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List of countries by income equality

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List of countries by income equality
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This is a list of countries or dependencies by income inequality metrics, including Gini coefficients. The Gini coefficient is a number between 0 and 1, where 0 corresponds with perfect equality (where everyone has the same income) and 1 corresponds with perfect inequality (where one person has all the income{{mdash}}and everyone else has no income). Income distribution can vary greatly from wealth distribution in a country (see List of countries by distribution of wealth). Income from black market economic activity is not included and is the subject of current economic research.Underground economy and income inequality: two connected aspects in the oncoming context of Italian federalism {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120209211941weblink |date=2012-02-09 }}. By Iacopo Odoardi and Carmen Pagliari. Vol. 15 No. 1, 2011 {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120209210651weblink |date=2012-02-09 }}. Global & Local Economic Review.The Size of the Shadow Economies of 145 Countries all over the World: First Results over the Period 1999 to 2003. December 2004. By Friedrich Schneider (University of Linz and IZA Bonn). Institute for the Study of Labor.

UN and CIA list – income ratios and Gini indices

Click sorting buttons to sort alphabetically or numerically. Can sort in ascending or descending order. The row number column on the left sorts independently from the columns to the right of it.
Key:R/P 10%: The ratio of the average income of the richest 10% to the poorest 10%.R/P 20%: The ratio of the average income of the richest 20% to the poorest 20%.Gini: Gini index, a quantified representation of a nation's Lorenz curve. A Gini index of 0% expresses perfect equality, while index of 100% expresses maximal inequality.UN: Data from the United Nations Development Programme.CIA: Data from the Central Intelligence Agency's The World Factbook.{| class="wikitable sortable" border="1"! rowspan="2"| Country!colspan="2"| UN R/P !colspan="2"| World Bank Gini World Bank GINI index, accessed on November 3, 2017.!colspan="2"| CIA R/P Data show the ratio of the household income or consumption share of the richest group to that of the poorest. Household income or consumption by percentage share (%), The World Factbook, CIA, updated on January 24, 2008. Note: To calculate the value given in the table for this article, the highest 10% value was divided by the lowest 10% value.!colspan="2"|CIA GiniDistribution of family income – Gini index, The World Factbook, CIA, accessed on November 24, 2011.
! 10%Data show the ratio of the income or expenditure share of the richest group to that of the poorest. Human Development Report 2009, UNDP, accessed on July 30, 2011.! 20%WEB,weblink {{!, Human Development Reports|website=hdr.undp.org|access-date=2019-03-04}}! %! Year! style="background:#ddd" | 10%! style="background:#ddd" | Year! style="background:#ddd" |%! style="background:#ddd" |Year
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{{noflag}}World 12.0 2002 est. 38.0 2007
Other estimates for the World: Gini = 63.0 in 2006 (Lafuente et al, 2006).Lafuente Lechuga, Matilde; Losa Carmona, Antonio; Sánchez Martínez, Antonio. 2016. «Análisis de la evolución de la desigualdad económica mundial en los últimos años» (pdf). XVI Jornadas de ASEPUMA y II Encuentro Internacional. Consultado el 12 de abril de 2014.

OECD countries

Gini coefficient, before taxes and transfers

{| class="wikitable sortable" border="1"weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402093506weblink">weblink 2015-04-02, ! Country || mid-70s || mid-80s || around 1990 || mid-90s || around 2000 || mid-2000s || Late 2000s
! !!!!!!!
Australia}} 0.467 0.476 0.465 0.468
Austria}} 0.433 0.472
Belgium}} 0.449 0.472 0.464 0.494 0.469
Canada}} 0.385 0.395 0.403 0.430 0.440 0.436 0.441
Chile}} 0.441 0.414 0.426
Czech Republic}} 0.442 0.472 0.474 0.444
Denmark}} 0.373 0.396 0.417 0.415 0.417 0.416
Estonia}} 0.504 0.458
Finland}} 0.343 0.387 0.479 0.478 0.483 0.465
France}} 0.380 0.370 0.473 0.490 0.485 0.483
Germany}} 0.439 0.429 0.459 0.471 0.499 0.504
Greece}} 0.448 0.426 0.446 0.466 0.454 0.436
Hungary}} 0.452 0.496 0.463 0.497 0.466
Iceland}} 0.365 0.382
Ireland}}
Israel}} 0.472 0.476 0.494 0.504 0.513 0.498
Italy}} 0.420 0.437 0.508 0.516 0.557 0.534
Japan}} 0.345 0.403 0.432 0.443 0.462
Luxembourg}} 0.383 0.427 0.421 0.454 0.482
Mexico}} 0.453 0.532 0.517 0.491 0.494
Netherlands}} 0.426 0.473 0.474 0.484 0.424 0.426 0.426
New Zealand}} 0.408 0.468 0.488 0.484 0.473 0.455
Norway}} 0.351 0.404 0.426 0.447 0.410
Poland}} 0.542 0.470
Portugal}} 0.457 0.436 0.490 0.479 0.542 0.521
Slovak Republic}} 0.458 0.416
Slovenia}} 0.452 0.423
South Korea}} 0.331 0.344
Spain}} 0.461
Sweden}} 0.389 0.404 0.408 0.438 0.446 0.432 0.426
Switzerland}} 0.409
Turkey}} 0.470
United Kingdom}} 0.338 0.419 0.439 0.453 0.458 0.445 0.456
United States}} 0.406 0.436 0.450 0.477 0.476 0.486 0.486

Gini coefficient, after taxes and transfers

{| class="wikitable sortable" border="1" |+ Gini coefficient, after taxes and transfers! Country || mid-70s || mid-80s || around 1990 || mid-90s || around 2000 || mid-2000s || Late 2000s
! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
Australia}} 0.309 0.317 0.315 0.336
Austria}} 0.236 0.238 0.252 0.265 0.261
Belgium}} 0.274 0.287 0.289 0.271 0.259
Canada}} 0.304 0.293 0.287 0.289 0.318 0.317 0.324
Chile}} 0.427 0.403 0.394
Czech Republic}} 0.232 0.257 0.260 0.268 0.256
Denmark}} 0.221 0.226 0.215 0.226 0.232 0.248
Estonia}} 0.349 0.315
Finland}} 0.235 0.209 0.218 0.247 0.254 0.259
France}} 0.300 0.290 0.277 0.287 0.288 0.293
Germany}} 0.251 0.256 0.266 0.264 0.285 0.295
Greece}} 0.413 0.336 0.336 0.345 0.321 0.307
Hungary}} 0.273 0.294 0.293 0.291 0.272
Iceland}} 0.257 0.301
Ireland}} 0.331 0.324 0.304 0.314 0.293
Israel}} 0.326 0.329 0.338 0.347 0.378 0.371
Italy}} 0.309 0.297 0.348 0.343 0.352 0.337
Japan}} 0.304 0.323 0.337 0.321 0.329
Luxembourg}} 0.247 0.259 0.261 0.258 0.288
Mexico}} 0.452 0.519 0.507 0.474 0.476
Netherlands}} 0.263 0.272 0.292 0.297 0.292 0.284 0.294
New Zealand}} 0.271 0.318 0.335 0.339 0.335 0.330
Norway}} 0.222 0.243 0.261 0.276 0.250
Poland}} 0.316 0.349 0.305
Portugal}} 0.354 0.329 0.359 0.356 0.385 0.353
Slovak Republic}} 0.268 0.257
Slovenia}} 0.246 0.236
South Korea}} 0.306 0.315
Spain}} 0.371 0.337 0.343 0.342 0.319 0.317
Sweden}} 0.212 0.198 0.209 0.211 0.243 0.234 0.259
Switzerland}} 0.279 0.276 0.303
Turkey}} 0.434 0.490 0.430 0.409
United Kingdom}} 0.268 0.309 0.354 0.336 0.351 0.331 0.345
United States}} 0.316 0.337 0.348 0.361 0.357 0.380 0.378

See also

References

{{Reflist|30em}}

Further reading

  • {{citation |date=December 2011 |chapter=An Overview of Growing Income Inequalities in OECD Countries: Main Findings |title=Divided We Stand: Why Inequality Keeps Growing |chapter-url=http://www.oecd.org/els/socialpoliciesanddata/49499779.pdf |url=weblink |publisher=OECD Publishing |isbn=978-92-64-11163-9 |accessdate=6 December 2011 |postscript=. This book released with two titles, depending on country of publication. However, the ISBN remains the same.}}
  • {{citation |date=May 2019 |title=Fed’s Brainard Says Middle Class Squeeze Poses Risks to Economy |url=https://www.bloomberg.com/amp/news/articles/2019-05-10/fed-s-brainard-says-middle-class-squeeze-poses-risks-to-economy |accessdate=15 May 2019 | postscript= USA's Gini index is now .482 according to Federal Reserve Governor Lael Brainard.}}

External links

{{Global economic classifications}}{{Population country lists}}

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