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Lego
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{{short description|Plastic construction toy}}{{About|the construction toy|the company|The Lego Group|other uses|Lego (disambiguation)}}{{pp-protected|reason=Persistent |small=yes}}{{Use British English|date=October 2018}}{{Use dmy dates|date=October 2018}}







factoids
Lego ({{IPAc-en|ˈ|l|É›|É¡|oÊŠ}} {{respell|LEG|oh}}, {{IPA-da|ˈleːko|lang}};{{YouTube|KkOwoVnvqEw|"LEGO® Brand LEGO Historien"}}WEB,weblink Lego pronunciation: How to pronounce Lego in Danish, Forvo, stylised as LEGO) is a line of plastic construction toys that are manufactured by The Lego Group, a privately held company based in Billund, Denmark. The company's flagship product, Lego, consists of colourful interlocking plastic bricks accompanying an array of gears, figurines called minifigures, and various other parts. Lego pieces can be assembled and connected in many ways to construct objects, including vehicles, buildings, and working robots. Anything constructed can be taken apart again, and the pieces reused to make new things.WEB, Lego History-About Us,weblink Lego, 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150905173143weblink">weblink 5 September 2015, WEB, How a Lego Works,weblink How Stuff Works, 6 September 2015, The Lego Group began manufacturing the interlocking toy bricks in 1949. Movies, games, competitions, and six Legoland amusement parks have been developed under the brand. As of July 2015, 600 billion Lego parts had been produced.WEB, Lego Fun Facts,weblink Brick Recycler, 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151126042502weblink">weblink 26 November 2015, In February 2015, Lego replaced Ferrari as Brand Finance's "world's most powerful brand".

History

(File:Bri-Plax Interlocking Building Cubes - Hilary Fisher Page 1939.jpg|thumb|Hilary Fisher Page's Interlocking Building Cubes of 1939)(File:Lego Color Bricks.jpg|thumb|Lego bricks)(File:2_duplo_lego_bricks.jpg|thumb|upright|Two Lego Duplo bricks with a standard brick for comparison)The Lego Group began in the workshop of Ole Kirk Christiansen (1891–1958), a carpenter from Billund, Denmark, who began making wooden toys in 1932.{{Harvard citation no brackets|Wiencek|1987|p=16}}{{harvnb|Lipkowitz|2012}} In 1934, his company came to be called "Lego", derived from the Danish phrase {{IPA-da|laɪ̯ˀ ˈkɒt|}}, which means "play well". In 1947, Lego expanded to begin producing plastic toys.{{Harvard citation no brackets|Wiencek|1987|pp=45–46}} In 1949 Lego began producing, among other new products, an early version of the now familiar interlocking bricks, calling them "Automatic Binding Bricks". These bricks were based on the Kiddicraft Self-Locking Bricks, which had been patented in the United Kingdom in 1939WEB,weblink Improvements in toy building blocks, patent GB529580 of 25 November 1940 by Harry Fisher Page of Kiddicraft, espacenet.com, 17 July 2010, 17 July 2010, and released in 1947. Lego had received a sample of the Kiddicraft bricks from the supplier of an injection-molding machine that it purchased.{{Harvard citation no brackets|Wiencek|1987|pp=68–72}} The bricks, originally manufactured from cellulose acetate,{{Harvard citation no brackets|Pickering|1999|p=15}} were a development of the traditional stackable wooden blocks of the time.The Lego Group's motto is det bedste er ikke for godt which means "the best is not too good". This motto, which is still used today, was created by Christiansen to encourage his employees never to skimp on quality, a value he believed in strongly. By 1951 plastic toys accounted for half of the Lego company's output, even though the Danish trade magazine Legetøjs-Tidende ("Toy-Times"), visiting the Lego factory in Billund in the early 1950s, felt that plastic would never be able to replace traditional wooden toys.{{Harvard citation no brackets|Wiencek|1987|pp=46–52}} Although a common sentiment, Lego toys seem to have become a significant exception to the dislike of plastic in children's toys, due in part to the high standards set by Ole Kirk.Lauwaert, M. (2008). "Playing outside the box – on LEGO toys and the changing world of construction play". History & Technology, 24(3), 221–237.By 1954, Christiansen's son, Godtfred, had become the junior managing director of the Lego Group. It was his conversation with an overseas buyer that led to the idea of a toy system. Godtfred saw the immense potential in Lego bricks to become a system for creative play, but the bricks still had some problems from a technical standpoint: their locking ability was limited and they were not versatile. In 1958, the modern brick design was developed; it took five years to find the right material for it, ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) polymer. The modern Lego brick design was patented on 28 January 1958.NEWS,weblink Lego Celebrates 50 Years of Building, TIME, 28 January 2008, 28 January 2008, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080131130615weblink">weblink 31 January 2008, File:LEGO Building At KSC.jpg|thumb|upright|Lego building at NASA's Kennedy Space CenterKennedy Space CenterThe Lego Group's Duplo product line was introduced in 1969 and is a range of simple blocks whose lengths measure twice the width, height, and depth of standard Lego blocks and are aimed towards younger children.WEB, About Duplo,weblink Lego, 6 September 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150906083454weblink">weblink 6 September 2015, In 1978, Lego produced the first minifigures, which have since become a staple in most sets.WEB, The history of the Lego minifigure,weblink Toys to Remember, 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150906053416weblink">weblink 6 September 2015, In May 2011, Space Shuttle Endeavour mission STS-134 brought 13 Lego kits to the International Space Station, where astronauts built models to see how they would react in microgravity, as a part of the Lego Bricks in Space program.NEWS,weblink Space Shuttle Endeavour Launches Tomorrow With a Special Payload, Banks, Dave, 28 April 2011, Wired News, 2 May 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140726103430weblink">weblink 26 July 2014, MAGAZINE,weblink Space Shuttle Endeavour: Made Of Spare Parts, Eaton, Kit, 29 April 2011, Fast Company, 2 May 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110503012602weblink">weblink 3 May 2011, In May 2013, the largest model ever created was displayed in New York City and was made of over 5 million bricks; a 1:1 scale model of an X-wing fighter.WEB,weblink This Incredible Full Scale Lego X-Wing Is the Largest Model in History, 23 May 2013, 24 May 2013, Jesus, Diaz, Gizmodo, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130603033254weblink">weblink 3 June 2013, Other records include a {{convert|112|ft|adj=on}} towerLee, Kevin. "Delaware High School Students Complete World's Tallest LEGO Tower {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130822201613weblink |date=22 August 2013 }}" Inhabitat, 24 August 2013. Accessed: 29 March 2014. and a {{convert|4|km|mi|abbr=on|adj=on}} railway.Lofgren, Kristine. "The World's Longest LEGO Railway Stretches Nearly 2.5 Miles Long {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140330004934weblink |date=30 March 2014 }}" Inhabitat, 19 May 2013. Accessed: 29 March 2014."Longest Lego Railway {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130810213423weblink |date=10 August 2013 }}", 16 July 2013. Accessed: 29 March 2014.In February 2015, Lego replaced Ferrari as the "world's most powerful brand."WEB, 17 February 2015, Lego Overtakes Ferrari as the World's Most Powerful Brand, Brand Finance,weblink 20 February 2015, {{Citation|last=Dill|first=Kathryn|date=19 February 2015|title=Lego Tops Global Ranking of the Most Powerful Brands in 2015|publisher=Forbes|url=https://www.forbes.com/sites/kathryndill/2015/02/19/lego-tops-global-ranking-of-the-most-powerful-brands-in-2015/|accessdate=20 February 2015|url-status=live|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150220084454weblink|archivedate=20 February 2015}}

In popular culture

Lego's popularity is demonstrated by its wide representation and usage in many forms of cultural works, including books, films and art work. It has even been used in the classroom as a teaching tool.WEB, Chan, Derek, Lego Educational Resource,weblink Blogger, 3 September 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120425145005weblink">weblink 25 April 2012, In the US, Lego Education North America is a joint venture between Pitsco, Inc. and the educational division of the Lego Group.WEB,weblink Lego Education (see footnote), 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140214195222weblink">weblink 14 February 2014, In 1998, Lego bricks were one of the original inductees into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York.WEB, Lego,weblink National Toy Hall of Fame, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150925052303weblink">weblink 25 September 2015,

Design

File:Trafalgar Legoland 2003.jpg|thumb|left|A model of Trafalgar Square, London, in Legoland WindsorLegoland WindsorLego pieces of all varieties constitute a universal system. Despite variation in the design and the purposes of individual pieces over the years, each piece remains compatible in some way with existing pieces. Lego bricks from 1958 still interlock with those made in the current time, and Lego sets for young children are compatible with those made for teenagers. Six bricks of 2 × 4 studsWEB,weblink Learn to speak LEGO! – BASIC TERMS, 10 June 2018, , The Brick Blogger. can be combined in 915,103,765 ways.WEB, Roshanzamir, Ali,weblink Matematik-professoren leger med lego-klodser, University of Copenhagen Faculty of Science, 10 December 2013, 29 March 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402194839weblink">weblink 2 April 2015, Each Lego piece must be manufactured to an exacting degree of precision. When two pieces are engaged they must fit firmly, yet be easily disassembled. The machines that manufacture Lego bricks have tolerances as small as 10 micrometres.WEB,weblink Company Profile, page 20, 2010, The Lego Group, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121209100137weblink">weblink 9 December 2012, (File:Lego dimensions.svg|thumb|Dimensions of some standard Lego bricks and platesWEB,weblink Lego Specifications, Orionrobots.co.uk, 26 February 2011, 3 October 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110823204619weblink">weblink 23 August 2011, WEB, Dimensions Guide,weblink Dimensions of a Standard Lego Brick, Dimensionsguide.com, 13 December 2010, 3 October 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20110905102846weblink">weblink 5 September 2011, )Primary concept and development work takes place at the Billund headquarters, where the company employs approximately 120 designers. The company also has smaller design offices in the UK, Spain, Germany, and Japan which are tasked with developing products aimed specifically at these markets. The average development period for a new product is around twelve months, split into three stages. The first stage is to identify market trends and developments, including contact by the designers directly with the market; some are stationed in toy shops close to holidays, while others interview children. The second stage is the design and development of the product based upon the results of the first stage. As of September 2008 the design teams use 3D modelling software to generate CAD drawings from initial design sketches. The designs are then prototyped using an in-house stereolithography machine. These prototypes are presented to the entire project team for comment and for testing by parents and children during the "validation" process. Designs may then be altered in accordance with the results from the focus groups. Virtual models of completed Lego products are built concurrently with the writing of the user instructions. Completed CAD models are also used in the wider organisation, for marketing and packaging.JOURNAL, Child's Play, Frances Corbet, Develop 3D, X3DMedia, 25–27, September 2008, Lego Digital Designer is an official piece of Lego software for Mac OS X and Windows which allows users to create their own digital Lego designs.WEB,weblink LEGO Digital Designer, LEGO, n.d., 29 March 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130403211318weblink">weblink 3 April 2013, The program once allowed customers to order their custom designsWEB,weblink Build with Chrome, Google, n.d., 29 March 2014, live,weblink 29 March 2014, with a service to ship physical models from Digital Designer to consumers; the service ended in 2012.WEB,weblink What happened to DESIGN byME?, LEGO, n.d., 29 March 2014,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120124160022weblink">weblink 24 January 2012, live,

Manufacturing

File:Kladno CZ LEGO factory from NE 007.jpg|thumb|right|The Lego factory in KladnoKladnoFile:Arburg Lego.png|thumb|right|Lego injection moulding machines, made by the German company ArburgArburgSince 1963, Lego pieces have been manufactured from a strong, resilient plastic known as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS). As of September 2008, Lego engineers use the NX CAD/CAM/CAE PLM software suite to model the elements. The software allows the parts to be optimised by way of mould flow and stress analysis. Prototype moulds are sometimes built before the design is committed to mass production. The ABS plastic is heated to {{convert|232|C|0|abbr=on}} until it reaches a dough-like consistency. It is then injected into the moulds at pressures between 25 and 150 tonnes, and takes approximately 15 seconds to cool. The moulds are permitted a tolerance of up to twenty micrometres, to ensure the bricks remain connected. Human inspectors check the output of the moulds, to eliminate significant variations in colour or thickness. According to the Lego Group, about eighteen bricks out of every million fail to meet the standard required.WEB,weblink Company Profile An Introduction to the LEGO Group 2010, 2011, The Lego Group, 8, PDF, 21 May 2011, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121209100137weblink">weblink 9 December 2012, Lego factories recycle all but about 1 percent of their plastic waste from the manufacturing process. If the plastic cannot be re-used in Lego bricks, it is processed and sold on to industries that can make use of it.WEB,weblink Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Lego, Gizmodo.com, 26 June 2008, 29 May 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100419044733weblink">weblink 19 April 2010, WEB, HowStuffWorks.com,weblink How Lego Bricks Work, 13 May 2007, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20070515075314weblink">weblink 15 May 2007, Lego has a self-imposed 2030 deadline to find a more eco-friendly alternative to the ABS plastic it currently uses in its bricks.NEWS, Reed, Stanley, Lego Wants to Completely Remake Its Toy Bricks (Without Anyone Noticing),weblink 31 August 2018, The New York Times, 31 August 2018, Manufacturing of Lego bricks occurs at several locations around the world. Moulding is done in Billund, Denmark; Nyíregyháza, Hungary; Monterrey, Mexico and most recently in Jiaxing, China. Brick decorations and packaging are done at plants in Denmark, Hungary, Mexico and Kladno in the Czech Republic. The Lego Group estimates that in five decades it has produced 400 billion Lego blocks.NEWS,weblink Lego Celebrates 50 Years of Building, Leo, Cendrowicz, TIME, 28 January 2008, 26 September 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100910044045weblink">weblink 10 September 2010, Annual production of Lego bricks averages approximately 36 billion, or about 1140 elements per second. According to an article in BusinessWeek in 2006, Lego could be considered the world's No. 1 tire manufacturer; the factory produces about 306 million small rubber tires a year.WEB,weblink The Making of ... a LEGO, Bloomberg BusinessWeek, 29 November 2006, 28 July 2010, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100809072756weblink">weblink 9 August 2010, The claim was reiterated in 2012.WEB, World Record,weblink Lego, 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141104224244weblink">weblink 4 November 2014, In December 2012, the BBC's More or Less radio program asked the Open University's engineering department to determine "how many Lego bricks, stacked one on top of the other, it would take for the weight to destroy the bottom brick?"NEWS,weblink 3 December 2012, How tall can a Lego tower get?, Ruth, Alexander, BBC News, 4 December 2012, The average maximum force the bricks can stand is 4,240Newton (unit), N. That's equivalent to a mass of 432 kg (950lbs). If you divide that by the mass of a single brick, which is 1.152g, then you get the grand total of bricks a single piece of Lego could support: 375,000. So, 375,000 bricks towering 3.5 kilometers (2.17 miles) high is what it would take to break a Lego brick., live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20121204074934weblink">weblink 4 December 2012, Using a hydraulic testing machine, the engineering department determined the average maximum force a 2×2 Lego brick can stand is 4,240 newtons; since an average 2×2 Lego brick has a mass of {{convert|1.152|g}}, according to their calculations it would take a stack of 375,000 bricks to cause the bottom brick to collapse, which represents a stack {{convert|3591|m}} in height.Private tests have shown several thousand assembly-disassembly cycles before the bricks begin to wear out,WEB,weblink Lego bricks still last 30,000+ impressions during new and improved test, Mattise, Nathan, 24 March 2014, Ars Technica, 29 March 2014, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140328220139weblink">weblink 28 March 2014, although Lego tests show fewer cycles.WEB,weblink Robot-test beviser det: Lego kan samles og adskilles over 30.000 gange, Godske, Bjørn, 29 March 2014, Ingeniøren, 29 March 2014, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140329220934weblink">weblink 29 March 2014, In 2018, Lego announced that it will be using bio-derived polyethylene to make its botanical elements (parts such as leaves, bushes and trees).FIRST SUSTAINABLE LEGO® BRICKS WILL BE LAUNCHED IN 2018

Lego set themes

{{Further|List of Lego themes}}(File:Lego Castle 70401-Gold Getaway.jpg|thumb|left|A Lego set released in 2013, "Gold Getaway", based on the Lego Castle theme)(File:Lego Sets In Store Leicester Square London United Kingdom.jpg|thumb|Lego sets of the Lego City theme)Since the 1950s, the Lego Group has released thousands of sets with a variety of themes, including space, robots, pirates, trains, Vikings, castle, dinosaurs, undersea exploration, and wild west. Some of the classic themes that continue to the present day include Lego City (a line of sets depicting city life introduced in 1973) and Lego Technic (a line aimed at emulating complex machinery, introduced in 1977).{{sfn|Wiencek|1987|p=54}}Over the years, Lego has licensed themes from numerous cartoon and film franchises and even some from video games. These include Batman, Indiana Jones, Pirates of the Caribbean, Harry Potter, Star Wars, and Minecraft. Although some of the licensed themes, Lego Star Wars and Lego Indiana Jones, had highly successful sales, Lego has expressed a desire to rely more upon their own characters and classic themes, and less upon licensed themes related to movie releases.WEB, Lego Mindstorms and Harry Potter Will Continue.,weblink Lego, 25 August 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150914134304weblink">weblink 14 September 2015, For the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, Lego released a special Team GB Minifigures series exclusively in the United Kingdom to mark the opening of the games. For the 2016 Summer Olympics and 2016 Summer Paralympics in Rio de Janeiro, Lego released a kit with the Olympic and Paralympic mascots Vinicius and Tom.WEB,weblink Mascots Tom and Vinicius debut Lego look for Rio 2016, Rio 2016, dead,weblink 23 May 2016, One of the largest Lego sets commercially produced was a minifig-scaled edition of the Star Wars Millennium Falcon. Designed by Jens Kronvold Fredericksen, it was released in 2007 and contained 5,195 pieces. It was surpassed by a 5,922-piece Taj Mahal. A redesigned Millenium Falcon recently retook the top spot in 2017 with 7,541 pieces.WEB,weblink Designing General Grievous, 7 June 2008, brickjournal.com, 6 September 2008, Meno, George,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20080828055745weblink">weblink 28 August 2008, dead,

Robotics themes

Lego also initiated a robotics line of toys called 'Mindstorms' in 1999, and has continued to expand and update this range ever since. The roots of the product originate from a programmable brick developed at the MIT Media Lab, and the name is taken from a paper by Seymour Papert, a computer scientist and educator who developed the educational theory of constructionism, and whose research was at times funded by the Lego Group.WEB, Mindstorms History,weblink Lego, 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150831053906weblink">weblink 31 August 2015, The programmable Lego brick which is at the heart of these robotics sets has undergone several updates and redesigns, with the latest being called the 'EV3' brick, being sold under the name of Lego Mindstorms EV3. The set includes sensors that detect touch, light, sound and ultrasonic waves, with several others being sold separately, including an RFID reader.WEB, About EV3,weblink Lego, 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150905160032weblink">weblink 5 September 2015, The intelligent brick can be programmed using official software available for Windows and Mac computers, and is downloaded onto the brick via Bluetooth or a USB cable. There are also several unofficial programs and compatible programming languages that have been made to work with the brick, and many books have been written to support this community.There are several robotics competitions which use the Lego robotics sets. The earliest is Botball, a national U.S. middle- and high-school competition stemming from the MIT 6.270 Lego robotics tournament. Other Lego robotics competitions include Junior FIRST LEGO League (Jr.FLL) for students ages 6–9 and FIRST Lego League (FLL) for students ages 9–16 (age 9–14 in the United States, Canada, and Mexico). Jr.FLL and FLL offer real-world engineering challenges to participants. FLL uses Lego-based robots to complete tasks. Jr.FLL participants build models out of Lego elements. In its 2010 season, there were 16,070 FLL teams in over 55 countries. In its 2010 season, there were 2,147 Jr.FLL teams with 12,882 total student participants in the United States and Canada. The international RoboCup Junior football competition involves extensive use of Lego Mindstorms equipment which is often pushed to its extreme limits.WEB,weblink USFIRST.org, USFIRST.org, 3 October 2011, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20111003051426weblink">weblink 3 October 2011, The capabilities of the Mindstorms range have now been harnessed for use in Iko Creative Prosthetic System, a prosthetic limbs system designed for children. Designs for these Lego prosthetics allow everything from mechanical diggers to laser-firing spaceships to be screwed on to the end of a child's limb. Iko is the work of the Chicago-based Colombian designer Carlos Arturo Torres, and is a modular system that allows children to customise their own prosthetics with the ease of clicking together plastic bricks. Designed with Lego's Future Lab, the Danish toy company's experimental research department, and Cirec, a Colombian foundation for physical rehabilitation, the modular prosthetic incorporates myoelectric sensors that register the activity of the muscle in the stump and send a signal to control movement in the attachment. A processing unit in the body of the prosthetic contains an engine compatible with Lego Mindstorms, the company's robotics line, which lets the wearer build an extensive range of customised, programmable limbs.WEB,weblink The Lego prosthetic arm that children can create and hack themselves, Oliver, Wainwright, The Guardian, 22 July 2015, 23 July 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150723183344weblink">weblink 23 July 2015, WEB,weblink IKO Creative Prosthetic System, Core77, 23 July 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150723184938weblink">weblink 23 July 2015,

Clones of Lego

The definitive shape of the Lego bricks, with the inner tubes, was patented by the Lego Group in 1958.NEWS, Austen, Ian, Building a Legal Case, Block by Block,weblink 9 March 2015, The New York Times, 28 January 2005, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150402122304weblink">weblink 2 April 2015, Several competitors have attempted to take advantage of Lego's popularity by producing blocks of similar dimensions, and advertising them as being compatible with Lego bricks. In 2002, Lego sued the CoCo Toy Company in Beijing for copyright infringement over its "Coko bricks" product. CoCo was ordered to cease manufacture of the products, publish a formal apology and pay damages.WEB,weblink News, Ccpit-patent.com.cn, 20 August 2013, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20120707025218weblink">weblink 7 July 2012, Lego sued the English company Best-Lock Construction Toys in German courts in 2004WEB, Best Lock Petitions US Patent Office,weblink Mass Live, 7 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150919071708weblink">weblink 19 September 2015, and 2009;WEB, Lego Deleted as a Trademark,weblink Marken Magazine, 25 August 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20151001111810weblink">weblink 1 October 2015, the Federal Patent Court of Germany denied Lego trademark protection for the shape of its bricks for the latter case.WEB, Court Ruling,weblink Bundesgerichtshof, 6 September 2015, In 2005, the Lego Company sued Canadian company Mega Bloks for trademark violation, but the Supreme Court of Canada upheld Mega Bloks' rights to sell their product.WEB, Lego v. Mega Bloks,weblink Canlii, 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160201144544weblink">weblink 1 February 2016, In 2010, the European Court of Justice ruled that the eight-peg design of the original Lego brick "merely performs a technical function [and] cannot be registered as a trademark."WEB, Montreal's Mega Brands face off in court with Lego,weblink 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160123094334weblink">weblink 23 January 2016,

Related services

Official website

First launched in 1996, the Lego website has developed over the years, and provides many extra services beyond an online store and a product catalogue. There are also moderated message boards that were founded in 2001.WEB, Lego Website,weblink Lego, 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150905114711weblink">weblink 5 September 2015, The site also includes instruction booklets for all Lego sets dating back to 2002.WEB, Lego instruction manuals,weblink Lego, 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150914144459weblink">weblink 14 September 2015, My Lego Network is a social networking site that involves items, blueprints, ranks, badges which are earned for completing certain tasks, trading and trophies called masterpieces which allow users to progress to go to the next rank. The website has a built in inbox which allows users to send pre written messages to one another. The Lego Network includes automated non-player characters within called "Networkers", who are able to do things which normal users cannot do, sending custom messages, and selling masterpieces and blueprints. The site also has modules which are set up on the user's page that give the user items, or that display picture compositions. Before My Lego Network, there were Lego Club Pages, which essentially held the same purpose, although the design lacked complex interaction.WEB, My Lego Network,weblink Lego, 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150914134748weblink">weblink 14 September 2015,

Theme parks

Merlin Entertainments operates eight Legoland amusement parks, the original in Billund, Denmark, the second in Windsor, England, the third in Günzburg, Germany, the fourth in Carlsbad, California, the fifth in Winter Haven, Florida, the sixth in Nusajaya, Malaysia,WEB, Legoland,weblink Lego, 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150905052311weblink">weblink 5 September 2015, the seventh in Dubai, United Arab Emirates,WEB, Now open: Legoland Dubai,weblink Gulfnews, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20161102113939weblink">weblink 2 November 2016, and the eighth in Nagoya, Japan.WEB,weblink Legoland, 2019-09-23, A ninth is planned to open in 2020 in Goshen, New York, United States, and a tenth in 2022 in Shanghai, China.WEB,weblink Second Legoland theme park to be built in China, gbtimes.com, live, 2019-09-23, On 13 July 2005, the control of 70% of the Legoland parks was sold for $460 million to the Blackstone Group of New York while the remaining 30% is still held by Lego Group.WEB, Legoland sale to Merlin Entertainment,weblink BBC, 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20060524175214weblink">weblink 24 May 2006, There are also eight Legoland Discovery Centres, two in Germany, four in the United States, one in Japan and one in the United Kingdom. Two Legoland Discovery Centres opened in 2013: one at the Westchester Ridge Hill shopping complex in Yonkers, New York, and one at the Vaughan Mills in Vaughan, Ontario, Canada. Another opened at the Meadowlands complex in East Rutherford, New Jersey, in 2014.WEB,weblink Legoland Discovery Centre, Legolanddiscoverycenter.com, 29 May 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100527225205weblink">weblink 27 May 2010,

Retail stores

(File:LEGOStoreFairviewMall10.JPG|thumb|A Lego store in Canada)(File:Lego_Store_Leicester_Square_London_Lester.jpg|thumb|upright|Lester mascot at the world's largest Lego store in Leicester Square, London)Lego operates 132 so-called "Lego Store" retail shops.WEB,weblink LEGO.com: LEGO Stores Home – All Stores, Stores.lego.com, 1 January 2015, live,weblink 7 August 2017, There are stores at the Downtown Disney shopping complexes at Disneyland and Walt Disney World Resorts as well as in Mall of America in Bloomington, Minnesota. The opening of each store is celebrated with weekend-long event in which a Master Model Builder creates, with the help of volunteers—most of whom are children—a larger-than-life Lego statue, which is then displayed at the new store for several weeks.WEB, Lego Store Grand Openings,weblink Access Winnipeg, 25 August 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150724091408weblink">weblink 24 July 2015,

Business consultancy

Since around 2000, the Lego Group has been promoting "Lego Serious Play", a form of business consultancy fostering creative thinking, in which team members build metaphors of their organizational identities and experiences using Lego bricks. Participants work through imaginary scenarios using visual three-dimensional Lego constructions, imaginatively exploring possibilities in a serious form of play.WEB, Serious Play,weblink Lego, 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150912081309weblink">weblink 12 September 2015,

Related products

Video games

Lego branched out into the video game market in 1997 by founding Lego Media International Limited, and Lego Island was released that year by Mindscape. After this Lego released titles such as Lego Creator and Lego Racers.After Lego closed down their publishing subsidiary, they moved on to a partnership with Traveller's Tales, and went on to make games like (Lego Star Wars: The Video Game|Lego Star Wars), (Lego Indiana Jones: The Original Adventures|Lego Indiana Jones), (Lego Batman: The Videogame|Lego Batman), and many more including the very well-received Lego Marvel Super Heroes game, featuring New York City as the overworld and including Marvel characters from the Avengers, the Fantastic Four, the X-Men, and more.WEB, Lego Marvel Superheroes Video Game,weblinkweblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20140917094755weblink">weblink dead, 17 September 2014, Marvel, 6 September 2015, WEB, History of Lego Video Games,weblink Movie Pilot, 6 September 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150826012035weblink">weblink 26 August 2015, More recently, Lego has created a game based on The Lego Movie, due to its popularity.WEB,weblink Build Your Destiny with The Lego Movie Videogame on iOS, Minton, Turner, 23 January 2015, pastemagazine.com, Paste Media Group, 1 November 2017, live,weblink 10 July 2017,

Board games

Lego Games launched in 2009, was a series of Lego-themed board games designed by Cephas Howard and Reiner KniziaWEB,weblink LEGO Board Games: Interview with Cephas Howard, Gilbert, Brett J., 12 July 2009, BrettSpiel, 24 August 2009, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20090818081257weblink">weblink 18 August 2009, dmy-all, WEB,weblink LEGO Games, 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100817010254weblink">weblink 17 August 2010, in which the players usually build the playing board out of Lego bricks and then play with Lego-style players. Examples of the games include "Minotaurus", in which players roll dice to move characters within a brick-build labyrinth, "Creationary", in which players must build something which appears on a card, or "Ramses Pyramid", in which players collect gems and climb up a customisable pyramid. Like many board games, the games use dice. In Lego Games, the dice are Lego, with Lego squares with symbols on Lego studs on the dice, surrounded by rubber. The games vary from simple to complex, some are similar to "traditional" board games, while others are completely different.WEB, Lego Games,weblink Board Game Geek, 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150915013923weblink">weblink 15 September 2015,

Films and television

Several straight-to-DVD computer animated Bionicle and Hero Factory movies were produced, and (Lego: The Adventures of Clutch Powers) was released on DVD in February 2010, a computer-animated film made by Tinseltown Toons.WEB,weblink LEGO.com LEGO Club : News & Extras, Club.lego.com, 23 February 2010, 29 May 2010, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20100604215413weblink">weblink 4 June 2010, The Lego Movie, a feature film based on Lego toys, was released by Warner Bros. in February 2014.WEB, Warner Bros. Sets dates for the Lego Movie, The Hollywood Reporter,weblink 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150924191651weblink">weblink 24 September 2015, It featured Chris Pratt in the lead role, with substantial supporting characters voiced by Elizabeth Banks, Will Arnett, Morgan Freeman, Liam Neeson, Alison Brie, Will Ferrell and Nick Offerman.WEB, Will Ferrel and Liam Neeson join Lego animated film,weblink The Hollywood Reporter, 9 November 2012, Kit, Borys, 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130513141850weblink">weblink 13 May 2013, A contest was held for contestants to submit designs for vehicles to be used in the film.WEB,weblink Lego:The Piece of Resistance Offers Up Two Design Competitions for Fans | Collider | Page 207141, Collider, 20 August 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20131227203559weblink">weblink 27 December 2013, After the release of The Lego Movie, independent Canadian toy retailers reported issues with shortages of Lego products and cited cancellations of Lego pre-orders without warningWEB,weblink Lego shortage leaves independent stores with empty shelves, 15 December 2014, cbc.ca, CBC News, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141231065907weblink">weblink 31 December 2014, as a motive to stock compatible, rival products.WEB,weblink Canadian company Brictek thrives amid Lego shortage, 16 December 2014, cbc.ca, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20141231065858weblink">weblink 31 December 2014, A spin-off of The Lego Movie, entitled The Lego Batman Movie, directed by Chris McKay was released in the US in February 2017.WEB,weblink The Lego Batman Movie (2017) – IMDb, IMDb, 25 January 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170202061205weblink">weblink 2 February 2017, In June 2013, it was reported that Warner Bros. was developing a feature film adaptation of Lego Ninjago. Brothers Dan Hageman and Kevin Hageman were attached to write the adaptation, while Dan Lin and Roy Lee, along with Phil Lord and Chris Miller, were announced as producers.NEWS, Siegel, Tatiana, Warner Bros. to Bring Lego's 'Ninjago' to Big Screen (Exclusive),weblink 10 July 2013, The Hollywood Reporter, 27 June 2013, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20130704101934weblink">weblink 4 July 2013, The film, The Lego Ninjago Movie, was released in September 2017.WEB,weblink The Lego Ninjago Movie (2017) – IMDb, IMDb, 25 January 2017, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20170202061228weblink">weblink 2 February 2017, A computer-generated animated series based on (Lego Ninjago: Masters of Spinjitzu) began in 2011, and another based on Legends of Chima began in 2013. A television series of Lego City has also been announced.WEB, Lego City TV,weblink IMBD, 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20160316011308weblink">weblink 16 March 2016,

Books and magazines

Lego has an ongoing deal with publisher Dorling Kindersley (DK), who are producing a series of illustrated hardback books looking at different aspects of the construction toy. The first was "The Ultimate Lego Book", published in 1999. More recently, in 2009, the same publisher produced The LEGO Book, which was sold within a slipcase along with Standing Small: A celebration of 30 years of the LEGO minifigure, a smaller book focused on the minifigure. In 2012, a revised edition was published. Also in 2009, DK also published books on Lego Star Wars and a range of Lego-based sticker books.WEB, DK Lego Books,weblink DK, 6 September 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150823045322weblink">weblink 23 August 2015, Although no longer being published in the United States by Scholastic, books covering events in the Bionicle storyline are written by Greg Farshtey. They are still being published in Europe by AMEET. Bionicle comics, also written by Farshtey, are compiled into graphic novels and were released by Papercutz. This series ended in 2009, after nine years.WEB, Bionicle Graphic Novels,weblink Papercutz, 26 August 2015, dead,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150905053411weblink">weblink 5 September 2015, There is also the Lego Club and Brickmaster magazine, the latter discontinued in 2011.WEB, Brickmaster is Ending,weblink Brickset, 8 August 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150822144350weblink">weblink 22 August 2015,

Children's clothing

Kabooki, a Danish company founded in 1993, produces clothes branded as "Lego Wear" under licence from the Lego Group.WEB, Kabooki,weblink Lego Wear, 25 August 2015, live,weblink" title="web.archive.org/web/20150823155309weblink">weblink 23 August 2015,

References

{{Reflist}}

Bibliography

  • BOOK, Bagnall, Brian, Core LEGO Mindstorms, Prentice-Hall PTR, 2002, 0-13-009364-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Bagnall, Brian, Maximum LEGO NXT: Building Robots with Java Brains, Variant Press, 2007, 0-9738649-1-5, harv,
  • BOOK, Bedford, Allan, The Unofficial LEGO Builder's Guide, San Francisco, No Starch Press, 2005, 1-59327-054-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Clague, Kevin, Miguel, Agullo, Lars C., Hassing, LEGO Software Power Tools, With LDraw, MLCad, and LPub, 2003, 1-931836-76-0, harv,
  • BOOK, Courtney, Tim, Ahui, Herrera, Steve, Bliss, Virtual LEGO: The Official LDraw.org Guide to LDraw Tools for Windows, San Francisco, No Starch Press, 2003, 1-886411-94-8, harv,
  • BOOK, McKee, Jacob H, Getting Started with LEGO Trains, San Francisco, No Starch Press, 2003, 1-59327-006-2, harv,
  • BOOK, Ferrari, Mario, Giulio, Ferrari, Ralph, Hempel, Building Robots With LEGO Mindstorms: The Ultimate Tool for Mindstorms Maniacs, 2001, Syngress Media, 1-928994-67-9, harv, registration,weblink
  • BOOK, Pickering, David, The Ultimate LEGO Book, New York, Dorling Kindersley, 1999, 0-7894-4691-X, harv,
  • BOOK, Lipkowitz, Daniel, The LEGO Book, London, Dorling Kindersley, 2012, 978-1-4093-7660-6, harv,
  • BOOK, Wiencek, Henry, The World of LEGO Toys, New York, Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 1987, 0-8109-2362-9, harv,
  • BOOK, Pilegaard, Ulrik, Dooley, Mike, Forbidden LEGO, San Francisco, No Starch Press, 2007, 1-59327-137-9, harv,
  • BOOK, May, James, James May, James May's Toy Stories, 2009, Conway, London, 978-1-84486-107-1, harv,

External links

{{Spoken Wikipedia|Lego.ogg|2006-02-12}}
  • {{Official website}}
  • {{Commons-inline|Lego}}
{{Lego}}{{authority control}}

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