalis, the emergence of pianists in the Jazz Messengers such as Donald Brown, Mulgrew Miller, and later, Benny Green, bassists such as Charles Fambrough, Lonnie Plaxico (and later, Peter Washington and Essiet Essiet) horn players such as Bill Pierce, Donald Harrison and later Javon Jackson and Terence Blanchard emerged as talented jazz musicians, all of whom made significant contributions in the 1990s and 2000s.The young Jazz Messengers' contemporaries, including Roy Hargrove, Marcus Roberts, Wallace Roney and Mark Whitfield were also influenced by Wynton Marsalis's emphasis toward jazz tradition. These younger rising stars rejected avant-garde approaches and instead championed the acoustic jazz sound of Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk and early recordings of the first Miles Davis quintet. This group of "Young Lions" sought to reaffirm jazz as a high art tradition comparable to the discipline of classical music.WEB, Guilliatt, Richard, Jazz: The Young Lions' Roar,weblink Los Angeles Times, 14 January 2018, 13 September 1992, In addition, Betty Carter's rotation of young musicians in her group foreshadowed many of New York's preeminent traditional jazz players later in their careers. Among these musicians were Jazz Messenger alumni Benny Green, Branford Marsalis and Ralph Peterson Jr., as well as Kenny Washington, Lewis Nash, Curtis Lundy, Cyrus Chestnut, Mark Shim, Craig Handy, Greg Hutchinson and Marc Cary, Taurus Mateen and Geri Allen.O.T.B. ensemble included a rotation of young jazz musicians such as Kenny Garrett, Steve Wilson, Kenny Davis, Renee Rosnes, Ralph Peterson Jr., Billy Drummond, and Robert Hurst.WEB, Yanow, Scott, Out of the Blue,weblink AllMusic, 14 January 2018, A similar reaction{{Vague|date=January 2018}} took place against free jazz. According to Ted Gioia:the very leaders of the avant garde started to signal a retreat from the core principles of free jazz. Anthony Braxton began recording standards over familiar chord changes. Cecil Taylor played duets in concert with Mary Lou Williams, and let her set out structured harmonies and familiar jazz vocabulary under his blistering keyboard attack. And the next generation of progressive players would be even more accommodating, moving inside and outside the changes without thinking twice. Musicians such as David Murray or Don Pullen may have felt the call of free-form jazz, but they never forgot all the other ways one could play African-American music for fun and profit.WEB,weblink Where Did Our Revolution Go? (Part Three) – | Jazz Music – Jazz Artists – Jazz News,, October 2, 2013, dead,weblink" title="">weblink May 17, 2013, Pianist Keith Jarrett—whose bands of the 1970s had played only original compositions with prominent free jazz elements—established his so-called 'Standards Trio' in 1983, which, although also occasionally exploring collective improvisation, has primarily performed and recorded jazz standards. Chick Corea similarly began exploring jazz standards in the 1980s, having neglected them for the 1970s.In 1987, the United States House of Representatives and Senate passed a bill proposed by Democratic Representative John Conyers Jr. to define jazz as a unique form of American music, stating "jazz is hereby designated as a rare and valuable national American treasure to which we should devote our attention, support and resources to make certain it is preserved, understood and promulgated." It passed in the House on September 23, 1987 and in the Senate on November 4, 1987.HR-57 Center HR-57 Center for the Preservation of Jazz and Blues, with the six-point mandate. {{webarchive|url= |date=2008-09-18 }}

Smooth jazz

(File:David Sanborn 2008 2.jpg|thumb|upright|David Sanborn, 2008)In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called "pop fusion" or "smooth jazz" became successful, garnering significant radio airplay in "quiet storm" time slots at radio stations in urban markets across the U.S. This helped to establish or bolster the careers of vocalists including Al Jarreau, Anita Baker, Chaka Khan, and Sade, as well as saxophonists including Grover Washington Jr., Kenny G, Kirk Whalum, Boney James, and David Sanborn. In general, smooth jazz is downtempo (the most widely played tracks are of 90–105 beats per minute), and has a lead melody-playing instrument (saxophone, especially soprano and tenor, and legato electric guitar are popular).In his Newsweek article "The Problem With Jazz Criticism",WEB, Opinion: The Problem With Jazz Criticism, Stanley Crouch,weblink Newsweek, June 5, 2003, April 9, 2010, Stanley Crouch considers Miles Davis' playing of fusion to be a turning point that led to smooth jazz. Critic Aaron J. West has countered the often negative perceptions of smooth jazz, stating:I challenge the prevalent marginalization and malignment of smooth jazz in the standard jazz narrative. Furthermore, I question the assumption that smooth jazz is an unfortunate and unwelcomed evolutionary outcome of the jazz-fusion era. Instead, I argue that smooth jazz is a long-lived musical style that merits multi-disciplinary analyses of its origins, critical dialogues, performance practice, and reception.WEB,weblink Caught Between Jazz and Pop: The Contested Origins, Criticism, Performance Practice, and Reception of Smooth Jazz,, October 23, 2010, November 7, 2010,

Acid jazz, nu jazz, and jazz rap

Acid jazz developed in the UK in the 1980s and 1990s, influenced by jazz-funk and electronic dance music. Acid jazz often contains various types of electronic composition (sometimes including Sampling (music) or a live DJ cutting and scratching), but it is just as likely to be played live by musicians, who often showcase jazz interpretation as part of their performance. Richard S. Ginell of AllMusic considers Roy Ayers "one of the prophets of acid jazz."WEB, Ginell, Richard S., Roy Ayers,weblink AllMusic, July 21, 2018, Nu jazz is influenced by jazz harmony and melodies, and there are usually no improvisational aspects. It can be very experimental in nature and can vary widely in sound and concept. It ranges from the combination of live instrumentation with the beats of jazz house (as exemplified by St Germain, Jazzanova, and Fila Brazillia) to more band-based improvised jazz with electronic elements (for example, The Cinematic Orchestra, Kobol and the Norwegian "future jazz" style pioneered by Bugge Wesseltoft, Jaga Jazzist, and Nils Petter Molvær).Jazz rap developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s and incorporates jazz influences into hip hop. In 1988, Gang Starr released the debut single "Words I Manifest", which sampled Dizzy Gillespie's 1962 "Night in Tunisia", and Stetsasonic released "Talkin' All That Jazz", which sampled Lonnie Liston Smith. Gang Starr's debut LP No More Mr. Nice Guy (1989) and their 1990 track "Jazz Thing" sampled Charlie Parker and Ramsey Lewis. The groups which made up the Native Tongues Posse tended toward jazzy releases: these include the Jungle Brothers' debut Straight Out the Jungle (1988), and A Tribe Called Quest's People's Instinctive Travels and the Paths of Rhythm (1990) and The Low End Theory (1991). Rap duo Pete Rock & CL Smooth incorporated jazz influences on their 1992 debut Mecca and the Soul Brother. Rapper Guru's Jazzmatazz series began in 1993 using jazz musicians during the studio recordings.Although jazz rap had achieved little mainstream success, Miles Davis' final album Doo-Bop (released posthumously in 1992) was based on hip hop beats and collaborations with producer Easy Mo Bee. Davis' ex-bandmate Herbie Hancock also absorbed hip-hop influences in the mid-1990s, releasing the album Dis Is Da Drum in 1994.

Punk jazz and jazzcore

File:John Zorn.jpg|thumb|right|upright|John ZornJohn ZornThe relaxation of orthodoxy which was concurrent with post-punk in London and New York City led to a new appreciation of jazz. In London, the Pop Group began to mix free jazz and dub reggae into their brand of punk rock.Dave Lang, Perfect Sound Forever, February 1999. WEB,weblink Archived copy, January 23, 2016, dead,weblink" title="">weblink April 20, 1999, Access date: November 15, 2008. In New York, No Wave took direct inspiration from both free jazz and punk. Examples of this style include Lydia Lunch's Queen of Siam,Bangs, Lester. "Free Jazz / Punk Rock". Musician Magazine, 1979. weblink Access date: July 20, 2008. Gray, the work of James Chance and the Contortions (who mixed Soul with free jazz and punk) and the Lounge Lizards (the first group to call themselves "punk jazz").John Zorn took note of the emphasis on speed and dissonance that was becoming prevalent in punk rock, and incorporated this into free jazz with the release of the Spy vs. Spy album in 1986, a collection of Ornette Coleman tunes done in the contemporary thrashcore style.WEB,weblink "House Of Zorn", Goblin Archives, at,, November 7, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink October 19, 2010, In the same year, Sonny Sharrock, Peter Brötzmann, Bill Laswell, and Ronald Shannon Jackson recorded the first album under the name Last Exit, a similarly aggressive blend of thrash and free jazz.WEB,weblink Progressive Ears Album Reviews,, October 19, 2007, November 7, 2010, dead,weblink" title="">weblink June 7, 2011, These developments are the origins of jazzcore, the fusion of free jazz with hardcore punk.


(File:Steve Coleman 1611.JPG|thumb|Steve Coleman in Paris, July 2004)The M-Base movement started in the 1980s, when a loose collective of young African-American musicians in New York which included Steve Coleman, Greg Osby, and Gary Thomas developed a complex but grooving"... circular and highly complex polymetric patterns which preserve their danceable character of popular Funk-rhythms despite their internal complexity and asymmetries ..." (Musicologist and musician Ekkehard Jost, Sozialgeschichte des Jazz, 2003, p. 377). sound.In the 1990s, most M-Base participants turned to more conventional music, but Coleman, the most active participant, continued developing his music in accordance with the M-Base concept.WEB,weblinkweblink" title="">weblink live, August 5, 2010, All About Jazz, All About, Jazz, Coleman's audience decreased, but his music and concepts influenced many musicians, according to pianist Vijay Iver and critic Ben Ratlifff of The New York Times.WEB, Blumenfeld, Larry, A Saxophonist's Reverberant Sound,weblink Wall Street Journal, January 14, 2018, June 11, 2010, It's hard to overstate [Coleman's] influence. He's affected more than one generation, as much as anyone since John Coltrane ... It's not just that you can connect the dots by playing seven or 11 beats. What sits behind his influence is this global perspective on music and life. He has a point of view of what he does and why he does it., NEWS, Ratliff, Ben, Undead Jazzfest Roams the West Village,weblink The New York Times, January 14, 2018, June 14, 2010, His recombinant ideas about rhythm and form and his eagerness to mentor musicians and build a new vernacular have had a profound effect on American jazz., M-Base changed from a movement of a loose collective of young musicians to a kind of informal Coleman "school",WEB, Michael J. West,weblink Jazz Articles: Steve Coleman: Vital Information,, June 2, 2010, June 5, 2011, with a much advanced but already originally implied concept.WEB,weblink What Is M-Base?,, June 5, 2011, Steve Coleman's music and M-Base concept gained recognition as "next logical step" after Charlie Parker, John Coltrane, and Ornette Coleman.In 2014 drummer Billy Hart said that "Coleman has quietly influenced the whole jazz musical world," and is the "next logical step" after Charlie Parker, John Coltrane, and Ornette Coleman. (Source: Kristin E. Holmes, Genius grant saxman Steve Coleman redefining jazz, October 09, 2014, web portal, Philadelphia Media Network) Already in 2010 pianist Vijay Iyer (who was chosen as "Jazz Musician of the Year 2010" by the Jazz Journalists Association) said: "To me, Steve [Coleman] is as important as [John] Coltrane. He has contributed an equal amount to the history of the music. He deserves to be placed in the pantheon of pioneering artists." (Source: Larry Blumenfeld, A Saxophonist's Reverberant Sound, June 11, 2010, The Wall Street Journal) In September 2014, Coleman was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship (a.k.a. "Genius Grant") for "redefining the vocabulary and vernaculars of contemporary music." (Source: Kristin E. Holmes, Genius grant saxman Steve Coleman redefining jazz, October 9, 2014, web portal, Philadelphia Media Network).


Since the 1990s, jazz has been characterized by a pluralism in which no one style dominates, but rather a wide range of styles and genres are popular. Individual performers often play in a variety of styles, sometimes in the same performance. Pianist Brad Mehldau and The Bad Plus have explored contemporary rock music within the context of the traditional jazz acoustic piano trio, recording instrumental jazz versions of songs by rock musicians. The Bad Plus have also incorporated elements of free jazz into their music. A firm avant-garde or free jazz stance has been maintained by some players, such as saxophonists Greg Osby and Charles Gayle, while others, such as James Carter, have incorporated free jazz elements into a more traditional framework.Harry Connick Jr. began his career playing stride piano and the dixieland jazz of his home, New Orleans, beginning with his first recording when he was ten years old.WEB, Bush, John, Harry Connick, Jr,weblink AllMusic, 14 January 2018, Some of his earliest lessons were at the home of pianist Ellis Marsalis.EPISODE, Branford Marsalis and Harry Connick Jr., Finding Your Roots, Henry, Louis Gates Jr. (host), PBS, July 17, 2010, 1, 1, DVD, Connick had success on the pop charts after recording the soundtrack to the movie When Harry Met Sally, which sold over two million copies. Crossover success has also been achieved by Diana Krall, Norah Jones, Cassandra Wilson, Kurt Elling, and Jamie Cullum.A number of players who usually perform in largely straight-ahead settings have emerged since the 1990s, including pianists Jason Moran and Vijay Iyer, guitarist Kurt Rosenwinkel, vibraphonist Stefon Harris, trumpeters Roy Hargrove and Terence Blanchard, saxophonists Chris Potter and Joshua Redman, clarinetist Ken Peplowski and bassist Christian McBride.Although jazz-rock fusion reached the height of its popularity in the 1970s, the use of electronic instruments and rock-derived musical elements in jazz continued in the 1990s and 2000s. Musicians using this approach include Pat Metheny, John Abercrombie, John Scofield and the Swedish group e.s.t. Since the beginning of the 90s, electronic music had significant technical improvements that popularized and created new possibilities for the genre. Jazz elements such as improvisation, rhythmic complexities and harmonic textures were introduced to the genre and consequently had a big impact in new listeners and in some ways kept the versatility of jazz relatable to a newer generation that didn't necessarily relate to what the traditionalists call real jazz (bebop, cool and modal jazz).Nicholson, Stuart (January 3, 2003), "Jazztronica: A Brief History of the Future of Jazz", JazzTimes. Artists such as Squarepusher, Aphex Twin, Flying Lotus and sub genres like IDM, Drum n' Bass, Jungle and Techno ended up incorporating a lot of these elements.Kalouti, Noor, et al. (July 11, 2016), "6 Genre-Bending Artists Fusing Jazz with Electronic Music", Soundfly. Squarepusher being cited as one big influence for jazz performers drummer Mark Guiliana and pianist Brad Mehldau, showing the correlations between jazz and electronic music are a two way street.Larkin, Cormac (October 13, 2015),"Who Can Keep up with Mark Guiliana?" The Irish Times.In 2001, Ken Burns's documentary Jazz was premiered on PBS, featuring Wynton Marsalis and other experts reviewing the entire history of American jazz to that time. It received some criticism, however, for its failure to reflect the many distinctive non-American traditions and styles in jazz that had developed, and its limited representation of US developments in the last quarter of the 20th century.The mid-2010s have seen an increasing influence of R&B, hip-hop, and pop music on jazz. In 2015, Kendrick Lamar released his third studio album, To Pimp a Butterfly. The album heavily featured prominent contemporary jazz artists such as ThundercatAV MEDIA NOTES, To Pimp a Butterfly,weblink Interscope Records, and redefined jazz rap with a larger focus on improvisation and live soloing rather than simply sampling. In that same year, saxophonist Kamasi Washington released his nearly three-hour long debut, The Epic. Its hip-hop inspired beats and R&B vocal interludes was not only acclaimed by critics for being innovative in keeping jazz relevant,WEB, Russell Warfield,weblink The Epic,, May 5, 2015, October 12, 2017, but also sparked a small resurgence in jazz on the internet.Another internet-aided trend of 2010's jazz is that of extreme reharmonization, inspired by both virtuosic players known for their speed and rhythm such as Art Tatum, as well as players known for their ambitious voicings and chords such as Bill Evans. Supergroup Snarky Puppy has adopted this trend and has allowed for players like Cory HenryWEB, David Hochman,weblink Grammy-Winning Keyboardist Cory Henry On Inspiration And Funky Improvisation, May 15, 2018, May 16, 2018, to shape the grooves and harmonies of modern jazz soloing. YouTube phenomenon Jacob Collier also gained recognition for his ability to play an incredibly large number of instruments and his ability to use microtones, advanced polyrhythms, and blend a spectrum of genres in his largely homemade production process.WEB, Michael Bailey,weblink Jacob Collier review: Youtuber gets Gen Y into jazz, May 1, 2018, May 16, 2018,

See also

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  • BOOK, Litweiler, John, The Freedom Principle: Jazz After 1958, Da Capo, 1984, 978-0-306-80377-2, harv,
  • Joachim Ernst Berendt, Günther Huesmann (Bearb.): Das Jazzbuch. 7. Auflage. S. Fischer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 2005, {{ISBN|3-10-003802-9}}
  • Burns, Ken, and Geoffrey C. Ward. 2000. Jazz—A History of America's Music. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. Also: The Jazz Film Project, Inc.
  • BOOK, Levine, Mark, The Jazz theory book, 1995, Sher Music, Petaluma, CA, 978-1-883217-04-4,weblink harv,
  • BOOK, Cooke, Mervyn, 1999, Jazz, London, Thames and Hudson, 978-0-500-20318-7, harv,weblink .
  • Carr, Ian. Music Outside: Contemporary Jazz in Britain. 2nd edition. London: Northway. {{ISBN|978-0-9550908-6-8}}
  • Collier, James Lincoln. The Making of Jazz: A Comprehensive History (Dell Publishing Co., 1978)
  • Dance, Stanley (1983). The World of Earl Hines. Da Capo Press. {{ISBN|0-306-80182-5}}. Includes a 120-page interview with Hines plus many photos.
  • Davis, Miles. AV MEDIA, Miles Davis, Boplicity, Delta Music plc., 2005, UPC 4-006408-264637,
  • Downbeat (2009). The Great Jazz Interviews: Frank Alkyer & Ed Enright (eds). Hal Leonard Books. {{ISBN|978-1-4234-6384-9}}
  • Elsdon, Peter. 2003. "The Cambridge Companion to Jazz, Edited by Mervyn Cooke and David Horn, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Review." Frankfürter Zeitschrift für Musikwissenschaft 6:159–75.
  • Giddins, Gary. 1998. Visions of Jazz: The First Century. New York: Oxford University Press. {{ISBN|0-19-507675-3}}
  • Gridley, Mark C. 2004. Concise Guide to Jazz, fourth edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall. {{ISBN|0-13-182657-3}}
  • Nairn, Charlie. 1975. Earl 'Fatha' HInes: 1 hour 'solo' documentary made in "Blues Alley" Jazz Club, Washington DC, for ATV, England, 1975: produced/directed by Charlie Nairn: original 16mm film plus out-takes of additional tunes from that film archived in British Film Institute Library at andweblink DVD copies with Jean Gray Hargrove Music Library [who hold The Earl Hines Collection/Archive], University of California, Berkeley: also University of Chicago, Hogan Jazz Archive Tulane University New Orleans and Louis Armstrong House Museum Libraries.
  • BOOK, Peñalosa, David, 2010, The Clave Matrix; Afro-Cuban Rhythm: Its Principles and African Origins, Redway, CA, Bembe Inc., 978-1-886502-80-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Schuller, Gunther, Gunther Schuller, 1968, Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Development, New York, Oxford University Press, harv, New printing 1986.
  • Schuller, Gunther. 1991. The Swing Era: The Development of Jazz, 1930–1945. Oxford University Press.

External links

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